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Today's Daf Yomi

March 26, 2020 | א׳ בניסן תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 20

Today’s shiur is sponsored by Susie Handelman (Shayna Sara bat Miriam) in honor of all the brave and wonderful medical personnel taking care of coronavirus patients in Israel and around the world. May the learning be in their merit, give them divine asistance and protection. May HaKadosh Baruch Hu strengthen their hands in healing and help the scientists find a cure – and by Onnie Schiffmiller for a refuah shleima of Tzvi ben Frieda. 

How much does an item need to be cooked in order to be able leave it on the fire before Shabbat? Like maachal ben drosai – what is that and where else does it appear in halacha? The gemara explain what part of the bread needs to be browned before Shabbat. Why is there a special dispensation for roasting the Pesach sacrifice and for the bonfire in the Beit Hamoked in the temple? How much does a regular bonfire need to be lit before Shabbat? The second chapter begins with a discussion of what cannot be used as wicks or oil for Shabbat candles since people need to use the light for seeing, it needs to be a good light. The gemara explains what each of  the items in the mishna are.

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז האור ברובו רבי יהודה אומר בפחמין כל שהוא:

And, however, in the outlying areas, meaning in all of Eretz Yisrael outside the Temple, it is prohibited to light a bonfire on Shabbat eve, unless there is sufficient time for the fire to take hold in most of the bonfire, while it is still day. Rabbi Yehuda says: With a bonfire of coals, even in the outlying areas one is permitted to light the fire on Shabbat eve at nightfall, even if the fire only spread to any amount of the bonfire. The coals, once they are kindled, will not be extinguished again, and there is no concern lest he come to tend to them on Shabbat.

גמ׳ וכמה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רב כדי שיצולו מבעוד יום כמאכל בן דרוסאי איתמר נמי אמר רב אסי אמר רבי יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי גוים תניא חנניא אומר כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי מותר להשהותו על גבי כירה ואף על פי שאין גרופה וקטומה:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one may only roast meat and other food items if there remains sufficient time so that they could be roasted while it is still day. The Gemara asks: And how much do they need to be roasted in order to be considered sufficient, so that it will be permitted to complete their cooking afterward? Rabbi Elazar said that Rav said: So that they will be roasted while it is still day like the food of ben Drosai, which was partially roasted. Ben Drosai was a robber and pursued by all. He could not wait for his food to roast completely, so he sufficed with a partial roasting. It was also stated by another of the Sages, as Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anything that is already cooked like the food of ben Drosai by a Jew, no longer has a problem of the cooking of gentiles. If a gentile completed cooking this food, it is, nevertheless, permitted to eat, even though, as a rule, it is prohibited to eat food cooked by gentiles. It was taught in a baraita, Ḥananya says: With regard to anything that is already cooked like the food of ben Drosai, it is permitted to keep it on the stove on Shabbat and even though this stove is not swept of coals and the burning coals are not covered with ashes. Since the food was already cooked to that extent, there is no concern that he will come to stoke the coals.

אין נותנין את הפת כו׳: איבעיא להו תחתון האיך דגבי תנור או דילמא תחתון האיך דגבי האור תא שמע רבי אליעזר אומר כדי שיקרמו פניה המדובקין בתנור:

We learned in the mishna that one may only place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall if there remains sufficient time for its surface to form a crust while it is still day. According to Rabbi Eliezer, it is permitted to place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve while it is still day if there remains enough time for a crust to form on its bottom side. A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to the bottom mentioned in the mishna, is it that side close to the oven, or perhaps is it the bottom that is close to the fire? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from what was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says explicitly: So that its surface that is stuck to the oven will form a crust.

משלשלין את הפסח: מאי טעמא משום דבני חבורה זריזין הן הא לאו הכי לא והאמר מר גדיא בין שריק בין לא שריק שפיר דמי התם מינתח הכא לא מינתח:

We learned in the mishna that one may lower the Paschal lamb into the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that this was permitted? Because the people of the group who registered to be counted together for the offering and eating of the Paschal lamb are vigilant in the performance of mitzvot and they will not transgress the halakhot of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: And if that was not so, there would not be permission to do so? Didn’t the Master say: The meat of a kid, whether it is in an oven that is sealed or whether it is in one that is not sealed, everyone agrees that he may well place it in the oven at nightfall because taking it out of the oven harms it, and there is no room for concern that he will do so? If so, there is no room for concern with regard to the meat of the Paschal lamb, which must be either a goat or a lamb (Exodus 12:5). The Gemara answers: In any case, it is necessary to emphasize the vigilance of the members of the group, as there, where it was permitted, it was specifically in a case that the goat was cut into pieces. However, here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the goat is not cut into pieces. It is roasted whole, in accordance with the halakhot of the Paschal lamb. Consequently, it does not roast quickly, and there is room for concern lest he stoke the coals in order to accelerate the roasting. However, since the members of the group are vigilant, the Sages permitted it.

ומאחיזין את האור וכו׳: מנהני מילי אמר רב הונא לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם בכל מושבותיכם אי אתה מבעיר אבל אתה מבעיר במדורת בית המוקד מתקיף לה רב חסדא אי הכי אפילו בשבת נמי אלא אמר רב חסדא קרא כי אתא למישרי אברים ופדרים הוא דאתא וכהנים זריזין הן:

We learned the following in the mishna: And one may light the fire in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth in the Temple on Shabbat eve adjacent to nightfall and allow the fire to spread afterward throughout the entire bonfire. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters that doing so is permitted, derived? Rav Huna said, as it is stated: “You shall kindle no fire in all of your habitations on the day of Shabbat” (Exodus 35:3). The Gemara infers: “In all of your habitations,” the dwelling places of the Jewish people, you may not kindle fire, but you may kindle fire on Shabbat in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth, which is in the Temple. Rav Ḥisda objects: If so, if that is the source for the fact that kindling the fire is permitted on Shabbat eve at nightfall, it should also be permitted to kindle it even on Shabbat itself. Why kindle the fire while it is still day? Rather, Rav Ḥisda said, it should be understood as follows: When the verse came, it came to permit burning the limbs and fats of the sacrifices on the altar, even on Shabbat. Lighting the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth was not permitted on Shabbat itself, since it is not part of the Temple service. It was kindled merely for the benefit of the priests. The fact that there was no concern about lighting the bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall is because the priests are vigilant with regard to mitzvot, and they will certainly not come to stoke the coals.

ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז כו׳: מאי רובן אמר רב רוב כל אחד ואחד ושמואל אמר כדי שלא יאמרו הבא עצים ונניח תחתיהן תנא רב חייא לסיעיה לשמואל כדי שתהא שלהבת עולה מאיליה ולא שתהא שלהבת עולה על ידי דבר אחר

We also learned in the mishna that in the outlying areas one may not light a bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall unless there is sufficient time for the fire to take hold in most of the bonfire. The Gemara asks about this: What is meant by the measure of most of it? Rav said: Most of each and every one of the branches. And Shmuel said: It is sufficient if the branches are sufficiently lit so that they will not say to each other: Bring thinner branches, which are easier to kindle, and we will place them beneath the existing branches to accelerate their burning. Rav Ḥiyya taught a baraita to support Shmuel, from a halakha that was stated with regard to the Temple candelabrum. The baraita said that it must be lit to the point that the flame will ascend on its own and not that the flame will ascend due to something else. In a place where kindling is required, it is sufficient to ensure that the fire burns on its own (Tosafot).

עץ יחידי רב אמר רוב עביו ואמרי לה ברוב היקפו אמר רב פפא הלכך בעינן רוב עביו ובעינן רוב היקפו כתנאי רבי חייא אמר כדי שישחת העץ ממלאכת האומן רבי יהודה בן בת ירא אומר כדי שתאחז האש משני צדדין ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר את שני קצותיו אכלה האש ותוכו נחר היצלח למלאכה:

To this point, the Gemara was discussing a bonfire. However, the Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a single branch that one kindles on Shabbat eve? Rav said: Most of the thickness of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. Others say the same halakha in the name of Rav: Most of the circumference of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. Rav Pappa said: Since there is disagreement with regard to Rav’s halakha, and it is not clear exactly what he said, therefore, we require most of its thickness to ignite and we require most of its circumference to ignite; thereby, we avoid entering into a situation of uncertainty. The Gemara comments: This dispute is parallel to the dispute of the tanna’im, who disagreed with regard to a different matter. Rabbi Ḥiyya said: A fire is considered to be kindled when the wood will be ruined to the extent that it can no longer be used for the work of a craftsman. And Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: So that the fire will take hold from both sides of the wood. And he added: And even though there is no proof for the matter, i.e., what constitutes burning as far as Shabbat is concerned, nevertheless there is an allusion to the matter that wood in this condition is considered burnt, as it is stated: “Behold, it is cast into the fire for fuel; the fire consumed both of its ends and the midst of it is burned. Is it fit for any work?” (Ezekiel 15:4).

והאח לפניו מבערת מאי אח אמר רב אחוונא ושמואל אמר עצים שנדלקו באחוונא ההוא דאמר להו מאן בעי אחוונא אשתכח ערבתא

Along the same lines, the Gemara cites a different verse that discusses burning fire, as it relates to King Jehoiakim: “And the hearth [aḥ] was burning before him” (Jeremiah 36:22). Amora’im disputed the question: What is the aḥ mentioned in the verse? Rav said that it means willow branch [aḥvana]. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wood that was lit with aḥvana, meaning with fraternity [aḥva], i.e., that each piece of wood is lit from another, even small ones from large ones. The meaning of the word aḥvana was forgotten; the Gemara relates that this man, who said to people in the marketplace: Who wants aḥvana? And he was found to be selling willow, and therefore, the meaning of the word was understood.

אמר רב הונא קנים אין צריכין רוב אגדן צריכין רוב גרעינין אין צריכין רוב נתנן בחותלות צריכין רוב מתקיף לה רב חסדא אדרבה איפכא מסתברא קנים מבדרן אגדן לא מבדרן גרעינין מבדרן נתנן בחותלות לא מבדרן איתמר נמי

Rav Huna said: Reeds with which he lights a bonfire on Shabbat eve do not require that most of the reeds ignite prior to Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if he tied them together into a bundle, the reeds assume the legal status of a wooden beam and most of the reeds need to catch fire before Shabbat. The same is true with regard to date seeds that he kindles. They do not require that most of them catch fire before Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if he placed them in woven baskets [ḥotalot], most of the seeds need to ignite before Shabbat. Rav Ḥisda strongly objects to this: On the contrary, the opposite makes sense, as reeds are scattered and difficult to burn. When they are bundled, they are not scattered, and therefore burn more easily. Similarly, seeds are scattered. And if he placed them in woven baskets, they are not scattered. It was also stated

אמר רב כהנא קנים שאגדן צריכין רוב לא אגדן אין צריכין רוב גרעינין צריכין רוב נתנן בחותלות אין צריכין רוב

on a similar note, Rav Kahana said: Reeds that one tied them into a bundle, require that most of them ignite. If one did not tie them into a bundle, they do not require that most of them ignite, in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna. However, seeds require that most of them ignite. And if he placed them in woven baskets, they do not require that most of them catch fire.

תני רב יוסף ארבע מדורות אין צריכין רוב של זפת ושל גפרית ושל גבינה ושל רבב במתניתא תנא אף של קש ושל גבבא

Rav Yosef taught a baraita: Four bonfires do not require that most of the flammable materials catch fire, as their materials burn easily once the fire takes hold of them. And they are: A bonfire of pitch, and of sulfur, and of dry cheese, and of fatty materials. And it was taught in a baraita: A bonfire of straw and one of rakings of wood gathered from the field also do not require that most of it catch fire.

אמר רבי יוחנן עצים של בבל אין צריכין רוב מתקיף לה רב יוסף מאי היא אילימא סילתי השתא פתילה אמר עולא המדליק צריך שידליק ברוב היוצא סילתי מבעיא אלא אמר רב יוסף שוכא דארזא רמי בר אבא אמר זאזא:

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Babylonian wood does not require that most of it catch fire. Rav Yosef the Babylonian objects: What is that wood that they use in Babylonia that burns so well? If you say that it refers to wood slivers used for burning and light, now that with regard to a wick, Ulla said that one who lights it for a Shabbat lamp must light most of what emerges from the vessel; is it necessary to mention with regard to wood slivers that most of them must be lit? Rather, Rav Yosef said: Certainly the reference is to the branch of a cedar tree. And Rami bar Abba said: The reference here is to a hyssop [zaza].

הדרן עלך יציאות השבת

 

מתני׳ במה מדליקין ובמה אין מדליקין אין מדליקין לא בלכש ולא בחוסן ולא בכלך ולא בפתילת האידן ולא בפתילת המדבר ולא בירוקה שעל פני המים ולא בזפת ולא בשעוה ולא בשמן קיק ולא בשמן שריפה ולא באליה ולא בחלב נחום המדי אומר מדליקין בחלב מבושל וחכמים אומרים אחד מבושל ואחד שאינו מבושל אין מדליקין בו:

This mishna cites a list of fuels and wicks that one may not use in kindling the Shabbat lights, either because their use might induce one to perform a prohibited labor on Shabbat or because they are not in keeping with the deference due Shabbat. The mishna begins by listing the materials that one may not use as wicks. That is followed by a list of the substances that one may not use as fuel.

MISHNA: With what may one light the Shabbat lamp, and with what may one not light it? With regard to types of prohibited wicks, one may light neither with cedar bast [lekhesh], nor with uncombed flax [ḥosen], nor with raw silk [kalakh], nor with willow bast [petilat haidan], nor with desert weed [petilat hamidbar], nor with green moss that is on the surface of the water. With regard to types of prohibited oils, one may light neither with pitch [zefet], nor with wax [shaava], nor with castor oil [shemen kik], nor with burnt oil [shemen sereifa], nor with fat from a sheep’s tail [alya], nor with tallow [ḥelev]. Naḥum the Mede says: One may light with boiled tallow. And the Rabbis say: Both tallow that was boiled and tallow that was not boiled, one may not light with them.

גמ׳ לכש שוכא דארזא שוכא דארזא עץ בעלמא הוא בעמרניתא דאית ביה:

GEMARA: Most of the terms used in the mishna were not understood in Babylonia. Therefore, the Gemara translated and clarified them. We learned in the mishna that one may not light with lekhesh. The Gemara explains that lekhesh is the branch of the cedar tree. The Gemara asks: Isn’t the cedar mere wood? How would one fashion a wick out of wood? The Gemara answers: The mishna is referring to the woolly substance that is beneath its bark.

ולא בחוסן: אמר רב יוסף נעורת של פשתן אמר ליה אביי והכתיב והיה החסון לנעורת מכלל דחוסן לאו נעורת הוא אלא אמר אביי כיתנא דדייק ולא נפיץ:

The mishna taught further that one may not light with ḥosen. Rav Yosef said: Ḥosen is tow, thin chaff that falls off the stalk of combed flax. Abaye said to him: Isn’t it written: “And the ḥason shall be as tow” (Isaiah 1:31)? By inference, ḥosen is not tow. Rather, Abaye said: Ḥosen is flax whose stalk was crushed but not yet combed. The threads in the stalk are still covered by a shell and therefore do not burn well.

ולא בכלך: אמר שמואל שאלתינהו לכל נחותי ימא ואמרי (לה) כולכא שמיה רב יצחק בר זעירא אמר גושקרא

And we also learned in the mishna that one may not light with kalakh. Shmuel said: I asked all seafarers, and they said to me that the present-day name of kalakh mentioned in the mishna is kulka. Rav Yitzḥak bar Ze’ira said: Kalakh is the cocoon of the silkworm [gushkera].

רבין ואביי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבנא נחמיה אחוה דריש גלותא חזייה דהוה לביש מטכסא אמר ליה רבין לאביי היינו כלך דתנן אמר ליה אנן שירא פרנדא קרינן ליה

The Gemara relates that Ravin and Abaye were sitting before Rabbana Neḥemya, brother of the Exilarch. Ravin saw that Rabbana Neḥemya was wearing metaksa, a type of silk. Ravin said to Abaye: This is the kalakh that we learned in our mishna. Abaye said to him: We call it shira peranda.

מיתיבי השיראים והכלך והסיריקין חייבין בציצית תיובתא דרבין תיובתא איבעית אימא שירא לחוד ושירא פרנדא לחוד:

The Gemara raises an objection from that which we learned: The shiraim, the kalakh, and the sirikin, different types of silk, all require ritual fringes. Apparently, shiraim and kalakh are different types of silk. This is a conclusive refutation of the statement of Ravin who identified kalakh with shira peranda. The Gemara responds: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation. If you wish, say instead that shira is a distinct entity, and shira peranda is a distinct entity. Shira peranda is kalakh.

ולא בפתילת האידן: אחוינא רבין ואביי הוו קאזלו בפקתא דטמרוריתא חזינהו להנהו ארבתא אמר ליה רבין לאביי היינו אידן דתנן אמר ליה ההיא עץ בעלמא הוא קלף ואחוי ליה עמרניתא דביני ביני ולא בפתילת המדבר שברא:

And we learned in the mishna that one may not light with petilat haidan. The Gemara explains that petilat haidan is willow, which does not burn well. The Gemara relates that Ravin and Abaye were walking in the valley of Tamrurita. They saw these willow trees. Ravin said to Abaye: This is the idan that we learned in the mishna. Abaye said to him: But this is mere wood. How would one fashion a wick from it? Ravin peeled the bark and showed him the wool-like substance between the bark and the tree. We also learned in the mishna: Nor with desert silk [petilat hamidbar]. That is the mullein plant, which does not burn well.

ולא בירוקה שעל כו׳: מאי היא אילימא אוכמתא דחריצי איפרוכי מפרכן אלא אמר רב פפא אוכמתא דארבא

And we learned in the mishna that one may not use the green moss that is on the surface of the water to fashion a wick for lighting the Shabbat lamp. The Gemara asks: What is this green moss? If you say that it is the moss found on standing water, isn’t that moss brittle and therefore unfit material from which to fashion a wick? Rather, Rav Pappa said: It is referring to the moss that accumulates on ships, which is more pliable and when dried can be fashioned into a wick.

תנא הוסיפו עליהן של צמר ושל שער ותנא דידן צמר מכווץ כוויץ שער איחרוכי מיחרך:

It was taught in a baraita: The Sages added to the list of prohibited wicks in the mishna those made of wool and hair as well. The Gemara remarks: And our tanna did not consider it necessary to enumerate these because it is virtually impossible to fashion wicks from these materials, as, when they burn, wool shrinks and hair is scorched. Consequently, they are unsuitable for use as wicks.

ולא בזפת: זפת זיפתא שעוה קירותא תנא עד כאן פסול פתילות מכאן ואילך פסול שמנים פשיטא שעוה איצטריכא ליה מהו דתימא לפתילות נמי לא חזיא קא משמע לן

And we learned in the mishna that one may not use zefet or shaava as fuel in lighting the Shabbat lamp. The Gemara explains that zefet is pitch, and shaava is wax. It was taught in a baraita: Until this point, the word zefet, the mishna is dealing with disqualification of materials unfit for use as wicks, and from this point on it is dealing with disqualification of substances unfit for use as oils. The Gemara asks: Obviously, a wick cannot be made from pitch and similar materials. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the mishna to mention wax, lest you say that it is also unfit for use as a coating for wicks, in the manner that wicks are usually made. Therefore, it teaches us that even though wax is unfit for use as oil, it is fit for use as coating for wicks.

אמר רמי בר אבין עטרנא פסולתא דזיפתא שעוה פסולתא דדובשא

Rami bar Avin said: Tar [itran] is the by-product of pitch. When wood is burned to extract pitch, a clearer liquid oozes out after the pitch, and that is tar. Similarly, wax is the by-product of honey.

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז האור ברובו רבי יהודה אומר בפחמין כל שהוא:

And, however, in the outlying areas, meaning in all of Eretz Yisrael outside the Temple, it is prohibited to light a bonfire on Shabbat eve, unless there is sufficient time for the fire to take hold in most of the bonfire, while it is still day. Rabbi Yehuda says: With a bonfire of coals, even in the outlying areas one is permitted to light the fire on Shabbat eve at nightfall, even if the fire only spread to any amount of the bonfire. The coals, once they are kindled, will not be extinguished again, and there is no concern lest he come to tend to them on Shabbat.

גמ׳ וכמה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רב כדי שיצולו מבעוד יום כמאכל בן דרוסאי איתמר נמי אמר רב אסי אמר רבי יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי גוים תניא חנניא אומר כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי מותר להשהותו על גבי כירה ואף על פי שאין גרופה וקטומה:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one may only roast meat and other food items if there remains sufficient time so that they could be roasted while it is still day. The Gemara asks: And how much do they need to be roasted in order to be considered sufficient, so that it will be permitted to complete their cooking afterward? Rabbi Elazar said that Rav said: So that they will be roasted while it is still day like the food of ben Drosai, which was partially roasted. Ben Drosai was a robber and pursued by all. He could not wait for his food to roast completely, so he sufficed with a partial roasting. It was also stated by another of the Sages, as Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anything that is already cooked like the food of ben Drosai by a Jew, no longer has a problem of the cooking of gentiles. If a gentile completed cooking this food, it is, nevertheless, permitted to eat, even though, as a rule, it is prohibited to eat food cooked by gentiles. It was taught in a baraita, Ḥananya says: With regard to anything that is already cooked like the food of ben Drosai, it is permitted to keep it on the stove on Shabbat and even though this stove is not swept of coals and the burning coals are not covered with ashes. Since the food was already cooked to that extent, there is no concern that he will come to stoke the coals.

אין נותנין את הפת כו׳: איבעיא להו תחתון האיך דגבי תנור או דילמא תחתון האיך דגבי האור תא שמע רבי אליעזר אומר כדי שיקרמו פניה המדובקין בתנור:

We learned in the mishna that one may only place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall if there remains sufficient time for its surface to form a crust while it is still day. According to Rabbi Eliezer, it is permitted to place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve while it is still day if there remains enough time for a crust to form on its bottom side. A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to the bottom mentioned in the mishna, is it that side close to the oven, or perhaps is it the bottom that is close to the fire? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from what was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says explicitly: So that its surface that is stuck to the oven will form a crust.

משלשלין את הפסח: מאי טעמא משום דבני חבורה זריזין הן הא לאו הכי לא והאמר מר גדיא בין שריק בין לא שריק שפיר דמי התם מינתח הכא לא מינתח:

We learned in the mishna that one may lower the Paschal lamb into the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that this was permitted? Because the people of the group who registered to be counted together for the offering and eating of the Paschal lamb are vigilant in the performance of mitzvot and they will not transgress the halakhot of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: And if that was not so, there would not be permission to do so? Didn’t the Master say: The meat of a kid, whether it is in an oven that is sealed or whether it is in one that is not sealed, everyone agrees that he may well place it in the oven at nightfall because taking it out of the oven harms it, and there is no room for concern that he will do so? If so, there is no room for concern with regard to the meat of the Paschal lamb, which must be either a goat or a lamb (Exodus 12:5). The Gemara answers: In any case, it is necessary to emphasize the vigilance of the members of the group, as there, where it was permitted, it was specifically in a case that the goat was cut into pieces. However, here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the goat is not cut into pieces. It is roasted whole, in accordance with the halakhot of the Paschal lamb. Consequently, it does not roast quickly, and there is room for concern lest he stoke the coals in order to accelerate the roasting. However, since the members of the group are vigilant, the Sages permitted it.

ומאחיזין את האור וכו׳: מנהני מילי אמר רב הונא לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם בכל מושבותיכם אי אתה מבעיר אבל אתה מבעיר במדורת בית המוקד מתקיף לה רב חסדא אי הכי אפילו בשבת נמי אלא אמר רב חסדא קרא כי אתא למישרי אברים ופדרים הוא דאתא וכהנים זריזין הן:

We learned the following in the mishna: And one may light the fire in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth in the Temple on Shabbat eve adjacent to nightfall and allow the fire to spread afterward throughout the entire bonfire. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters that doing so is permitted, derived? Rav Huna said, as it is stated: “You shall kindle no fire in all of your habitations on the day of Shabbat” (Exodus 35:3). The Gemara infers: “In all of your habitations,” the dwelling places of the Jewish people, you may not kindle fire, but you may kindle fire on Shabbat in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth, which is in the Temple. Rav Ḥisda objects: If so, if that is the source for the fact that kindling the fire is permitted on Shabbat eve at nightfall, it should also be permitted to kindle it even on Shabbat itself. Why kindle the fire while it is still day? Rather, Rav Ḥisda said, it should be understood as follows: When the verse came, it came to permit burning the limbs and fats of the sacrifices on the altar, even on Shabbat. Lighting the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth was not permitted on Shabbat itself, since it is not part of the Temple service. It was kindled merely for the benefit of the priests. The fact that there was no concern about lighting the bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall is because the priests are vigilant with regard to mitzvot, and they will certainly not come to stoke the coals.

ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז כו׳: מאי רובן אמר רב רוב כל אחד ואחד ושמואל אמר כדי שלא יאמרו הבא עצים ונניח תחתיהן תנא רב חייא לסיעיה לשמואל כדי שתהא שלהבת עולה מאיליה ולא שתהא שלהבת עולה על ידי דבר אחר

We also learned in the mishna that in the outlying areas one may not light a bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall unless there is sufficient time for the fire to take hold in most of the bonfire. The Gemara asks about this: What is meant by the measure of most of it? Rav said: Most of each and every one of the branches. And Shmuel said: It is sufficient if the branches are sufficiently lit so that they will not say to each other: Bring thinner branches, which are easier to kindle, and we will place them beneath the existing branches to accelerate their burning. Rav Ḥiyya taught a baraita to support Shmuel, from a halakha that was stated with regard to the Temple candelabrum. The baraita said that it must be lit to the point that the flame will ascend on its own and not that the flame will ascend due to something else. In a place where kindling is required, it is sufficient to ensure that the fire burns on its own (Tosafot).

עץ יחידי רב אמר רוב עביו ואמרי לה ברוב היקפו אמר רב פפא הלכך בעינן רוב עביו ובעינן רוב היקפו כתנאי רבי חייא אמר כדי שישחת העץ ממלאכת האומן רבי יהודה בן בת ירא אומר כדי שתאחז האש משני צדדין ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר את שני קצותיו אכלה האש ותוכו נחר היצלח למלאכה:

To this point, the Gemara was discussing a bonfire. However, the Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a single branch that one kindles on Shabbat eve? Rav said: Most of the thickness of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. Others say the same halakha in the name of Rav: Most of the circumference of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. Rav Pappa said: Since there is disagreement with regard to Rav’s halakha, and it is not clear exactly what he said, therefore, we require most of its thickness to ignite and we require most of its circumference to ignite; thereby, we avoid entering into a situation of uncertainty. The Gemara comments: This dispute is parallel to the dispute of the tanna’im, who disagreed with regard to a different matter. Rabbi Ḥiyya said: A fire is considered to be kindled when the wood will be ruined to the extent that it can no longer be used for the work of a craftsman. And Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: So that the fire will take hold from both sides of the wood. And he added: And even though there is no proof for the matter, i.e., what constitutes burning as far as Shabbat is concerned, nevertheless there is an allusion to the matter that wood in this condition is considered burnt, as it is stated: “Behold, it is cast into the fire for fuel; the fire consumed both of its ends and the midst of it is burned. Is it fit for any work?” (Ezekiel 15:4).

והאח לפניו מבערת מאי אח אמר רב אחוונא ושמואל אמר עצים שנדלקו באחוונא ההוא דאמר להו מאן בעי אחוונא אשתכח ערבתא

Along the same lines, the Gemara cites a different verse that discusses burning fire, as it relates to King Jehoiakim: “And the hearth [aḥ] was burning before him” (Jeremiah 36:22). Amora’im disputed the question: What is the aḥ mentioned in the verse? Rav said that it means willow branch [aḥvana]. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wood that was lit with aḥvana, meaning with fraternity [aḥva], i.e., that each piece of wood is lit from another, even small ones from large ones. The meaning of the word aḥvana was forgotten; the Gemara relates that this man, who said to people in the marketplace: Who wants aḥvana? And he was found to be selling willow, and therefore, the meaning of the word was understood.

אמר רב הונא קנים אין צריכין רוב אגדן צריכין רוב גרעינין אין צריכין רוב נתנן בחותלות צריכין רוב מתקיף לה רב חסדא אדרבה איפכא מסתברא קנים מבדרן אגדן לא מבדרן גרעינין מבדרן נתנן בחותלות לא מבדרן איתמר נמי

Rav Huna said: Reeds with which he lights a bonfire on Shabbat eve do not require that most of the reeds ignite prior to Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if he tied them together into a bundle, the reeds assume the legal status of a wooden beam and most of the reeds need to catch fire before Shabbat. The same is true with regard to date seeds that he kindles. They do not require that most of them catch fire before Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if he placed them in woven baskets [ḥotalot], most of the seeds need to ignite before Shabbat. Rav Ḥisda strongly objects to this: On the contrary, the opposite makes sense, as reeds are scattered and difficult to burn. When they are bundled, they are not scattered, and therefore burn more easily. Similarly, seeds are scattered. And if he placed them in woven baskets, they are not scattered. It was also stated

אמר רב כהנא קנים שאגדן צריכין רוב לא אגדן אין צריכין רוב גרעינין צריכין רוב נתנן בחותלות אין צריכין רוב

on a similar note, Rav Kahana said: Reeds that one tied them into a bundle, require that most of them ignite. If one did not tie them into a bundle, they do not require that most of them ignite, in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna. However, seeds require that most of them ignite. And if he placed them in woven baskets, they do not require that most of them catch fire.

תני רב יוסף ארבע מדורות אין צריכין רוב של זפת ושל גפרית ושל גבינה ושל רבב במתניתא תנא אף של קש ושל גבבא

Rav Yosef taught a baraita: Four bonfires do not require that most of the flammable materials catch fire, as their materials burn easily once the fire takes hold of them. And they are: A bonfire of pitch, and of sulfur, and of dry cheese, and of fatty materials. And it was taught in a baraita: A bonfire of straw and one of rakings of wood gathered from the field also do not require that most of it catch fire.

אמר רבי יוחנן עצים של בבל אין צריכין רוב מתקיף לה רב יוסף מאי היא אילימא סילתי השתא פתילה אמר עולא המדליק צריך שידליק ברוב היוצא סילתי מבעיא אלא אמר רב יוסף שוכא דארזא רמי בר אבא אמר זאזא:

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Babylonian wood does not require that most of it catch fire. Rav Yosef the Babylonian objects: What is that wood that they use in Babylonia that burns so well? If you say that it refers to wood slivers used for burning and light, now that with regard to a wick, Ulla said that one who lights it for a Shabbat lamp must light most of what emerges from the vessel; is it necessary to mention with regard to wood slivers that most of them must be lit? Rather, Rav Yosef said: Certainly the reference is to the branch of a cedar tree. And Rami bar Abba said: The reference here is to a hyssop [zaza].

הדרן עלך יציאות השבת

 

מתני׳ במה מדליקין ובמה אין מדליקין אין מדליקין לא בלכש ולא בחוסן ולא בכלך ולא בפתילת האידן ולא בפתילת המדבר ולא בירוקה שעל פני המים ולא בזפת ולא בשעוה ולא בשמן קיק ולא בשמן שריפה ולא באליה ולא בחלב נחום המדי אומר מדליקין בחלב מבושל וחכמים אומרים אחד מבושל ואחד שאינו מבושל אין מדליקין בו:

This mishna cites a list of fuels and wicks that one may not use in kindling the Shabbat lights, either because their use might induce one to perform a prohibited labor on Shabbat or because they are not in keeping with the deference due Shabbat. The mishna begins by listing the materials that one may not use as wicks. That is followed by a list of the substances that one may not use as fuel.

MISHNA: With what may one light the Shabbat lamp, and with what may one not light it? With regard to types of prohibited wicks, one may light neither with cedar bast [lekhesh], nor with uncombed flax [ḥosen], nor with raw silk [kalakh], nor with willow bast [petilat haidan], nor with desert weed [petilat hamidbar], nor with green moss that is on the surface of the water. With regard to types of prohibited oils, one may light neither with pitch [zefet], nor with wax [shaava], nor with castor oil [shemen kik], nor with burnt oil [shemen sereifa], nor with fat from a sheep’s tail [alya], nor with tallow [ḥelev]. Naḥum the Mede says: One may light with boiled tallow. And the Rabbis say: Both tallow that was boiled and tallow that was not boiled, one may not light with them.

גמ׳ לכש שוכא דארזא שוכא דארזא עץ בעלמא הוא בעמרניתא דאית ביה:

GEMARA: Most of the terms used in the mishna were not understood in Babylonia. Therefore, the Gemara translated and clarified them. We learned in the mishna that one may not light with lekhesh. The Gemara explains that lekhesh is the branch of the cedar tree. The Gemara asks: Isn’t the cedar mere wood? How would one fashion a wick out of wood? The Gemara answers: The mishna is referring to the woolly substance that is beneath its bark.

ולא בחוסן: אמר רב יוסף נעורת של פשתן אמר ליה אביי והכתיב והיה החסון לנעורת מכלל דחוסן לאו נעורת הוא אלא אמר אביי כיתנא דדייק ולא נפיץ:

The mishna taught further that one may not light with ḥosen. Rav Yosef said: Ḥosen is tow, thin chaff that falls off the stalk of combed flax. Abaye said to him: Isn’t it written: “And the ḥason shall be as tow” (Isaiah 1:31)? By inference, ḥosen is not tow. Rather, Abaye said: Ḥosen is flax whose stalk was crushed but not yet combed. The threads in the stalk are still covered by a shell and therefore do not burn well.

ולא בכלך: אמר שמואל שאלתינהו לכל נחותי ימא ואמרי (לה) כולכא שמיה רב יצחק בר זעירא אמר גושקרא

And we also learned in the mishna that one may not light with kalakh. Shmuel said: I asked all seafarers, and they said to me that the present-day name of kalakh mentioned in the mishna is kulka. Rav Yitzḥak bar Ze’ira said: Kalakh is the cocoon of the silkworm [gushkera].

רבין ואביי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבנא נחמיה אחוה דריש גלותא חזייה דהוה לביש מטכסא אמר ליה רבין לאביי היינו כלך דתנן אמר ליה אנן שירא פרנדא קרינן ליה

The Gemara relates that Ravin and Abaye were sitting before Rabbana Neḥemya, brother of the Exilarch. Ravin saw that Rabbana Neḥemya was wearing metaksa, a type of silk. Ravin said to Abaye: This is the kalakh that we learned in our mishna. Abaye said to him: We call it shira peranda.

מיתיבי השיראים והכלך והסיריקין חייבין בציצית תיובתא דרבין תיובתא איבעית אימא שירא לחוד ושירא פרנדא לחוד:

The Gemara raises an objection from that which we learned: The shiraim, the kalakh, and the sirikin, different types of silk, all require ritual fringes. Apparently, shiraim and kalakh are different types of silk. This is a conclusive refutation of the statement of Ravin who identified kalakh with shira peranda. The Gemara responds: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation. If you wish, say instead that shira is a distinct entity, and shira peranda is a distinct entity. Shira peranda is kalakh.

ולא בפתילת האידן: אחוינא רבין ואביי הוו קאזלו בפקתא דטמרוריתא חזינהו להנהו ארבתא אמר ליה רבין לאביי היינו אידן דתנן אמר ליה ההיא עץ בעלמא הוא קלף ואחוי ליה עמרניתא דביני ביני ולא בפתילת המדבר שברא:

And we learned in the mishna that one may not light with petilat haidan. The Gemara explains that petilat haidan is willow, which does not burn well. The Gemara relates that Ravin and Abaye were walking in the valley of Tamrurita. They saw these willow trees. Ravin said to Abaye: This is the idan that we learned in the mishna. Abaye said to him: But this is mere wood. How would one fashion a wick from it? Ravin peeled the bark and showed him the wool-like substance between the bark and the tree. We also learned in the mishna: Nor with desert silk [petilat hamidbar]. That is the mullein plant, which does not burn well.

ולא בירוקה שעל כו׳: מאי היא אילימא אוכמתא דחריצי איפרוכי מפרכן אלא אמר רב פפא אוכמתא דארבא

And we learned in the mishna that one may not use the green moss that is on the surface of the water to fashion a wick for lighting the Shabbat lamp. The Gemara asks: What is this green moss? If you say that it is the moss found on standing water, isn’t that moss brittle and therefore unfit material from which to fashion a wick? Rather, Rav Pappa said: It is referring to the moss that accumulates on ships, which is more pliable and when dried can be fashioned into a wick.

תנא הוסיפו עליהן של צמר ושל שער ותנא דידן צמר מכווץ כוויץ שער איחרוכי מיחרך:

It was taught in a baraita: The Sages added to the list of prohibited wicks in the mishna those made of wool and hair as well. The Gemara remarks: And our tanna did not consider it necessary to enumerate these because it is virtually impossible to fashion wicks from these materials, as, when they burn, wool shrinks and hair is scorched. Consequently, they are unsuitable for use as wicks.

ולא בזפת: זפת זיפתא שעוה קירותא תנא עד כאן פסול פתילות מכאן ואילך פסול שמנים פשיטא שעוה איצטריכא ליה מהו דתימא לפתילות נמי לא חזיא קא משמע לן

And we learned in the mishna that one may not use zefet or shaava as fuel in lighting the Shabbat lamp. The Gemara explains that zefet is pitch, and shaava is wax. It was taught in a baraita: Until this point, the word zefet, the mishna is dealing with disqualification of materials unfit for use as wicks, and from this point on it is dealing with disqualification of substances unfit for use as oils. The Gemara asks: Obviously, a wick cannot be made from pitch and similar materials. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the mishna to mention wax, lest you say that it is also unfit for use as a coating for wicks, in the manner that wicks are usually made. Therefore, it teaches us that even though wax is unfit for use as oil, it is fit for use as coating for wicks.

אמר רמי בר אבין עטרנא פסולתא דזיפתא שעוה פסולתא דדובשא

Rami bar Avin said: Tar [itran] is the by-product of pitch. When wood is burned to extract pitch, a clearer liquid oozes out after the pitch, and that is tar. Similarly, wax is the by-product of honey.

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