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Today's Daf Yomi

May 12, 2020 | י״ח באייר תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

Shabbat 67

Today’s shiur is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Ilana Leah bat Esther and David Binyamin ben Duba Feige by Candace Plotsker-Herman.

The gemara continues to list incantations for various diseases or to protect from evil spirits. The mishna deals with carrying out objects that are used as segulot for protection. Rabbi Meir allows them and the rabbis forbid using them even on a weekday, as they are methods used by the Emorim, non Jews whose ways we are forbidden to follow. Abaye and Rava says that if they are used for medicinal purposes one is allowed to follow ways of non Jews. There is a debate whether or not some of these things are actually idol worship. Can we use any incantations or other methods mentioned in the gemara nowadays? Where does one draw the line between incantations and prayer?

לאשתא תילתא לייתי שבעה סילוי משבעה דיקלי ושבעה ציבי משבעה כשורי ושבעה סיכי משבעה גשורי ושבעה קטימי משבעה תנורי ושבעה עפרי משבעה סנרי ושבעה כופרי משבעה ארבי ושבעה בוני כמוני ושבעה ביני מדיקנא דכלבא סבא ולציירינהו בחללא דבי צוארא בנירא ברקא

For tertian fever, which afflicts one every three days, let one bring seven thorns from seven palm trees, and seven slivers from seven beams, and seven pegs from seven bridges, and seven types of ashes from seven ovens, and seven types of dust from seven door sockets, the hole in which the hinge of the door revolves, and seven types of tar from seven boats, and seven cumin seeds, and seven hairs from the beard of an old dog, and let him bind it to the opening of the neckline of his garment with a thread made of hair.

אמר רבי יוחנן לאשתא צמירתא לישקל סכינא דכולא פרזלא וליזל להיכא דאיכא וורדינא וליקטר ביה נירא ברקא

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: For healing a burning fever, let one take a knife that is made entirely of iron, including the handle, and let him go to a place where there is a bush and tie a string of hair to it.

יומא קמא ליחרוק ביה פורתא ולימא וירא מלאך ה׳ אליו וגו׳ למחר ליחרוק ביה פורתא ולימא ויאמר משה אסרה נא ואראה למחר ליחרוק ביה פורתא ולימא וירא ה׳ כי סר לראות וגו׳

On the first day, let him carve the bush a little, and recite: “And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from within the bush and he looked and behold the bush was aflame in fire and the bush was not consumed” (Exodus 3:2). On the following day, let him carve the bush a little more and recite: “And Moses said: I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burned” (Exodus 3:3). On the following day, let him carve the bush a little more and recite: “And the Lord saw that he turned aside to see and God called to him within the bush and said: Moses, Moses, and he said: Here I am” (Exodus 3:4).

אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי ולימא ויאמר אל תקרב הלם וגו׳ אלא ליומא קמא לימא וירא מלאך ה׳ אליו וגו׳ ויאמר משה וגו׳ ולמחר לימא וירא ה׳ כי סר לראות ולמחר ויאמר (ה׳) אל תקרב הלם

Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: And let him say: “And the Lord said: Do not come close, take off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5). This verse is more suited to be recited as an incantation to cure a fever. Rather, on the first day, let him recite the first two verses: “And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from within the bush and he looked and behold the bush was aflame in fire and the bush was not consumed,” as well as, “And Moses said: I will turn aside now and see.” And on the following day, let him recite: “And the Lord saw that he turned aside to see.” And on the following day, let him recite: “And the Lord said: Do not come close, take off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5).

וכי פסק ליה ליתתיה ולפסקי ולימא הכי הסנה הסנה לאו משום דגביהת מכל אילני אשרי הקדוש ברוך הוא שכינתיה עלך אלא משום דמייכת מכל אילני אשרי קודשא בריך הוא שכינתיה עלך וכי היכי דחמיתיה אשתא לחנניה מישאל ועזריה ועריקת מן קדמוהי כן תחמיניה אשתא לפלוני בר פלונית ותיערוק מן קדמוהי

And when he carves the bush, let him lower himself and cut it close to the ground, and recite as follows: The bush, the bush; not because you are higher than all trees did the Holy One, Blessed be He, rest His Divine Presence upon you. Rather, it is because you are lower than all trees did the Holy One, Blessed be He, rested His Divine Presence upon you. And just as the fire saw Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah and fled from before them, so too, let the fire of the fever see so-and-so, son of so-and-so, his mother, flee from before him.

לסימטא לימא הכי בז בזייה מס מסייא כס כסייה שרלאי ואמרלאי אלין מלאכי דאישתלחו מארעא דסדום ולאסאה שחינא כאיבין בזך בזיך בזבזיך מסמסיך כמון כמיך עיניך ביך עינך ביך אתריך בך זרעיך כקלוט וכפרדה דלא פרה ולא רביא כך לא תפרה ולא תרבה בגופיה דפלוני בר פלונית

For healing boils, let him recite as follows: Baz, Bazya, Mas, Masya, Kas, Kasya, Sharlai, and Amarlai, these are the angels who were sent from the land of Sodom and this was all in order to heal painful boils. Bazakh, Bazikh, Bazbazikh, Masmasikh, Kamon, Kamikh, may your appearance remain with you, may your appearance remain with you, i.e., the boils should not grow redder. May your place remain with you, i.e., they should not spread, may your, the boils’, seed be like one who is barren and like a mule that is not fruitful and does not multiply, so too, do not increase and do not multiply in the body of so-and-so, son of so-and-so.

לכיפה לימא הכי חרב שלופה וקלע נטושה לא שמיה יוכב חולין מכאובין

For healing a wound, let him recite as follows: A drawn sword and a readied sling, its name shall not be ache, sickness, and pains.

לשידא לימא הכי הוית דפקיק דפקיק הוית ליטא תבור ומשומת בר טיט בר טמא בר טינא כשמגז מריגז ואיסטמאי

To be saved from a demon, let him recite as follows: You were stopped up, stopped up you were. Cursed, broken, and excommunicated be the demon called bar Tit bar Tamei bar Tina as Shamgaz, Merigaz, and Istemai.

לשידא דבית הכסא לימא הכי אקרקפי דארי ואאוסי דגורייתא אשכחתון לשידאי בר שיריקא פנדא במישרא דכרתי חבטיה בלועא דחמרא חטרתיה:

To be saved from the demon of the bathroom, let him recite as follows: On the head of a lion and on the nose of a lioness we found the demon named bar Shirika Panda. With a bed of leeks I felled him, and with the jaw of the donkey I struck him.

ובני מלכים בזגין: מאן תנא אמר רבי אושעיא רבי שמעון היא דאמר כל ישראל בני מלכים הם רבא אמר באריג בכסותו ודברי הכל:

We learned in the mishna that princes may go out with bells, and the same is true for anyone else. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who holds that all people of Israel are permitted to conduct themselves like princes with regard to going out with precious ornaments? Rabbi Oshaya said: It is Rabbi Shimon, who said: All of Israel are princes. Therefore, precious ornaments are suitable for every person of Israel. They will neither remove them to show to others nor will they remove them due to concern that people will think them pretentious. Rava said: The mishna is referring to a case where the bell is woven into his garment, obviating the concern lest he remove it, and the halakha in the mishna is in accordance with the statements of all tanna’im, not merely the statement of Rabbi Shimon.

מתני׳ יוצאין בביצת החרגול ובשן שועל ובמסמר מן הצלוב משום רפואה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אוסרין אף בחול משום דרכי האמורי:

MISHNA: One may go out on Shabbat with a locust egg, and with a fox tooth, and with a nail from the crucified, for the purpose of healing; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. The Rabbis prohibit using these remedies even during the week, due to the prohibition of following the ways of the Amorite. These are superstitious beliefs and the customs of gentiles from which one must distance oneself.

גמ׳ יוצאין בביצת החרגול דעבדי לשיחלא ובשן של שועל דעבדי לשינתא דחייא למאן דניים דמיתא למאן דלא ניים: ובמסמר מן הצלוב: דעבדי לזירפא:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that in Rabbi Meir’s opinion one may go out on Shabbat with a locust egg, and a fox tooth, and with a nail from the crucified as a talisman or a cure. The Gemara explains the nature of each: One may go out with a locust egg, as they use it as a talisman to cure an earache; and with a fox tooth, as they use it as a talisman for sleep; the tooth of a live fox for one who sleeps too much to wake him up, and the tooth of a dead fox for one who does not sleep. And one may go out with a nail from the crucified, as they use it as a talisman for curing infection.

משום רפואה דברי רבי מאיר:

We learned in the mishna that going out with those objects is permitted on Shabbat for the purpose of healing; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו כל דבר שיש בו משום רפואה אין בו משום דרכי האמורי

With regard to the halakha in the mishna, the Gemara cites Abaye and Rava, who both said: Anything that contains an element of healing and seems to be effective does not contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite. There is no cause for suspicion of one who engages in their practice, gentile or Jew.

הא אין בו משום רפואה יש בו משום דרכי האמורי והתניא אילן שמשיר פירותיו סוקרו (וצובע אותו) בסיקרא וטוענו באבנים בשלמא טוענו באבנים כי היכי דליכחוש חיליה אלא סוקרו בסיקרא מאי רפואה קעביד

The Gemara asks: Is that to say by inference that if it is does not contain an element of healing, it does contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: A tree that sheds its fruit prematurely, one paints it and colors it with red paint and loads it with stones? Granted, he is permitted to load it with stones because that action produces an actual benefit, i.e., he does that so that its strength will weaken. Sometimes a tree sheds its fruits prematurely due to excessive blossoming. Sustaining those blossoms taxes the tree, rendering it incapable of sustaining the fruits that grow from the blossoms. The stones were used to slightly weaken the tree when blossoming, thereby reducing the number of blossoms that the tree must nourish. However, painting it with red paint, what healing is he performing with that action?

כי היכי דליחזייה אינשי וליבעו עליה רחמי כדתניא וטמא טמא יקרא צריך להודיע צערו לרבים ורבים יבקשו עליו רחמים אמר רבינא כמאן תלינן כובסי בדיקלא כי האי תנא

The Gemara explains: He does so so that people will see the tree and pray for mercy for it. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be ripped and the hair of his head shall grow long and he will put a covering upon his upper lip and will cry: Impure, impure” (Leviticus 13:45). The leper publicizes the fact that he is ritually impure because he must announce his pain to the masses, and the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf. Ravina said: In accordance with whose opinion do we hang bunches of unripe dates on a palm tree that casts off its dates? According to that tanna who taught that one must publicize his pain to the masses.

תני תנא בפרק אמוראי קמיה דרבי חייא בר אבין אמר ליה כולהו אית בהו משום דרכי האמורי לבר מהני מי שיש לו עצם בגרונו מביא מאותו המין ומניח ליה על קדקדו ולימא הכי חד חד נחית בלע בלע נחית חד חד אין בו משום דרכי האמורי

The tanna recited the chapter of the Tosefta discussing the actions of the Amorites before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said to him: All those enumerated there contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite, except for these: One who has a bone in his throat brings a bone from the same species as the bone that is stuck in his throat, and places it on his skull, and says as follows: One by one descend and be swallowed, swallow and descend one by one. That does not contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite.

לאדרא לימא הכי ננעצתא כמחט ננעלתא כתריס שייא שייא

For a fish bone stuck in the throat, let him say as follows: You are stuck like a needle, locked as a shutter, go down, go down.

האומר גד גדי וסנוק לא אשכי ובושכי יש בו משום דרכי האמורי רבי יהודה אומר גד אינו אלא לשון עבודה זרה שנאמר הערכים לגד שלחן

After some discussion of the ways of the Amorite, the Gemara cites additional statements from the Amorite chapter in the Tosefta and from other sources on this topic. One who says: My fortune be fortunate [gad gaddi] and be not weary by day or by night; that statement contains an element of the ways of the Amorite. Rabbi Yehuda says: That is more severe than the ways of the Amorite, as gad is nothing other than a term of idolatry, as it is stated: “And you that forsake the Lord, that forget My holy mountain, that prepare a table for Gad, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto Meni” (Isaiah 65:11). Gad gaddi is a form of prayer to an idol.

הוא בשמה והיא בשמו יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who requests that he be called by his wife’s name and she be called by his name for good fortune, his request contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

דונו דני יש בו משום דרכי האמורי רבי יהודה אומר אין דן אלא לשון עבודה זרה שנאמר הנשבעים באשמת שמרון ואמרו חי אלהיך דן

One who says: Let my barrels be strengthened [donu danei], that contains an element of the ways of the Amorite. Rabbi Yehuda says: That is more severe than the ways of the Amorite, as Dan is nothing other than a term of idol worship, as it is stated: “They that swear by the sin of Samaria and say: As your god Dan lives” (Amos 8:14).

האומר לעורב צרח ולעורבתא שריקי והחזירי לי זנביך לטובה יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who hears a raven calling and is concerned about a bad omen and says to the raven: Scream, and says to the female raven: Whistle and turn your tail to me for the best; those statements contain an element of the ways of the Amorite.

האומר שחטו תרנגול זה שקרא ערבית ותרנגולת שקראה גברית יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who says: Slaughter this rooster that calls out in the evening and says: Slaughter this chicken that calls out like a male rooster; those statements contain an element of the ways of the Amorite.

אשתה ואותיר אשתה ואותיר יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who says: I will drink and leave over, I will drink and leave over, so that his wine will increase; that statement contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המבקעת ביצים בכותל (והטח) בפני האפרוחים יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who cracks eggs on a wall and smears them in front of the chicks; that series of actions contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

והמגיס בפני אפרוחים יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

And one who stirs the pot in front of chicks as an auspicious practice so they do not die; that action contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המרקדת והמונה שבעים ואחד אפרוחין בשביל שלא ימותו יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

A woman who dances and counts the chicks until she reaches the number of seventy-one chicks, so they won’t die; her action contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המרקדת לכותח והמשתקת לעדשים והמצווחת לגריסין יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

A woman who dances to ensure that the kutaḥ, a spice made from whey salt and bread, that she is preparing will be successful, and a woman who silences bystanders to ensure that the lentils will cook properly, and a woman who screams to ensure that the pearl barley will cook properly; all these contain an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המשתנת בפני קדירתה בשביל שתתבשל מהרה יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

A woman who urinates in front of her pot so it will cook quickly; that action contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

אבל נותנין קיסם של תות ושברי זכוכית בקדירה בשביל שתתבשל מהרה וחכמים אוסרין בשברי זכוכית מפני הסכנה

But one may put a chip of mulberry wood and shards of glass in the pot so it will cook quickly, as doing so is effective and not merely superstition. And the Rabbis prohibit shards of glass not due to superstition; rather, due to the danger involved if the glass is not strained out completely.

תנו רבנן נותנין בול של מלח לתוך הנר בשביל שתאיר ותדליק ונותנין טיט וחרסית תחת הנר בשביל שתמתין ותדליק

The Sages taught in the Tosefta: One may place a lump of salt into a candle so it will burn brightly; that is effective and not merely for good fortune, so there is no element of the ways of the Amorites involved. And similarly, one may put mud or clay under a candle so it will burn longer.

אמר רב זוטרא האי מאן דמיכסי שרגא דמשחא ומגלי נפטא קעבר משום בל תשחית

Rav Zutra said: He who covers an oil lamp or who uncovers a kerosene lamp for no purpose violates the prohibition: Do not destroy, since by doing so the fuel burns more quickly.

חמרא וחיי לפום רבנן אין בו משום דרכי האמורי מעשה ברבי עקיבא שעשה משתה לבנו ועל כל כוס וכוס שהביא אמר חמרא וחיי לפום רבנן חיי וחמרא לפום רבנן ולפום תלמידיהון:

One who says while drinking: Wine and life to the mouth of the Sages, this does not fall into the category of the ways of the Amorite. There was an incident with Rabbi Akiva who made a banquet for his son, and over each and every cup he brought he said: Wine and life to the mouth of the Sages, wine and life to the mouth of the Sages and to the mouth of their students.

הדרן עלך במה אשה

 

מתני׳ כלל גדול אמרו בשבת כל השוכח עיקר שבת ועשה מלאכות הרבה בשבתות הרבה אינו חייב אלא חטאת אחת היודע עיקר שבת ועשה מלאכות הרבה בשבתות הרבה חייב על כל שבת ושבת היודע שהוא שבת ועשה מלאכות הרבה בשבתות הרבה חייב על כל

MISHNA: The Sages stated a significant principle with regard to the halakhot of Shabbat: One who forgets the essence of Shabbat, i.e., one who is entirely ignorant of the mitzva of Shabbat according to Torah law, and performed numerous prohibited labors on multiple Shabbatot, is liable to bring only one sin-offering for all those labors when he becomes aware that those actions were prohibited. One who knows the essence of Shabbat but forgets which day is Shabbat, i.e., one who lost track of the days of the week, and performs numerous prohibited labors on multiple Shabbatot is liable to bring a sin-offering for each Shabbat when he becomes aware that he performed those actions on Shabbat. One who is aware that the day is Shabbat but temporarily forgot that certain labors were prohibited and performed numerous prohibited labors on multiple Shabbatot is liable to bring a sin-offering for each

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

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Shabbat 67

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Shabbat 67

לאשתא תילתא לייתי שבעה סילוי משבעה דיקלי ושבעה ציבי משבעה כשורי ושבעה סיכי משבעה גשורי ושבעה קטימי משבעה תנורי ושבעה עפרי משבעה סנרי ושבעה כופרי משבעה ארבי ושבעה בוני כמוני ושבעה ביני מדיקנא דכלבא סבא ולציירינהו בחללא דבי צוארא בנירא ברקא

For tertian fever, which afflicts one every three days, let one bring seven thorns from seven palm trees, and seven slivers from seven beams, and seven pegs from seven bridges, and seven types of ashes from seven ovens, and seven types of dust from seven door sockets, the hole in which the hinge of the door revolves, and seven types of tar from seven boats, and seven cumin seeds, and seven hairs from the beard of an old dog, and let him bind it to the opening of the neckline of his garment with a thread made of hair.

אמר רבי יוחנן לאשתא צמירתא לישקל סכינא דכולא פרזלא וליזל להיכא דאיכא וורדינא וליקטר ביה נירא ברקא

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: For healing a burning fever, let one take a knife that is made entirely of iron, including the handle, and let him go to a place where there is a bush and tie a string of hair to it.

יומא קמא ליחרוק ביה פורתא ולימא וירא מלאך ה׳ אליו וגו׳ למחר ליחרוק ביה פורתא ולימא ויאמר משה אסרה נא ואראה למחר ליחרוק ביה פורתא ולימא וירא ה׳ כי סר לראות וגו׳

On the first day, let him carve the bush a little, and recite: “And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from within the bush and he looked and behold the bush was aflame in fire and the bush was not consumed” (Exodus 3:2). On the following day, let him carve the bush a little more and recite: “And Moses said: I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burned” (Exodus 3:3). On the following day, let him carve the bush a little more and recite: “And the Lord saw that he turned aside to see and God called to him within the bush and said: Moses, Moses, and he said: Here I am” (Exodus 3:4).

אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי ולימא ויאמר אל תקרב הלם וגו׳ אלא ליומא קמא לימא וירא מלאך ה׳ אליו וגו׳ ויאמר משה וגו׳ ולמחר לימא וירא ה׳ כי סר לראות ולמחר ויאמר (ה׳) אל תקרב הלם

Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: And let him say: “And the Lord said: Do not come close, take off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5). This verse is more suited to be recited as an incantation to cure a fever. Rather, on the first day, let him recite the first two verses: “And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from within the bush and he looked and behold the bush was aflame in fire and the bush was not consumed,” as well as, “And Moses said: I will turn aside now and see.” And on the following day, let him recite: “And the Lord saw that he turned aside to see.” And on the following day, let him recite: “And the Lord said: Do not come close, take off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5).

וכי פסק ליה ליתתיה ולפסקי ולימא הכי הסנה הסנה לאו משום דגביהת מכל אילני אשרי הקדוש ברוך הוא שכינתיה עלך אלא משום דמייכת מכל אילני אשרי קודשא בריך הוא שכינתיה עלך וכי היכי דחמיתיה אשתא לחנניה מישאל ועזריה ועריקת מן קדמוהי כן תחמיניה אשתא לפלוני בר פלונית ותיערוק מן קדמוהי

And when he carves the bush, let him lower himself and cut it close to the ground, and recite as follows: The bush, the bush; not because you are higher than all trees did the Holy One, Blessed be He, rest His Divine Presence upon you. Rather, it is because you are lower than all trees did the Holy One, Blessed be He, rested His Divine Presence upon you. And just as the fire saw Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah and fled from before them, so too, let the fire of the fever see so-and-so, son of so-and-so, his mother, flee from before him.

לסימטא לימא הכי בז בזייה מס מסייא כס כסייה שרלאי ואמרלאי אלין מלאכי דאישתלחו מארעא דסדום ולאסאה שחינא כאיבין בזך בזיך בזבזיך מסמסיך כמון כמיך עיניך ביך עינך ביך אתריך בך זרעיך כקלוט וכפרדה דלא פרה ולא רביא כך לא תפרה ולא תרבה בגופיה דפלוני בר פלונית

For healing boils, let him recite as follows: Baz, Bazya, Mas, Masya, Kas, Kasya, Sharlai, and Amarlai, these are the angels who were sent from the land of Sodom and this was all in order to heal painful boils. Bazakh, Bazikh, Bazbazikh, Masmasikh, Kamon, Kamikh, may your appearance remain with you, may your appearance remain with you, i.e., the boils should not grow redder. May your place remain with you, i.e., they should not spread, may your, the boils’, seed be like one who is barren and like a mule that is not fruitful and does not multiply, so too, do not increase and do not multiply in the body of so-and-so, son of so-and-so.

לכיפה לימא הכי חרב שלופה וקלע נטושה לא שמיה יוכב חולין מכאובין

For healing a wound, let him recite as follows: A drawn sword and a readied sling, its name shall not be ache, sickness, and pains.

לשידא לימא הכי הוית דפקיק דפקיק הוית ליטא תבור ומשומת בר טיט בר טמא בר טינא כשמגז מריגז ואיסטמאי

To be saved from a demon, let him recite as follows: You were stopped up, stopped up you were. Cursed, broken, and excommunicated be the demon called bar Tit bar Tamei bar Tina as Shamgaz, Merigaz, and Istemai.

לשידא דבית הכסא לימא הכי אקרקפי דארי ואאוסי דגורייתא אשכחתון לשידאי בר שיריקא פנדא במישרא דכרתי חבטיה בלועא דחמרא חטרתיה:

To be saved from the demon of the bathroom, let him recite as follows: On the head of a lion and on the nose of a lioness we found the demon named bar Shirika Panda. With a bed of leeks I felled him, and with the jaw of the donkey I struck him.

ובני מלכים בזגין: מאן תנא אמר רבי אושעיא רבי שמעון היא דאמר כל ישראל בני מלכים הם רבא אמר באריג בכסותו ודברי הכל:

We learned in the mishna that princes may go out with bells, and the same is true for anyone else. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who holds that all people of Israel are permitted to conduct themselves like princes with regard to going out with precious ornaments? Rabbi Oshaya said: It is Rabbi Shimon, who said: All of Israel are princes. Therefore, precious ornaments are suitable for every person of Israel. They will neither remove them to show to others nor will they remove them due to concern that people will think them pretentious. Rava said: The mishna is referring to a case where the bell is woven into his garment, obviating the concern lest he remove it, and the halakha in the mishna is in accordance with the statements of all tanna’im, not merely the statement of Rabbi Shimon.

מתני׳ יוצאין בביצת החרגול ובשן שועל ובמסמר מן הצלוב משום רפואה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אוסרין אף בחול משום דרכי האמורי:

MISHNA: One may go out on Shabbat with a locust egg, and with a fox tooth, and with a nail from the crucified, for the purpose of healing; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. The Rabbis prohibit using these remedies even during the week, due to the prohibition of following the ways of the Amorite. These are superstitious beliefs and the customs of gentiles from which one must distance oneself.

גמ׳ יוצאין בביצת החרגול דעבדי לשיחלא ובשן של שועל דעבדי לשינתא דחייא למאן דניים דמיתא למאן דלא ניים: ובמסמר מן הצלוב: דעבדי לזירפא:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that in Rabbi Meir’s opinion one may go out on Shabbat with a locust egg, and a fox tooth, and with a nail from the crucified as a talisman or a cure. The Gemara explains the nature of each: One may go out with a locust egg, as they use it as a talisman to cure an earache; and with a fox tooth, as they use it as a talisman for sleep; the tooth of a live fox for one who sleeps too much to wake him up, and the tooth of a dead fox for one who does not sleep. And one may go out with a nail from the crucified, as they use it as a talisman for curing infection.

משום רפואה דברי רבי מאיר:

We learned in the mishna that going out with those objects is permitted on Shabbat for the purpose of healing; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו כל דבר שיש בו משום רפואה אין בו משום דרכי האמורי

With regard to the halakha in the mishna, the Gemara cites Abaye and Rava, who both said: Anything that contains an element of healing and seems to be effective does not contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite. There is no cause for suspicion of one who engages in their practice, gentile or Jew.

הא אין בו משום רפואה יש בו משום דרכי האמורי והתניא אילן שמשיר פירותיו סוקרו (וצובע אותו) בסיקרא וטוענו באבנים בשלמא טוענו באבנים כי היכי דליכחוש חיליה אלא סוקרו בסיקרא מאי רפואה קעביד

The Gemara asks: Is that to say by inference that if it is does not contain an element of healing, it does contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: A tree that sheds its fruit prematurely, one paints it and colors it with red paint and loads it with stones? Granted, he is permitted to load it with stones because that action produces an actual benefit, i.e., he does that so that its strength will weaken. Sometimes a tree sheds its fruits prematurely due to excessive blossoming. Sustaining those blossoms taxes the tree, rendering it incapable of sustaining the fruits that grow from the blossoms. The stones were used to slightly weaken the tree when blossoming, thereby reducing the number of blossoms that the tree must nourish. However, painting it with red paint, what healing is he performing with that action?

כי היכי דליחזייה אינשי וליבעו עליה רחמי כדתניא וטמא טמא יקרא צריך להודיע צערו לרבים ורבים יבקשו עליו רחמים אמר רבינא כמאן תלינן כובסי בדיקלא כי האי תנא

The Gemara explains: He does so so that people will see the tree and pray for mercy for it. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be ripped and the hair of his head shall grow long and he will put a covering upon his upper lip and will cry: Impure, impure” (Leviticus 13:45). The leper publicizes the fact that he is ritually impure because he must announce his pain to the masses, and the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf. Ravina said: In accordance with whose opinion do we hang bunches of unripe dates on a palm tree that casts off its dates? According to that tanna who taught that one must publicize his pain to the masses.

תני תנא בפרק אמוראי קמיה דרבי חייא בר אבין אמר ליה כולהו אית בהו משום דרכי האמורי לבר מהני מי שיש לו עצם בגרונו מביא מאותו המין ומניח ליה על קדקדו ולימא הכי חד חד נחית בלע בלע נחית חד חד אין בו משום דרכי האמורי

The tanna recited the chapter of the Tosefta discussing the actions of the Amorites before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said to him: All those enumerated there contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite, except for these: One who has a bone in his throat brings a bone from the same species as the bone that is stuck in his throat, and places it on his skull, and says as follows: One by one descend and be swallowed, swallow and descend one by one. That does not contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite.

לאדרא לימא הכי ננעצתא כמחט ננעלתא כתריס שייא שייא

For a fish bone stuck in the throat, let him say as follows: You are stuck like a needle, locked as a shutter, go down, go down.

האומר גד גדי וסנוק לא אשכי ובושכי יש בו משום דרכי האמורי רבי יהודה אומר גד אינו אלא לשון עבודה זרה שנאמר הערכים לגד שלחן

After some discussion of the ways of the Amorite, the Gemara cites additional statements from the Amorite chapter in the Tosefta and from other sources on this topic. One who says: My fortune be fortunate [gad gaddi] and be not weary by day or by night; that statement contains an element of the ways of the Amorite. Rabbi Yehuda says: That is more severe than the ways of the Amorite, as gad is nothing other than a term of idolatry, as it is stated: “And you that forsake the Lord, that forget My holy mountain, that prepare a table for Gad, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto Meni” (Isaiah 65:11). Gad gaddi is a form of prayer to an idol.

הוא בשמה והיא בשמו יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who requests that he be called by his wife’s name and she be called by his name for good fortune, his request contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

דונו דני יש בו משום דרכי האמורי רבי יהודה אומר אין דן אלא לשון עבודה זרה שנאמר הנשבעים באשמת שמרון ואמרו חי אלהיך דן

One who says: Let my barrels be strengthened [donu danei], that contains an element of the ways of the Amorite. Rabbi Yehuda says: That is more severe than the ways of the Amorite, as Dan is nothing other than a term of idol worship, as it is stated: “They that swear by the sin of Samaria and say: As your god Dan lives” (Amos 8:14).

האומר לעורב צרח ולעורבתא שריקי והחזירי לי זנביך לטובה יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who hears a raven calling and is concerned about a bad omen and says to the raven: Scream, and says to the female raven: Whistle and turn your tail to me for the best; those statements contain an element of the ways of the Amorite.

האומר שחטו תרנגול זה שקרא ערבית ותרנגולת שקראה גברית יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who says: Slaughter this rooster that calls out in the evening and says: Slaughter this chicken that calls out like a male rooster; those statements contain an element of the ways of the Amorite.

אשתה ואותיר אשתה ואותיר יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who says: I will drink and leave over, I will drink and leave over, so that his wine will increase; that statement contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המבקעת ביצים בכותל (והטח) בפני האפרוחים יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

One who cracks eggs on a wall and smears them in front of the chicks; that series of actions contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

והמגיס בפני אפרוחים יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

And one who stirs the pot in front of chicks as an auspicious practice so they do not die; that action contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המרקדת והמונה שבעים ואחד אפרוחין בשביל שלא ימותו יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

A woman who dances and counts the chicks until she reaches the number of seventy-one chicks, so they won’t die; her action contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המרקדת לכותח והמשתקת לעדשים והמצווחת לגריסין יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

A woman who dances to ensure that the kutaḥ, a spice made from whey salt and bread, that she is preparing will be successful, and a woman who silences bystanders to ensure that the lentils will cook properly, and a woman who screams to ensure that the pearl barley will cook properly; all these contain an element of the ways of the Amorite.

המשתנת בפני קדירתה בשביל שתתבשל מהרה יש בו משום דרכי האמורי

A woman who urinates in front of her pot so it will cook quickly; that action contains an element of the ways of the Amorite.

אבל נותנין קיסם של תות ושברי זכוכית בקדירה בשביל שתתבשל מהרה וחכמים אוסרין בשברי זכוכית מפני הסכנה

But one may put a chip of mulberry wood and shards of glass in the pot so it will cook quickly, as doing so is effective and not merely superstition. And the Rabbis prohibit shards of glass not due to superstition; rather, due to the danger involved if the glass is not strained out completely.

תנו רבנן נותנין בול של מלח לתוך הנר בשביל שתאיר ותדליק ונותנין טיט וחרסית תחת הנר בשביל שתמתין ותדליק

The Sages taught in the Tosefta: One may place a lump of salt into a candle so it will burn brightly; that is effective and not merely for good fortune, so there is no element of the ways of the Amorites involved. And similarly, one may put mud or clay under a candle so it will burn longer.

אמר רב זוטרא האי מאן דמיכסי שרגא דמשחא ומגלי נפטא קעבר משום בל תשחית

Rav Zutra said: He who covers an oil lamp or who uncovers a kerosene lamp for no purpose violates the prohibition: Do not destroy, since by doing so the fuel burns more quickly.

חמרא וחיי לפום רבנן אין בו משום דרכי האמורי מעשה ברבי עקיבא שעשה משתה לבנו ועל כל כוס וכוס שהביא אמר חמרא וחיי לפום רבנן חיי וחמרא לפום רבנן ולפום תלמידיהון:

One who says while drinking: Wine and life to the mouth of the Sages, this does not fall into the category of the ways of the Amorite. There was an incident with Rabbi Akiva who made a banquet for his son, and over each and every cup he brought he said: Wine and life to the mouth of the Sages, wine and life to the mouth of the Sages and to the mouth of their students.

הדרן עלך במה אשה

 

מתני׳ כלל גדול אמרו בשבת כל השוכח עיקר שבת ועשה מלאכות הרבה בשבתות הרבה אינו חייב אלא חטאת אחת היודע עיקר שבת ועשה מלאכות הרבה בשבתות הרבה חייב על כל שבת ושבת היודע שהוא שבת ועשה מלאכות הרבה בשבתות הרבה חייב על כל

MISHNA: The Sages stated a significant principle with regard to the halakhot of Shabbat: One who forgets the essence of Shabbat, i.e., one who is entirely ignorant of the mitzva of Shabbat according to Torah law, and performed numerous prohibited labors on multiple Shabbatot, is liable to bring only one sin-offering for all those labors when he becomes aware that those actions were prohibited. One who knows the essence of Shabbat but forgets which day is Shabbat, i.e., one who lost track of the days of the week, and performs numerous prohibited labors on multiple Shabbatot is liable to bring a sin-offering for each Shabbat when he becomes aware that he performed those actions on Shabbat. One who is aware that the day is Shabbat but temporarily forgot that certain labors were prohibited and performed numerous prohibited labors on multiple Shabbatot is liable to bring a sin-offering for each

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