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Daf Yomi

April 16, 2020 | 讻状讘 讘谞讬住谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

Shabbat 41

Today’s shiur is sponsored in honor of Chana Rivka Bracha’s birthday by her mother, Malka Abraham.

The gemara brings two stories of Rabbi Zeira where he was with other rabbis while they were bathing and learned or tried to learn halachot from what he observed. The mishna describes different types of hot water boilers and can they be used on Shabbat. The mishna describes a case of a hot water boiler where one added cold water to it after it was removed from the fire or emptied. It is a subject of debate which case the mishna was referring to – removed from the fire or emptied? Does the mishna follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbi Shimon regarding one who does an act of Shabbat by which a melacha is performed – however one had no intention to perform that melacha.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讙讬讚讜讚讬 讛讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讙讬讚讜讚讬:


that does not have embankments surrounding it. Since there are no partitions, it appears like an ocean or a river. That incident involving Rabbi Abbahu occurred in a place that has embankments and looks like a vessel. Therefore, the Sages did not prohibit it.


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗谞讗 讞讝讬转讬讛 诇专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 砖讛谞讬讞 讬讚讬讜 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬讜 砖诇 诪讟讛 讜诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 讗讬 谞讙注 讗讬 诇讗 谞讙注 驻砖讬讟讗 讚诇讗 谞讙注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛讗讜讞讝 讘讗诪讛 讜诪砖转讬谉 讻讗讬诇讜 诪讘讬讗 诪讘讜诇 诇注讜诇诐


After citing what Rabbi Zeira related with regard to Rabbi Abbahu, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Zeira said: I saw that Rabbi Abbahu, while he was bathing, placed his hands over his genitals for the sake of modesty, and I do not know whether he touched them or did not touch them. The Gemara questions Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 uncertainty. It is obvious that he did not touch his genitals, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: One who holds his penis and urinates it is as if he were bringing a flood to the world. He is liable to become aroused by that contact and that is an extremely severe transgression, comparable to the transgressions violated in the generation of the flood.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 注砖讗讜讛 讻讘讜诇砖转 讚转谞谉 讘讜诇砖转 砖谞讻谞住讛 诇注讬专 讘砖注转 砖诇讜诐 讞讘讬讜转 驻转讜讞讜转 讗住讜专讜转 住转讜诪讜转 诪讜转专讜转 讘砖注转 诪诇讞诪讛 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诪讜转专讜转 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 驻谞讗讬 诇谞住讱 讗诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬转讬 诇讗 诪谞住讻讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬转 诇讗 讗转讬 诇讛专讛讜专讬 讛讻讗 诪讗讬 讘讬注转讜转讗 讘讬注转讜转讗 讚谞讛专讗


Abaye said: Nevertheless, no proof can be cited from that baraita. Perhaps the Sages rendered the legal status of this situation like that of a military unit, as we learned in a mishna: A military unit that entered a city, if it entered during peacetime, after the soldiers leave, the open barrels of wine are prohibited and the wine in them may not be drunk due to suspicion that the gentile soldiers may have poured this wine as a libation for idolatry. The sealed barrels are permitted. However, if the unit entered in wartime, both are permitted because in wartime there is no respite to pour wine for idolatry, and one can be certain that the soldiers did not do so. Apparently, since they are afraid, they do not pour libations. Here too, in the case of bathing, since he is afraid, he will not come to have impure thoughts. The Gemara asks: And what fear is there here that would prevent one bathing from having impure thoughts? The Gemara answers: Fear of the river. Since he needs to be careful that the water does not wash him away, he is too distracted to think of other matters.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪谞讬讞 讬讚讬讜 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬讜 砖诇 诪讟讛 讻讗讬诇讜 讻讜驻专 讘讘专讬转讜 砖诇 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讻讬 谞讞讬转 讛讗 讻讬 住诇讬拽 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讗 砖讞讬 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讝拽讬祝 专讘谞谉 讚讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讻讬 拽讗 谞讞转讬 讝拽驻讬 讻讬 拽讗 住诇拽讬 砖讞讬


The Gemara questions the story itself: And is that so? Is it permitted under any circumstances to cover one鈥檚 genitals while bathing? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Abba say that Rav Huna said that Rav said: Anyone who places his hands over his genitals is as if he denies the covenant of our father Abraham? It appears as if he is covering himself to obscure the fact that he is circumcised. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as there is room to distinguish and say that this, the case where it is prohibited to cover oneself, is when he is descending into the river and there are no people facing him and he need not be concerned with modesty. In that case covering oneself is prohibited as he appears to be renouncing the covenant of Abraham. That, the case where, in certain circumstances, this prohibition does not apply, is when he is emerging from the river. When he emerges, he is facing the people on the riverbank and it is then permitted to cover himself in the interest of modesty, as that which Rava would do. He would bend over when he was naked. Rabbi Zeira would stand upright, in accordance with Rav鈥檚 statement that it is prohibited to appear to be renouncing the covenant of Abraham. When the Sages of the school of Rav Ashi descended into the river they stood upright. When they emerged from the river they bent over.


专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪砖转诪讬讟 诪讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬住拽 诇讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讻诇 讛注讜诇讛 诪讘讘诇 诇讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘诇讛 讬讜讘讗讜 讜砖诪讛 讬讛讬讜 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讜讗砖诪注 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 讜讗讬转讬 讜讗讬住拽 讗讝诇 讗砖讻讞讬讛 讚拽讗讬 讘讬 讘讗谞讬 讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 谞转专 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 诪住专拽 驻转讞讜 驻讜诪讬讬讻讜 讜讗驻讬拽讜 讛讘诇讗 讜讗砖转讜 诪诪讬讗 讚讘讬 讘讗谞讬 讗诪专 讗讬诇诪诇讗 (诇讗) 讘讗转讬 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜注 讚讘专 讝讛 讚讬讬


Speaking of bathing and its halakhot, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Zeira was avoiding being seen by his teacher, Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Zeira sought to ascend to Eretz Yisrael and his teacher disapproved. As Rav Yehuda said: Anyone who ascends from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a positive commandment, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey shall be taken to Babylonia and there they shall remain until the day that I recall them, said the Lord鈥 (Jeremiah 27:22). Based on that verse, Rav Yehuda held that since the Babylonian exile was by divine decree, permission to leave Babylonia for Eretz Yisrael could only be granted by God. Rabbi Zeira did not want to discuss his desire to emigrate with Rav Yehuda, so that he would not be forced to explicitly disobey him. Nevertheless, he said: I will go and hear something from him and then I will leave. He went and found Rav Yehuda standing in the bathhouse and telling his servant: Bring me natron [neter] with which to wash, bring me a comb, open your mouths and let out air, and drink from the water of the bathhouse. Rabbi Zeira said: If I had come only to hear this matter from Rav Yehuda, it would suffice for me.


讘砖诇诪讗 讛讘讬讗讜 谞转专 讛讘讬讗讜 诪住专拽 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖诇 讞讜诇 诪讜转专 诇讗讜诪专诐 讘诇砖讜谉 拽讚砖 驻转讞讜 驻讜诪讬讬讻讜 讜讗驻讬拽讜 讛讘诇讗 谞诪讬 讻讚砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讘诇讗 诪驻讬拽 讛讘诇讗 讗诇讗 讗砖转讜 诪讬讗 讚讘讬 讘讗谞讬 诪讗讬 诪注诇讬讜转讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讻诇 讜诇讗 砖转讛 讗讻讬诇转讜 讚诐 讜讝讛讜 转讞讬诇转 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬讬诐 讗讻诇 讜诇讗 讛诇讱 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗讻讬诇转讜 诪专拽讘转 讜讝讛讜 转讞讬诇转 专讬讞 专注 讛谞爪专讱 诇谞拽讘讬讜 讜讗讻诇 讚讜诪讛 诇转谞讜专 砖讛住讬拽讜讛讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讗驻专讜 讜讝讛讜 转讞讬诇转 专讬讞 讝讜讛诪讗 专讞抓 讘讞诪讬谉 讜诇讗 砖转讛 诪讛谉 讚讜诪讛 诇转谞讜专 砖讛住讬拽讜讛讜 诪讘讞讜抓 讜诇讗 讛住讬拽讜讛讜 诪讘驻谞讬诐 专讞抓 讘讞诪讬谉 讜诇讗 谞砖转讟祝 讘爪讜谞谉 讚讜诪讛 诇讘专讝诇 砖讛讻谞讬住讜讛讜 诇讗讜专 讜诇讗 讛讻谞讬住讜讛讜 诇爪讜谞谉 专讞抓 讜诇讗 住讱 讚讜诪讛 诇诪讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘讬转:


The Gemara analyzes the lessons learned from this story. Granted, when Rav Yehuda said: Bring me natron, bring me a comb, he was teaching us that mundane matters are permitted to be spoken in the bathhouse, even in the sacred language. When he said: Open your mouths and let out air, that too is in accordance with that which Shmuel said, as Shmuel said: Heat produces heat. The hot air that one inhales causes him to sweat more quickly. However, drink the water of the bathhouse, what benefit is there in doing that? The Gemara answers: As it was taught in a baraita: One who ate and did not drink at all, what he ate becomes blood and that causes the onset of intestinal disease. One who ate and did not walk four cubits after eating, what he ate rots and that causes the onset of bad breath. One who needs to defecate and ate is similar to an oven that was lit on top of its ashes. When ashes from a previous fire are not swept out, and new logs are placed on top of the old ones, it inhibits the burning and dirties the oven, and that causes the onset of odor of the filth of perspiration in a person. As far as our matter is concerned, the baraita teaches: One who bathed in hot water and did not drink from it is like an oven that was lit from the outside and not lit from the inside. The lighting is ineffective and the oven does not heat properly. Rav Yehuda told his servants to drink the hot water while bathing so that they would be heated from the inside and the outside. The baraita continues: One who bathed in hot water and did not rinse afterward with cold water is like iron that was placed in the fire and not placed afterward in cold water, which leaves the iron soft. And one who bathed and did not smear himself with oil afterward is like water that was poured on top of a barrel, and not into it. The water spills outside the barrel.


诪转谞讬壮 诪讜诇讬讗专 讛讙专讜祝 砖讜转讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 讘砖讘转 讗谞讟讬讻讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讙专讜驻讛 讗讬谉 砖讜转讬谉 讛讬诪谞讛:


MISHNA: In this mishna, the Sages discuss two vessels used for heating water. With regard to a mulyar, a bronze vessel into which coals are placed in an outer compartment and water is placed into an adjacent inner compartment, whose coals were swept, one may drink from it on Shabbat. With regard to an antikhi, which is a vessel with a different configuration, even if its coals were swept, one may not drink from it on Shabbat.


讙诪壮 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 诪讜诇讬讗专 讛讙专讜祝 转谞讗 诪讬诐 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讙讞诇讬诐 诪讘讞讜抓 讗谞讟讬讻讬 专讘讛 讗诪专 讘讬 讻讬专讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讘讬 讚讜讚讬 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬 讚讜讚讬 讻诇 砖讻谉 讘讬 讻讬专讬 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬 讻讬专讬 讗讘诇 讘讬 讚讜讚讬 诇讗 转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗谞讟讬讻讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讙专讜驻讛 讜拽讟讜诪讛 讗讬谉 砖讜转讬谉 讛讬诪谞讛 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讞讜砖转讛 诪讞诪诪转讛:


GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of a swept mulyar? The Gemara answers: A mulyar is the vessel, explained in the Tosefta on our mishna, that has water on the inside and coals on the outside. With regard to the identity of an antikhi there are different opinions. Rabba said that it refers to a stove. A space is created in the wall of a stove and filled with water. Since the stove is very hot, it is prohibited to use this water. Rav Na岣an bar Yitzhak said: An antikhi is a cauldron, i.e., a vessel made from two cauldrons stacked one on top of the other with coals in the bottom one and water in the upper one. These two different opinions have halakhic implications. The one who says that it is prohibited to use a vessel composed of two cauldrons, all the more so it is prohibited to use the space inside of a stove. And the one who says that it is prohibited to use the space inside a stove, a vessel composed of two cauldrons, no, it is not prohibited. It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an: An antikhi, even if it was swept and covered with ashes, one may not drink from it on Shabbat because its copper heats it. The heating in an antikhi is by means of the coals beneath the water.


诪转谞讬壮 讛诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛讜 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻讜 爪讜谞谉 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讞诪讜 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 讛讜讗 诇转讜讻讜 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讻讜住 讻讚讬 诇讛驻砖讬专谉:


MISHNA: The Sages added to the laws of leaving food on a source of heat and cooking food on Shabbat: An urn that was emptied of its hot water on Shabbat, one may not place cold water into it so that the cold water will be heated. However, one may place cold water into an urn or into a cup that were emptied of their hot water in order to warm it but not in order to heat it.


讙诪壮 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 诪转谞讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 诪讬诐 讞诪讬谉 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻谉 诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 讻讚讬 砖讬讞诪讜 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 诪专讜讘讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讛驻砖讬专谉


GEMARA: The mishna seems to contradict itself. The first statement completely prohibits placing water into an urn, and later it was partially permitted. The Gemara asks: What is the mishna saying? Rav Adda bar Mattana said that it said the following: An urn that was emptied of its hot water, one may not put a small amount of water into it so that it will become very hot. However, one may put a large quantity of water into it in order to warm it. A large quantity of cold water will not be heated in those circumstances.


讜讛诇讗 诪爪专祝 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 诪讜转专 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讬讚讬 诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 诪讬诐 拽转谞讬 诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛讜 拽转谞讬


The Gemara questions this leniency: By putting cold water into the urn, doesn鈥檛 it harden the vessel? Cold water poured into a heated metal vessel reinforces the vessel. It is one of the stages in the labor of a blacksmith. How is it permitted to do something similar on Shabbat? The Gemara answers: This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who stated a principle with regard to the laws of Shabbat: An unintentional act, i.e., a permitted action from which a prohibited labor inadvertently ensues, is permitted. Here too, his intention was to warm the water, not to reinforce the vessel. Abaye strongly objects to this explanation: Does it say in the mishna: An urn from which water was emptied? That would indicate that he sought to fill the vessel with other water and warm up that water. Rather, an urn that was removed was taught in the mishna, meaning that the urn was removed from the fire, not that the water was emptied from it.


讗诇讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛讜 讜讬砖 讘讜 诪讬诐 讞诪讬谉 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讞讜诪讜 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 诪专讜讘讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讛驻砖讬专谉 讜诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 诪讬诐 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 讻诇 注讬拽专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪爪专祝 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 讗住讜专


Rather, Abaye said this is what the mishna is saying: An urn that was removed from the fire and contains hot water, one may not place a small quantity of water in it so that the water will become hot; rather, one may place a large quantity of water in it so that the water will become warm. And with regard to an urn from which water was removed; one may not place any water into it because he hardens the vessel by placing cold water into a hot vessel. And, according to this explanation, our mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said that an unintentional act from which a prohibited labor inadvertently ensues is prohibited on Shabbat.


讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讛驻砖讬专 讗讘诇 诇爪专祝 讗住讜专 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 诇爪专祝 谞诪讬 诪讜转专 诇爪专祝 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 诪讬 砖专讬 讗诇讗 讗讬 讗讬转诪专 讛讻讬 讗讬转诪专 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖讬注讜专 诇讛驻砖讬专 讗讘诇 砖讬注讜专 诇爪专祝 讗住讜专 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬注讜专 诇爪专祝


With regard to the matter itself, Rav said: They taught that one is permitted to place cold water into an urn with hot water after it was removed from the fire, when his intention is only to warm the cold water. However, if he did this in order to harden the vessel, it is prohibited. And Shmuel said: Even if he does so in order to harden the vessel, it is also permitted. The Gemara wonders: Is hardening permitted ab initio? Isn鈥檛 it a full-fledged prohibited labor on Shabbat? Rather, if the dispute between Rav and Shmuel was stated, it was stated as follows. Rav said: They taught that it is permitted to add water only in a measure that is sufficient to warm the water, i.e., to only partially fill the vessel. However, filling it completely with a measure sufficient to harden the vessel is prohibited. And Shmuel said: Even a measure sufficient to harden the vessel


Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

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Shabbat 41

讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讙讬讚讜讚讬 讛讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讙讬讚讜讚讬:


that does not have embankments surrounding it. Since there are no partitions, it appears like an ocean or a river. That incident involving Rabbi Abbahu occurred in a place that has embankments and looks like a vessel. Therefore, the Sages did not prohibit it.


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗谞讗 讞讝讬转讬讛 诇专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 砖讛谞讬讞 讬讚讬讜 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬讜 砖诇 诪讟讛 讜诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 讗讬 谞讙注 讗讬 诇讗 谞讙注 驻砖讬讟讗 讚诇讗 谞讙注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛讗讜讞讝 讘讗诪讛 讜诪砖转讬谉 讻讗讬诇讜 诪讘讬讗 诪讘讜诇 诇注讜诇诐


After citing what Rabbi Zeira related with regard to Rabbi Abbahu, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Zeira said: I saw that Rabbi Abbahu, while he was bathing, placed his hands over his genitals for the sake of modesty, and I do not know whether he touched them or did not touch them. The Gemara questions Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 uncertainty. It is obvious that he did not touch his genitals, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: One who holds his penis and urinates it is as if he were bringing a flood to the world. He is liable to become aroused by that contact and that is an extremely severe transgression, comparable to the transgressions violated in the generation of the flood.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 注砖讗讜讛 讻讘讜诇砖转 讚转谞谉 讘讜诇砖转 砖谞讻谞住讛 诇注讬专 讘砖注转 砖诇讜诐 讞讘讬讜转 驻转讜讞讜转 讗住讜专讜转 住转讜诪讜转 诪讜转专讜转 讘砖注转 诪诇讞诪讛 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诪讜转专讜转 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 驻谞讗讬 诇谞住讱 讗诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬转讬 诇讗 诪谞住讻讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬转 诇讗 讗转讬 诇讛专讛讜专讬 讛讻讗 诪讗讬 讘讬注转讜转讗 讘讬注转讜转讗 讚谞讛专讗


Abaye said: Nevertheless, no proof can be cited from that baraita. Perhaps the Sages rendered the legal status of this situation like that of a military unit, as we learned in a mishna: A military unit that entered a city, if it entered during peacetime, after the soldiers leave, the open barrels of wine are prohibited and the wine in them may not be drunk due to suspicion that the gentile soldiers may have poured this wine as a libation for idolatry. The sealed barrels are permitted. However, if the unit entered in wartime, both are permitted because in wartime there is no respite to pour wine for idolatry, and one can be certain that the soldiers did not do so. Apparently, since they are afraid, they do not pour libations. Here too, in the case of bathing, since he is afraid, he will not come to have impure thoughts. The Gemara asks: And what fear is there here that would prevent one bathing from having impure thoughts? The Gemara answers: Fear of the river. Since he needs to be careful that the water does not wash him away, he is too distracted to think of other matters.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪谞讬讞 讬讚讬讜 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬讜 砖诇 诪讟讛 讻讗讬诇讜 讻讜驻专 讘讘专讬转讜 砖诇 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讻讬 谞讞讬转 讛讗 讻讬 住诇讬拽 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讗 砖讞讬 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讝拽讬祝 专讘谞谉 讚讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讻讬 拽讗 谞讞转讬 讝拽驻讬 讻讬 拽讗 住诇拽讬 砖讞讬


The Gemara questions the story itself: And is that so? Is it permitted under any circumstances to cover one鈥檚 genitals while bathing? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Abba say that Rav Huna said that Rav said: Anyone who places his hands over his genitals is as if he denies the covenant of our father Abraham? It appears as if he is covering himself to obscure the fact that he is circumcised. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as there is room to distinguish and say that this, the case where it is prohibited to cover oneself, is when he is descending into the river and there are no people facing him and he need not be concerned with modesty. In that case covering oneself is prohibited as he appears to be renouncing the covenant of Abraham. That, the case where, in certain circumstances, this prohibition does not apply, is when he is emerging from the river. When he emerges, he is facing the people on the riverbank and it is then permitted to cover himself in the interest of modesty, as that which Rava would do. He would bend over when he was naked. Rabbi Zeira would stand upright, in accordance with Rav鈥檚 statement that it is prohibited to appear to be renouncing the covenant of Abraham. When the Sages of the school of Rav Ashi descended into the river they stood upright. When they emerged from the river they bent over.


专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪砖转诪讬讟 诪讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬住拽 诇讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讻诇 讛注讜诇讛 诪讘讘诇 诇讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘诇讛 讬讜讘讗讜 讜砖诪讛 讬讛讬讜 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讜讗砖诪注 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 讜讗讬转讬 讜讗讬住拽 讗讝诇 讗砖讻讞讬讛 讚拽讗讬 讘讬 讘讗谞讬 讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 谞转专 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 诪住专拽 驻转讞讜 驻讜诪讬讬讻讜 讜讗驻讬拽讜 讛讘诇讗 讜讗砖转讜 诪诪讬讗 讚讘讬 讘讗谞讬 讗诪专 讗讬诇诪诇讗 (诇讗) 讘讗转讬 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜注 讚讘专 讝讛 讚讬讬


Speaking of bathing and its halakhot, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Zeira was avoiding being seen by his teacher, Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Zeira sought to ascend to Eretz Yisrael and his teacher disapproved. As Rav Yehuda said: Anyone who ascends from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a positive commandment, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey shall be taken to Babylonia and there they shall remain until the day that I recall them, said the Lord鈥 (Jeremiah 27:22). Based on that verse, Rav Yehuda held that since the Babylonian exile was by divine decree, permission to leave Babylonia for Eretz Yisrael could only be granted by God. Rabbi Zeira did not want to discuss his desire to emigrate with Rav Yehuda, so that he would not be forced to explicitly disobey him. Nevertheless, he said: I will go and hear something from him and then I will leave. He went and found Rav Yehuda standing in the bathhouse and telling his servant: Bring me natron [neter] with which to wash, bring me a comb, open your mouths and let out air, and drink from the water of the bathhouse. Rabbi Zeira said: If I had come only to hear this matter from Rav Yehuda, it would suffice for me.


讘砖诇诪讗 讛讘讬讗讜 谞转专 讛讘讬讗讜 诪住专拽 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖诇 讞讜诇 诪讜转专 诇讗讜诪专诐 讘诇砖讜谉 拽讚砖 驻转讞讜 驻讜诪讬讬讻讜 讜讗驻讬拽讜 讛讘诇讗 谞诪讬 讻讚砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讘诇讗 诪驻讬拽 讛讘诇讗 讗诇讗 讗砖转讜 诪讬讗 讚讘讬 讘讗谞讬 诪讗讬 诪注诇讬讜转讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讻诇 讜诇讗 砖转讛 讗讻讬诇转讜 讚诐 讜讝讛讜 转讞讬诇转 讞讜诇讬 诪注讬讬诐 讗讻诇 讜诇讗 讛诇讱 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗讻讬诇转讜 诪专拽讘转 讜讝讛讜 转讞讬诇转 专讬讞 专注 讛谞爪专讱 诇谞拽讘讬讜 讜讗讻诇 讚讜诪讛 诇转谞讜专 砖讛住讬拽讜讛讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讗驻专讜 讜讝讛讜 转讞讬诇转 专讬讞 讝讜讛诪讗 专讞抓 讘讞诪讬谉 讜诇讗 砖转讛 诪讛谉 讚讜诪讛 诇转谞讜专 砖讛住讬拽讜讛讜 诪讘讞讜抓 讜诇讗 讛住讬拽讜讛讜 诪讘驻谞讬诐 专讞抓 讘讞诪讬谉 讜诇讗 谞砖转讟祝 讘爪讜谞谉 讚讜诪讛 诇讘专讝诇 砖讛讻谞讬住讜讛讜 诇讗讜专 讜诇讗 讛讻谞讬住讜讛讜 诇爪讜谞谉 专讞抓 讜诇讗 住讱 讚讜诪讛 诇诪讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘讬转:


The Gemara analyzes the lessons learned from this story. Granted, when Rav Yehuda said: Bring me natron, bring me a comb, he was teaching us that mundane matters are permitted to be spoken in the bathhouse, even in the sacred language. When he said: Open your mouths and let out air, that too is in accordance with that which Shmuel said, as Shmuel said: Heat produces heat. The hot air that one inhales causes him to sweat more quickly. However, drink the water of the bathhouse, what benefit is there in doing that? The Gemara answers: As it was taught in a baraita: One who ate and did not drink at all, what he ate becomes blood and that causes the onset of intestinal disease. One who ate and did not walk four cubits after eating, what he ate rots and that causes the onset of bad breath. One who needs to defecate and ate is similar to an oven that was lit on top of its ashes. When ashes from a previous fire are not swept out, and new logs are placed on top of the old ones, it inhibits the burning and dirties the oven, and that causes the onset of odor of the filth of perspiration in a person. As far as our matter is concerned, the baraita teaches: One who bathed in hot water and did not drink from it is like an oven that was lit from the outside and not lit from the inside. The lighting is ineffective and the oven does not heat properly. Rav Yehuda told his servants to drink the hot water while bathing so that they would be heated from the inside and the outside. The baraita continues: One who bathed in hot water and did not rinse afterward with cold water is like iron that was placed in the fire and not placed afterward in cold water, which leaves the iron soft. And one who bathed and did not smear himself with oil afterward is like water that was poured on top of a barrel, and not into it. The water spills outside the barrel.


诪转谞讬壮 诪讜诇讬讗专 讛讙专讜祝 砖讜转讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 讘砖讘转 讗谞讟讬讻讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讙专讜驻讛 讗讬谉 砖讜转讬谉 讛讬诪谞讛:


MISHNA: In this mishna, the Sages discuss two vessels used for heating water. With regard to a mulyar, a bronze vessel into which coals are placed in an outer compartment and water is placed into an adjacent inner compartment, whose coals were swept, one may drink from it on Shabbat. With regard to an antikhi, which is a vessel with a different configuration, even if its coals were swept, one may not drink from it on Shabbat.


讙诪壮 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 诪讜诇讬讗专 讛讙专讜祝 转谞讗 诪讬诐 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讙讞诇讬诐 诪讘讞讜抓 讗谞讟讬讻讬 专讘讛 讗诪专 讘讬 讻讬专讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讘讬 讚讜讚讬 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬 讚讜讚讬 讻诇 砖讻谉 讘讬 讻讬专讬 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬 讻讬专讬 讗讘诇 讘讬 讚讜讚讬 诇讗 转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗谞讟讬讻讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讙专讜驻讛 讜拽讟讜诪讛 讗讬谉 砖讜转讬谉 讛讬诪谞讛 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讞讜砖转讛 诪讞诪诪转讛:


GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of a swept mulyar? The Gemara answers: A mulyar is the vessel, explained in the Tosefta on our mishna, that has water on the inside and coals on the outside. With regard to the identity of an antikhi there are different opinions. Rabba said that it refers to a stove. A space is created in the wall of a stove and filled with water. Since the stove is very hot, it is prohibited to use this water. Rav Na岣an bar Yitzhak said: An antikhi is a cauldron, i.e., a vessel made from two cauldrons stacked one on top of the other with coals in the bottom one and water in the upper one. These two different opinions have halakhic implications. The one who says that it is prohibited to use a vessel composed of two cauldrons, all the more so it is prohibited to use the space inside of a stove. And the one who says that it is prohibited to use the space inside a stove, a vessel composed of two cauldrons, no, it is not prohibited. It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an: An antikhi, even if it was swept and covered with ashes, one may not drink from it on Shabbat because its copper heats it. The heating in an antikhi is by means of the coals beneath the water.


诪转谞讬壮 讛诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛讜 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻讜 爪讜谞谉 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讞诪讜 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 讛讜讗 诇转讜讻讜 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讻讜住 讻讚讬 诇讛驻砖讬专谉:


MISHNA: The Sages added to the laws of leaving food on a source of heat and cooking food on Shabbat: An urn that was emptied of its hot water on Shabbat, one may not place cold water into it so that the cold water will be heated. However, one may place cold water into an urn or into a cup that were emptied of their hot water in order to warm it but not in order to heat it.


讙诪壮 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 讗诪专 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 诪转谞讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 诪讬诐 讞诪讬谉 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻谉 诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 讻讚讬 砖讬讞诪讜 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 诪专讜讘讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讛驻砖讬专谉


GEMARA: The mishna seems to contradict itself. The first statement completely prohibits placing water into an urn, and later it was partially permitted. The Gemara asks: What is the mishna saying? Rav Adda bar Mattana said that it said the following: An urn that was emptied of its hot water, one may not put a small amount of water into it so that it will become very hot. However, one may put a large quantity of water into it in order to warm it. A large quantity of cold water will not be heated in those circumstances.


讜讛诇讗 诪爪专祝 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 诪讜转专 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讬讚讬 诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 诪讬诐 拽转谞讬 诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛讜 拽转谞讬


The Gemara questions this leniency: By putting cold water into the urn, doesn鈥檛 it harden the vessel? Cold water poured into a heated metal vessel reinforces the vessel. It is one of the stages in the labor of a blacksmith. How is it permitted to do something similar on Shabbat? The Gemara answers: This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who stated a principle with regard to the laws of Shabbat: An unintentional act, i.e., a permitted action from which a prohibited labor inadvertently ensues, is permitted. Here too, his intention was to warm the water, not to reinforce the vessel. Abaye strongly objects to this explanation: Does it say in the mishna: An urn from which water was emptied? That would indicate that he sought to fill the vessel with other water and warm up that water. Rather, an urn that was removed was taught in the mishna, meaning that the urn was removed from the fire, not that the water was emptied from it.


讗诇讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛讜 讜讬砖 讘讜 诪讬诐 讞诪讬谉 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬讞讜诪讜 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 诪专讜讘讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讛驻砖讬专谉 讜诪讬讞诐 砖驻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 诪讬诐 诇讗 讬转谉 诇转讜讻讜 诪讬诐 讻诇 注讬拽专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪爪专祝 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 诪转讻讜讬谉 讗住讜专


Rather, Abaye said this is what the mishna is saying: An urn that was removed from the fire and contains hot water, one may not place a small quantity of water in it so that the water will become hot; rather, one may place a large quantity of water in it so that the water will become warm. And with regard to an urn from which water was removed; one may not place any water into it because he hardens the vessel by placing cold water into a hot vessel. And, according to this explanation, our mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said that an unintentional act from which a prohibited labor inadvertently ensues is prohibited on Shabbat.


讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讛驻砖讬专 讗讘诇 诇爪专祝 讗住讜专 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 诇爪专祝 谞诪讬 诪讜转专 诇爪专祝 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 诪讬 砖专讬 讗诇讗 讗讬 讗讬转诪专 讛讻讬 讗讬转诪专 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖讬注讜专 诇讛驻砖讬专 讗讘诇 砖讬注讜专 诇爪专祝 讗住讜专 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬注讜专 诇爪专祝


With regard to the matter itself, Rav said: They taught that one is permitted to place cold water into an urn with hot water after it was removed from the fire, when his intention is only to warm the cold water. However, if he did this in order to harden the vessel, it is prohibited. And Shmuel said: Even if he does so in order to harden the vessel, it is also permitted. The Gemara wonders: Is hardening permitted ab initio? Isn鈥檛 it a full-fledged prohibited labor on Shabbat? Rather, if the dispute between Rav and Shmuel was stated, it was stated as follows. Rav said: They taught that it is permitted to add water only in a measure that is sufficient to warm the water, i.e., to only partially fill the vessel. However, filling it completely with a measure sufficient to harden the vessel is prohibited. And Shmuel said: Even a measure sufficient to harden the vessel


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