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Today's Daf Yomi

March 30, 2020 | ה׳ בניסן תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 24

Today’s shiur is sponsored by the Mitchell family of New York City in honor of the b’nai mitzvah of their twins, Aaron and Joshua, and by Rachel and Oren Seliger in memory of Reuven ben Yehuda and Devora z”l, Saba Reuven, who lived his life by Torah ve’avoda and was a founding member of Kibbutz Tirat Zvi. 

Does one mention of Chanuka in birkhat hamazon? If so, where and why there and not in the usual place for additions? Should one add mention of Rosh Chodesh in birkhat hamazon? It is the same as Chanuka or different – why? Does one mention Chanuka in mussaf on Shabbat? Does one mention Rosh Chodesh in the blessing for the haftorah if Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbat? The gemara suggests various comparisons. The mishna raises different opinions about what oils one can or cannot use on Shabbat. Oil of truma that became impure cannot be used on Yom Tov because one cannot burn sanctified items on Yom Tov. From where is this derived? Four different answers are brought.

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

תניא כוותיה דרב חסדא כל אלו שאמרו אין מדליקין בהן בשבת מדליקין בהן ביום טוב חוץ משמן שריפה לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב:

It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Ḥisda. All of these oils with which the Sages said that one may not light on Shabbat, one may light with them on a Festival, with the exception of burnt oil, because one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival.

איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה בברכת המזון כיון דמדרבנן הוא לא מדכרינן או דילמא משום פרסומי ניסא מדכרינן אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא אינו מזכיר ואם בא להזכיר מזכיר בהודאה רב הונא בר יהודה איקלע לבי רבא סבר לאדכורי בבונה ירושלים אמר להו רב ששת כתפלה מה תפלה בהודאה אף ברכת המזון בהודאה:

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the ruling with regard to the obligation to mention Hanukkah in Grace after Meals? The dilemma is: Since it is merely an obligation by rabbinic law, do we not mention it? Or, perhaps due to publicity of the miracle, we mention it. Rava said that Rav Seḥora said that Rav Huna said: One does not mention it. And if, nevertheless, he comes to mention it, he mentions it in the blessing of thanksgiving. The Gemara relates that Rav Huna bar Yehuda happened by Rava’s house on Hanukkah. When, after eating, he came to recite Grace after Meals, he thought to mention Hanukkah in the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem. Rav Sheshet said to the yeshiva students: One mentions Hanukkah in Grace after Meals just as he does in the Amida prayer. Just as in the Amida prayer one mentions Hanukkah in the blessing of thanksgiving, so too, in Grace after Meals one mentions Hanukkah in the blessing of thanksgiving.

איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר ראש חודש בברכת המזון אם תימצי לומר בחנוכה דרבנן לא צריך ראש חודש דאורייתא צריך או דילמא כיון דלא אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא מזכרינן רב אמר מזכיר רבי חנינא אמר אינו מזכיר אמר רב זריקא נקוט דרב בידך דקאי רבי אושעיא כוותיה דתני רבי אושעיא ימים שיש בהן קרבן מוסף כגון ראש חודש וחולו של מועד ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס ויש בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון ימים שאין בהן קרבן מוסף כגון שני וחמישי (ושני) ותעניות ומעמדות

Based on the previous dilemma, an additional dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the ruling with regard to the obligation to mention the New Moon in Grace after Meals? The dilemma is: If you say that on Hanukkah, since it is only by rabbinic law, one need not mention it in Grace after Meals; perhaps the New Moon, which is by Torah law, one is required to mention it. Or, perhaps since it is not a day on which it is prohibited to perform labor, one need not mention it. The Sages disputed this matter: Rav said: One mentions the New Moon in Grace after Meals. Rabbi Ḥanina said: One does not mention it. Rav Zerika said: Take the halakha of Rav in your hand as authoritative, since Rabbi Oshaya holds in accordance with his opinion. As Rabbi Oshaya taught in a Tosefta: Days on which there is an additional offering sacrificed in the Temple, i.e., the New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival; in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites the eighteen blessings of the Amida prayer and says a passage pertaining to the event of the day during the blessing of Temple service. And if he did not recite it, we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. And on those days, there is no kiddush recited over the cup of wine at the start of the day, but there is mention of the day recited in Grace after Meals, in accordance with Rav’s opinion. Days on which there is no additional offering, i.e., Monday, and Thursday, and fast days, and non-priestly watches [ma’amadot], have a different legal status as detailed below.

שני וחמישי מאי עבידתייהו אלא שני וחמישי ושני של תעניות ומעמדות ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בשומע תפלה ואם לא אמר אין מחזירין אותו (ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס) ואין בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון:

Before drawing a conclusion, the Gemara seeks to clarify: Monday and Thursday, what is their purpose in this discussion, i.e., why are Monday and Thursday mentioned here if no special prayers are recited on those days? The Gemara explains: Rather, certainly the reference is to Monday and Thursday and Monday that are fast days for rain and of maamadot. On those days, in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites eighteen blessings and recites a passage pertaining to the event of the day, i.e., the fast, in the blessing: Who listens to prayer. However, if one did not mention it, we do not require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. And, on those days, there is no kiddush recited over a cup of wine, and there is no mention of the day recited in Grace after Meals.

איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה במוספין כיון דלית ביה מוסף בדידיה לא מדכרינן או דילמא יום הוא שחייב בארבע תפלות רב הונא ורב יהודה דאמרי תרוייהו אינו מזכיר רב נחמן ורבי יוחנן דאמרי תרוייהו מזכיר

An additional dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the ruling with regard to the obligation to mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer on Shabbat during Hanukkah or on the New Moon of Tevet, which falls during Hanukkah? The sides of the dilemma are: Do we say that since Hanukkah has no additional prayer of its own, and the additional prayer has no connection to Hanukkah, we do not mention it? Or, perhaps it is the essence of the day that is obligated in the mention of Hanukkah, in which case there is no distinction between the various prayers, and it should be mentioned in all four prayers, including the additional prayer on Shabbat and the New Moon. There is a dispute: Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda both said: One does not mention it. Rav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥanan both said: One mentions it.

אמר אביי לרב יוסף הא דרב הונא ורב יהודה דרב הוא דאמר רב גידל אמר רב ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של ראש חדש שאילמלא שבת אין נביא בראש חדש

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: This opinion of Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda is Rav’s opinion, as Rav Giddel said that Rav said: In the case of the New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, the one who recites the portion from the Prophets [haftara] on Shabbat need not mention the New Moon in the blessing, as, if it were not Shabbat, there would be no reading from the Prophets on the New Moon. The haftara is unrelated to the New Moon, and therefore the New Moon is not mentioned in the blessing. The same should be true with regard to mention of Hanukkah in the additional service on the New Moon, as, if it were not the New Moon, he would not be reciting the additional service on Hanukkah. Therefore, when he recites the additional prayer, he need not mention Hanukkah.

מי דמי התם נביא בדראש חדש ליכא כלל הכא איתיה בערבית ושחרית ומנחה אלא להא דמיא דאמר רב אחדבוי אמר רב מתנה אמר רב יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא במנחה בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין נביא במנחה ביום טוב

The Gemara rejects this comparison. Is this comparable? There, reading from the Prophets is not at all part of the service on the New Moon. Here, there is mention of Hanukkah in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers. Rather, it is comparable to this: As Rav Aḥadvoi said that Rav Mattana said that Rav said: On a Festival that occurs on Shabbat, one who recites the portion from the Prophets during the afternoon service on Shabbat need not mention the Festival, as, if it were not Shabbat, there would be no reading from the Prophets during the afternoon service on a Festival. If so, even though there is a haftara during the morning service on a Festival, since they do not read from the Prophets in the afternoon, the reading is considered totally unrelated to the Festival and one does not mention the Festival. The same is true with regard to Hanukkah. One does not mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer.

ולית הילכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי יום הכפורים שחל להיות בשבת המתפלל נעילה צריך להזכיר של שבת יום הוא שנתחייב בארבע תפלות

The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is not in accordance with any of these halakhot; rather, it is in accordance with that which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: On Yom Kippur that falls on Shabbat, one who recites the day’s closing prayer [neila] must mention Shabbat even in that prayer, although neila is not recited every Shabbat. The reason for this is that on Yom Kippur, the day itself is obligated in four prayers, i.e., morning, additional, afternoon, and closing. When it occurs on Shabbat, one must mention Shabbat in each of the prayers. Apparently, on a day that has a unique character, that character is manifest in all sacred aspects of the day; those engendered by the day itself as well as those engendered by other factors.

קשיא הילכתא אהילכתא אמרת הילכתא כרבי יהושע בן לוי וקיימא לן הילכתא כרבא דאמר רבא יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת שליח ציבור היורד לפני התיבה ערבית אינו צריך להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין שליח צבור יורד ערבית ביום טוב

The Gemara challenges this: It is difficult, as there is a contradiction between one halakha and another halakha. On the one hand, you said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. And, on the other hand, we hold that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rava, which contradicts the first halakha, as Rava said: On a Festival that occurs on Shabbat, the prayer leader who descends before the ark to recite the prayer abridged from the seven blessings of the Shabbat evening Amida prayer need not mention the Festival, as, if it were not also Shabbat, the prayer leader would not descend before the ark to recite this prayer during the evening prayer on a Festival. The Gemara reverts to the previous assumption that an element that does not arise from the essential halakhot of the day is considered foreign to it and is not mentioned.

הכי השתא התם בדין הוא דאפילו בשבת נמי לא צריך ורבנן הוא דתקוני משום סכנה אבל הכא יום הוא שנתחייב בארבע תפלות:

This challenge is rejected: How can you compare? There, actually, even on Shabbat, the prayer leader need not repeat the prayer, just as the prayer is not repeated any other evening. It was the Sages who instituted repetition of the prayer due to concern for potential danger. The Sages sought to slightly delay those leaving the synagogue to enable people who came late to leave together with the rest of the worshippers. This was necessary because synagogues were often located beyond the city limits, and it was dangerous to walk alone at night. This repetition of the prayer does not stem from the obligation of the day but was instituted for another purpose. However, here, on Yom Kippur, it is the day that is obligated in four prayers, and therefore on each day that there are added prayers, one must mention the events that occurred on that day in those prayers just as he does in all the standard prayers.

ולא באליה כו׳: חכמים היינו תנא קמא איכא בינייהו דרב ברונא אמר רב ולא מסיימי:

And we learned in the mishna that one may not light with the sheep’s tail or with fat. Naḥum the Mede says that one may light using cooked fat. And the Rabbis say that one may not light with it whether or not it is cooked. The Gemara asks: Isn’t the opinion of the Rabbis identical to the unattributed opinion of the first tanna in the mishna? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to what Rav Beruna said that Rav said that one may light with cooked fat to which oil was added. One of the tannaim accepts this opinion as halakha and permits lighting with it, and the other prohibits it, and the opinions are not defined. Although it seems from the formulation of the mishna that they differ on this point, it is unclear what the opinion of each tanna is.

מתני׳ אין מדליקין בשמן שריפה ביום טוב רבי ישמעאל אומר אין מדליקין בעטרן מפני כבוד השבת וחכמים מתירין בכל השמנים בשמן שומשמין בשמן אגוזים בשמן צנונות בשמן דגים בשמן פקועות בעטרן ובנפט רבי טרפון אומר אין מדליקין אלא בשמן זית בלבד:

MISHNA: In continuation of the previous mishna, this mishna adds that one may not light with burnt oil on a Festival, as the Gemara will explain below. With regard to lighting Shabbat lamps, there were Sages who prohibited the use of specific oils. Rabbi Yishmael says that one may not light with tar [itran] in deference to Shabbat because tar smells bad and disturbs those in the house. And the Rabbis permit lighting with all oils for lamps as long as they burn properly; with sesame oil, with nut oil, with turnip oil, with fish oil, with gourd oil, with tar, and even with naphtha [neft]. Rabbi Tarfon says: One may light only with olive oil in deference to Shabbat, as it is the choicest and most pleasant of the oils.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב מנהני מילי אמר חזקיה וכן תנא דבי חזקיה אמר קרא ולא תותירו ממנו עד בקר והנותר ממנו עד בקר שאין תלמוד לומר עד בקר מה תלמוד לומר עד בקר בא הכתוב ליתן לו בקר שני לשריפתו

GEMARA: With regard to the statement of the mishna that one may not light with burnt oil on a Festival, the Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara answers: Because, in general, one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival. With regard to the fundamental principle that one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival, the Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Ḥizkiya said, and one of the Sages from the school of Ḥizkiya taught the same, that which the verse said: “And you shall let nothing of it remain until morning; but that which remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire” (Exodus 12:10), requires explanation. As the Torah did not need to state until morning the second time. It would have been sufficient to state: But that which remains of it you shall burn with fire. Rather, why does the Torah state until morning? The verse comes to provide him with the second morning for burning. Leftover meat of the Paschal lamb is not burned on the following morning, which is a Festival, but rather on the following day, the first of the intermediate days of the Festival. From there it is derived that burning consecrated items on a Festival is prohibited.

אביי אמר אמר קרא עולת שבת בשבתו ולא עולת חול בשבת ולא עולת חול ביום טוב

Abaye said: This is derived from another verse, as the verse said: “This is the burnt-offering of each Shabbat on its Shabbat” (Numbers 28:10). Only the burnt-offering of Shabbat is sacrificed on Shabbat, and not a weekday burnt-offering on Shabbat, and not a weekday burnt-offering on a Festival. Apparently, performing this mitzva is prohibited even on a Festival, since it was not explicitly enumerated among the actions permitted on a Festival.

רבא אמר אמר קרא הוא לבדו יעשה לכם הוא ולא מכשירין לבדו ולא מילה שלא בזמנה דאתיא בקל וחומר

Rava said: This is derived from a different verse, as the verse said with regard to the laws of a Festival: “No manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that alone may be done by you” (Exodus 12:16). From the word that, it is derived that for sustenance, one is permitted to perform prohibited labor on a Festival, but not for facilitators of sustenance. Although cooking is permitted, actions that involve prohibited labors for the purpose of facilitating cooking are prohibited. From the word alone, it is derived: And not circumcision performed not at its appointed time, i.e., a circumcision may be performed on a Festival only if it is on the eighth day. A circumcision that was postponed may not be performed on a Festival. It is possible that license to perform the postponed circumcision on a Festival could have been derived by means of an a fortiori inference. Therefore, the verse explicitly prohibited doing so. The same is true with regard to burning consecrated items. Although the Torah commands burning consecrated items, it was not permitted on a Festival since there is no obligation to do so specifically on that day.

רב אשי אמר (שבת) שבתון

Rav Ashi said: It is derived from a different source. In the verses that speak of the Festivals, as opposed to the term Shabbat, the term shabbaton (Leviticus 23:24) appears.

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 24

תניא כוותיה דרב חסדא כל אלו שאמרו אין מדליקין בהן בשבת מדליקין בהן ביום טוב חוץ משמן שריפה לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב:

It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Ḥisda. All of these oils with which the Sages said that one may not light on Shabbat, one may light with them on a Festival, with the exception of burnt oil, because one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival.

איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה בברכת המזון כיון דמדרבנן הוא לא מדכרינן או דילמא משום פרסומי ניסא מדכרינן אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא אינו מזכיר ואם בא להזכיר מזכיר בהודאה רב הונא בר יהודה איקלע לבי רבא סבר לאדכורי בבונה ירושלים אמר להו רב ששת כתפלה מה תפלה בהודאה אף ברכת המזון בהודאה:

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the ruling with regard to the obligation to mention Hanukkah in Grace after Meals? The dilemma is: Since it is merely an obligation by rabbinic law, do we not mention it? Or, perhaps due to publicity of the miracle, we mention it. Rava said that Rav Seḥora said that Rav Huna said: One does not mention it. And if, nevertheless, he comes to mention it, he mentions it in the blessing of thanksgiving. The Gemara relates that Rav Huna bar Yehuda happened by Rava’s house on Hanukkah. When, after eating, he came to recite Grace after Meals, he thought to mention Hanukkah in the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem. Rav Sheshet said to the yeshiva students: One mentions Hanukkah in Grace after Meals just as he does in the Amida prayer. Just as in the Amida prayer one mentions Hanukkah in the blessing of thanksgiving, so too, in Grace after Meals one mentions Hanukkah in the blessing of thanksgiving.

איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר ראש חודש בברכת המזון אם תימצי לומר בחנוכה דרבנן לא צריך ראש חודש דאורייתא צריך או דילמא כיון דלא אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא מזכרינן רב אמר מזכיר רבי חנינא אמר אינו מזכיר אמר רב זריקא נקוט דרב בידך דקאי רבי אושעיא כוותיה דתני רבי אושעיא ימים שיש בהן קרבן מוסף כגון ראש חודש וחולו של מועד ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס ויש בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון ימים שאין בהן קרבן מוסף כגון שני וחמישי (ושני) ותעניות ומעמדות

Based on the previous dilemma, an additional dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the ruling with regard to the obligation to mention the New Moon in Grace after Meals? The dilemma is: If you say that on Hanukkah, since it is only by rabbinic law, one need not mention it in Grace after Meals; perhaps the New Moon, which is by Torah law, one is required to mention it. Or, perhaps since it is not a day on which it is prohibited to perform labor, one need not mention it. The Sages disputed this matter: Rav said: One mentions the New Moon in Grace after Meals. Rabbi Ḥanina said: One does not mention it. Rav Zerika said: Take the halakha of Rav in your hand as authoritative, since Rabbi Oshaya holds in accordance with his opinion. As Rabbi Oshaya taught in a Tosefta: Days on which there is an additional offering sacrificed in the Temple, i.e., the New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival; in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites the eighteen blessings of the Amida prayer and says a passage pertaining to the event of the day during the blessing of Temple service. And if he did not recite it, we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. And on those days, there is no kiddush recited over the cup of wine at the start of the day, but there is mention of the day recited in Grace after Meals, in accordance with Rav’s opinion. Days on which there is no additional offering, i.e., Monday, and Thursday, and fast days, and non-priestly watches [ma’amadot], have a different legal status as detailed below.

שני וחמישי מאי עבידתייהו אלא שני וחמישי ושני של תעניות ומעמדות ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בשומע תפלה ואם לא אמר אין מחזירין אותו (ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס) ואין בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון:

Before drawing a conclusion, the Gemara seeks to clarify: Monday and Thursday, what is their purpose in this discussion, i.e., why are Monday and Thursday mentioned here if no special prayers are recited on those days? The Gemara explains: Rather, certainly the reference is to Monday and Thursday and Monday that are fast days for rain and of maamadot. On those days, in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites eighteen blessings and recites a passage pertaining to the event of the day, i.e., the fast, in the blessing: Who listens to prayer. However, if one did not mention it, we do not require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. And, on those days, there is no kiddush recited over a cup of wine, and there is no mention of the day recited in Grace after Meals.

איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה במוספין כיון דלית ביה מוסף בדידיה לא מדכרינן או דילמא יום הוא שחייב בארבע תפלות רב הונא ורב יהודה דאמרי תרוייהו אינו מזכיר רב נחמן ורבי יוחנן דאמרי תרוייהו מזכיר

An additional dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the ruling with regard to the obligation to mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer on Shabbat during Hanukkah or on the New Moon of Tevet, which falls during Hanukkah? The sides of the dilemma are: Do we say that since Hanukkah has no additional prayer of its own, and the additional prayer has no connection to Hanukkah, we do not mention it? Or, perhaps it is the essence of the day that is obligated in the mention of Hanukkah, in which case there is no distinction between the various prayers, and it should be mentioned in all four prayers, including the additional prayer on Shabbat and the New Moon. There is a dispute: Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda both said: One does not mention it. Rav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥanan both said: One mentions it.

אמר אביי לרב יוסף הא דרב הונא ורב יהודה דרב הוא דאמר רב גידל אמר רב ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של ראש חדש שאילמלא שבת אין נביא בראש חדש

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: This opinion of Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda is Rav’s opinion, as Rav Giddel said that Rav said: In the case of the New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, the one who recites the portion from the Prophets [haftara] on Shabbat need not mention the New Moon in the blessing, as, if it were not Shabbat, there would be no reading from the Prophets on the New Moon. The haftara is unrelated to the New Moon, and therefore the New Moon is not mentioned in the blessing. The same should be true with regard to mention of Hanukkah in the additional service on the New Moon, as, if it were not the New Moon, he would not be reciting the additional service on Hanukkah. Therefore, when he recites the additional prayer, he need not mention Hanukkah.

מי דמי התם נביא בדראש חדש ליכא כלל הכא איתיה בערבית ושחרית ומנחה אלא להא דמיא דאמר רב אחדבוי אמר רב מתנה אמר רב יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא במנחה בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין נביא במנחה ביום טוב

The Gemara rejects this comparison. Is this comparable? There, reading from the Prophets is not at all part of the service on the New Moon. Here, there is mention of Hanukkah in the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers. Rather, it is comparable to this: As Rav Aḥadvoi said that Rav Mattana said that Rav said: On a Festival that occurs on Shabbat, one who recites the portion from the Prophets during the afternoon service on Shabbat need not mention the Festival, as, if it were not Shabbat, there would be no reading from the Prophets during the afternoon service on a Festival. If so, even though there is a haftara during the morning service on a Festival, since they do not read from the Prophets in the afternoon, the reading is considered totally unrelated to the Festival and one does not mention the Festival. The same is true with regard to Hanukkah. One does not mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer.

ולית הילכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי יום הכפורים שחל להיות בשבת המתפלל נעילה צריך להזכיר של שבת יום הוא שנתחייב בארבע תפלות

The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is not in accordance with any of these halakhot; rather, it is in accordance with that which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: On Yom Kippur that falls on Shabbat, one who recites the day’s closing prayer [neila] must mention Shabbat even in that prayer, although neila is not recited every Shabbat. The reason for this is that on Yom Kippur, the day itself is obligated in four prayers, i.e., morning, additional, afternoon, and closing. When it occurs on Shabbat, one must mention Shabbat in each of the prayers. Apparently, on a day that has a unique character, that character is manifest in all sacred aspects of the day; those engendered by the day itself as well as those engendered by other factors.

קשיא הילכתא אהילכתא אמרת הילכתא כרבי יהושע בן לוי וקיימא לן הילכתא כרבא דאמר רבא יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת שליח ציבור היורד לפני התיבה ערבית אינו צריך להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין שליח צבור יורד ערבית ביום טוב

The Gemara challenges this: It is difficult, as there is a contradiction between one halakha and another halakha. On the one hand, you said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. And, on the other hand, we hold that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rava, which contradicts the first halakha, as Rava said: On a Festival that occurs on Shabbat, the prayer leader who descends before the ark to recite the prayer abridged from the seven blessings of the Shabbat evening Amida prayer need not mention the Festival, as, if it were not also Shabbat, the prayer leader would not descend before the ark to recite this prayer during the evening prayer on a Festival. The Gemara reverts to the previous assumption that an element that does not arise from the essential halakhot of the day is considered foreign to it and is not mentioned.

הכי השתא התם בדין הוא דאפילו בשבת נמי לא צריך ורבנן הוא דתקוני משום סכנה אבל הכא יום הוא שנתחייב בארבע תפלות:

This challenge is rejected: How can you compare? There, actually, even on Shabbat, the prayer leader need not repeat the prayer, just as the prayer is not repeated any other evening. It was the Sages who instituted repetition of the prayer due to concern for potential danger. The Sages sought to slightly delay those leaving the synagogue to enable people who came late to leave together with the rest of the worshippers. This was necessary because synagogues were often located beyond the city limits, and it was dangerous to walk alone at night. This repetition of the prayer does not stem from the obligation of the day but was instituted for another purpose. However, here, on Yom Kippur, it is the day that is obligated in four prayers, and therefore on each day that there are added prayers, one must mention the events that occurred on that day in those prayers just as he does in all the standard prayers.

ולא באליה כו׳: חכמים היינו תנא קמא איכא בינייהו דרב ברונא אמר רב ולא מסיימי:

And we learned in the mishna that one may not light with the sheep’s tail or with fat. Naḥum the Mede says that one may light using cooked fat. And the Rabbis say that one may not light with it whether or not it is cooked. The Gemara asks: Isn’t the opinion of the Rabbis identical to the unattributed opinion of the first tanna in the mishna? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to what Rav Beruna said that Rav said that one may light with cooked fat to which oil was added. One of the tannaim accepts this opinion as halakha and permits lighting with it, and the other prohibits it, and the opinions are not defined. Although it seems from the formulation of the mishna that they differ on this point, it is unclear what the opinion of each tanna is.

מתני׳ אין מדליקין בשמן שריפה ביום טוב רבי ישמעאל אומר אין מדליקין בעטרן מפני כבוד השבת וחכמים מתירין בכל השמנים בשמן שומשמין בשמן אגוזים בשמן צנונות בשמן דגים בשמן פקועות בעטרן ובנפט רבי טרפון אומר אין מדליקין אלא בשמן זית בלבד:

MISHNA: In continuation of the previous mishna, this mishna adds that one may not light with burnt oil on a Festival, as the Gemara will explain below. With regard to lighting Shabbat lamps, there were Sages who prohibited the use of specific oils. Rabbi Yishmael says that one may not light with tar [itran] in deference to Shabbat because tar smells bad and disturbs those in the house. And the Rabbis permit lighting with all oils for lamps as long as they burn properly; with sesame oil, with nut oil, with turnip oil, with fish oil, with gourd oil, with tar, and even with naphtha [neft]. Rabbi Tarfon says: One may light only with olive oil in deference to Shabbat, as it is the choicest and most pleasant of the oils.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב מנהני מילי אמר חזקיה וכן תנא דבי חזקיה אמר קרא ולא תותירו ממנו עד בקר והנותר ממנו עד בקר שאין תלמוד לומר עד בקר מה תלמוד לומר עד בקר בא הכתוב ליתן לו בקר שני לשריפתו

GEMARA: With regard to the statement of the mishna that one may not light with burnt oil on a Festival, the Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara answers: Because, in general, one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival. With regard to the fundamental principle that one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival, the Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Ḥizkiya said, and one of the Sages from the school of Ḥizkiya taught the same, that which the verse said: “And you shall let nothing of it remain until morning; but that which remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire” (Exodus 12:10), requires explanation. As the Torah did not need to state until morning the second time. It would have been sufficient to state: But that which remains of it you shall burn with fire. Rather, why does the Torah state until morning? The verse comes to provide him with the second morning for burning. Leftover meat of the Paschal lamb is not burned on the following morning, which is a Festival, but rather on the following day, the first of the intermediate days of the Festival. From there it is derived that burning consecrated items on a Festival is prohibited.

אביי אמר אמר קרא עולת שבת בשבתו ולא עולת חול בשבת ולא עולת חול ביום טוב

Abaye said: This is derived from another verse, as the verse said: “This is the burnt-offering of each Shabbat on its Shabbat” (Numbers 28:10). Only the burnt-offering of Shabbat is sacrificed on Shabbat, and not a weekday burnt-offering on Shabbat, and not a weekday burnt-offering on a Festival. Apparently, performing this mitzva is prohibited even on a Festival, since it was not explicitly enumerated among the actions permitted on a Festival.

רבא אמר אמר קרא הוא לבדו יעשה לכם הוא ולא מכשירין לבדו ולא מילה שלא בזמנה דאתיא בקל וחומר

Rava said: This is derived from a different verse, as the verse said with regard to the laws of a Festival: “No manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that alone may be done by you” (Exodus 12:16). From the word that, it is derived that for sustenance, one is permitted to perform prohibited labor on a Festival, but not for facilitators of sustenance. Although cooking is permitted, actions that involve prohibited labors for the purpose of facilitating cooking are prohibited. From the word alone, it is derived: And not circumcision performed not at its appointed time, i.e., a circumcision may be performed on a Festival only if it is on the eighth day. A circumcision that was postponed may not be performed on a Festival. It is possible that license to perform the postponed circumcision on a Festival could have been derived by means of an a fortiori inference. Therefore, the verse explicitly prohibited doing so. The same is true with regard to burning consecrated items. Although the Torah commands burning consecrated items, it was not permitted on a Festival since there is no obligation to do so specifically on that day.

רב אשי אמר (שבת) שבתון

Rav Ashi said: It is derived from a different source. In the verses that speak of the Festivals, as opposed to the term Shabbat, the term shabbaton (Leviticus 23:24) appears.

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