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Today's Daf Yomi

April 28, 2020 | ד׳ באייר תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 53

In honor of Yom Hazikaron, we will dedicate our learning to all those who have given their lives to the State of Israel. Today’s shiur is also dedicated by Cliff and Minna Felig in memory of their aunt Laura Tretin z”l who recently passed away.

Can an animal walk out with an item that is used to help the animal to prevent discomfort such as a saddlecloth to warm a donkey? This is only allowed if the animal is wearing it from before Shabbat. If the animal is staying in a private domain, can one even place thesaddlecloth on Shabbat? Is a basket meant for food allowed? Or a saddle? How do each of these cases differ? Can animals walk around in the public thoroughfare on Shabbat with amulets? How are amulet’s different for humans and for animals? Can  a she-goat go out with bound udders? Some stories are brought regarding a man whose breasts filled up with milk and a woman without a hand whose husband was unaware of it until her death. What is the meaning of “levuvim” in the mishna that is permitted for males to go out wearing? Three explanations are brought.

גמ׳ אמר שמואל והוא שקשורה לו מערב שבת אמר רב נחמן מתניתין נמי דיקא דקתני אין החמור יוצא במרדעת בזמן שאינה קשורה לו

GEMARA: Shmuel said: And with regard to the halakha taught in our mishna that a donkey may go out on Shabbat with its saddlecloth, that only applies to a case where it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve. Rav Naḥman said: The wording of our mishna is also precise in support of Shmuel’s statement, as it teaches later in the chapter: A donkey may not go out into the public domain on Shabbat with its saddlecloth when it is not tied to its back.

היכי דמי אילימא שאינה קשורה לו כלל פשיטא דילמא נפלה ליה ואתי לאתויי אלא לאו שאינה קשורה מערב שבת מכלל דרישא שקשורה לו מערב שבת שמע מינה

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of that mishna: What are the circumstances? If you say that the later mishna is referring to a case where the saddlecloth is not tied to the animal at all, that is obvious. There is concern lest the saddlecloth fall from the animal and its owner will come to bring it and carry it four cubits in the public domain. Rather, is it not referring to a case where the saddlecloth is presently tied to the animal, but it was not tied from Shabbat eve? By inference, conclude that the first clause, i.e., our mishna, which permits the animal to go out with its saddlecloth, is referring to a case where the saddlecloth was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it that this is the correct understanding.

תניא נמי הכי חמור יוצא במרדעת בזמן שקשורה לו מערב שבת ולא באוכף אף על פי שקשורה לו מערב שבת רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף באוכף בזמן שקשורה לו מערב שבת ובלבד שלא יקשור לו מסריכן ובלבד שלא יפשול לו רצועה תחת זנבו

That was also taught in a baraita: A donkey may go out on Shabbat with its saddlecloth when it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve, and it may not go out with the saddle, even though it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The donkey may even go out with its saddle when it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve, provided that he does not tie the strap with which the saddle is fastened around the donkey’s belly, and provided that he does not pass a strap under the animal’s tail, which is standard procedure when placing a burden on the animal.

בעא מיניה רב אסי בר נתן מרבי חייא בר רב אשי מהו ליתן מרדעת על גבי חמור בשבת אמר ליה מותר אמר ליה וכי מה בין זה לאוכף אישתיק

Rav Asi bar Natan raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Rav Ashi: What is the halakha with regard to placing a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat in a private domain in order to warm the donkey with no intention to take it into the public domain? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi said to him: It is permitted. Rav Asi bar Natan said to him: What is the difference between this and a saddle, which may not be moved on Shabbat? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi remained silent and did not answer.

איתיביה אוכף שעל גבי חמור לא יטלטלנה בידו אלא מוליכה ומביאה בחצר והוא נופל מאיליו השתא ליטול אמרת לא להניח מיבעיא

Rav Asi bar Natan thought that Rabbi Ḥiyya was of the opinion that even a saddle may be placed on a donkey on Shabbat. He, therefore, raised an objection from a baraita: A saddle that is on a donkey on Shabbat, and its owner wishes to remove it, he may not move it with his hand to remove it; rather, he walks the animal back and forth in the courtyard, and the saddle falls on its own. Now even with regard to removing a saddle that is already on the animal’s back, you said no, one may not move it; is prohibiting one from placing the saddle on the animal necessary?

אמר ליה רבי זירא שבקיה כרביה סבירא ליה דאמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב תולין טרסקל לבהמה בשבת וקל וחומר למרדעת ומה התם דמשום תענוג שרי הכא דמשום צער לא כל שכן

Rabbi Zeira said to Rav Asi: Leave Rabbi Ḥiyya, and do not raise an objection to his statement, as he agrees with his teacher. As Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: One may hang a basket with fodder around the neck of an animal on Shabbat, and by means of an a fortiori inference, derive that one may place a saddlecloth on an animal’s back on Shabbat. What is the a fortiori inference? Just as there, placing the basket of fodder so that the animal can eat without bending down, which is done for the animal’s pleasure, is permitted; here, placing the saddlecloth, which is done to prevent the animal from suffering from the cold, all the more so should be permitted.

שמואל אמר מרדעת מותר טרסקל אסור אזל רבי חייא בר יוסף אמרה לשמעתא דרב קמיה דשמואל אמר ליה אי הכי אמר אבא לא ידע במילי דשבתא ולא כלום

Shmuel said: A saddlecloth is permitted; however, a basket with fodder is prohibited. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef went and said the halakha of Rav before Shmuel. Shmuel said to him: If Abba, Rav, actually said that, he knows nothing at all about matters of Shabbat.

כי סליק רבי זירא אשכחיה לרבי בנימין בר יפת דיתיב וקאמר ליה משמיה דרבי יוחנן נותנין מרדעת על גבי חמור בשבת אמר ליה יישר וכן תרגמה אריוך בבבל

When Rabbi Zeira ascended to Eretz Yisrael he found Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet who sat and said to him in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One may place a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira said to him: You have spoken well, and Aryokh explained the matter likewise in Babylonia.

אריוך מנו שמואל והא רב נמי אמרה אלא שמעיה דהוה מסיים ביה ואין תולין טרסקל בשבת אמר ליה יישר וכן תרגמה אריוך בבבל

The Gemara asks: Who is Aryokh? It is Shmuel. Didn’t Rav also say that one may place a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat? With regard to a saddlecloth they agree. Why then did Rabbi Zeira attribute the ruling specifically to Shmuel? Rather, he heard Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet conclude: However, one may not hang a basket with fodder around the neck of an animal on Shabbat. It was that part of the statement that led him to say: You have spoken well, and Aryokh explained the matter likewise in Babylonia.

דכולי עלמא מיהת מרדעת מותר מאי שנא מאוכף שאני התם דאפשר דנפיל ממילא

The Gemara continues: In any case, everyone agrees that a saddlecloth is permitted. The question arises: How is a saddlecloth different from a saddle, which may not even be removed from the donkey? If the concern is for the animal’s suffering, why is it not permitted to remove the saddle? The Gemara answers: It is different there, as it is possible for the saddle to fall on its own. Therefore, there is no reason to permit its removal by hand.

רב פפא אמר כאן לחממה כאן לצננה לחממה אית לה צערא לצננה לית לה צערא והיינו דאמרי אינשי חמרא אפילו בתקופת תמוז קרירא לה

Rav Pappa said: There is a distinction between the two cases: Here, where the Sages permitted placing a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat, it is to warm the animal. There, where the Sages prohibited removing a saddle, it is to cool the animal. Placing the saddlecloth to warm the animal is permitted because otherwise it experiences discomfort from the cold. However, removing the saddle to cool the animal is prohibited because the animal does not experience discomfort from excessive heat. And that is the folk saying that people say: A donkey, even in the summer season of Tammuz, is cold. Therefore, seeing to the animal’s warmth is more important.

מיתיבי לא יצא הסוס בזנב שועל ולא בזהרורית שבין עיניו לא יצא הזב בכיס שלו ולא עזים בכיס שבדדיהן ולא פרה בחסום שבפיה ולא סייחים בטרסקלין שבפיהם לרשות הרבים ולא בהמה בסנדל שברגליה ולא בקמיע אף על פי שהוא מומחה וזו חומר בבהמה מבאדם

The Gemara raises an objection from the Tosefta to those who prohibit placing a basket with fodder around an animal’s neck on Shabbat: A horse may neither go out into the public domain on Shabbat with a fox’s tail that is placed as a talisman to ward off the evil eye nor with a string of red wool that is hung between its eyes as an ornament. Neither may a zav go out with his pouch that prevents his clothes from becoming sullied from his emissions, nor goats with a pouch that is on their udders so that they will not be scratched by stones, nor a cow with the muzzle that is on its mouth, nor foals with baskets of fodder that are around their mouths into the public domain. And an animal may neither go out with metal shoes that are on its feet, nor with an amulet that is placed on the animal to promote its good health, even if the amulet has proven effective. And this is a stricture that applies to animals beyond the strictures that apply to people, as a person is permitted to go out into the public domain with an amulet that has proved effective.

אבל יוצא הוא באגד שעל גבי המכה ובקשישין שעל גבי השבר ובשיליא המדולדלת בה ופוקקין לה זוג בצוארה ומטיילת עמו בחצר

However, an animal may go out with a bandage that is on a wound, and with splints that are on a broken bone so that it will heal properly, and with the afterbirth hanging from its womb. And one may plug the bell hanging from an animal’s neck to prevent it from ringing, and then the animal may walk with it in the courtyard, which is a private domain, but not in a public domain.

קתני מיהת ולא סייחין בטרסקלים שבפיהם לרשות הרבים לרשות הרבים הוא דלא הא בחצר שפיר דמי מאי לאו בגדולים ומשום תענוג

In any case, it is taught here: Nor foals with baskets of fodder that are around their mouths into the public domain. By inference: It is specifically into the public domain that they may not go with fodder baskets in their mouths; however, in a courtyard, they may well walk with a basket of fodder. What? Is it not referring to large foals around whose necks fodder baskets are hung for their pleasure?

לא בקטנים ומשום צער דיקא נמי דקתני

The Gemara answers: No, it is referring to small foals, and the baskets are hung to prevent their discomfort. The legs of a young foal are long and its neck is short. Consequently, eating from the ground is difficult. Hanging the fodder basket around its neck enables it to eat without bending down. The Gemara adds: This is also precise in the language of the Tosefta, as it teaches the case of the foals

דומיא דקמיע שמע מינה:

similar to the case of an amulet worn for healing purposes. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the correct understanding.

אמר מר ולא בקמיע אף על פי שהוא מומחה והא אנן תנן ולא בקמיע שאינו מומחה הא מומחה שפיר דמי הכא נמי שאינו מומחה

The Gemara further examines the baraita cited earlier. The Master said: Nor may an animal go out with an amulet on Shabbat, even if the amulet proved effective. The Gemara asks: Didn’t we learn in a mishna: One may not go out on Shabbat with an amulet that has not proved effective? By inference: If the amulet proved effective, he may well do so. The Gemara answers: Here too, it is referring to an amulet that has not proved effective.

והא אף על פי שהוא מומחה קתני מומחה לאדם ואינו מומחה לבהמה ומי איכא מומחה לאדם ולא הוי מומחה לבהמה אין אדם דאית ליה מזלא מסייע ליה בהמה דלית לה מזלא לא מסייע לה

The Gemara asks: Doesn’t the baraita teach: Even if the amulet proved effective? The Gemara answers: The baraita is referring to an amulet that proved effective for a person, and did not prove effective for an animal. The Gemara wonders: Is there an amulet that proved effective for a person and is not effective for an animal? Healing an animal should be easier than healing a person. The Gemara answers: Yes, an amulet aids a person, who is under the protection of an advocate angel [mazal]; however, it does not aid an animal, which is not under the protection of an advocate angel.

אי הכי מאי זה חומר בבהמה מבאדם מי סברת אקמיע קאי אסנדל קאי

The Gemara poses a question: If so, that the baraita is referring to an amulet that did not prove effective for an animal, but if the amulet proved effective, the animal may indeed go out into the public domain with it; what is the meaning of the phrase in the Tosefta: And this is a stricture that applies to animals beyond the strictures that apply to people? The halakha is the same with regard to both people and animals. If the amulet has proven effective, even an animal may go out with it on Shabbat. If it has not proven effective, even a person may not go out with it. The Gemara responds: Do you hold that this statement is referring to an amulet? It is referring to a shoe; an animal may not go out with a shoe on Shabbat, but a person may.

תא שמע סכין ומפרכסין לאדם ואין סכין ומפרכסין לבהמה מאי לאו דאיכא מכה ומשום צער לא דגמר מכה ומשום תענוג

With regard to whether and to what extent the discomfort of animals is a factor taken into consideration on Shabbat, the Gemara says: Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita: One may smear on oil and scrape off a scab on Shabbat for a person, and one may not smear on oil and scrape off a scab for an animal. Is it not referring here to a case where there is a wound, and he smears on oil and scrapes the scab due to the discomfort caused by the wound, and nevertheless it was permitted exclusively for a person and not for an animal? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, it is referring to a case where the wound has already ceased and healed, and he smears oil and scrapes due to the pleasure caused by the treatment.

תא שמע בהמה שאחזה דם אין מעמידין אותה במים בשביל שתצטנן אדם שאחזו דם מעמידין אותו במים בשביל שיצטנן אמר עולא גזירה משום שחיקת סממנין

The Gemara cites an additional proof: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: With regard to an animal suffering from heart congestion that restricts its blood supply and whose temperature has risen, one may not stand it in water so that it will cool off. However, with regard to a person suffering from heart congestion that restricts his blood supply, one may stand him in water so that he will cool off. Apparently, the suffering of an animal is of no concern. Ulla said: Here, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting all healing on Shabbat due to the crushing of herbs for medicinal purposes, which is prohibited by Torah law. The Sages prohibited cooling the animal in water lest one come to grind the ingredients used in the preparation of medicine.

אי הכי אדם נמי אדם נראה כמיקר

If so, the same decree should also apply in the case of a person. It should be prohibited to stand a sick person in water to cool him off due to the rabbinic prohibition against engaging in healing on Shabbat. The Gemara answers: In the case of a person, it appears as if he entered the water merely to cool off, not necessarily to cure an illness.

אי הכי בהמה נמי נראה כמיקר אין מיקר לבהמה

The Gemara asks: If so, say in the case of an animal as well that it appears as if it entered the water merely to cool off, not necessarily to cure an illness. The Gemara answers: An animal does not typically enter the water on its own to cool off. Neither does one typically stand an animal in water to cool it off unless it serves some healing purpose. Apparently, due to a decree, the Sages were stringent and prohibited standing the animal in water even if it will die as a result.

ולבהמה מי גזרינן והתניא היתה עומדת חוץ לתחום קורא לה והיא באה ולא גזרינן דילמא אתי לאתויי

The Gemara now asks: Do we really issue a decree for an animal? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: If an animal were standing beyond the Shabbat limit, a situation in which it is prohibited to go fetch it, he may call the animal and it will come to him on its own? And we do not issue a decree to prohibit calling the animal, lest he come to bring it himself. Apparently, the Sages did not issue a decree in a case where one could incur a loss and there is no actual transgression committed. Here too, it should not be prohibited to stand his animal in water due to a decree lest he come to grind herbs and thereby violate a Torah prohibition.

ואמר רבינא כגון שהיה תחום שלה מובלע בתוך תחום שלו

And Ravina said: No proof can be cited from this case, as here it is a situation where the animal’s Shabbat limit was subsumed within the limit of its owner. The animal strayed beyond its own Shabbat limit, which is determined by the Shabbat limit of the shepherd entrusted with its herding. However, the animal remained within the Shabbat limit of its owner, which extended beyond that of the shepherd. Consequently, the owner is permitted to call the animal so that it will return on its own. Even if he forgets and goes out to fetch the animal, he will not have gone beyond his Shabbat limit. The fact that the animal itself went beyond its Shabbat limit is of no concern.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר שחיקת סממנין גופה תנאי היא דתניא בהמה שאכלה כרשינין לא יריצנה בחצר בשביל שתתרפה ורבי אושעיא מתיר דרש רבא הלכה כרבי אושעיא:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The matter of the decree due to crushing herbs is itself subject to a dispute between the tanna’im. As it was taught in a baraita: In the case of an animal that ate vetch, which caused a life-threatening case of constipation, one may not run it around in the courtyard to loosen its bowels due to the decree prohibiting healing. Rabbi Oshaya deems it permitted. Apparently, the tanna’im disagree whether or not healing is prohibited with regard to animals. The Gemara adds that Rava taught: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Oshaya.

אמר מר לא יצא הזב בכיס שלו ולא עזים בכיס שבדדיהן והתניא יוצאות עזים בכיס שבדדיהן

The Master said: Neither may a zav go out with his pouch, which prevents his clothes from becoming sullied by his emissions, nor goats with the pouch that is on their udders. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a different baraita: Goats may go out with the pouch that is on their udders?

אמר רב יהודה לא קשיא הא דמיהדק הא דלא מיהדק

Rav Yehuda said: This is not difficult. This baraita is referring to a pouch that is tied tightly to the udder. It is permitted because there is no concern that the pouch will fall. That baraita is referring to a pouch that is not tightly tied. It is prohibited because of the concern that the pouch will fall and a person will come to retrieve it.

רב יוסף אמר תנאי שקלת מעלמא תנאי היא דתנן העזים יוצאות צרורות רבי יוסי אוסר בכלן חוץ מן הרחילות הכבונות רבי יהודה אומר עזים יוצאות צרורות ליבש אבל לא ליחלב

Rav Yosef said: Have you removed the tanna’im from the world? This is subject to a disagreement between the tanna’im, as we learned in our mishna: She-goats may go out with their udders bound. Rabbi Yosei Rabbi Yosei prohibits the animals from going out with all of these items, as he considers them burdens, except for the ewes that are kevunot. Rabbi Yehuda says: Goats may go out on Shabbat with their udders bound to dry their milk supply and discontinue their lactation in order to facilitate conception, as in that case, they are tied with a tight, permanent knot. However, they may not go out with their udders bound to conserve the milk, as in that case they are bound loosely. Apparently, there are tanna’im who rule leniently with regard to attaching pouches to the udders of goats and permit the practice, and others prohibit doing so.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא רבי יהודה ולא קשיא כאן ליבש כאן ליחלב

And if you wish, say instead: Both this baraita and that baraita were taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and nevertheless it is not difficult. Here, where the goats are permitted to go out with a pouch on their udders, the baraita is referring to a case where it was done to dry their milk supply. There, where goats are prohibited to do so, the baraita is referring to a case where it was done to conserve the milk.

תניא אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בעזים בית אנטוכיא שהיו דדיהן גסין ועשו להן כיסין כדי שלא יסרטו דדיהן:

The Gemara adds: It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving the goats belonging to the residents of a house in Antioch whose udders were especially large and they would drag along the ground. And they made pouches for them so that their udders would not get scratched.

תנו רבנן מעשה באחד שמתה אשתו והניחה בן לינק ולא היה לו שכר מניקה ליתן ונעשה לו נס ונפתחו לו דדין כשני דדי אשה והניק את בנו

The Gemara cites a related baraita in which the Sages taught: There was an incident where one man’s wife died, and she left him a son to nurse, and he did not have money to pay the wages of a wet-nurse. And a miracle was performed on his behalf, and he developed breasts like the two breasts of a woman, and he nursed his son.

אמר רב יוסף בא וראה כמה גדול אדם זה שנעשה לו נס כזה אמר ליה אביי אדרבה כמה גרוע אדם זה שנשתנו לו סדרי בראשית

Rav Yosef said: Come and see how great this person is that a miracle of that magnitude was performed on his behalf. Abaye said to him: On the contrary, how dishonorable is this person that the order of creation was altered on his behalf. A miracle was indeed performed on his behalf; however, it was performed in a demeaning and unpleasant manner.

אמר רב יהודה בא וראה כמה קשים מזונותיו של אדם שנשתנו עליו סדרי בראשית אמר רב נחמן תדע דמתרחיש ניסא ולא אברו מזוני:

Rav Yehuda added and said: Come and see how difficult it is to provide for a person’s sustenance. It is so difficult that the order of creation had to be altered on his behalf, which was apparently easier than providing him a source of financial support. Rav Naḥman said: Know that it is so, as miracles are often performed on a person’s behalf; however, it has not yet happened that food was miraculously created in a person’s home.

תנו רבנן מעשה באדם אחד שנשא אשה גידמת ולא הכיר בה עד יום מותה אמר רב בא וראה כמה צנועה אשה זו שלא הכיר בה בעלה אמר לו רבי חייא זו דרכה בכך אלא כמה צנוע אדם זה שלא הכיר באשתו:

The Gemara relates another unusual story. The Sages taught: There was an incident involving one man who married a one-armed woman, and he did not realize that she was one-armed until the day that she died. Rav said: Come and see how modest this woman was that her husband did not realize this about her. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to him: That is typical conduct for her, as a woman typically covers herself. All the more so a one-armed woman makes sure to cover her defect. Rather, say: How modest was this man that he did not recognize this in his wife.

זכרים יוצאין לבובין: מאי לבובין אמר רב הונא תותרי מאי משמע דהאי לבובין לישנא דקרובי הוא דכתיב לבבתני אחותי כלה

We learned in our mishna: Rams may go out levuvin. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of levuvin? Rav Huna said: Tied [tutri] in pairs. The Gemara explains: From where may it be inferred that this word levuvin is a term of closeness? As it is written: “You have drawn me near [libavtini], my sister my bride” (Song of Songs 4:9).

עולא אמר עור שקושרין להם כנגד לבם כדי שלא יפלו עליהן זאבים זאבים אזכרים נפלי אנקיבות לא נפלי משום דמסגו בריש עדרא וזאבין בריש עדרא נפלי בסוף עדרא לא נפלי אלא משום דשמני ובנקבות ליכא שמני ותו מי ידעי בין הני להני אלא משום דזקפי חוטמייהו ומסגו כי דוו

Ulla said: Levuvin refers to animal hide that one ties over the hearts [lev] of rams so that wolves will not attack them. The Gemara asks: Do wolves attack rams but do not attack ewes? Why is this protection provided only to males? The Gemara answers: Because the males walk at the head of the flock. The Gemara asks: Do wolves attack the head of the flock but not the rear of the flock? Rather, the wolves prey specifically on the rams because they are plump. The Gemara asks: Are there no plump ones among the ewes? And furthermore, do the wolves know how to distinguish between these, the plump ones, and those, the thin ones? Rather, the wolves prey specifically on the rams because they raise their noses and walk while looking to both sides. The wolves think that they are preparing to attack them.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר עור שקושרין להן תחת זכרותן כדי שלא יעלו על הנקבות ממאי מדקתני סיפא והרחלים יוצאות שחוזות מאי שחוזות שאוחזין האליה שלהן למעלה כדי שיעלו עליהן זכרים רישא כדי שלא יעלו על הנקבות וסיפא כדי שיעלו עליהן זכרים

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Levuvin refers to animal hide that one ties under their male organ so that they will not mount the females. And from where do we derive that meaning? Because the latter clause states: Ewes may go out sheḥuzot. What is the meaning of sheḥuzot? It means that they fasten [she’oḥazin] their tails with animal hide so that the males may mount them more easily. It is reasonable to explain that the first clause refers to an action undertaken so that the males will not mount the females, and the latter clause to an action undertaken so that the males will mount them.

מאי משמע דהאי שחוזות לישנא דגלויי הוא דכתיב והנה אשה לקראתו

The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this word sheḥuzot is a term of exposure? The Gemara answers: As it is written in the description of a wicked woman: “And behold there met him a woman

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Shabbat 53

גמ׳ אמר שמואל והוא שקשורה לו מערב שבת אמר רב נחמן מתניתין נמי דיקא דקתני אין החמור יוצא במרדעת בזמן שאינה קשורה לו

GEMARA: Shmuel said: And with regard to the halakha taught in our mishna that a donkey may go out on Shabbat with its saddlecloth, that only applies to a case where it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve. Rav Naḥman said: The wording of our mishna is also precise in support of Shmuel’s statement, as it teaches later in the chapter: A donkey may not go out into the public domain on Shabbat with its saddlecloth when it is not tied to its back.

היכי דמי אילימא שאינה קשורה לו כלל פשיטא דילמא נפלה ליה ואתי לאתויי אלא לאו שאינה קשורה מערב שבת מכלל דרישא שקשורה לו מערב שבת שמע מינה

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of that mishna: What are the circumstances? If you say that the later mishna is referring to a case where the saddlecloth is not tied to the animal at all, that is obvious. There is concern lest the saddlecloth fall from the animal and its owner will come to bring it and carry it four cubits in the public domain. Rather, is it not referring to a case where the saddlecloth is presently tied to the animal, but it was not tied from Shabbat eve? By inference, conclude that the first clause, i.e., our mishna, which permits the animal to go out with its saddlecloth, is referring to a case where the saddlecloth was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it that this is the correct understanding.

תניא נמי הכי חמור יוצא במרדעת בזמן שקשורה לו מערב שבת ולא באוכף אף על פי שקשורה לו מערב שבת רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף באוכף בזמן שקשורה לו מערב שבת ובלבד שלא יקשור לו מסריכן ובלבד שלא יפשול לו רצועה תחת זנבו

That was also taught in a baraita: A donkey may go out on Shabbat with its saddlecloth when it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve, and it may not go out with the saddle, even though it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The donkey may even go out with its saddle when it was tied to the animal from Shabbat eve, provided that he does not tie the strap with which the saddle is fastened around the donkey’s belly, and provided that he does not pass a strap under the animal’s tail, which is standard procedure when placing a burden on the animal.

בעא מיניה רב אסי בר נתן מרבי חייא בר רב אשי מהו ליתן מרדעת על גבי חמור בשבת אמר ליה מותר אמר ליה וכי מה בין זה לאוכף אישתיק

Rav Asi bar Natan raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Rav Ashi: What is the halakha with regard to placing a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat in a private domain in order to warm the donkey with no intention to take it into the public domain? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi said to him: It is permitted. Rav Asi bar Natan said to him: What is the difference between this and a saddle, which may not be moved on Shabbat? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi remained silent and did not answer.

איתיביה אוכף שעל גבי חמור לא יטלטלנה בידו אלא מוליכה ומביאה בחצר והוא נופל מאיליו השתא ליטול אמרת לא להניח מיבעיא

Rav Asi bar Natan thought that Rabbi Ḥiyya was of the opinion that even a saddle may be placed on a donkey on Shabbat. He, therefore, raised an objection from a baraita: A saddle that is on a donkey on Shabbat, and its owner wishes to remove it, he may not move it with his hand to remove it; rather, he walks the animal back and forth in the courtyard, and the saddle falls on its own. Now even with regard to removing a saddle that is already on the animal’s back, you said no, one may not move it; is prohibiting one from placing the saddle on the animal necessary?

אמר ליה רבי זירא שבקיה כרביה סבירא ליה דאמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב תולין טרסקל לבהמה בשבת וקל וחומר למרדעת ומה התם דמשום תענוג שרי הכא דמשום צער לא כל שכן

Rabbi Zeira said to Rav Asi: Leave Rabbi Ḥiyya, and do not raise an objection to his statement, as he agrees with his teacher. As Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: One may hang a basket with fodder around the neck of an animal on Shabbat, and by means of an a fortiori inference, derive that one may place a saddlecloth on an animal’s back on Shabbat. What is the a fortiori inference? Just as there, placing the basket of fodder so that the animal can eat without bending down, which is done for the animal’s pleasure, is permitted; here, placing the saddlecloth, which is done to prevent the animal from suffering from the cold, all the more so should be permitted.

שמואל אמר מרדעת מותר טרסקל אסור אזל רבי חייא בר יוסף אמרה לשמעתא דרב קמיה דשמואל אמר ליה אי הכי אמר אבא לא ידע במילי דשבתא ולא כלום

Shmuel said: A saddlecloth is permitted; however, a basket with fodder is prohibited. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef went and said the halakha of Rav before Shmuel. Shmuel said to him: If Abba, Rav, actually said that, he knows nothing at all about matters of Shabbat.

כי סליק רבי זירא אשכחיה לרבי בנימין בר יפת דיתיב וקאמר ליה משמיה דרבי יוחנן נותנין מרדעת על גבי חמור בשבת אמר ליה יישר וכן תרגמה אריוך בבבל

When Rabbi Zeira ascended to Eretz Yisrael he found Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet who sat and said to him in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One may place a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira said to him: You have spoken well, and Aryokh explained the matter likewise in Babylonia.

אריוך מנו שמואל והא רב נמי אמרה אלא שמעיה דהוה מסיים ביה ואין תולין טרסקל בשבת אמר ליה יישר וכן תרגמה אריוך בבבל

The Gemara asks: Who is Aryokh? It is Shmuel. Didn’t Rav also say that one may place a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat? With regard to a saddlecloth they agree. Why then did Rabbi Zeira attribute the ruling specifically to Shmuel? Rather, he heard Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet conclude: However, one may not hang a basket with fodder around the neck of an animal on Shabbat. It was that part of the statement that led him to say: You have spoken well, and Aryokh explained the matter likewise in Babylonia.

דכולי עלמא מיהת מרדעת מותר מאי שנא מאוכף שאני התם דאפשר דנפיל ממילא

The Gemara continues: In any case, everyone agrees that a saddlecloth is permitted. The question arises: How is a saddlecloth different from a saddle, which may not even be removed from the donkey? If the concern is for the animal’s suffering, why is it not permitted to remove the saddle? The Gemara answers: It is different there, as it is possible for the saddle to fall on its own. Therefore, there is no reason to permit its removal by hand.

רב פפא אמר כאן לחממה כאן לצננה לחממה אית לה צערא לצננה לית לה צערא והיינו דאמרי אינשי חמרא אפילו בתקופת תמוז קרירא לה

Rav Pappa said: There is a distinction between the two cases: Here, where the Sages permitted placing a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat, it is to warm the animal. There, where the Sages prohibited removing a saddle, it is to cool the animal. Placing the saddlecloth to warm the animal is permitted because otherwise it experiences discomfort from the cold. However, removing the saddle to cool the animal is prohibited because the animal does not experience discomfort from excessive heat. And that is the folk saying that people say: A donkey, even in the summer season of Tammuz, is cold. Therefore, seeing to the animal’s warmth is more important.

מיתיבי לא יצא הסוס בזנב שועל ולא בזהרורית שבין עיניו לא יצא הזב בכיס שלו ולא עזים בכיס שבדדיהן ולא פרה בחסום שבפיה ולא סייחים בטרסקלין שבפיהם לרשות הרבים ולא בהמה בסנדל שברגליה ולא בקמיע אף על פי שהוא מומחה וזו חומר בבהמה מבאדם

The Gemara raises an objection from the Tosefta to those who prohibit placing a basket with fodder around an animal’s neck on Shabbat: A horse may neither go out into the public domain on Shabbat with a fox’s tail that is placed as a talisman to ward off the evil eye nor with a string of red wool that is hung between its eyes as an ornament. Neither may a zav go out with his pouch that prevents his clothes from becoming sullied from his emissions, nor goats with a pouch that is on their udders so that they will not be scratched by stones, nor a cow with the muzzle that is on its mouth, nor foals with baskets of fodder that are around their mouths into the public domain. And an animal may neither go out with metal shoes that are on its feet, nor with an amulet that is placed on the animal to promote its good health, even if the amulet has proven effective. And this is a stricture that applies to animals beyond the strictures that apply to people, as a person is permitted to go out into the public domain with an amulet that has proved effective.

אבל יוצא הוא באגד שעל גבי המכה ובקשישין שעל גבי השבר ובשיליא המדולדלת בה ופוקקין לה זוג בצוארה ומטיילת עמו בחצר

However, an animal may go out with a bandage that is on a wound, and with splints that are on a broken bone so that it will heal properly, and with the afterbirth hanging from its womb. And one may plug the bell hanging from an animal’s neck to prevent it from ringing, and then the animal may walk with it in the courtyard, which is a private domain, but not in a public domain.

קתני מיהת ולא סייחין בטרסקלים שבפיהם לרשות הרבים לרשות הרבים הוא דלא הא בחצר שפיר דמי מאי לאו בגדולים ומשום תענוג

In any case, it is taught here: Nor foals with baskets of fodder that are around their mouths into the public domain. By inference: It is specifically into the public domain that they may not go with fodder baskets in their mouths; however, in a courtyard, they may well walk with a basket of fodder. What? Is it not referring to large foals around whose necks fodder baskets are hung for their pleasure?

לא בקטנים ומשום צער דיקא נמי דקתני

The Gemara answers: No, it is referring to small foals, and the baskets are hung to prevent their discomfort. The legs of a young foal are long and its neck is short. Consequently, eating from the ground is difficult. Hanging the fodder basket around its neck enables it to eat without bending down. The Gemara adds: This is also precise in the language of the Tosefta, as it teaches the case of the foals

דומיא דקמיע שמע מינה:

similar to the case of an amulet worn for healing purposes. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the correct understanding.

אמר מר ולא בקמיע אף על פי שהוא מומחה והא אנן תנן ולא בקמיע שאינו מומחה הא מומחה שפיר דמי הכא נמי שאינו מומחה

The Gemara further examines the baraita cited earlier. The Master said: Nor may an animal go out with an amulet on Shabbat, even if the amulet proved effective. The Gemara asks: Didn’t we learn in a mishna: One may not go out on Shabbat with an amulet that has not proved effective? By inference: If the amulet proved effective, he may well do so. The Gemara answers: Here too, it is referring to an amulet that has not proved effective.

והא אף על פי שהוא מומחה קתני מומחה לאדם ואינו מומחה לבהמה ומי איכא מומחה לאדם ולא הוי מומחה לבהמה אין אדם דאית ליה מזלא מסייע ליה בהמה דלית לה מזלא לא מסייע לה

The Gemara asks: Doesn’t the baraita teach: Even if the amulet proved effective? The Gemara answers: The baraita is referring to an amulet that proved effective for a person, and did not prove effective for an animal. The Gemara wonders: Is there an amulet that proved effective for a person and is not effective for an animal? Healing an animal should be easier than healing a person. The Gemara answers: Yes, an amulet aids a person, who is under the protection of an advocate angel [mazal]; however, it does not aid an animal, which is not under the protection of an advocate angel.

אי הכי מאי זה חומר בבהמה מבאדם מי סברת אקמיע קאי אסנדל קאי

The Gemara poses a question: If so, that the baraita is referring to an amulet that did not prove effective for an animal, but if the amulet proved effective, the animal may indeed go out into the public domain with it; what is the meaning of the phrase in the Tosefta: And this is a stricture that applies to animals beyond the strictures that apply to people? The halakha is the same with regard to both people and animals. If the amulet has proven effective, even an animal may go out with it on Shabbat. If it has not proven effective, even a person may not go out with it. The Gemara responds: Do you hold that this statement is referring to an amulet? It is referring to a shoe; an animal may not go out with a shoe on Shabbat, but a person may.

תא שמע סכין ומפרכסין לאדם ואין סכין ומפרכסין לבהמה מאי לאו דאיכא מכה ומשום צער לא דגמר מכה ומשום תענוג

With regard to whether and to what extent the discomfort of animals is a factor taken into consideration on Shabbat, the Gemara says: Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita: One may smear on oil and scrape off a scab on Shabbat for a person, and one may not smear on oil and scrape off a scab for an animal. Is it not referring here to a case where there is a wound, and he smears on oil and scrapes the scab due to the discomfort caused by the wound, and nevertheless it was permitted exclusively for a person and not for an animal? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, it is referring to a case where the wound has already ceased and healed, and he smears oil and scrapes due to the pleasure caused by the treatment.

תא שמע בהמה שאחזה דם אין מעמידין אותה במים בשביל שתצטנן אדם שאחזו דם מעמידין אותו במים בשביל שיצטנן אמר עולא גזירה משום שחיקת סממנין

The Gemara cites an additional proof: Come and hear that which was taught in the following baraita: With regard to an animal suffering from heart congestion that restricts its blood supply and whose temperature has risen, one may not stand it in water so that it will cool off. However, with regard to a person suffering from heart congestion that restricts his blood supply, one may stand him in water so that he will cool off. Apparently, the suffering of an animal is of no concern. Ulla said: Here, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting all healing on Shabbat due to the crushing of herbs for medicinal purposes, which is prohibited by Torah law. The Sages prohibited cooling the animal in water lest one come to grind the ingredients used in the preparation of medicine.

אי הכי אדם נמי אדם נראה כמיקר

If so, the same decree should also apply in the case of a person. It should be prohibited to stand a sick person in water to cool him off due to the rabbinic prohibition against engaging in healing on Shabbat. The Gemara answers: In the case of a person, it appears as if he entered the water merely to cool off, not necessarily to cure an illness.

אי הכי בהמה נמי נראה כמיקר אין מיקר לבהמה

The Gemara asks: If so, say in the case of an animal as well that it appears as if it entered the water merely to cool off, not necessarily to cure an illness. The Gemara answers: An animal does not typically enter the water on its own to cool off. Neither does one typically stand an animal in water to cool it off unless it serves some healing purpose. Apparently, due to a decree, the Sages were stringent and prohibited standing the animal in water even if it will die as a result.

ולבהמה מי גזרינן והתניא היתה עומדת חוץ לתחום קורא לה והיא באה ולא גזרינן דילמא אתי לאתויי

The Gemara now asks: Do we really issue a decree for an animal? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: If an animal were standing beyond the Shabbat limit, a situation in which it is prohibited to go fetch it, he may call the animal and it will come to him on its own? And we do not issue a decree to prohibit calling the animal, lest he come to bring it himself. Apparently, the Sages did not issue a decree in a case where one could incur a loss and there is no actual transgression committed. Here too, it should not be prohibited to stand his animal in water due to a decree lest he come to grind herbs and thereby violate a Torah prohibition.

ואמר רבינא כגון שהיה תחום שלה מובלע בתוך תחום שלו

And Ravina said: No proof can be cited from this case, as here it is a situation where the animal’s Shabbat limit was subsumed within the limit of its owner. The animal strayed beyond its own Shabbat limit, which is determined by the Shabbat limit of the shepherd entrusted with its herding. However, the animal remained within the Shabbat limit of its owner, which extended beyond that of the shepherd. Consequently, the owner is permitted to call the animal so that it will return on its own. Even if he forgets and goes out to fetch the animal, he will not have gone beyond his Shabbat limit. The fact that the animal itself went beyond its Shabbat limit is of no concern.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר שחיקת סממנין גופה תנאי היא דתניא בהמה שאכלה כרשינין לא יריצנה בחצר בשביל שתתרפה ורבי אושעיא מתיר דרש רבא הלכה כרבי אושעיא:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The matter of the decree due to crushing herbs is itself subject to a dispute between the tanna’im. As it was taught in a baraita: In the case of an animal that ate vetch, which caused a life-threatening case of constipation, one may not run it around in the courtyard to loosen its bowels due to the decree prohibiting healing. Rabbi Oshaya deems it permitted. Apparently, the tanna’im disagree whether or not healing is prohibited with regard to animals. The Gemara adds that Rava taught: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Oshaya.

אמר מר לא יצא הזב בכיס שלו ולא עזים בכיס שבדדיהן והתניא יוצאות עזים בכיס שבדדיהן

The Master said: Neither may a zav go out with his pouch, which prevents his clothes from becoming sullied by his emissions, nor goats with the pouch that is on their udders. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a different baraita: Goats may go out with the pouch that is on their udders?

אמר רב יהודה לא קשיא הא דמיהדק הא דלא מיהדק

Rav Yehuda said: This is not difficult. This baraita is referring to a pouch that is tied tightly to the udder. It is permitted because there is no concern that the pouch will fall. That baraita is referring to a pouch that is not tightly tied. It is prohibited because of the concern that the pouch will fall and a person will come to retrieve it.

רב יוסף אמר תנאי שקלת מעלמא תנאי היא דתנן העזים יוצאות צרורות רבי יוסי אוסר בכלן חוץ מן הרחילות הכבונות רבי יהודה אומר עזים יוצאות צרורות ליבש אבל לא ליחלב

Rav Yosef said: Have you removed the tanna’im from the world? This is subject to a disagreement between the tanna’im, as we learned in our mishna: She-goats may go out with their udders bound. Rabbi Yosei Rabbi Yosei prohibits the animals from going out with all of these items, as he considers them burdens, except for the ewes that are kevunot. Rabbi Yehuda says: Goats may go out on Shabbat with their udders bound to dry their milk supply and discontinue their lactation in order to facilitate conception, as in that case, they are tied with a tight, permanent knot. However, they may not go out with their udders bound to conserve the milk, as in that case they are bound loosely. Apparently, there are tanna’im who rule leniently with regard to attaching pouches to the udders of goats and permit the practice, and others prohibit doing so.

ואיבעית אימא הא והא רבי יהודה ולא קשיא כאן ליבש כאן ליחלב

And if you wish, say instead: Both this baraita and that baraita were taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and nevertheless it is not difficult. Here, where the goats are permitted to go out with a pouch on their udders, the baraita is referring to a case where it was done to dry their milk supply. There, where goats are prohibited to do so, the baraita is referring to a case where it was done to conserve the milk.

תניא אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בעזים בית אנטוכיא שהיו דדיהן גסין ועשו להן כיסין כדי שלא יסרטו דדיהן:

The Gemara adds: It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving the goats belonging to the residents of a house in Antioch whose udders were especially large and they would drag along the ground. And they made pouches for them so that their udders would not get scratched.

תנו רבנן מעשה באחד שמתה אשתו והניחה בן לינק ולא היה לו שכר מניקה ליתן ונעשה לו נס ונפתחו לו דדין כשני דדי אשה והניק את בנו

The Gemara cites a related baraita in which the Sages taught: There was an incident where one man’s wife died, and she left him a son to nurse, and he did not have money to pay the wages of a wet-nurse. And a miracle was performed on his behalf, and he developed breasts like the two breasts of a woman, and he nursed his son.

אמר רב יוסף בא וראה כמה גדול אדם זה שנעשה לו נס כזה אמר ליה אביי אדרבה כמה גרוע אדם זה שנשתנו לו סדרי בראשית

Rav Yosef said: Come and see how great this person is that a miracle of that magnitude was performed on his behalf. Abaye said to him: On the contrary, how dishonorable is this person that the order of creation was altered on his behalf. A miracle was indeed performed on his behalf; however, it was performed in a demeaning and unpleasant manner.

אמר רב יהודה בא וראה כמה קשים מזונותיו של אדם שנשתנו עליו סדרי בראשית אמר רב נחמן תדע דמתרחיש ניסא ולא אברו מזוני:

Rav Yehuda added and said: Come and see how difficult it is to provide for a person’s sustenance. It is so difficult that the order of creation had to be altered on his behalf, which was apparently easier than providing him a source of financial support. Rav Naḥman said: Know that it is so, as miracles are often performed on a person’s behalf; however, it has not yet happened that food was miraculously created in a person’s home.

תנו רבנן מעשה באדם אחד שנשא אשה גידמת ולא הכיר בה עד יום מותה אמר רב בא וראה כמה צנועה אשה זו שלא הכיר בה בעלה אמר לו רבי חייא זו דרכה בכך אלא כמה צנוע אדם זה שלא הכיר באשתו:

The Gemara relates another unusual story. The Sages taught: There was an incident involving one man who married a one-armed woman, and he did not realize that she was one-armed until the day that she died. Rav said: Come and see how modest this woman was that her husband did not realize this about her. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to him: That is typical conduct for her, as a woman typically covers herself. All the more so a one-armed woman makes sure to cover her defect. Rather, say: How modest was this man that he did not recognize this in his wife.

זכרים יוצאין לבובין: מאי לבובין אמר רב הונא תותרי מאי משמע דהאי לבובין לישנא דקרובי הוא דכתיב לבבתני אחותי כלה

We learned in our mishna: Rams may go out levuvin. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of levuvin? Rav Huna said: Tied [tutri] in pairs. The Gemara explains: From where may it be inferred that this word levuvin is a term of closeness? As it is written: “You have drawn me near [libavtini], my sister my bride” (Song of Songs 4:9).

עולא אמר עור שקושרין להם כנגד לבם כדי שלא יפלו עליהן זאבים זאבים אזכרים נפלי אנקיבות לא נפלי משום דמסגו בריש עדרא וזאבין בריש עדרא נפלי בסוף עדרא לא נפלי אלא משום דשמני ובנקבות ליכא שמני ותו מי ידעי בין הני להני אלא משום דזקפי חוטמייהו ומסגו כי דוו

Ulla said: Levuvin refers to animal hide that one ties over the hearts [lev] of rams so that wolves will not attack them. The Gemara asks: Do wolves attack rams but do not attack ewes? Why is this protection provided only to males? The Gemara answers: Because the males walk at the head of the flock. The Gemara asks: Do wolves attack the head of the flock but not the rear of the flock? Rather, the wolves prey specifically on the rams because they are plump. The Gemara asks: Are there no plump ones among the ewes? And furthermore, do the wolves know how to distinguish between these, the plump ones, and those, the thin ones? Rather, the wolves prey specifically on the rams because they raise their noses and walk while looking to both sides. The wolves think that they are preparing to attack them.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר עור שקושרין להן תחת זכרותן כדי שלא יעלו על הנקבות ממאי מדקתני סיפא והרחלים יוצאות שחוזות מאי שחוזות שאוחזין האליה שלהן למעלה כדי שיעלו עליהן זכרים רישא כדי שלא יעלו על הנקבות וסיפא כדי שיעלו עליהן זכרים

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Levuvin refers to animal hide that one ties under their male organ so that they will not mount the females. And from where do we derive that meaning? Because the latter clause states: Ewes may go out sheḥuzot. What is the meaning of sheḥuzot? It means that they fasten [she’oḥazin] their tails with animal hide so that the males may mount them more easily. It is reasonable to explain that the first clause refers to an action undertaken so that the males will not mount the females, and the latter clause to an action undertaken so that the males will mount them.

מאי משמע דהאי שחוזות לישנא דגלויי הוא דכתיב והנה אשה לקראתו

The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this word sheḥuzot is a term of exposure? The Gemara answers: As it is written in the description of a wicked woman: “And behold there met him a woman

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