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Today's Daf Yomi

May 3, 2020 | ט׳ באייר תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

Shabbat 58

The gemara questions Shmuel’s explanation on the previous page that kavul in the mishna (that one cannot go out with on Shabbat) is a kavla of slaves. If so, Shmuel himself says elsewhere that a slave can go out on Shabbat with that. The gemara resolves the contradiction by distinguishing between one that the owner gave him and one that he made for himself. There is a difference between one worn around the neck and one one his clothing – why? In a different braita there is no distinction made between the neck and the clothing. How is this reconciled? The braita quoted mentioned also a bell worn by the slave and distinguished between a bell around his neck and one on his clothing. Why? Another contradictory source is brought regarding whether or not the bell is susceptible to impurity and to resolve it, they distinguish between a bell with a clapper and one without. If the clapper is removed, the braita says it is still susceptible to impurity – why?

 

 

אין בה משום עטרות כלות

the rabbinic decree prohibiting adorning brides with bridal crowns to commemorate the destruction of the Temple does not apply to an istema.

ושמואל אמר כבלא דעבדא תנן ומי אמר שמואל הכי והאמר שמואל יוצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו אבל לא בחותם שבכסותו

Earlier, the Gemara cited Rabbi Abbahu’s opinion that the kavul mentioned in the mishna, which one may not wear into the public domain on Shabbat, is a woolen cap. And Shmuel said: It is the seal of a slave that we learned about in the mishna. The Gemara asks: And did Shmuel actually say this? Didn’t Shmuel say: A slave may go out on Shabbat with a seal that is around his neck but not with a seal that is on his clothes? Apparently, Shmuel holds that one may go out into the public domain with a slave’s seal. How, then, could he say that kavul in the mishna, with which one may not go out into the public domain, is referring to the seal of a slave?

לא קשיא הא דעבד ליה רביה הא דעבד איהו לנפשיה

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, where Shmuel said that one may go out with a slave’s seal on Shabbat, is referring to a case where his master made it for him. The slave will not remove it because he fears his master. Therefore, there is no concern lest he carry it. However, that, where the mishna said that it is prohibited to go out with a kavul, which according to Shmuel is the seal of a slave, is referring to a case where he made it for himself to indicate to all who his master is so that he may enjoy his master’s protection. In that case, since it is dependent solely upon his discretion, there is concern lest he remove the seal and carry it. Therefore, the Sages prohibited going out with it into the public domain.

במאי אוקימתא להא דשמואל דעבד ליה רביה בחותם שבכסותו אמאי לא

The Gemara asks: In what case did you establish this statement of Shmuel? It is in the case of a seal that his master made for him. If so, why may he not go out with a seal on his clothes? There too, since his master made it for him he will not remove it.

דילמא מיפסק ומירתת ומיקפל ליה ומחית ליה אכתפיה כדרב יצחק בר יוסף דאמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי יוחנן היוצא בטלית מקפלת ומונחת לו על כתפיו בשבת חייב חטאת

The Gemara answers: There the concern is that perhaps the seal will be severed, and the slave will fear his master and fold his cloak and place it on his shoulders so that his master will not see that he has no seal on his clothing. That concern is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef; as Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who goes out into the public domain with a cloak folded and resting on his shoulders on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. That is not the manner in which one wears a garment; it is the manner in which one carries a burden.

וכי הא דאמר ליה שמואל לרב חיננא בר שילא כולהו רבנן דבי ריש גלותא לא ליפקו בסרבלי חתימי לבר מינך דלא קפדי עליך דבי ריש גלותא:

And this is like that which Shmuel said to Rav Ḥinnana bar Sheila: All of the Sages affiliated with the house of the Exilarch may not go out on Shabbat with sealed cloaks [sarbal], i.e., garments with seals on them, except for you, since the people of the Exilarch’s house are not particular with regard to you. The Sages affiliated with the Exilarch were officially considered servants of the house and would wear the seal of the house of the Exilarch. Therefore, it was prohibited for them to go out into the public domain on Shabbat with a cloak bearing the Exilarch’s seal, lest the seal break and, in fear of the Exilarch, they remove the cloak, fold it, place it on their shoulders, and carry it on Shabbat. Only Rav Ḥinnana bar Sheila was permitted to go out with this seal on Shabbat since the people of the Exilarch’s house were not exacting with him. Even if he wore clothing with no seal, they would not consider it an act of insubordination against the Exilarch.

גופא אמר שמואל יוצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו אבל לא בחותם שבכסותו תניא נמי הכי יוצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו אבל לא בחותם שבכסותו

The Gemara discusses the matter itself: Shmuel said that a slave may go out with a seal that is around his neck but not with a seal that is on his clothes. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: A slave may go out with a seal that is around his neck but not with a seal that is on his clothes.

ורמינהו לא יצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו ולא בחותם שבכסותו זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה ולא בזוג שבצוארו אבל יוצא הוא בזוג שבכסותו זה וזה מקבלין טומאה

The Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita: The slave may neither go out with a seal that is around his neck nor with a seal that is on his clothes on Shabbat, and both this and that cannot become ritually impure. And he may not go out with a bell that is hung around his neck; however, he may go out with a bell that is on his clothes, and both this and that can become ritually impure.

ולא תצא בהמה לא בחותם שבצוארה ולא בחותם שבכסותה ולא בזוג שבכסותה ולא בזוג שבצוארה זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה

And an animal may neither go out with a seal that is around its neck, nor with a seal that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is around its neck since with regard to an animal these are considered burdens not ornaments. Both this, the seal, and that, the bell, cannot become ritually impure because animal ornaments and utensils do not fall into the category of objects that can become ritually impure. Apparently, it is even prohibited for a slave to go out with a seal around his neck, contrary to Shmuel’s opinion.

לימא הא דעבד ליה רביה הא דעבד איהו לנפשיה

The Gemara answers: Say that this baraita, which permits going out, is referring to a case where his master made him the seal. Since he fears removing it, there is no concern that he will come to carry it. That baraita, which prohibits going out, is referring to a case where he made it for himself and there is concern lest he come to remove it and carry it.

לא אידי ואידי דעבד ליה רביה וכאן בשל מתכת וכאן בשל טיט וכדרב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה דבר המקפיד עליו רבו אין יוצאין בו דבר שאין מקפיד עליו יוצאין בו

The Gemara rejects this resolution: No, both this and that are referring to a case where his master made it for him. The difference can be explained differently. And here, where it was prohibited, it is referring to a seal of metal, and here, where it was permitted, it is a seal of clay. And as Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: With an object about which his master is particular, one may not go out on Shabbat, lest it become detached from the garment, and fear of his master lead the slave to carry it in his hand. With an object about which his master is not particular, one may go out with it.

הכי נמי מסתברא מדקתני זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה אי אמרת בשלמא של מתכת הני הוא דלא מקבלי טומאה הא כלים דידהו מקבלי טומאה

The Gemara adds: So too, it is reasonable to understand the baraita from the fact that it teaches there: This seal and that seal cannot become ritually impure. Granted, if you say it is referring to a metal seal, it is possible to understand the novel aspect of the baraita as follows: These are the objects that cannot become ritually impure; however, their vessels made of the same material can become ritually impure.

אלא אי אמרת בשל טיט תנן הני הוא דלא מקבלי טומאה הא כלים דידהו מקבלי טומאה

However, if you say that we learned with regard to seals of clay, can it be similarly inferred that these seals are the objects that cannot become ritually impure; however, their vessels made of the same material can become ritually impure?

והא תניא כלי אבנים כלי גללים וכלי אדמה אין מקבלין טומאה לא מדברי תורה ולא מדברי סופרים אלא שמע מינה של מתכת שמע מינה:

Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Vessels of stone, vessels of dung, and vessels of earth that are not made into earthenware can neither become ritually impure by Torah law nor by rabbinic law? Apparently, even an actual vessel made of clay cannot become ritually impure. Rather, learn from it that this baraita is referring to utensils made of metal. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it.

אמר מר ולא בזוג שבצוארו אבל יוצא הוא בזוג שבכסותו

In that same baraita the Master said that the slave may not go out with a bell that is around his neck, but he may go out with a bell that is on his clothes.

זוג שבצוארו אמאי לא דילמא מיפסיק ואתא לאיתויי זוג שבכסותו נמי ליחוש דילמא מיפסיק ואתי לאיתויי

The Gemara asks: With a bell that is around his neck, why may he not go out? It is due to concern lest it be severed and he come to carry it. If so, with a bell on his clothes too, let us be concerned lest it be severed and he come to carry it.

הכא במאי עסקינן דמיחא ביה מומחא וכדרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע כל שהוא ארוג לא גזרו:

The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? With a case where the bell is woven into the garment, and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: Anything that is woven into a garment, the Sages did not issue a decree prohibiting going out with it on Shabbat.

אמר מר לא תצא בהמה לא בחותם שבצוארה ולא בחותם שבכסותה ולא בזוג שבצוארה ולא בזוג שבכסותה זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה

In the baraita cited earlier, it was taught that the Master said: An animal may neither go out with a seal that is around its neck, nor with a seal that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is around its neck. Both this and that cannot become ritually impure.

וזוג דבהמה אין מקבלין טומאה ורמינהו זוג של בהמה טמאה

The Gemara asks: And does a bell of an animal not become ritually impure? The Gemara proceeds to raise a contradiction from that which was taught in another baraita: The bell of an animal can become ritually impure,

ושל דלת טהורה

and the bell of a door is ritually pure. The door itself is not considered a vessel. It is considered part of the house, and therefore its status is like that of the house. The house is attached to the ground, and therefore it cannot become ritually impure. Everything connected to it, including the bell, assumes that status.

של דלת ועשאו לבהמה טמאה של בהמה ועשאו לדלת אף על פי שחברו לדלת וקבעו במסמרים טמא שכל הכלים יורדין לידי טומאתן במחשבה ואין עולין מידי טומאתן אלא בשנוי מעשה

If one took the bell of a door and converted it into a bell for an animal, it can become ritually impure; however, if one took the bell of an animal and converted it into a bell for a door, even though he attached it to the door and even fastened it with nails, it can still become ritually impure because all utensils descend into their state of ritual impurity by means of thought alone, i.e., as a result of a decision to designate them for a specific purpose through which they will become susceptible to ritual impurity, they receive that status immediately. However, they only ascend from their state of ritual impurity by means of an action that effects physical change to the vessel itself. A change in designation alone is ineffective. This baraita states that an animal bell can become ritually impure, contrary to that which was taught in the previous baraita.

לא קשיא הא דאית ליה עינבל הא דלית ליה עינבל

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, where it was taught that the bell can become ritually impure, is referring to a case where it has a clapper [inbal]. That baraita, where it was taught that the bell cannot become ritually impure, is referring to a case where it does not have a clapper.

מה נפשך אי מנא הוא אף על פי דלית ליה עינבל אי לאו מנא הוא עינבל משוי ליה מנא

The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, this is difficult. If the bell is a vessel, then even though it has no clapper it should be susceptible to ritual impurity. If it is not a vessel, does a clapper render it a vessel?

אין כדרבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מנין למשמיע קול בכלי מתכות שהוא טמא שנאמר כל דבר אשר יבא באש תעבירו באש אפילו דבור יבא באש

The Gemara answers: Yes, the clapper can determine the bell’s status with regard to ritual impurity, in accordance with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said. As Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a metal vessel that produces sound is considered a vessel and can become ritually impure? As it is stated: “Every thing that passes through the fire, you shall make it pass through the fire, and it shall be clean; nevertheless, it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling; and all that does not pass through the fire you shall make to go through water” (Numbers 31:23). And the Sages interpret the verse homiletically: Every thing [davar], even speech [dibbur]; in other words, even an object that makes a sound you shall pass through fire to purify it because it is a vessel.

במאי אוקימתא בדלית ליה עינבל אימא מציעתא ולא בזוג שבצוארו אבל יוצא הוא בזוג שבכסותו וזה וזה מקבלין טומאה אי דלית ליה עינבל מי מקבלי טומאה

However, the matter can be clarified further. In what case did you establish the baraita; in the case of a bell that does not have a clapper? If so, say the middle clause of that baraita: And he may not go out with a bell that is hung around his neck; however, he may go out with a bell that is on his clothes, and both this and that can become ritually impure. If it is referring to a bell that does not have a clapper, can it become ritually impure?

ורמינהו העושה זגין למכתשת ולעריסה ולמטפחות ספרים ולמטפחות תינוקות יש להם עינבל טמאין אין להם עינבל טהורין ניטלו עינבליהן עדין טומאתן עליהם

The Gemara raises a contradiction from the Tosefta: One who makes bells for the mortar used to crush spices, and for the cradle, and for mantles of Torah scrolls, and for coverings of small children, if they have a clapper they can become ritually impure, and if they do not have a clapper they are ritually pure and cannot become impure. If after they became ritually impure their clappers were removed, their ritual impurity still remains upon them. Apparently, even with regard to bells used by people, the original existence of a clapper determines whether or not the bell is considered a vessel.

הני מילי בתינוק דלקלא עבידי ליה אבל גדול תכשיט הוא ליה אף על גב דלית ליה עינבל:

The Gemara answers: This applies only to the bells of a small child, since they are placed on him to produce sound. If the bell does not make a sound, it serves no purpose and, consequently, cannot become ritually impure. However, with regard to an adult, the bell is an ornament for him even though it does not have a clapper.

אמר מר ניטלו עינבליהן עדין טומאתן עליהן למאי חזו אמר אביי הואיל שההדיוט יכול להחזירו

It was taught in the Tosefta that the Master said: If their clappers were removed after they became ritually impure, their ritual impurity still remains upon them. The Gemara wonders: For what use are they suited after their clappers are removed? They are essentially broken and should therefore become ritually pure. Abaye said: The reason that their impurity remains is because a common person is able to replace the clapper into the bell. According to Abaye, with regard to any vessel that comes apart, if a common person is capable of reassembling it and it does not require the expertise of a craftsman, it is not considered broken and its ritual impurity is not nullified.

מתיב רבא הזוג והעינבל חבור

Rava raised an objection to this explanation from that which was taught: The connection between the bell and the clapper, this is a connection. Therefore, if they are detached from each other, the bell should be considered broken.

וכי תימא הכי קאמר אף על גב דלא מחבר כמאן דמחבר דמי והתניא מספורת של פרקים ואיזמל של רהיטני חבור לטומאה ואין חבור להזאה

And he adds: And if you say that when employing the term connection, it is saying as follows: Even though it is not connected, it has the legal status as if it were connected. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: The connection between the different parts of scissors made of different parts that are made to come apart and the connection between the blade of a carpenter’s plane, which can be removed from its handle, and its handle are considered a connection with regard to contracting ritual impurity? If one part becomes ritually impure, the other parts become ritually impure as well. The baraita continues: However, they are not considered a connection with regard to the sprinkling of the waters of a purification offering. When waters of purification are sprinkled on these implements in order to purify them from ritual impurity imparted by a corpse (see Numbers 19:17–19), the water must be sprinkled on each part individually.

ואמרינן מה נפשך אי חבור הוא אפלו להזאה ואי לא חבור הוא אפילו לטומאה נמי לא

The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, there is a difficulty: If it is considered a connection, they should be considered connected even with regard to sprinkling; and if they are not considered a connection, they should not be so considered even with regard to ritual impurity.

ואמר רבה דבר תורה בשעת מלאכה חבור בין לטומאה בין להזאה שלא בשעת מלאכה אינו חבור לא לטומאה ולא להזאה וגזרו על טומאה שלא בשעת מלאכה משום טומאה שהיא בשעת מלאכה ועל הזאה שהיא בשעת מלאכה משום הזאה שלא בשעת מלאכה

And Rabba said: By Torah law, when in use, they are considered a connection, both with regard to ritual impurity and with regard to sprinkling. And when not in use, even if the parts are connected, since they are made to come apart and they are commonly dismantled, they are neither considered a connection with regard to ritual impurity nor with regard to sprinkling. And the Sages issued a decree that they should be considered a connection with regard to ritual impurity even when not in use, due to ritual impurity when in use. If one component becomes ritually impure, the other component becomes ritually impure as well. And, as a further stringency, they issued a decree that they should not be considered a connection with regard to sprinkling even when in use, due to sprinkling when not in use. The waters of purification must be sprinkled on each part individually. Nevertheless, this type of connection with regard to ritual impurity is only relevant when the two parts are actually connected. When the parts are separate, even if they can be reattached easily, the vessel is considered broken. This contradicts Abaye’s explanation.

אלא אמר רבא

Rather, Rava said: It should be explained differently:

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

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Shabbat 58

אין בה משום עטרות כלות

the rabbinic decree prohibiting adorning brides with bridal crowns to commemorate the destruction of the Temple does not apply to an istema.

ושמואל אמר כבלא דעבדא תנן ומי אמר שמואל הכי והאמר שמואל יוצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו אבל לא בחותם שבכסותו

Earlier, the Gemara cited Rabbi Abbahu’s opinion that the kavul mentioned in the mishna, which one may not wear into the public domain on Shabbat, is a woolen cap. And Shmuel said: It is the seal of a slave that we learned about in the mishna. The Gemara asks: And did Shmuel actually say this? Didn’t Shmuel say: A slave may go out on Shabbat with a seal that is around his neck but not with a seal that is on his clothes? Apparently, Shmuel holds that one may go out into the public domain with a slave’s seal. How, then, could he say that kavul in the mishna, with which one may not go out into the public domain, is referring to the seal of a slave?

לא קשיא הא דעבד ליה רביה הא דעבד איהו לנפשיה

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, where Shmuel said that one may go out with a slave’s seal on Shabbat, is referring to a case where his master made it for him. The slave will not remove it because he fears his master. Therefore, there is no concern lest he carry it. However, that, where the mishna said that it is prohibited to go out with a kavul, which according to Shmuel is the seal of a slave, is referring to a case where he made it for himself to indicate to all who his master is so that he may enjoy his master’s protection. In that case, since it is dependent solely upon his discretion, there is concern lest he remove the seal and carry it. Therefore, the Sages prohibited going out with it into the public domain.

במאי אוקימתא להא דשמואל דעבד ליה רביה בחותם שבכסותו אמאי לא

The Gemara asks: In what case did you establish this statement of Shmuel? It is in the case of a seal that his master made for him. If so, why may he not go out with a seal on his clothes? There too, since his master made it for him he will not remove it.

דילמא מיפסק ומירתת ומיקפל ליה ומחית ליה אכתפיה כדרב יצחק בר יוסף דאמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי יוחנן היוצא בטלית מקפלת ומונחת לו על כתפיו בשבת חייב חטאת

The Gemara answers: There the concern is that perhaps the seal will be severed, and the slave will fear his master and fold his cloak and place it on his shoulders so that his master will not see that he has no seal on his clothing. That concern is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef; as Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who goes out into the public domain with a cloak folded and resting on his shoulders on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. That is not the manner in which one wears a garment; it is the manner in which one carries a burden.

וכי הא דאמר ליה שמואל לרב חיננא בר שילא כולהו רבנן דבי ריש גלותא לא ליפקו בסרבלי חתימי לבר מינך דלא קפדי עליך דבי ריש גלותא:

And this is like that which Shmuel said to Rav Ḥinnana bar Sheila: All of the Sages affiliated with the house of the Exilarch may not go out on Shabbat with sealed cloaks [sarbal], i.e., garments with seals on them, except for you, since the people of the Exilarch’s house are not particular with regard to you. The Sages affiliated with the Exilarch were officially considered servants of the house and would wear the seal of the house of the Exilarch. Therefore, it was prohibited for them to go out into the public domain on Shabbat with a cloak bearing the Exilarch’s seal, lest the seal break and, in fear of the Exilarch, they remove the cloak, fold it, place it on their shoulders, and carry it on Shabbat. Only Rav Ḥinnana bar Sheila was permitted to go out with this seal on Shabbat since the people of the Exilarch’s house were not exacting with him. Even if he wore clothing with no seal, they would not consider it an act of insubordination against the Exilarch.

גופא אמר שמואל יוצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו אבל לא בחותם שבכסותו תניא נמי הכי יוצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו אבל לא בחותם שבכסותו

The Gemara discusses the matter itself: Shmuel said that a slave may go out with a seal that is around his neck but not with a seal that is on his clothes. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: A slave may go out with a seal that is around his neck but not with a seal that is on his clothes.

ורמינהו לא יצא העבד בחותם שבצוארו ולא בחותם שבכסותו זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה ולא בזוג שבצוארו אבל יוצא הוא בזוג שבכסותו זה וזה מקבלין טומאה

The Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita: The slave may neither go out with a seal that is around his neck nor with a seal that is on his clothes on Shabbat, and both this and that cannot become ritually impure. And he may not go out with a bell that is hung around his neck; however, he may go out with a bell that is on his clothes, and both this and that can become ritually impure.

ולא תצא בהמה לא בחותם שבצוארה ולא בחותם שבכסותה ולא בזוג שבכסותה ולא בזוג שבצוארה זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה

And an animal may neither go out with a seal that is around its neck, nor with a seal that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is around its neck since with regard to an animal these are considered burdens not ornaments. Both this, the seal, and that, the bell, cannot become ritually impure because animal ornaments and utensils do not fall into the category of objects that can become ritually impure. Apparently, it is even prohibited for a slave to go out with a seal around his neck, contrary to Shmuel’s opinion.

לימא הא דעבד ליה רביה הא דעבד איהו לנפשיה

The Gemara answers: Say that this baraita, which permits going out, is referring to a case where his master made him the seal. Since he fears removing it, there is no concern that he will come to carry it. That baraita, which prohibits going out, is referring to a case where he made it for himself and there is concern lest he come to remove it and carry it.

לא אידי ואידי דעבד ליה רביה וכאן בשל מתכת וכאן בשל טיט וכדרב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה דבר המקפיד עליו רבו אין יוצאין בו דבר שאין מקפיד עליו יוצאין בו

The Gemara rejects this resolution: No, both this and that are referring to a case where his master made it for him. The difference can be explained differently. And here, where it was prohibited, it is referring to a seal of metal, and here, where it was permitted, it is a seal of clay. And as Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: With an object about which his master is particular, one may not go out on Shabbat, lest it become detached from the garment, and fear of his master lead the slave to carry it in his hand. With an object about which his master is not particular, one may go out with it.

הכי נמי מסתברא מדקתני זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה אי אמרת בשלמא של מתכת הני הוא דלא מקבלי טומאה הא כלים דידהו מקבלי טומאה

The Gemara adds: So too, it is reasonable to understand the baraita from the fact that it teaches there: This seal and that seal cannot become ritually impure. Granted, if you say it is referring to a metal seal, it is possible to understand the novel aspect of the baraita as follows: These are the objects that cannot become ritually impure; however, their vessels made of the same material can become ritually impure.

אלא אי אמרת בשל טיט תנן הני הוא דלא מקבלי טומאה הא כלים דידהו מקבלי טומאה

However, if you say that we learned with regard to seals of clay, can it be similarly inferred that these seals are the objects that cannot become ritually impure; however, their vessels made of the same material can become ritually impure?

והא תניא כלי אבנים כלי גללים וכלי אדמה אין מקבלין טומאה לא מדברי תורה ולא מדברי סופרים אלא שמע מינה של מתכת שמע מינה:

Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Vessels of stone, vessels of dung, and vessels of earth that are not made into earthenware can neither become ritually impure by Torah law nor by rabbinic law? Apparently, even an actual vessel made of clay cannot become ritually impure. Rather, learn from it that this baraita is referring to utensils made of metal. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it.

אמר מר ולא בזוג שבצוארו אבל יוצא הוא בזוג שבכסותו

In that same baraita the Master said that the slave may not go out with a bell that is around his neck, but he may go out with a bell that is on his clothes.

זוג שבצוארו אמאי לא דילמא מיפסיק ואתא לאיתויי זוג שבכסותו נמי ליחוש דילמא מיפסיק ואתי לאיתויי

The Gemara asks: With a bell that is around his neck, why may he not go out? It is due to concern lest it be severed and he come to carry it. If so, with a bell on his clothes too, let us be concerned lest it be severed and he come to carry it.

הכא במאי עסקינן דמיחא ביה מומחא וכדרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע כל שהוא ארוג לא גזרו:

The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? With a case where the bell is woven into the garment, and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: Anything that is woven into a garment, the Sages did not issue a decree prohibiting going out with it on Shabbat.

אמר מר לא תצא בהמה לא בחותם שבצוארה ולא בחותם שבכסותה ולא בזוג שבצוארה ולא בזוג שבכסותה זה וזה אין מקבלין טומאה

In the baraita cited earlier, it was taught that the Master said: An animal may neither go out with a seal that is around its neck, nor with a seal that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is on its clothes, nor with a bell that is around its neck. Both this and that cannot become ritually impure.

וזוג דבהמה אין מקבלין טומאה ורמינהו זוג של בהמה טמאה

The Gemara asks: And does a bell of an animal not become ritually impure? The Gemara proceeds to raise a contradiction from that which was taught in another baraita: The bell of an animal can become ritually impure,

ושל דלת טהורה

and the bell of a door is ritually pure. The door itself is not considered a vessel. It is considered part of the house, and therefore its status is like that of the house. The house is attached to the ground, and therefore it cannot become ritually impure. Everything connected to it, including the bell, assumes that status.

של דלת ועשאו לבהמה טמאה של בהמה ועשאו לדלת אף על פי שחברו לדלת וקבעו במסמרים טמא שכל הכלים יורדין לידי טומאתן במחשבה ואין עולין מידי טומאתן אלא בשנוי מעשה

If one took the bell of a door and converted it into a bell for an animal, it can become ritually impure; however, if one took the bell of an animal and converted it into a bell for a door, even though he attached it to the door and even fastened it with nails, it can still become ritually impure because all utensils descend into their state of ritual impurity by means of thought alone, i.e., as a result of a decision to designate them for a specific purpose through which they will become susceptible to ritual impurity, they receive that status immediately. However, they only ascend from their state of ritual impurity by means of an action that effects physical change to the vessel itself. A change in designation alone is ineffective. This baraita states that an animal bell can become ritually impure, contrary to that which was taught in the previous baraita.

לא קשיא הא דאית ליה עינבל הא דלית ליה עינבל

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, where it was taught that the bell can become ritually impure, is referring to a case where it has a clapper [inbal]. That baraita, where it was taught that the bell cannot become ritually impure, is referring to a case where it does not have a clapper.

מה נפשך אי מנא הוא אף על פי דלית ליה עינבל אי לאו מנא הוא עינבל משוי ליה מנא

The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, this is difficult. If the bell is a vessel, then even though it has no clapper it should be susceptible to ritual impurity. If it is not a vessel, does a clapper render it a vessel?

אין כדרבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מנין למשמיע קול בכלי מתכות שהוא טמא שנאמר כל דבר אשר יבא באש תעבירו באש אפילו דבור יבא באש

The Gemara answers: Yes, the clapper can determine the bell’s status with regard to ritual impurity, in accordance with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said. As Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a metal vessel that produces sound is considered a vessel and can become ritually impure? As it is stated: “Every thing that passes through the fire, you shall make it pass through the fire, and it shall be clean; nevertheless, it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling; and all that does not pass through the fire you shall make to go through water” (Numbers 31:23). And the Sages interpret the verse homiletically: Every thing [davar], even speech [dibbur]; in other words, even an object that makes a sound you shall pass through fire to purify it because it is a vessel.

במאי אוקימתא בדלית ליה עינבל אימא מציעתא ולא בזוג שבצוארו אבל יוצא הוא בזוג שבכסותו וזה וזה מקבלין טומאה אי דלית ליה עינבל מי מקבלי טומאה

However, the matter can be clarified further. In what case did you establish the baraita; in the case of a bell that does not have a clapper? If so, say the middle clause of that baraita: And he may not go out with a bell that is hung around his neck; however, he may go out with a bell that is on his clothes, and both this and that can become ritually impure. If it is referring to a bell that does not have a clapper, can it become ritually impure?

ורמינהו העושה זגין למכתשת ולעריסה ולמטפחות ספרים ולמטפחות תינוקות יש להם עינבל טמאין אין להם עינבל טהורין ניטלו עינבליהן עדין טומאתן עליהם

The Gemara raises a contradiction from the Tosefta: One who makes bells for the mortar used to crush spices, and for the cradle, and for mantles of Torah scrolls, and for coverings of small children, if they have a clapper they can become ritually impure, and if they do not have a clapper they are ritually pure and cannot become impure. If after they became ritually impure their clappers were removed, their ritual impurity still remains upon them. Apparently, even with regard to bells used by people, the original existence of a clapper determines whether or not the bell is considered a vessel.

הני מילי בתינוק דלקלא עבידי ליה אבל גדול תכשיט הוא ליה אף על גב דלית ליה עינבל:

The Gemara answers: This applies only to the bells of a small child, since they are placed on him to produce sound. If the bell does not make a sound, it serves no purpose and, consequently, cannot become ritually impure. However, with regard to an adult, the bell is an ornament for him even though it does not have a clapper.

אמר מר ניטלו עינבליהן עדין טומאתן עליהן למאי חזו אמר אביי הואיל שההדיוט יכול להחזירו

It was taught in the Tosefta that the Master said: If their clappers were removed after they became ritually impure, their ritual impurity still remains upon them. The Gemara wonders: For what use are they suited after their clappers are removed? They are essentially broken and should therefore become ritually pure. Abaye said: The reason that their impurity remains is because a common person is able to replace the clapper into the bell. According to Abaye, with regard to any vessel that comes apart, if a common person is capable of reassembling it and it does not require the expertise of a craftsman, it is not considered broken and its ritual impurity is not nullified.

מתיב רבא הזוג והעינבל חבור

Rava raised an objection to this explanation from that which was taught: The connection between the bell and the clapper, this is a connection. Therefore, if they are detached from each other, the bell should be considered broken.

וכי תימא הכי קאמר אף על גב דלא מחבר כמאן דמחבר דמי והתניא מספורת של פרקים ואיזמל של רהיטני חבור לטומאה ואין חבור להזאה

And he adds: And if you say that when employing the term connection, it is saying as follows: Even though it is not connected, it has the legal status as if it were connected. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: The connection between the different parts of scissors made of different parts that are made to come apart and the connection between the blade of a carpenter’s plane, which can be removed from its handle, and its handle are considered a connection with regard to contracting ritual impurity? If one part becomes ritually impure, the other parts become ritually impure as well. The baraita continues: However, they are not considered a connection with regard to the sprinkling of the waters of a purification offering. When waters of purification are sprinkled on these implements in order to purify them from ritual impurity imparted by a corpse (see Numbers 19:17–19), the water must be sprinkled on each part individually.

ואמרינן מה נפשך אי חבור הוא אפלו להזאה ואי לא חבור הוא אפילו לטומאה נמי לא

The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, there is a difficulty: If it is considered a connection, they should be considered connected even with regard to sprinkling; and if they are not considered a connection, they should not be so considered even with regard to ritual impurity.

ואמר רבה דבר תורה בשעת מלאכה חבור בין לטומאה בין להזאה שלא בשעת מלאכה אינו חבור לא לטומאה ולא להזאה וגזרו על טומאה שלא בשעת מלאכה משום טומאה שהיא בשעת מלאכה ועל הזאה שהיא בשעת מלאכה משום הזאה שלא בשעת מלאכה

And Rabba said: By Torah law, when in use, they are considered a connection, both with regard to ritual impurity and with regard to sprinkling. And when not in use, even if the parts are connected, since they are made to come apart and they are commonly dismantled, they are neither considered a connection with regard to ritual impurity nor with regard to sprinkling. And the Sages issued a decree that they should be considered a connection with regard to ritual impurity even when not in use, due to ritual impurity when in use. If one component becomes ritually impure, the other component becomes ritually impure as well. And, as a further stringency, they issued a decree that they should not be considered a connection with regard to sprinkling even when in use, due to sprinkling when not in use. The waters of purification must be sprinkled on each part individually. Nevertheless, this type of connection with regard to ritual impurity is only relevant when the two parts are actually connected. When the parts are separate, even if they can be reattached easily, the vessel is considered broken. This contradicts Abaye’s explanation.

אלא אמר רבא

Rather, Rava said: It should be explained differently:

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