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Today's Daf Yomi

August 10, 2020 | ื›ืณ ื‘ืื‘ ืชืฉืดืค

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Shabbat 157

The Siyum is sponsored in memory of Rabbi Adin Even Yisrael Steinsaltz ztโ€l a true giant in Torah learning and a leading educator of our generation who made talmud accessible to all.ย And by Roslyn Jaffe in honor of the seventh Yahrzeit of her wonderful father Mickey Muhlrad, Aโ€H, Moshe Yaakov Ben Dovid. He followed in Hashemโ€™s ways with his kindness, chesed and love for Yiddishkeit and learning. He had great respect for talmidei chachamim and would be so proud of all the women learning Daf Yomi. And for a refuah shleima to Elchanan David ben Yatza Ruth and Tzippora bat Charna.ย 

Can one nullify or dissolve vows on Shabbat? What is the difference between nullifying and dissolving? Does it matter if it is for the purposes of Shabbat or not? What if one could have done it before Shabbat and didn’t? The rabbis take a situation that happened relating to a case of potential impurity from a dead body and derive from there that certain things are permitted for the purposes of a mitzva. The gemara ends with a story of a rabbi measuring a tub of water and when approaced by Ulla and questioned how one can do this, he responded that he was not measuring for any purpose – mitasek – and therefore it was permitted.

The complete Siyum Masechet Shabbat:

 

ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ืงืขื™ืŸ ืขืฆื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืจื” ืฉื ืฉื‘ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืจื™ืžืช ื”ืชื‘ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืขืฆื™ื ืฉื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ื”ืชื ื‘ืืจื–ื™ ื•ืืฉื•ื—ื™ ื“ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื”

One may chop wood neither from beams set aside for building nor from a beam that broke on a Festival. Apparently, this unattributed mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan answered: That mishna is actually in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, which is an individual opinion. Come and hear: One may start a fire on a Festival with a pile of straw but not with wood that is from the wood storage behind oneโ€™s house, because that wood is set aside for other uses. Apparently, this is an unattributed mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the prohibition of set-aside. The Gemara answers: There, the mishna is referring to wood from cedar and fir trees that are set aside due to monetary loss. Even Rabbi Shimon concedes that the prohibition of set-aside is in effect in that case.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืช

Come and hear a proof from another mishna: One may neither give water to nor slaughter non-domesticated desert animals, animals that are always grazing in the fields. Since people do not generally tend to them, they are considered set-aside and may not be used. Giving them water would ease removal of their hides. However, one may give water to and slaughter domesticated animals. This is apparently an unattributed mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกืชืžื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืืฉื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื’ื‘ื™ื”ื™ืŸ ืžืขืœ ื”ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืขืฆืžื•ืช ื•ืงืœื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžืกืœืง ืืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ืžื ืขืจื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืื ื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืืœื ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan found a different unattributed mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Beit Shammai say: One may lift bones and peels and shells, which are set-aside, from the table on Shabbat. And Beit Hillel say: One must remove the entire board from atop the table and shake it; however, he may not lift the set-aside objects. And Rav Naแธฅman said to reverse the two opinions, and we have only Beit Shammai in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and Beit Hillel in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. As the halakha is always ruled in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, this mishna has the authority of an unattributed mishna.

ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื‘ืจ ืžืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžื™ืื•ืก ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื ืจ ื™ืฉืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžื™ืื•ืก ื ืžื™ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื‘ืจ ืžืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื ืจ ืฉื”ื“ืœื™ืงื• ื‘ื” ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ืื‘ืœ ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื ื™ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืžืกืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื™ืชื“ ืฉืœ ืžื—ืจื™ืฉื”:

Rav Aแธฅa and Ravina disputed this matter. One said: In all of the halakhot of Shabbat in which there is a tannaitic dispute involving Rabbi Shimon, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, except for the case of an item set aside due to repulsiveness. And what is that case? It is the case of an old oil lamp, which may not be moved on Shabbat, contrary to Rabbi Shimonโ€™s opinion. And one said: In the case of an item set aside due to repulsiveness, the halakha is also in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon except for the case of set aside due to prohibition. And what is that case? It is the case of moving an oil lamp that one kindled for that very Shabbat. However, with regard to an item set aside due to monetary loss, even Rabbi Shimon concedes that it is prohibited to move that item, as we learned in a mishna according to his position: All vessels may be moved on Shabbat except for a large saw and the blade of a plow, both of which are prohibited. Due to their significance, their owners make certain that they will not be damaged.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžืคื™ืจื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื ืฉืืœื™ืŸ ืœื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉื”ืŸ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืคื•ืงืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื˜ืœื™ืช ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื” ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื ื™ืช ืฉืคืงืงื• ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ืคื™ื— ื•ืงืฉืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ืžื™ ืœื™ื“ืข ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืคื•ืชื— ื˜ืคื— ืื ืœืื• ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืœืžื“ื ื• ืฉืคื•ืงืงื™ืŸ ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืงื•ืฉืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช:

MISHNA: A father or husband may nullify his daughterโ€™s or his wifeโ€™s vows on Shabbat, and one may request from a Sage to dissolve vows that are for the purpose of Shabbat. Failure to dissolve the vow will compromise oneโ€™s fulfillment of the mitzva to delight in Shabbat. And one may seal a window on Shabbat to prevent light from entering, and one may measure a rag to determine whether or not it is large enough to contract ritual impurity, and one may measure a ritual bath to determine if it contains enough water for immersion. The mishna relates that there was an incident in the time of Rabbi Tzadokโ€™s father and the time of Abba Shaul ben Botnit, in which they sealed a window using an earthenware vessel and tied an earthenware shard with a long reed-grass with a temporary knot, in order to ascertain whether or not the roofing had an opening the size of a handbreadth. And from their statements and their actions, we derived that one may seal a window, and measure, and tie a knot on Shabbat.

ื’ืžืณ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื”ืคืจื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื•ืฉืืœื” ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ื•ืžืฉื•ื ื”ื›ื™ ืงืคืœื’ื™ื ื”ื• ืžื”ื“ื“ื™

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that it is permitted to nullify vows and to request that Sages dissolve vows for the purpose of Shabbat. In an attempt to understand the mishna, a dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is nullification of vows on Shabbat permitted both for the purpose of Shabbat and when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat? And the request to dissolve vows, when it is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited? And is it due to that distinction that the tanna of the mishna separated the cases from each other and listed them separately?

ืื• ื“ื™ืœืžื ื”ืคืจื” ื ืžื™ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ื•ื”ื ื“ืงื ืคืœื™ื’ ืœื”ื• ืžื”ื“ื“ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ืคืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืืœื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ

Or perhaps with regard to nullification of vows on Shabbat as well, when it is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted, but when they are not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited; and the fact that the tanna of the mishna separated the cases from each other and listed them separately is due to the fact that for nullification one does not require a court, and a husband or father can nullify a womanโ€™s vows on his own, but for the request to dissolve vows one requires a court.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ื–ื•ื˜ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืคื™ืจื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœื

Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from that which the Sage, Zutei, of the school of Rav Pappa taught: One may nullify vows on Shabbat for the purpose of Shabbat. Apparently, when the nullification is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted to nullify vows, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited.

ืœื™ืฉื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืงืชื ื™ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ืืœืžื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืžืขืช ืœืขืช ืื• ื“ื™ืœืžื ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืืฉืืœื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืื‘ืœ ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืืœืžื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื

The Gemara cites another version of the dilemma that was raised before the Sages. Was the phrase: When they are for the purpose of Shabbat, taught about both of them, and nullification is only permitted for the purpose of Shabbat, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited? If so, apparently, nullification of vows may be performed for an entire twenty-four hour period after hearing the vow, and the father or husband can wait until after Shabbat to nullify the vow if he does not need to do so for the purpose of Shabbat. Or perhaps when the mishna taught that it is permitted when the nullification is for the purpose of Shabbat, that was taught only with regard to the request to dissolve that which was prohibited by the vow, but nullification of vows may be performed on Shabbat even when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat. If so, apparently nullification of vows may be performed only for the entire day that the husband or father heard the vow. Once Shabbat concludes, the vow may no longer be nullified. Therefore, even vows whose nullification is not for the purpose of Shabbat may be nullified on Shabbat.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื–ื•ื˜ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ืžืคื™ืจื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœื ืืœืžื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืžืขืช ืœืขืช

Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from that which the Sage, Zutei, of the school of Rav Pappa taught: One may nullify vows on Shabbat for the purpose of Shabbat. Apparently, when the nullification is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted to nullify vows, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited. If so, apparently nullification of vows may be performed for the entire twenty-four hour period after hearing the vow.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื•ื”ืื ืŸ ืชื ืŸ ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื”ืงืœ ื•ืœื”ื—ืžื™ืจ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื“ืจื” ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื™ืคืจ ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืขื“ ืฉืชื—ืฉืš ื ื“ืจื” ืขื ื—ืฉื›ื” ืžื™ืคืจ ืขื“ ืฉืœื ืชื—ืฉืš ืฉืื ืœื ื”ืคืจ ืžืฉื—ืฉื›ื” ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืจ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืžืจื• ืžืขืช ืœืขืช:

Rav Ashi said: Didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna that one may nullify vows for the entire day, and there is both a leniency and a stricture in this matter to extend or curtail the period during which the vow may be nullified. How so? If the woman vowed on Shabbat evening, her father or husband may nullify the vow on Shabbat evening and on Shabbat day until dark. However, if she vowed before Shabbat at nightfall, her father or husband may only nullify the vow until nightfall, as if he did not nullify the vow before nightfall, he can no longer nullify it because the day ended. The Gemara answers that this issue is subject to a tannaitic dispute, as it was taught in a baraita: One may nullify vows for the entire day. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said: For a twenty-four hour period.

ื•ื ืฉืืœื™ื ืœื ื“ืจื™ื: ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื›ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืคื ืื™ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืคื ืื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืื–ื“ืงื™ืงื• ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืฉืจื• ืœื™ื” ื ื“ืจื™ื” ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืคื ืื™:

We learned in the mishna: And one may request from a Sage to dissolve vows on Shabbat. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is this only permitted when one did not have time to request to have the vow dissolved before Shabbat, or perhaps it is permitted even if one had time before Shabbat to request to have his vow dissolved? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from the fact that the Sages attended to Rav Zutra, the son of Rav Zeira, and dissolved his vow even though he had time to request its dissolution before Shabbat.

ืฉืคืงืงื• ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ืคื™ื— ื•ืงืฉืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ืžื™: ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื™ืœืงื˜ื™ ืงื˜ื ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืชื™ื [ื•ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื]

The mishna related: They sealed a window using an earthenware vessel and tied an earthenware shard with a long reed-grass. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said in explanation: There was a small alleyway [heilketei] between two houses, and there was ritual impurity imparted by a corpse there in the alleyway,

ื•ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืกื“ื•ืงื” ืžื•ื ื—ืช ืขืœ ื’ื‘ืŸ ื•ืคืงืงื• ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ืคื™ื— ื•ืงืฉืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ืžื™ ืœื™ื“ืข ืื ื™ืฉ ืฉื ื‘ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืคื•ืชื— ื˜ืคื— ืื ืœืื•:

and there was a cracked roofing placed atop the two houses. If the roofing was intact it would have the legal status of a tent over a corpse, rendering everything in the alleyway, and, through the windows, everything in the houses, ritually impure. However, since the roofing was cracked and the corpse was directly beneath the opening, if the opening was the size of a handbreadth or more, the entire alleyway and the houses would not become impure. Only the area directly over the corpse extending through the opening is impure. And that is the reason that they sealed the window of the house with an earthenware vessel, so that the ritual impurity would not enter the houses, and they tied an earthenware shard with a long reed-grass inserted into the opening in the roofing in order to ascertain whether or not there is an opening there in the roofing the size of a handbreadth.

ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืœืžื“ื ื• ืฉืคื•ืงืงื™ืŸ ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืงื•ืฉืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช: ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืื•ื•ื ื ื“ืžื™ื ื•ืงื ืžืฉื— ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื“ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ืœืื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืžื™ ืืžื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืชืขืกืง ื‘ืขืœืžื ืื ื:

The mishna concludes: And from their statements and their actions, we derived that one may seal a window, and measure, and tie a knot on Shabbat. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of the Exilarch. He saw Rabba bar Rav Huna sitting in a tub [avna] of water and measuring it. He said to Rabba bar Rav Huna: Say that the Sages said that it is permitted to measure on Shabbat only a measurement for a mitzva. However, with regard to a measurement like this one, which is not for a mitzva, did they say that it is permitted? Rabba bar Rav Huna said to him: I am merely acting unawares and am not at all interested in the measurements. Therefore, it is not prohibited.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ืžื™ ืฉื”ื—ืฉื™ืš ื•ืกืœื™ืงื ืœื” ืžืกื›ืช ืฉื‘ืช

 

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  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Shabbat 157

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 157

ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ืงืขื™ืŸ ืขืฆื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืจื” ืฉื ืฉื‘ืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืจื™ืžืช ื”ืชื‘ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืขืฆื™ื ืฉื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ื”ืชื ื‘ืืจื–ื™ ื•ืืฉื•ื—ื™ ื“ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื”

One may chop wood neither from beams set aside for building nor from a beam that broke on a Festival. Apparently, this unattributed mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan answered: That mishna is actually in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, which is an individual opinion. Come and hear: One may start a fire on a Festival with a pile of straw but not with wood that is from the wood storage behind oneโ€™s house, because that wood is set aside for other uses. Apparently, this is an unattributed mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the prohibition of set-aside. The Gemara answers: There, the mishna is referring to wood from cedar and fir trees that are set aside due to monetary loss. Even Rabbi Shimon concedes that the prohibition of set-aside is in effect in that case.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืช

Come and hear a proof from another mishna: One may neither give water to nor slaughter non-domesticated desert animals, animals that are always grazing in the fields. Since people do not generally tend to them, they are considered set-aside and may not be used. Giving them water would ease removal of their hides. However, one may give water to and slaughter domesticated animals. This is apparently an unattributed mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกืชืžื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืืฉื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื’ื‘ื™ื”ื™ืŸ ืžืขืœ ื”ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืขืฆืžื•ืช ื•ืงืœื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžืกืœืง ืืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ืžื ืขืจื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืื ื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืืœื ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan found a different unattributed mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Beit Shammai say: One may lift bones and peels and shells, which are set-aside, from the table on Shabbat. And Beit Hillel say: One must remove the entire board from atop the table and shake it; however, he may not lift the set-aside objects. And Rav Naแธฅman said to reverse the two opinions, and we have only Beit Shammai in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and Beit Hillel in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. As the halakha is always ruled in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, this mishna has the authority of an unattributed mishna.

ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื‘ืจ ืžืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžื™ืื•ืก ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื ืจ ื™ืฉืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื‘ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžื™ืื•ืก ื ืžื™ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื‘ืจ ืžืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื ืจ ืฉื”ื“ืœื™ืงื• ื‘ื” ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ืื‘ืœ ืžื•ืงืฆื” ืžื—ืžืช ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืก ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื ื™ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืžืกืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื™ืชื“ ืฉืœ ืžื—ืจื™ืฉื”:

Rav Aแธฅa and Ravina disputed this matter. One said: In all of the halakhot of Shabbat in which there is a tannaitic dispute involving Rabbi Shimon, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, except for the case of an item set aside due to repulsiveness. And what is that case? It is the case of an old oil lamp, which may not be moved on Shabbat, contrary to Rabbi Shimonโ€™s opinion. And one said: In the case of an item set aside due to repulsiveness, the halakha is also in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon except for the case of set aside due to prohibition. And what is that case? It is the case of moving an oil lamp that one kindled for that very Shabbat. However, with regard to an item set aside due to monetary loss, even Rabbi Shimon concedes that it is prohibited to move that item, as we learned in a mishna according to his position: All vessels may be moved on Shabbat except for a large saw and the blade of a plow, both of which are prohibited. Due to their significance, their owners make certain that they will not be damaged.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžืคื™ืจื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื ืฉืืœื™ืŸ ืœื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉื”ืŸ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืคื•ืงืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื˜ืœื™ืช ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื” ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื ื™ืช ืฉืคืงืงื• ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ืคื™ื— ื•ืงืฉืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ืžื™ ืœื™ื“ืข ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืคื•ืชื— ื˜ืคื— ืื ืœืื• ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืœืžื“ื ื• ืฉืคื•ืงืงื™ืŸ ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืงื•ืฉืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช:

MISHNA: A father or husband may nullify his daughterโ€™s or his wifeโ€™s vows on Shabbat, and one may request from a Sage to dissolve vows that are for the purpose of Shabbat. Failure to dissolve the vow will compromise oneโ€™s fulfillment of the mitzva to delight in Shabbat. And one may seal a window on Shabbat to prevent light from entering, and one may measure a rag to determine whether or not it is large enough to contract ritual impurity, and one may measure a ritual bath to determine if it contains enough water for immersion. The mishna relates that there was an incident in the time of Rabbi Tzadokโ€™s father and the time of Abba Shaul ben Botnit, in which they sealed a window using an earthenware vessel and tied an earthenware shard with a long reed-grass with a temporary knot, in order to ascertain whether or not the roofing had an opening the size of a handbreadth. And from their statements and their actions, we derived that one may seal a window, and measure, and tie a knot on Shabbat.

ื’ืžืณ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื”ืคืจื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื•ืฉืืœื” ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ื•ืžืฉื•ื ื”ื›ื™ ืงืคืœื’ื™ื ื”ื• ืžื”ื“ื“ื™

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that it is permitted to nullify vows and to request that Sages dissolve vows for the purpose of Shabbat. In an attempt to understand the mishna, a dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is nullification of vows on Shabbat permitted both for the purpose of Shabbat and when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat? And the request to dissolve vows, when it is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited? And is it due to that distinction that the tanna of the mishna separated the cases from each other and listed them separately?

ืื• ื“ื™ืœืžื ื”ืคืจื” ื ืžื™ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ื•ื”ื ื“ืงื ืคืœื™ื’ ืœื”ื• ืžื”ื“ื“ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ืคืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืืœื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ

Or perhaps with regard to nullification of vows on Shabbat as well, when it is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted, but when they are not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited; and the fact that the tanna of the mishna separated the cases from each other and listed them separately is due to the fact that for nullification one does not require a court, and a husband or father can nullify a womanโ€™s vows on his own, but for the request to dissolve vows one requires a court.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ื–ื•ื˜ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืคื™ืจื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœื

Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from that which the Sage, Zutei, of the school of Rav Pappa taught: One may nullify vows on Shabbat for the purpose of Shabbat. Apparently, when the nullification is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted to nullify vows, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited.

ืœื™ืฉื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืงืชื ื™ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ืืœืžื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืžืขืช ืœืขืช ืื• ื“ื™ืœืžื ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืืฉืืœื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืื‘ืœ ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืืœืžื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื

The Gemara cites another version of the dilemma that was raised before the Sages. Was the phrase: When they are for the purpose of Shabbat, taught about both of them, and nullification is only permitted for the purpose of Shabbat, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited? If so, apparently, nullification of vows may be performed for an entire twenty-four hour period after hearing the vow, and the father or husband can wait until after Shabbat to nullify the vow if he does not need to do so for the purpose of Shabbat. Or perhaps when the mishna taught that it is permitted when the nullification is for the purpose of Shabbat, that was taught only with regard to the request to dissolve that which was prohibited by the vow, but nullification of vows may be performed on Shabbat even when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat. If so, apparently nullification of vows may be performed only for the entire day that the husband or father heard the vow. Once Shabbat concludes, the vow may no longer be nullified. Therefore, even vows whose nullification is not for the purpose of Shabbat may be nullified on Shabbat.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื–ื•ื˜ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ืžืคื™ืจื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœื ืืœืžื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืžืขืช ืœืขืช

Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from that which the Sage, Zutei, of the school of Rav Pappa taught: One may nullify vows on Shabbat for the purpose of Shabbat. Apparently, when the nullification is for the purpose of Shabbat, yes, it is permitted to nullify vows, but when it is not for the purpose of Shabbat, no, it is prohibited. If so, apparently nullification of vows may be performed for the entire twenty-four hour period after hearing the vow.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื•ื”ืื ืŸ ืชื ืŸ ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื”ืงืœ ื•ืœื”ื—ืžื™ืจ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื“ืจื” ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื™ืคืจ ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืขื“ ืฉืชื—ืฉืš ื ื“ืจื” ืขื ื—ืฉื›ื” ืžื™ืคืจ ืขื“ ืฉืœื ืชื—ืฉืš ืฉืื ืœื ื”ืคืจ ืžืฉื—ืฉื›ื” ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืจ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืคืจืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืžืจื• ืžืขืช ืœืขืช:

Rav Ashi said: Didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna that one may nullify vows for the entire day, and there is both a leniency and a stricture in this matter to extend or curtail the period during which the vow may be nullified. How so? If the woman vowed on Shabbat evening, her father or husband may nullify the vow on Shabbat evening and on Shabbat day until dark. However, if she vowed before Shabbat at nightfall, her father or husband may only nullify the vow until nightfall, as if he did not nullify the vow before nightfall, he can no longer nullify it because the day ended. The Gemara answers that this issue is subject to a tannaitic dispute, as it was taught in a baraita: One may nullify vows for the entire day. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said: For a twenty-four hour period.

ื•ื ืฉืืœื™ื ืœื ื“ืจื™ื: ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื›ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืคื ืื™ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืคื ืื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืื–ื“ืงื™ืงื• ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืฉืจื• ืœื™ื” ื ื“ืจื™ื” ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืคื ืื™:

We learned in the mishna: And one may request from a Sage to dissolve vows on Shabbat. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is this only permitted when one did not have time to request to have the vow dissolved before Shabbat, or perhaps it is permitted even if one had time before Shabbat to request to have his vow dissolved? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from the fact that the Sages attended to Rav Zutra, the son of Rav Zeira, and dissolved his vow even though he had time to request its dissolution before Shabbat.

ืฉืคืงืงื• ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ืคื™ื— ื•ืงืฉืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ืžื™: ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื™ืœืงื˜ื™ ืงื˜ื ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืชื™ื [ื•ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื]

The mishna related: They sealed a window using an earthenware vessel and tied an earthenware shard with a long reed-grass. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said in explanation: There was a small alleyway [heilketei] between two houses, and there was ritual impurity imparted by a corpse there in the alleyway,

ื•ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืกื“ื•ืงื” ืžื•ื ื—ืช ืขืœ ื’ื‘ืŸ ื•ืคืงืงื• ืืช ื”ืžืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ืคื™ื— ื•ืงืฉืจื• ืืช ื”ืžืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ืžื™ ืœื™ื“ืข ืื ื™ืฉ ืฉื ื‘ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืคื•ืชื— ื˜ืคื— ืื ืœืื•:

and there was a cracked roofing placed atop the two houses. If the roofing was intact it would have the legal status of a tent over a corpse, rendering everything in the alleyway, and, through the windows, everything in the houses, ritually impure. However, since the roofing was cracked and the corpse was directly beneath the opening, if the opening was the size of a handbreadth or more, the entire alleyway and the houses would not become impure. Only the area directly over the corpse extending through the opening is impure. And that is the reason that they sealed the window of the house with an earthenware vessel, so that the ritual impurity would not enter the houses, and they tied an earthenware shard with a long reed-grass inserted into the opening in the roofing in order to ascertain whether or not there is an opening there in the roofing the size of a handbreadth.

ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืœืžื“ื ื• ืฉืคื•ืงืงื™ืŸ ื•ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืงื•ืฉืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช: ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืื•ื•ื ื ื“ืžื™ื ื•ืงื ืžืฉื— ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื“ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ืœืื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืžื™ ืืžื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืชืขืกืง ื‘ืขืœืžื ืื ื:

The mishna concludes: And from their statements and their actions, we derived that one may seal a window, and measure, and tie a knot on Shabbat. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of the Exilarch. He saw Rabba bar Rav Huna sitting in a tub [avna] of water and measuring it. He said to Rabba bar Rav Huna: Say that the Sages said that it is permitted to measure on Shabbat only a measurement for a mitzva. However, with regard to a measurement like this one, which is not for a mitzva, did they say that it is permitted? Rabba bar Rav Huna said to him: I am merely acting unawares and am not at all interested in the measurements. Therefore, it is not prohibited.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ืžื™ ืฉื”ื—ืฉื™ืš ื•ืกืœื™ืงื ืœื” ืžืกื›ืช ืฉื‘ืช

 

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