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Today's Daf Yomi

May 19, 2020 | כ״ה באייר תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

Shabbat 74

Today’s daf is dedicated in memory of Harriet Sommer, Hindel bat Zissel z”l,  by Eric Sommer and by Francine Shraga in honor of her daughter Sarah on earning her PhD. Congratulations! We are all so proud! Love, Mom, Dad, Rose and Dov.

Why are certain actions perfomred in the Tabernacle (mishkan) on the list of 39 melachot and others are not? Laws of selection (separating good from bad or bad from good) are discussed in a braita but in a very unclear manner. The gemara bring five explanations. The gemara tries to assess if really one is allowed to select good from bad. What are toladot of grinding? Why did the mishna write baking instead of cooking? Rav Acha says that one can be olbigated for cooking by putting object/utensils in an oven or pot like a peg or tar to prepare it. One who crafts a barrel, oven or wicker basket is obligated many sacrifices – for what actions? Rashi and Rav Hai Gaon disagree about which ones, partially based on a debate about whether one can be obligated in building for crafting a utensil. When in the Tabernacle did they do the acts of tying, untying and tearing?

אף על גב דאיכא דדמיא לה חשיב לה וליחשב נמי כותש אמר אביי שכן עני אוכל פתו בלא כתישה רבא אמר הא מני רבי היא דאמר אבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת ואי חשיב כותש הויא ליה ארבעים וליפוק חדא מהנך ולעייל כותש אלא מחוורתא כדאביי:

even though there is a different labor that is similar to it, the mishna enumerated it. Every labor that was performed in the Tabernacle is significant. The Gemara asks: And let him enumerate the labor of pounding as well, as wheat was pounded to remove its outer kernel in the Tabernacle. Abaye said: The labor of pounding is not one of the essential stages in the baking of bread, as paupers eat their bread without pounding the wheat to remove the bran. Therefore, since the tanna enumerated threshing, there was no need to include pounding among the labors enumerated in the breadmaking process. Rava said a different explanation: Who is the tanna of this mishna? It is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who said: The primary categories of labor are forty-less-one, a number derived from a textual allusion. Therefore, the list cannot be expanded. And had the tanna enumerated pounding, there would be forty labors rather than thirty-nine. The Gemara asks: And let him take out one of these, selecting or winnowing, and insert pounding, thereby leaving the number intact. Rather, the reason that the tanna did not include pounding is clear, according to the explanation of Abaye.

תנו רבנן היו לפניו מיני אוכלין בורר ואוכל בורר ומניח ולא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מאי קאמר אמר עולא הכי קאמר בורר ואוכל לבו ביום ובורר ומניח לבו ביום ולמחר לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מתקיף לה רב חסדא וכי מותר לאפות לבו ביום וכי מותר לבשל לבו ביום

The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of selecting: If there were several types of food before him, and he wants to remove one or more from the mixture, one selects and eats, selects and puts aside. And one may not select, and if one did select, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. The Gemara asks: What is the baraita saying? The end of this baraita contradicts the beginning. Ulla said: It is saying as follows: One selects and eats if he is doing so for the purpose of that day, Shabbat. And he selects and puts aside food for the purpose of that day. And one may not select for the purpose of the next day. And if one did select for the next day, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. Rav Ḥisda strongly objects to this explanation: And is it permitted to bake for that day, and is it permitted to cook for that day? No other labor prohibited on Shabbat may be performed for the purpose of Shabbat, and the same should hold true for selecting.

אלא אמר רב חסדא בורר ואוכל פחות מכשיעור בורר ומניח פחות מכשיעור וכשיעור לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מתקיף לה רב יוסף וכי מותר לאפות פחות מכשיעור אלא אמר רב יוסף בורר ואוכל ביד בורר ומניח ביד בקנון ובתמחוי לא יברור ואם בירר פטור אבל אסור ובנפה ובכברה לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת

Rather, Rav Ḥisda said it is to be understood as follows: One selects and eats less than the measure of a dried fig-bulk, which is the smallest amount for which one is liable by Torah law. One selects and puts aside less than that measure. And one may not select the measure of a dried fig-bulk, and if one did select that measure, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. Rav Yosef strongly objects to this explanation: And is it permitted to bake less than the measure for liability ab initio? Although performing a prohibited labor on a minute measure does not engender liability, it is prohibited. Therefore, the baraita cannot be interpreted as saying that one may ab initio select an amount that is less than the measure for liability. Rather, Rav Yosef said: One selects and eats by hand, selects and put aside by hand. However, with a basket [kanon] or with a plate, both of which are large, flat vessels used for sorting sizeable quantities, one may not select ab initio. And if he did select, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering if he did so unwittingly. If he did so intentionally he is exempt from stoning. However, it is prohibited. And one may not select with a sieve or with a sifter. And if he did select with those utensils, he is liable to bring a sin-offering.

מתקיף לה רב המנונא מידי קנון ותמחוי קתני אלא אמר רב המנונא בורר ואוכל אוכל מתוך הפסולת בורר ומניח אוכל מתוך הפסולת פסולת מתוך אוכל לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מתקיף לה אביי מידי אוכל מתוך פסולת קתני אלא אמר אביי בורר ואוכל לאלתר ובורר ומניח לאלתר ולבו ביום לא יברור ואם בירר נעשה כבורר לאוצר וחייב חטאת אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרבא אמר להו שפיר אמר נחמני

Rav Hamnuna strongly objects to this: Does the mishna teach anything about a basket or a plate? Rav Yosef’s explanation is based on the addition of details that do not appear in the baraita either. Rather, Rav Hamnuna said: One selects and eats if he is removing food from the waste, and similarly, selects and puts aside if he is removing food from the waste. However, one may not select waste from food, and if he did select in that manner, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. The typical method of selecting is the removal of waste from the food. An individual who alters the procedure is not liable. Abaye strongly objects to this: Does the mishna teach anything about food from waste? That detail is not mentioned in the baraita either. Rather, Abaye said: One selects and eats if he is removing food for immediate use, and similarly one selects and puts aside for immediate use. However, one may not select for use later that same day. And if he did select, he is considered like one who selects for storage, and he is liable to bring a sin-offering. This explanation requires no emendation of the mishna. It is merely an interpretation of the phrase: One selects and eats, as referring to selecting for immediate use. The Gemara relates that the Sages stated Abaye’s explanation of the baraita before Rava. He said to them: Naḥmani, Abaye, spoke well.

היו לפניו שני מיני אוכלין ובירר ואכל ובירר והניח רב אשי מתני פטור רבי ירמיה מדיפתי מתני חייב רב אשי מתני פטור והא תני חייב לא קשיא הא בקנון ותמחוי הא בנפה וכברה

Until this point, the Gemara discussed selecting food from waste. The Gemara proceeds to discuss a different case. If there were two types of foods before him, and he selected and ate one type, and selected and put aside one type, Rav Ashi taught: He is exempt. Rav Yirmeya from Difti taught: He is liable. Rav Ashi taught: He is exempt. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that in that case he is liable? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: This, where Rav Ashi said that he is exempt, is referring to a case where he selects by means of a basket or a plate, as that method of selecting is not considered expert work; and that, where the baraita said he is liable, is in a case where he selects by means of a sieve or a sifter, as that method of selecting is considered expert work.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר שבתא דרב ביבי הואי ואיקלעו רבי אמי ורבי אסי שדא קמייהו כלכלה דפירי ולא ידענא אי משום דסבר אוכל מתוך פסולת אסור אי משום עין יפה הוא דמכוין

The Gemara relates that when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: It was the Shabbat of Rav Beivai to serve food to the students, and Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to come to his house. He placed before them a basket of fruits without removing the leaves and the stems. And I do not know whether he did so because he holds that it is prohibited to select food from waste when it is not for immediate consumption, or whether he did so because he intended to show generosity to his guests by creating the impression that the basket was full. A fruit-filled basket conveys to the guests that there is plenty and that they may take as much as they wish. Therefore, there is no clear proof from this incident.

חזקיה אמר הבורר תורמוסים מתוך פסולת שלהן חייב לימא קסבר חזקיה אוכל מתוך פסולת אסור שאני תורמוסים

Ḥizkiya said: One who selects lupines from their waste after boiling them is liable for performing the prohibited labor of selecting. The Gemara asks: Let us say, based on this statement, that Ḥizkiya holds that even selecting food from waste is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this proof: Lupines are different,

דשלקי ליה שבעא זימני ואי לא שקלי ליה מסרח וכפסולת מתוך אוכל דמי:

as they are boiled seven times. And, if one does not remove them from the shells, they rot. Therefore, it is considered like removing waste from food. The rotting edible portion of the lupine causes the shell to reek. Removing the edible portion, therefore, has the legal status of removing waste.

והטוחן: אמר רב פפא האי מאן דפרים סילקא חייב משום טוחן אמר רב מנשה האי מאן דסלית סילתי חייב משום טוחן אמר רב אשי איקפיד אמשחתא חייב משום מחתך:

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who grinds. Rav Pappa said: One who chops beets into small pieces on Shabbat is liable due to the prohibited labor of grinding, as the actions are similar. Rav Menashe said: One who chops wood chips for sawdust (Rambam) is liable due to the prohibited labor of grinding. Rav Ashi said: If he is particular in his chopping with regard to the measurement, i.e., he is careful to cut all the chips to a particular size, he is also liable due to the labor of cutting.

והלש והאופה: אמר רב פפא שבק תנא דידן בישול סממנין דהוה במשכן ונקט אופה תנא דידן סידורא דפת נקט

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who kneads and one who bakes. Rav Pappa said: Our tanna left out the labor of cooking the spices for dye, which was performed in the Tabernacle, and included the labor of baking, which was not performed in the construction of the Tabernacle. If, as stated above, all the primary categories of labor were derived from the labors in the Tabernacle, why did the tanna omit cooking? The Gemara answers: Our tanna cited the sequence of preparing bread, which was the underlying principle behind his organization of the primary categories of labor. He opened with plowing and concluded with the preparation of bread.

אמר רב אחא בר רב עוירא האי מאן דשדא סיכתא לאתונא חייב משום מבשל פשיטא מהו דתימא לשרורי מנא קא מיכוין קא משמע לן דמירפא רפי והדר קמיט אמר רבה בר רב הונא האי מאן דארתח כופרא חייב משום מבשל פשיטא מהו דתימא כיון דהדר ואיקושא אימא לא קא משמע לן

Rav Aḥa bar Rav Avira said: One who places a peg into an oven to dry is liable for performing the labor of cooking. The Gemara asks: That is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that he intends to strengthen the utensil, as ultimately, the peg is hardened in the oven, in contrast to cooking in which the fire softens the item being cooked. Therefore, he teaches us that initially the wood is softened in the oven, and only afterward it is hardened. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: One who boils pitch is liable for performing the labor of cooking. The Gemara asks: That is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that since it proceeds to harden afterward, say that it is not considered cooking. One might think that since the pitch was hard before it was cooked and will ultimately be hard after it is cooked, boiling pitch is not considered cooking. Therefore, he teaches us that even a temporary change is considered cooking.

אמר רבא האי מאן דעבד חביתא חייב משום שבע חטאות תנורא חייב משום שמונה חטאות אמר אביי האי מאן דעבד חלתא חייב אחת עשרה חטאות ואי חייטיה לפומיה חייב שלש עשרה חטאות:

Rava said: One who unwittingly crafted an earthenware barrel on Shabbat is liable to bring seven sin-offerings: He crumbles the lumps of dirt; which is (1) grinding; (2) selects the stones from the dirt; (3) kneads the mortar; (4) cuts the mortar into pieces of a suitable size; (5) builds the mold; (6) kindles the fire, and then fires the earthenware vessel, which is (7) baking (ge’onim). One who crafts an oven is liable for eight sin-offerings, since in addition to those seven labors, he spreads another layer of mortar to finish the job, performing the prohibited labor of (8) smoothing. Abaye said: One who unwittingly crafts a receptacle from reeds on Shabbat is liable to bring eleven sin-offerings. In pruning the reeds, he performed both (1) reaping and (2) planting, as he stimulates growth of the remaining reeds. He (3) gathers the reeds; (4) selects them; (5) smooths and levels them; cuts them into small pieces, which is (6) grinding; and (7) cuts them to a particular measurement. When he begins weaving the reeds, he performs the labors of (8) stretching the warp; (9) constructing two meshes; and (10) weaving. Crafting the object as a whole constitutes (11) building (ge’onim). And if he sews the mouth of the receptacle, he is liable to bring thirteen sin-offerings with the added labors of (12) sewing and (13) tying.

הגוזז את הצמר והמלבנו: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הטווה צמר שעל גבי בהמה בשבת חייב שלש חטאות אחת משום גוזז ואחת משום מנפץ ואחת משום טווה רב כהנא אמר אין דרך גזיזה בכך ואין דרך מנפץ בכך ואין דרך טווי בכך ולא והתניא משמיה דרבי נחמיה שטוף בעזים וטוו בעזים אלמא טוויה על גבי בהמה שמה טוויה חכמה יתירה שאני

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who shears wool, and one who whitens it, which are labors in the process of shearing and spinning wool. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who unwittingly spins wool still attached on the back of an animal on Shabbat is liable to bring three sin-offerings: One due to shearing, since, in the process, some of the wool is detached from the sheep; and one due to combing the wool; and one due to spinning. Rav Kahana said: This is not a typical manner of shearing, and this is not a typical manner of combing, and this is not a typical manner of spinning. The Gemara asks: And is that not a typical manner of spinning? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita in the name of Rabbi Neḥemya that the verse in the context of the work of the Tabernacle: “And all the women whose hearts lifted them with wisdom spun the goats” (Exodus 35:26) means that they washed the hair on the goats, and they spun it into threads on the goats themselves without first shearing the hair? Apparently, spinning on the back of an animal is considered a typical manner of spinning. The Gemara answers: Extraordinary wisdom is different. Although certain individuals are capable of spinning wool that way, the typical person is not capable of performing that feat.

תנו רבנן התולש את הכנף והקוטמו והמורטו חייב שלש חטאות (ואמר רבי) שמעון בן לקיש תולש חייב משום גוזז קוטם חייב משום מחתך ממרט חייב משום ממחק:

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One who unwittingly plucks a large feather from the wing of a bird on Shabbat, and who snips the tip of the feather, and who pulls out the thin threads that comprise the feather is liable to bring three sin-offerings. And Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said in explanation: One who plucks the wing is liable due to the labor of shearing. One who snips the tip of the feather is liable due to cutting. And one who pulls out the threads is liable due to smoothing.

הקושר והמתיר: קשירה במשכן היכא הואי אמר רבא שכן קושרין ביתדות אהלים (קושרים) ההוא קושר על מנת להתיר הוא אלא אמר אביי שכן אורגי יריעות שנפסקה להן נימא קושרים אותה אמר ליה רבא תרצת קושר מתיר מאי איכא למימר וכי תימא דאי מתרמי ליה תרי חוטי קיטרי בהדי הדדי שרי חד וקטר חד השתא לפני מלך בשר ודם אין עושין כן לפני מלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך הוא עושין אלא אמר רבא ואיתימא רבי עילאי שכן צדי חלזון קושרין ומתירין:

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who ties and one who unties. The Gemara asks: Where was there tying in the Tabernacle? Rava said: They tied the tents of the Tabernacle to the pegs. The Gemara rejects this: And is that considered performance of the labor of tying? That was tying a knot in order to untie it. When the children of Israel departed from an encampment, they dismantled the Tabernacle, which involved untying all of the knots. One is not liable for tying a temporary knot on Shabbat. Rather, Abaye said: As the weavers of curtains for the Tabernacle, when a thread would rip, they would tie it. Rava said to him: You have resolved the problem with regard to the labor of tying; however, with regard to the labor of untying, what can be said? Where, in the construction of the Tabernacle, was the labor of untying performed? And if you say that it was performed if one found two threads with knots tied next to each other, he untied one and left one tied; now, before a king of flesh and blood one would not do so, as the curtain would look flawed, in the Tabernacle, before the King of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, would one do so? Rather, Rava said, and some say that Rav Elai said: The trappers of ḥilazon, whose blood was used in the Tabernacle as a dye, tie and untie their nets.

והתופר שתי תפירות: והא לא קיימא אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן והוא שקשרן:

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who sews two stitches. The Gemara asks: That does not endure; two stitches will unravel immediately. A prohibited labor whose result is temporary is not considered a prohibited labor. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: That has the legal status of a prohibited labor only in a case where, after sewing the stitches, he tied them. He tied a knot at each of the two ends of the thread so that the stitches would not unravel.

הקורע על מנת לתפור: קריעה במשכן מי הוה רבה ורבי זירא דאמרי תרווייהו

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who tears in order to sew two stitches. The Gemara asks: Was there tearing in the construction of the Tabernacle? The Gemara answers that it was Rabba and Rabbi Zeira who both said the following explanation:

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

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Shabbat 74

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Shabbat 74

אף על גב דאיכא דדמיא לה חשיב לה וליחשב נמי כותש אמר אביי שכן עני אוכל פתו בלא כתישה רבא אמר הא מני רבי היא דאמר אבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת ואי חשיב כותש הויא ליה ארבעים וליפוק חדא מהנך ולעייל כותש אלא מחוורתא כדאביי:

even though there is a different labor that is similar to it, the mishna enumerated it. Every labor that was performed in the Tabernacle is significant. The Gemara asks: And let him enumerate the labor of pounding as well, as wheat was pounded to remove its outer kernel in the Tabernacle. Abaye said: The labor of pounding is not one of the essential stages in the baking of bread, as paupers eat their bread without pounding the wheat to remove the bran. Therefore, since the tanna enumerated threshing, there was no need to include pounding among the labors enumerated in the breadmaking process. Rava said a different explanation: Who is the tanna of this mishna? It is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who said: The primary categories of labor are forty-less-one, a number derived from a textual allusion. Therefore, the list cannot be expanded. And had the tanna enumerated pounding, there would be forty labors rather than thirty-nine. The Gemara asks: And let him take out one of these, selecting or winnowing, and insert pounding, thereby leaving the number intact. Rather, the reason that the tanna did not include pounding is clear, according to the explanation of Abaye.

תנו רבנן היו לפניו מיני אוכלין בורר ואוכל בורר ומניח ולא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מאי קאמר אמר עולא הכי קאמר בורר ואוכל לבו ביום ובורר ומניח לבו ביום ולמחר לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מתקיף לה רב חסדא וכי מותר לאפות לבו ביום וכי מותר לבשל לבו ביום

The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of selecting: If there were several types of food before him, and he wants to remove one or more from the mixture, one selects and eats, selects and puts aside. And one may not select, and if one did select, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. The Gemara asks: What is the baraita saying? The end of this baraita contradicts the beginning. Ulla said: It is saying as follows: One selects and eats if he is doing so for the purpose of that day, Shabbat. And he selects and puts aside food for the purpose of that day. And one may not select for the purpose of the next day. And if one did select for the next day, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. Rav Ḥisda strongly objects to this explanation: And is it permitted to bake for that day, and is it permitted to cook for that day? No other labor prohibited on Shabbat may be performed for the purpose of Shabbat, and the same should hold true for selecting.

אלא אמר רב חסדא בורר ואוכל פחות מכשיעור בורר ומניח פחות מכשיעור וכשיעור לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מתקיף לה רב יוסף וכי מותר לאפות פחות מכשיעור אלא אמר רב יוסף בורר ואוכל ביד בורר ומניח ביד בקנון ובתמחוי לא יברור ואם בירר פטור אבל אסור ובנפה ובכברה לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת

Rather, Rav Ḥisda said it is to be understood as follows: One selects and eats less than the measure of a dried fig-bulk, which is the smallest amount for which one is liable by Torah law. One selects and puts aside less than that measure. And one may not select the measure of a dried fig-bulk, and if one did select that measure, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. Rav Yosef strongly objects to this explanation: And is it permitted to bake less than the measure for liability ab initio? Although performing a prohibited labor on a minute measure does not engender liability, it is prohibited. Therefore, the baraita cannot be interpreted as saying that one may ab initio select an amount that is less than the measure for liability. Rather, Rav Yosef said: One selects and eats by hand, selects and put aside by hand. However, with a basket [kanon] or with a plate, both of which are large, flat vessels used for sorting sizeable quantities, one may not select ab initio. And if he did select, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering if he did so unwittingly. If he did so intentionally he is exempt from stoning. However, it is prohibited. And one may not select with a sieve or with a sifter. And if he did select with those utensils, he is liable to bring a sin-offering.

מתקיף לה רב המנונא מידי קנון ותמחוי קתני אלא אמר רב המנונא בורר ואוכל אוכל מתוך הפסולת בורר ומניח אוכל מתוך הפסולת פסולת מתוך אוכל לא יברור ואם בירר חייב חטאת מתקיף לה אביי מידי אוכל מתוך פסולת קתני אלא אמר אביי בורר ואוכל לאלתר ובורר ומניח לאלתר ולבו ביום לא יברור ואם בירר נעשה כבורר לאוצר וחייב חטאת אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרבא אמר להו שפיר אמר נחמני

Rav Hamnuna strongly objects to this: Does the mishna teach anything about a basket or a plate? Rav Yosef’s explanation is based on the addition of details that do not appear in the baraita either. Rather, Rav Hamnuna said: One selects and eats if he is removing food from the waste, and similarly, selects and puts aside if he is removing food from the waste. However, one may not select waste from food, and if he did select in that manner, he is liable to bring a sin-offering. The typical method of selecting is the removal of waste from the food. An individual who alters the procedure is not liable. Abaye strongly objects to this: Does the mishna teach anything about food from waste? That detail is not mentioned in the baraita either. Rather, Abaye said: One selects and eats if he is removing food for immediate use, and similarly one selects and puts aside for immediate use. However, one may not select for use later that same day. And if he did select, he is considered like one who selects for storage, and he is liable to bring a sin-offering. This explanation requires no emendation of the mishna. It is merely an interpretation of the phrase: One selects and eats, as referring to selecting for immediate use. The Gemara relates that the Sages stated Abaye’s explanation of the baraita before Rava. He said to them: Naḥmani, Abaye, spoke well.

היו לפניו שני מיני אוכלין ובירר ואכל ובירר והניח רב אשי מתני פטור רבי ירמיה מדיפתי מתני חייב רב אשי מתני פטור והא תני חייב לא קשיא הא בקנון ותמחוי הא בנפה וכברה

Until this point, the Gemara discussed selecting food from waste. The Gemara proceeds to discuss a different case. If there were two types of foods before him, and he selected and ate one type, and selected and put aside one type, Rav Ashi taught: He is exempt. Rav Yirmeya from Difti taught: He is liable. Rav Ashi taught: He is exempt. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that in that case he is liable? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: This, where Rav Ashi said that he is exempt, is referring to a case where he selects by means of a basket or a plate, as that method of selecting is not considered expert work; and that, where the baraita said he is liable, is in a case where he selects by means of a sieve or a sifter, as that method of selecting is considered expert work.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר שבתא דרב ביבי הואי ואיקלעו רבי אמי ורבי אסי שדא קמייהו כלכלה דפירי ולא ידענא אי משום דסבר אוכל מתוך פסולת אסור אי משום עין יפה הוא דמכוין

The Gemara relates that when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: It was the Shabbat of Rav Beivai to serve food to the students, and Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to come to his house. He placed before them a basket of fruits without removing the leaves and the stems. And I do not know whether he did so because he holds that it is prohibited to select food from waste when it is not for immediate consumption, or whether he did so because he intended to show generosity to his guests by creating the impression that the basket was full. A fruit-filled basket conveys to the guests that there is plenty and that they may take as much as they wish. Therefore, there is no clear proof from this incident.

חזקיה אמר הבורר תורמוסים מתוך פסולת שלהן חייב לימא קסבר חזקיה אוכל מתוך פסולת אסור שאני תורמוסים

Ḥizkiya said: One who selects lupines from their waste after boiling them is liable for performing the prohibited labor of selecting. The Gemara asks: Let us say, based on this statement, that Ḥizkiya holds that even selecting food from waste is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this proof: Lupines are different,

דשלקי ליה שבעא זימני ואי לא שקלי ליה מסרח וכפסולת מתוך אוכל דמי:

as they are boiled seven times. And, if one does not remove them from the shells, they rot. Therefore, it is considered like removing waste from food. The rotting edible portion of the lupine causes the shell to reek. Removing the edible portion, therefore, has the legal status of removing waste.

והטוחן: אמר רב פפא האי מאן דפרים סילקא חייב משום טוחן אמר רב מנשה האי מאן דסלית סילתי חייב משום טוחן אמר רב אשי איקפיד אמשחתא חייב משום מחתך:

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who grinds. Rav Pappa said: One who chops beets into small pieces on Shabbat is liable due to the prohibited labor of grinding, as the actions are similar. Rav Menashe said: One who chops wood chips for sawdust (Rambam) is liable due to the prohibited labor of grinding. Rav Ashi said: If he is particular in his chopping with regard to the measurement, i.e., he is careful to cut all the chips to a particular size, he is also liable due to the labor of cutting.

והלש והאופה: אמר רב פפא שבק תנא דידן בישול סממנין דהוה במשכן ונקט אופה תנא דידן סידורא דפת נקט

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who kneads and one who bakes. Rav Pappa said: Our tanna left out the labor of cooking the spices for dye, which was performed in the Tabernacle, and included the labor of baking, which was not performed in the construction of the Tabernacle. If, as stated above, all the primary categories of labor were derived from the labors in the Tabernacle, why did the tanna omit cooking? The Gemara answers: Our tanna cited the sequence of preparing bread, which was the underlying principle behind his organization of the primary categories of labor. He opened with plowing and concluded with the preparation of bread.

אמר רב אחא בר רב עוירא האי מאן דשדא סיכתא לאתונא חייב משום מבשל פשיטא מהו דתימא לשרורי מנא קא מיכוין קא משמע לן דמירפא רפי והדר קמיט אמר רבה בר רב הונא האי מאן דארתח כופרא חייב משום מבשל פשיטא מהו דתימא כיון דהדר ואיקושא אימא לא קא משמע לן

Rav Aḥa bar Rav Avira said: One who places a peg into an oven to dry is liable for performing the labor of cooking. The Gemara asks: That is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that he intends to strengthen the utensil, as ultimately, the peg is hardened in the oven, in contrast to cooking in which the fire softens the item being cooked. Therefore, he teaches us that initially the wood is softened in the oven, and only afterward it is hardened. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: One who boils pitch is liable for performing the labor of cooking. The Gemara asks: That is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that since it proceeds to harden afterward, say that it is not considered cooking. One might think that since the pitch was hard before it was cooked and will ultimately be hard after it is cooked, boiling pitch is not considered cooking. Therefore, he teaches us that even a temporary change is considered cooking.

אמר רבא האי מאן דעבד חביתא חייב משום שבע חטאות תנורא חייב משום שמונה חטאות אמר אביי האי מאן דעבד חלתא חייב אחת עשרה חטאות ואי חייטיה לפומיה חייב שלש עשרה חטאות:

Rava said: One who unwittingly crafted an earthenware barrel on Shabbat is liable to bring seven sin-offerings: He crumbles the lumps of dirt; which is (1) grinding; (2) selects the stones from the dirt; (3) kneads the mortar; (4) cuts the mortar into pieces of a suitable size; (5) builds the mold; (6) kindles the fire, and then fires the earthenware vessel, which is (7) baking (ge’onim). One who crafts an oven is liable for eight sin-offerings, since in addition to those seven labors, he spreads another layer of mortar to finish the job, performing the prohibited labor of (8) smoothing. Abaye said: One who unwittingly crafts a receptacle from reeds on Shabbat is liable to bring eleven sin-offerings. In pruning the reeds, he performed both (1) reaping and (2) planting, as he stimulates growth of the remaining reeds. He (3) gathers the reeds; (4) selects them; (5) smooths and levels them; cuts them into small pieces, which is (6) grinding; and (7) cuts them to a particular measurement. When he begins weaving the reeds, he performs the labors of (8) stretching the warp; (9) constructing two meshes; and (10) weaving. Crafting the object as a whole constitutes (11) building (ge’onim). And if he sews the mouth of the receptacle, he is liable to bring thirteen sin-offerings with the added labors of (12) sewing and (13) tying.

הגוזז את הצמר והמלבנו: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הטווה צמר שעל גבי בהמה בשבת חייב שלש חטאות אחת משום גוזז ואחת משום מנפץ ואחת משום טווה רב כהנא אמר אין דרך גזיזה בכך ואין דרך מנפץ בכך ואין דרך טווי בכך ולא והתניא משמיה דרבי נחמיה שטוף בעזים וטוו בעזים אלמא טוויה על גבי בהמה שמה טוויה חכמה יתירה שאני

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who shears wool, and one who whitens it, which are labors in the process of shearing and spinning wool. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who unwittingly spins wool still attached on the back of an animal on Shabbat is liable to bring three sin-offerings: One due to shearing, since, in the process, some of the wool is detached from the sheep; and one due to combing the wool; and one due to spinning. Rav Kahana said: This is not a typical manner of shearing, and this is not a typical manner of combing, and this is not a typical manner of spinning. The Gemara asks: And is that not a typical manner of spinning? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita in the name of Rabbi Neḥemya that the verse in the context of the work of the Tabernacle: “And all the women whose hearts lifted them with wisdom spun the goats” (Exodus 35:26) means that they washed the hair on the goats, and they spun it into threads on the goats themselves without first shearing the hair? Apparently, spinning on the back of an animal is considered a typical manner of spinning. The Gemara answers: Extraordinary wisdom is different. Although certain individuals are capable of spinning wool that way, the typical person is not capable of performing that feat.

תנו רבנן התולש את הכנף והקוטמו והמורטו חייב שלש חטאות (ואמר רבי) שמעון בן לקיש תולש חייב משום גוזז קוטם חייב משום מחתך ממרט חייב משום ממחק:

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One who unwittingly plucks a large feather from the wing of a bird on Shabbat, and who snips the tip of the feather, and who pulls out the thin threads that comprise the feather is liable to bring three sin-offerings. And Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said in explanation: One who plucks the wing is liable due to the labor of shearing. One who snips the tip of the feather is liable due to cutting. And one who pulls out the threads is liable due to smoothing.

הקושר והמתיר: קשירה במשכן היכא הואי אמר רבא שכן קושרין ביתדות אהלים (קושרים) ההוא קושר על מנת להתיר הוא אלא אמר אביי שכן אורגי יריעות שנפסקה להן נימא קושרים אותה אמר ליה רבא תרצת קושר מתיר מאי איכא למימר וכי תימא דאי מתרמי ליה תרי חוטי קיטרי בהדי הדדי שרי חד וקטר חד השתא לפני מלך בשר ודם אין עושין כן לפני מלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך הוא עושין אלא אמר רבא ואיתימא רבי עילאי שכן צדי חלזון קושרין ומתירין:

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who ties and one who unties. The Gemara asks: Where was there tying in the Tabernacle? Rava said: They tied the tents of the Tabernacle to the pegs. The Gemara rejects this: And is that considered performance of the labor of tying? That was tying a knot in order to untie it. When the children of Israel departed from an encampment, they dismantled the Tabernacle, which involved untying all of the knots. One is not liable for tying a temporary knot on Shabbat. Rather, Abaye said: As the weavers of curtains for the Tabernacle, when a thread would rip, they would tie it. Rava said to him: You have resolved the problem with regard to the labor of tying; however, with regard to the labor of untying, what can be said? Where, in the construction of the Tabernacle, was the labor of untying performed? And if you say that it was performed if one found two threads with knots tied next to each other, he untied one and left one tied; now, before a king of flesh and blood one would not do so, as the curtain would look flawed, in the Tabernacle, before the King of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, would one do so? Rather, Rava said, and some say that Rav Elai said: The trappers of ḥilazon, whose blood was used in the Tabernacle as a dye, tie and untie their nets.

והתופר שתי תפירות: והא לא קיימא אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן והוא שקשרן:

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who sews two stitches. The Gemara asks: That does not endure; two stitches will unravel immediately. A prohibited labor whose result is temporary is not considered a prohibited labor. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: That has the legal status of a prohibited labor only in a case where, after sewing the stitches, he tied them. He tied a knot at each of the two ends of the thread so that the stitches would not unravel.

הקורע על מנת לתפור: קריעה במשכן מי הוה רבה ורבי זירא דאמרי תרווייהו

We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who tears in order to sew two stitches. The Gemara asks: Was there tearing in the construction of the Tabernacle? The Gemara answers that it was Rabba and Rabbi Zeira who both said the following explanation:

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