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Today's Daf Yomi

May 23, 2020 | 讻状讟 讘讗讬讬专 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 78

The gemara continues to discuss the requisite amount needed for carrying items such as liquids, paper, ropes, reeds, etc.

讜诇讬转讗 讚专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讜讛讻讗 讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 住讘专 讗讘专 拽讟谉 讚讙讚讜诇 讜讗讘专 讙讚讜诇 讚拽讟谉 讘谉 讬讜诪讜 讻讬 讛讚讚讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜专讘讬 谞转谉 住讘专 讗讘专 拽讟谉 讚讙讚讜诇 讗讬谉 讗讘专 讙讚讜诇 讚拽讟谉 讘谉 讬讜诪讜 诇讗 诪讗讬 讛讜讬 注诇讛 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 砖诪谉 讻讚讬 诇住讜讱 讗讘专 拽讟谉 砖诇 拽讟谉 讘谉 讬讜诪讜:

and the opinion of the school of Rabbi Yannai is not accepted. And here, in this baraita, they disagree about this: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds: A small limb of an adult and a large limb of a day-old child are equal to one another, and Rabbi Natan holds: For carrying out oil in a measure equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of an adult, yes, one is liable; however, a large limb of a day-old child, no, he is exempt. The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached in this matter? Come and hear a proof, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says explicitly: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of a day-old child.

诪讬诐 讻讚讬 诇砖讜祝 讘讛谉 讗转 讛拽讬诇讜专: 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪讻讚讬 讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚砖讻讬讞讗 讜诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讚砖讻讬讞讗 诇拽讜诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讜砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讚砖讻讬讞讗 诇讞讜诪专讗

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out water is equivalent to that which is used to rub and spread on an eye bandage. Abaye said: Now, since, with regard to any substance that is utilized for both common and uncommon uses, the Sages, in their ruling, followed the common usage even as a leniency, i.e., one is liable only for carrying out the larger measure. However, when a substance has different uses and one is common and the other is common as well, the Sages, in their ruling, followed the common use that leads to a stringency, i.e., one is liable for carrying out even the smaller amount.

讬讬谉 砖转讬讬转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 砖转讬讬转讜 讚砖讻讬讞讗 诇拽讜诇讗 讞诇讘 讗讻讬诇转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讗讻讬诇转讜 诇拽讜诇讗 讚讘砖 讗讻讬诇转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讞讜诪专讗

Proof for this principle can be seen in the following examples. Wine, its use for drinking is common and its use for healing is uncommon. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out wine, followed its use for drinking, which is common, which led to a leniency. The amount of wine that one typically drinks is greater than the amount of wine used for healing. Milk, its consumption is common and its use for healing is uncommon. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out milk, followed its consumption, which is common, as a leniency. Honey, its consumption is common and its use for healing is also common. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out honey, followed its use for healing, the smaller amount, as a stringency.

讗诇讗 诪讬诐 诪讻讚讬 砖转讬讬转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讞讜诪专讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讘讙诇讬诇讗 砖谞讜 专讘讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 讘砖讗专 诪拽讜诪讜转 讻讚砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 砖拽讬讬谞讬 诪住讜 讜诪讟诇诇讬 诇讘专 诪诪讬讗 讚诪住讜 讜诇讗 诪讟诇诇讬:

However, water, since its drinking is common and its use for healing is uncommon, what is the reason that the Sages followed its use for healing as a stringency? Based on the above principle, the Sages should have determined the measure based on its use for drinking. Abaye said: They taught this halakha in the Galilee where they typically drink wine. There, water is used as commonly for healing as it is for drinking (Tosafot). Rava said: Even if you say that this halakha applies in the rest of the places as well as in the Galilee, the use of water in treating the eye is common, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, as Shmuel said: All liquids placed on the eye effect a cure and cloud the vision, except for water which cures and does not cloud the vision.

讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚诐 讜讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讚诐 讻讚讬 诇讻讞讜诇 讘注讬谉 讗讞转 砖讻谉 讻讜讞诇讬谉 诇讘专拽讬转 讜诪讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讚诪讗 讚转专谞讙讜诇转 讘专讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚诐 讻讚讬 诇讻讞讜诇 讘讜 注讬谉 讗讞转 砖讻谉 讻讜讞诇讬谉 诇讬讗专讜讚 讜诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 讚诪讗 讚讻专讜砖转讬谞讗 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 讙讜讗 诇讙讜讗 讘专讗 诇讘专讗

We learned in the mishna: And the measure that determines liability for all other liquids is a quarter of a log. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood and all types of liquids on Shabbat is a quarter of a log. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The measure that determines liability for blood is less than that. The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood is equivalent to that which is used to apply to one eye, as one applies blood to heal a wart on the eye. The Gemara asks: And what type of blood effects this cure? The blood of a wild chicken. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood is equivalent to that which is used to apply to one eye, as one applies blood to heal a cataract. And what type of blood effects this cure? The blood of a bat. And a mnemonic to ensure that you do not confuse these cures: Inside for inside, outside for outside. The blood of a bat, which lives in inhabited areas, for the cataract, which is inside the eye; the blood of a wild chicken, which lives outside inhabited areas, for the wart, which is external to the eye.

讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪讜爪讬讗 讗讘诇 讘诪爪谞讬注 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讞讬讬讘 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪爪谞讬注 讗讘诇 讘诪讜爪讬讗 讗讬谞讜 讞讬讬讘 讗诇讗 讘专讘讬注讬转 讜诪讜讚讬诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘诪讜爪讬讗 砖讜驻讻讬谉 诇专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 砖砖讬注讜专谉 讘专讘讬注讬转:

The Gemara cites a Tosefta: In what case are these matters, the measures for the substances in the mishna, stated? They were stated with regard to one who carries them out from one domain to another without ascribing special significance to them. However, with regard to one who stores them, thereby ascribing significance to them, the ruling is that he is liable for carrying out any measure. Rabbi Shimon says: In what case are these matters stated? They were stated with regard to one who stores those amounts. However, if one merely carries them out, he is liable only if he carries out a quarter of a log. And the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Shimon with regard to one who carries out waste water to the public domain that even when one merely carries it out, the measure that determines liability is a quarter of a log.

讗诪专 诪专 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪讜爪讬讗 讗讘诇 讘诪爪谞讬注 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讗讟讜 诪爪谞讬注 诇讗讜 诪讜爪讬讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘转诇诪讬讚 砖讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讜 诇讱 讜驻谞讛 诇讬 讛诪拽讜诐 诇住注讜讚讛 讛诇讱 讜驻谞讛 诇讜 讚讘专 讞砖讜讘 诇讻诇 讞讬讬讘 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讘 诇讻诇 讗讬 讗爪谞注讬讛 专讘讬讛 诪讬讞讬讬讘 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘

The Master said in the Tosefta: In what case are these matters, the measures for the substances in the mishna, stated? They were stated with regard to one who carries them out from one domain to another without ascribing special significance to them. However, with regard to one who stores them, he is liable for any amount. The Gemara is surprised at this: Isn鈥檛 the one who stores also the one who carries out? One is not liable for merely storing. He is liable only for carrying out the stored item. Abaye said: With what are we dealing here? With the case of a student whose teacher said to him: Go and clear for me space for a meal, and he went and cleared space for him and removed the items to another domain. If he cleared an item that is significant to all, he is liable for carrying it out. If he cleared an item that is not significant to all, then, if his teacher had stored it, he is liable for carrying it out, and if his teacher had not stored it, he is not liable for carrying it out, since the student is fulfilling his teacher鈥檚 wishes.

讗诪专 诪专 诪讜讚讬诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘诪讜爪讬讗 砖讜驻讻讬谉 诇专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 砖砖讬注讜专谉 讘专讘讬注讬转: 砖讜驻讻讬谉 诇诪讗讬 讞讝讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇讙讘诇 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讟讬讟 讜讛转谞讬讗 讟讬讟 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讘讛谉 驻讬 讻讜专 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚诪讬讙讘诇 讛讗 讚诇讗 诪讬讙讘诇 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讟讜专讞 诇讙讘诇 讟讬讟 诇注砖讜转 驻讬 讻讜专:

The Master said in the Tosefta: And the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Shimon with regard to one who carries out waste water to the public domain, that the measure that determines liability is a quarter of a log. The Gemara asks: For what use is waste water fit? Rabbi Yirmeya said: It is used to knead clay. The Gemara asks: If that is its purpose, why is such a large amount required? Was it not taught in a baraita: The measure that determines liability for carrying out clay on Shabbat is equivalent to that which is used to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible, which is a much smaller measure? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, where the measure for clay is equivalent to that which is used to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible, is referring to a case where it was already kneaded; that, where the measure for waste water is a quarter of a log to knead clay, is referring to a case where it is not yet kneaded, as a person does not go to the trouble of kneading clay just to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible. When carrying out water to knead clay, a large amount is required; however, clay that was already prepared is fit for use for smaller objects as well.

诪转谞讬壮 讛诪讜爪讬讗 讞讘诇 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讗讜讝谉 诇拽讜驻讛 讙诪讬 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 转诇讗讬 诇谞驻讛 讜诇讻讘专讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇讬讟讜诇 诪诪谞讜 诪讚转 诪谞注诇 诇拽讟谉 谞讬讬专 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 注诇讬讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 讜讛诪讜爪讬讗 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 讞讬讬讘

MISHNA: One who carries out a rope is liable in a measure equivalent to that which is used to form an ear-shaped handle for a basket. The measure that determines liability for carrying out reed grass is equivalent to that which is used to make a loop for hanging a sifter or a sieve. Rabbi Yehuda says: The measure for liability is equivalent to that which is used to take the measure of a shoe for a child, as the reed is used to measure the size of the foot. The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper is equivalent to that which is used to write a tax receipt. And one who carries out a tax receipt itself on Shabbat is liable.

谞讬讬专 诪讞讜拽 讻讚讬 诇讻专讜讱 注诇 爪诇讜讞讬转 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 驻诇讬讬讟讜谉 注讜专 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 拽诪讬注 (讚讜讻住讜住讟讜住 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 诪讝讜讝讛) 拽诇祝 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 注诇讬讜 驻专砖讛 拽讟谞讛 砖讘转驻讬诇讬谉 砖讛讬讗 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讚讬讜 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转

The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper from which the writing has been erased and which can no longer be used for writing, is equivalent to that which is used to wrap around a small jar of perfume. The measure that determines liability for carrying out animal hide is equivalent to that which is used to make an amulet. The measure that determines liability for carrying out dokhsostos, a layer of the animal hide, is equivalent to that which is used to write a mezuza. The measure that determines liability for carrying out parchment is equivalent to that which is used to write the shortest portion in the phylacteries, which is the portion of Shema Yisrael. The measure that determines liability for carrying out ink is equivalent to that which is used to write two letters.

讻讞讜诇 讻讚讬 诇讻讞讜诇 注讬谉 讗讞转 讚讘拽 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖驻砖祝 讝驻转 讜讙驻专讬转 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 谞拽讘 砖注讜讛 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 注诇 驻讬 谞拽讘 拽讟谉 讞专住讬转 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 驻讬 讻讜专 砖诇 爪讜专驻讬 讝讛讘 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 驻讬讟驻讜讟 住讜讘讬谉 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 注诇 驻讬 讻讜专 砖诇 爪讜专驻讬 讝讛讘 住讬讚 讻讚讬 诇住讜讚 拽讟谞讛 砖讘讘谞讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讻诇讻诇 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇住讜讚 讗讜谞讚驻讬:

The measure that determines liability for carrying out blue eye shadow is equivalent to that which is used to paint one eye blue. The measure that determines liability for carrying out glue is equivalent to that which is used to place on the top of a board to catch birds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out tar and sulfur is equivalent to that which is used to seal a hole in a vessel and to make a small hole in that seal. The measure that determines liability for carrying out wax is equivalent to that which is used to place on the opening of a small hole to seal it. The measure that determines liability for carrying out crushed earthenware is equivalent to that which is used to knead and make from it an opening for the bellows to be placed in a gold refiners鈥 crucible. Rabbi Yehuda says: Equivalent to that which is used to make a small tripod [pitput] for the crucible. The measure that determines liability for carrying out bran is equivalent to that which is used to place on the hole of a gold refiners鈥 crucible. The measure that determines liability for carrying out lime is equivalent to that which is used to spread as a depilatory on the smallest of girls. Rabbi Yehuda says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on the hair that grows over the temple so that it will lie flat. Rabbi Ne岣mya says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on the temple to remove fine hairs.

讙诪壮 讞讘诇 谞诪讬 诇讬讞讬讬讘 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 转诇讗讬 诇谞驻讛 讜诇讻讘专讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讞专讬拽 讘诪谞讗 诇讗 注讘讚讬 讗讬谞砖讬 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讜爪讬谉 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讗讜讝谉 诇住诇 讻驻讬驻讛 诪爪专讬转 住讬讘 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 注诇 驻讬 诪砖驻讱 拽讟谉 诇住谞谉 讗转 讛讬讬谉 专讘讘 讻讚讬 诇住讜讱 转讞转 讗住驻讙讬谉 拽讟谞讛 讜讻诪讛 砖讬注讜专讛 讻住诇注 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻讙专讜讙专转 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗 诪讜讻讬谉 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讻讚讜专 拽讟谞讛 讜讻诪讛 砖讬注讜专讜 讻讗讙讜讝:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out a rope is equivalent to that which is used to form an ear-shaped handle for a basket. The Gemara asks: In the case of rope, too, let one be liable for carrying out a measure equivalent to that which is used to make a loop for hanging a sifter or a sieve, as he is with a reed. The Gemara answers: Since rope is tough and would cut grooves in the vessel, people do not make loops from it. The Sages taught: The measure that determines liability for carrying out hard palm leaves is equivalent to that which is used to make an ear-shaped handle for an Egyptian wicker basket, which is made from woven palm branches. A岣rim say: The measure that determines liability for carrying out bast is equivalent to that which is used to place on the opening of a small funnel to filter the wine. The measure that determines liability for carrying out fat is equivalent to that which is used to smear beneath a small cake. And how much is its measure? Equivalent to the size of a sela. The Gemara asks: Was it not taught in a baraita that its measure is equivalent to a dried fig? The Gemara answers: This, the width of a sela, and that, the volume of a dried fig, are one measure. The measure that determines liability for carrying out soft material is equivalent to that which is used to make a small ball. And how much is its measure? It is like the size of a nut.

谞讬讬专 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 注诇讬讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉: 转谞讗 讻诪讛 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 (砖诇 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉) 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛诪讜爪讬讗 谞讬讬专 讞诇拽 讗诐 讬砖 讘讜 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讞讬讬讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 驻讟讜专 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诪讗讬 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖诇 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 专讘讗 讗诪专 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讚讬讚谉 讜讘讬转 讗讞讬讝讛 讚讛讬讬谞讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper is equivalent to that which is used to write a tax receipt. A tanna taught in a Tosefta: How much is the measure of a tax receipt? Enough to write two letters characteristic of a tax receipt, which are larger than regular letters. And the Gemara raises a contradiction: One who carries out blank paper; if it has space equivalent to that which is used to write two letters, he is liable, and if not, he is exempt. That paper is smaller than a tax receipt. Rav Sheshet said: What are the two letters taught in the Tosefta? Two letters of a tax receipt. Rava said: The Tosefta can even be explained as referring to two standard-size letters of ours and blank space with which to hold the paper on which the text is written, which is the size of a tax receipt.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诪讜爪讬讗 谞讬讬专 诪讞讜拽 讜砖讟专 驻专讜注 讗诐 讬砖 讘诇讜讘谉 砖诇讜 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讗讜 讘讻讜诇讜 讻讚讬 诇讻专讜讱 注诇 驻讬 爪诇讜讞讬转 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 驻诇讬讬讟讜谉 讞讬讬讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 驻讟讜专 讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘 砖砖转 讚讗诪专 诪讗讬 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖诇 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 砖驻讬专 讗诇讗 诇专讘讗 讚讗诪专 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讚讬讚谉 讜讘讬转 讗讞讬讝讛 讚讛讬讬谞讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 讛讻讗 讘讬转 讗讞讬讝讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara raises an objection: One who carries out paper from which the writing has been erased or a promissory note whose debt has been repaid, if there is in its white section, the space with no text, equivalent to that which is used to write two letters, or if the entire paper is equivalent to that which is used to wrap around a small jar of perfume, he is liable; and if not, if it is smaller, he is exempt. The Gemara elaborates: Granted, according to Rav Sheshet, who said: What are the two letters taught in the Tosefta, two letters of a tax receipt, it works out well. However, according to Rava, who said: Two standard-size letters of ours and blank space with which to hold the paper on which the text is written, which is the size of a tax receipt, here, on this paper or document, blank space with which to hold the paper is not necessary, as one can hold it on the erased part or on the text of the voided promissory note. Nevertheless, the measure for liability in the Tosefta for carrying out paper from which the writing was erased is no smaller. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is difficult.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讜爪讬讗 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 注讚 砖诇讗 讛专讗讛讜 诇诪讜讻住 讞讬讬讘 诪砖讛专讗讛讜 诇诪讜讻住 驻讟讜专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诪砖讛专讗讛讜 诇诪讜讻住 讞讬讬讘 诪驻谞讬 砖爪专讬讱 诇讜 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 专讛讬讟讬 诪讜讻住讗 专讘讗 讗诪专 诪讜讻住 讙讚讜诇 讜诪讜讻住 拽讟谉 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讞讚 诪讜讻住 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诪驻谞讬 砖爪专讬讱 诇讜 诇讛专讗讜转 诇诪讜讻住 砖谞讬 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬 讙讘专讗 讚诪讜讻住 讗谞讗:

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One who carries out a tax receipt on Shabbat before he has shown it to the tax collector, and he still needs it, is liable for carrying out on Shabbat. Once he has shown it to the tax collector he is exempt, as it has no significance. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once he has shown it to the tax collector he is liable because there will be a time when he needs it. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between their opinions? Abaye said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to tax runners. Occasionally, the tax collectors send inspectors after those who already passed the tax audit in order to verify that they indeed paid. In that case, even though one already showed it to the original tax collector, he will be required to produce it again. Rava said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to a senior tax collector and a junior tax collector. Sometimes, when the first tax collector that one encounters is a minor official, he will need to keep the receipt with him and produce it if he encounters a more senior official. Rav Ashi said: There is a difference between them even in a case where there is just one tax collector. Nevertheless, it is to his advantage to keep it in his possession because he needs it to show it to a second tax collector whom he may encounter in the future, as he says to him: Look, I am a man trusted by the tax collector. The document in his possession proves that he is on good terms with the tax authorities.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讜爪讬讗 砖讟专 讞讜讘 注讚 砖诇讗 驻专注讜 讞讬讬讘 诪砖驻专注讜 驻讟讜专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诪砖驻专注讜 讞讬讬讘 诪驻谞讬 砖爪专讬讱 诇讜 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗住讜专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讗住讜专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 诪讜转专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注

The Sages taught: One who carries out a promissory note on Shabbat before he repaid the debt is liable; however, once he repaid it, he is exempt. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once he repaid the debt, he is liable for carrying out the document because he needs it. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between their opinions? Rav Yosef said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to the halakha whether or not it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession. The Rabbis hold: It is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession, so that the creditor will not use it to collect the debt a second time. Since it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note, the document has no value. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: It is permitted to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession and use it as paper.

讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讜专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注 讜讛讻讗 讘诪讜讚讛 讘砖讟专 砖讻转讘讜 砖爪专讬讱 诇拽讬讬诪讜 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 诪讜讚讛 讘砖讟专 砖讻转讘讜 爪专讬讱 诇拽讬讬诪讜 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 诪讜讚讛 讘砖讟专 砖讻转讘讜 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇拽讬讬诪讜 讜诪讗讬 注讚 砖诇讗 驻专注讜 讜诪砖驻专注讜

Abaye said: Everyone agrees that it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession, and here they disagree with regard to the question whether or not, in a case where a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor must ratify it in court. The first tanna holds: When a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor must ratify it in court to confirm that it is not a forgery. If it cannot be ratified, the debtor can claim that he already repaid the debt. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: When a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor need not ratify it in court and can collect his debt without ratification. The document is considered more reliable than the debtor鈥檚 claims. And what is the meaning of: Before he repaid the debt and once he repaid it?

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 78

讜诇讬转讗 讚专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讜讛讻讗 讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 住讘专 讗讘专 拽讟谉 讚讙讚讜诇 讜讗讘专 讙讚讜诇 讚拽讟谉 讘谉 讬讜诪讜 讻讬 讛讚讚讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜专讘讬 谞转谉 住讘专 讗讘专 拽讟谉 讚讙讚讜诇 讗讬谉 讗讘专 讙讚讜诇 讚拽讟谉 讘谉 讬讜诪讜 诇讗 诪讗讬 讛讜讬 注诇讛 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 砖诪谉 讻讚讬 诇住讜讱 讗讘专 拽讟谉 砖诇 拽讟谉 讘谉 讬讜诪讜:

and the opinion of the school of Rabbi Yannai is not accepted. And here, in this baraita, they disagree about this: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds: A small limb of an adult and a large limb of a day-old child are equal to one another, and Rabbi Natan holds: For carrying out oil in a measure equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of an adult, yes, one is liable; however, a large limb of a day-old child, no, he is exempt. The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached in this matter? Come and hear a proof, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says explicitly: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of a day-old child.

诪讬诐 讻讚讬 诇砖讜祝 讘讛谉 讗转 讛拽讬诇讜专: 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪讻讚讬 讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚砖讻讬讞讗 讜诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讚砖讻讬讞讗 诇拽讜诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讜砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讚砖讻讬讞讗 诇讞讜诪专讗

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out water is equivalent to that which is used to rub and spread on an eye bandage. Abaye said: Now, since, with regard to any substance that is utilized for both common and uncommon uses, the Sages, in their ruling, followed the common usage even as a leniency, i.e., one is liable only for carrying out the larger measure. However, when a substance has different uses and one is common and the other is common as well, the Sages, in their ruling, followed the common use that leads to a stringency, i.e., one is liable for carrying out even the smaller amount.

讬讬谉 砖转讬讬转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 砖转讬讬转讜 讚砖讻讬讞讗 诇拽讜诇讗 讞诇讘 讗讻讬诇转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 讗讻讬诇转讜 诇拽讜诇讗 讚讘砖 讗讻讬诇转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讞讜诪专讗

Proof for this principle can be seen in the following examples. Wine, its use for drinking is common and its use for healing is uncommon. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out wine, followed its use for drinking, which is common, which led to a leniency. The amount of wine that one typically drinks is greater than the amount of wine used for healing. Milk, its consumption is common and its use for healing is uncommon. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out milk, followed its consumption, which is common, as a leniency. Honey, its consumption is common and its use for healing is also common. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out honey, followed its use for healing, the smaller amount, as a stringency.

讗诇讗 诪讬诐 诪讻讚讬 砖转讬讬转讜 砖讻讬讞讗 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讝讜诇 专讘谞谉 讘转专 专驻讜讗转讜 诇讞讜诪专讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讘讙诇讬诇讗 砖谞讜 专讘讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 讘砖讗专 诪拽讜诪讜转 讻讚砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 砖拽讬讬谞讬 诪住讜 讜诪讟诇诇讬 诇讘专 诪诪讬讗 讚诪住讜 讜诇讗 诪讟诇诇讬:

However, water, since its drinking is common and its use for healing is uncommon, what is the reason that the Sages followed its use for healing as a stringency? Based on the above principle, the Sages should have determined the measure based on its use for drinking. Abaye said: They taught this halakha in the Galilee where they typically drink wine. There, water is used as commonly for healing as it is for drinking (Tosafot). Rava said: Even if you say that this halakha applies in the rest of the places as well as in the Galilee, the use of water in treating the eye is common, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, as Shmuel said: All liquids placed on the eye effect a cure and cloud the vision, except for water which cures and does not cloud the vision.

讜砖讗专 讻诇 讛诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚诐 讜讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讚诐 讻讚讬 诇讻讞讜诇 讘注讬谉 讗讞转 砖讻谉 讻讜讞诇讬谉 诇讘专拽讬转 讜诪讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讚诪讗 讚转专谞讙讜诇转 讘专讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讚诐 讻讚讬 诇讻讞讜诇 讘讜 注讬谉 讗讞转 砖讻谉 讻讜讞诇讬谉 诇讬讗专讜讚 讜诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 讚诪讗 讚讻专讜砖转讬谞讗 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 讙讜讗 诇讙讜讗 讘专讗 诇讘专讗

We learned in the mishna: And the measure that determines liability for all other liquids is a quarter of a log. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood and all types of liquids on Shabbat is a quarter of a log. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The measure that determines liability for blood is less than that. The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood is equivalent to that which is used to apply to one eye, as one applies blood to heal a wart on the eye. The Gemara asks: And what type of blood effects this cure? The blood of a wild chicken. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood is equivalent to that which is used to apply to one eye, as one applies blood to heal a cataract. And what type of blood effects this cure? The blood of a bat. And a mnemonic to ensure that you do not confuse these cures: Inside for inside, outside for outside. The blood of a bat, which lives in inhabited areas, for the cataract, which is inside the eye; the blood of a wild chicken, which lives outside inhabited areas, for the wart, which is external to the eye.

讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪讜爪讬讗 讗讘诇 讘诪爪谞讬注 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讞讬讬讘 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪爪谞讬注 讗讘诇 讘诪讜爪讬讗 讗讬谞讜 讞讬讬讘 讗诇讗 讘专讘讬注讬转 讜诪讜讚讬诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘诪讜爪讬讗 砖讜驻讻讬谉 诇专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 砖砖讬注讜专谉 讘专讘讬注讬转:

The Gemara cites a Tosefta: In what case are these matters, the measures for the substances in the mishna, stated? They were stated with regard to one who carries them out from one domain to another without ascribing special significance to them. However, with regard to one who stores them, thereby ascribing significance to them, the ruling is that he is liable for carrying out any measure. Rabbi Shimon says: In what case are these matters stated? They were stated with regard to one who stores those amounts. However, if one merely carries them out, he is liable only if he carries out a quarter of a log. And the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Shimon with regard to one who carries out waste water to the public domain that even when one merely carries it out, the measure that determines liability is a quarter of a log.

讗诪专 诪专 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪讜爪讬讗 讗讘诇 讘诪爪谞讬注 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讗讟讜 诪爪谞讬注 诇讗讜 诪讜爪讬讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘转诇诪讬讚 砖讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讜 诇讱 讜驻谞讛 诇讬 讛诪拽讜诐 诇住注讜讚讛 讛诇讱 讜驻谞讛 诇讜 讚讘专 讞砖讜讘 诇讻诇 讞讬讬讘 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讘 诇讻诇 讗讬 讗爪谞注讬讛 专讘讬讛 诪讬讞讬讬讘 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘

The Master said in the Tosefta: In what case are these matters, the measures for the substances in the mishna, stated? They were stated with regard to one who carries them out from one domain to another without ascribing special significance to them. However, with regard to one who stores them, he is liable for any amount. The Gemara is surprised at this: Isn鈥檛 the one who stores also the one who carries out? One is not liable for merely storing. He is liable only for carrying out the stored item. Abaye said: With what are we dealing here? With the case of a student whose teacher said to him: Go and clear for me space for a meal, and he went and cleared space for him and removed the items to another domain. If he cleared an item that is significant to all, he is liable for carrying it out. If he cleared an item that is not significant to all, then, if his teacher had stored it, he is liable for carrying it out, and if his teacher had not stored it, he is not liable for carrying it out, since the student is fulfilling his teacher鈥檚 wishes.

讗诪专 诪专 诪讜讚讬诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘诪讜爪讬讗 砖讜驻讻讬谉 诇专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 砖砖讬注讜专谉 讘专讘讬注讬转: 砖讜驻讻讬谉 诇诪讗讬 讞讝讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇讙讘诇 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讟讬讟 讜讛转谞讬讗 讟讬讟 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讘讛谉 驻讬 讻讜专 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚诪讬讙讘诇 讛讗 讚诇讗 诪讬讙讘诇 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讟讜专讞 诇讙讘诇 讟讬讟 诇注砖讜转 驻讬 讻讜专:

The Master said in the Tosefta: And the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Shimon with regard to one who carries out waste water to the public domain, that the measure that determines liability is a quarter of a log. The Gemara asks: For what use is waste water fit? Rabbi Yirmeya said: It is used to knead clay. The Gemara asks: If that is its purpose, why is such a large amount required? Was it not taught in a baraita: The measure that determines liability for carrying out clay on Shabbat is equivalent to that which is used to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible, which is a much smaller measure? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, where the measure for clay is equivalent to that which is used to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible, is referring to a case where it was already kneaded; that, where the measure for waste water is a quarter of a log to knead clay, is referring to a case where it is not yet kneaded, as a person does not go to the trouble of kneading clay just to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible. When carrying out water to knead clay, a large amount is required; however, clay that was already prepared is fit for use for smaller objects as well.

诪转谞讬壮 讛诪讜爪讬讗 讞讘诇 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讗讜讝谉 诇拽讜驻讛 讙诪讬 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 转诇讗讬 诇谞驻讛 讜诇讻讘专讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇讬讟讜诇 诪诪谞讜 诪讚转 诪谞注诇 诇拽讟谉 谞讬讬专 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 注诇讬讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 讜讛诪讜爪讬讗 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 讞讬讬讘

MISHNA: One who carries out a rope is liable in a measure equivalent to that which is used to form an ear-shaped handle for a basket. The measure that determines liability for carrying out reed grass is equivalent to that which is used to make a loop for hanging a sifter or a sieve. Rabbi Yehuda says: The measure for liability is equivalent to that which is used to take the measure of a shoe for a child, as the reed is used to measure the size of the foot. The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper is equivalent to that which is used to write a tax receipt. And one who carries out a tax receipt itself on Shabbat is liable.

谞讬讬专 诪讞讜拽 讻讚讬 诇讻专讜讱 注诇 爪诇讜讞讬转 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 驻诇讬讬讟讜谉 注讜专 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 拽诪讬注 (讚讜讻住讜住讟讜住 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 诪讝讜讝讛) 拽诇祝 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 注诇讬讜 驻专砖讛 拽讟谞讛 砖讘转驻讬诇讬谉 砖讛讬讗 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讚讬讜 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转

The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper from which the writing has been erased and which can no longer be used for writing, is equivalent to that which is used to wrap around a small jar of perfume. The measure that determines liability for carrying out animal hide is equivalent to that which is used to make an amulet. The measure that determines liability for carrying out dokhsostos, a layer of the animal hide, is equivalent to that which is used to write a mezuza. The measure that determines liability for carrying out parchment is equivalent to that which is used to write the shortest portion in the phylacteries, which is the portion of Shema Yisrael. The measure that determines liability for carrying out ink is equivalent to that which is used to write two letters.

讻讞讜诇 讻讚讬 诇讻讞讜诇 注讬谉 讗讞转 讚讘拽 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖驻砖祝 讝驻转 讜讙驻专讬转 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 谞拽讘 砖注讜讛 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 注诇 驻讬 谞拽讘 拽讟谉 讞专住讬转 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 驻讬 讻讜专 砖诇 爪讜专驻讬 讝讛讘 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 驻讬讟驻讜讟 住讜讘讬谉 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 注诇 驻讬 讻讜专 砖诇 爪讜专驻讬 讝讛讘 住讬讚 讻讚讬 诇住讜讚 拽讟谞讛 砖讘讘谞讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讻诇讻诇 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 讻讚讬 诇住讜讚 讗讜谞讚驻讬:

The measure that determines liability for carrying out blue eye shadow is equivalent to that which is used to paint one eye blue. The measure that determines liability for carrying out glue is equivalent to that which is used to place on the top of a board to catch birds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out tar and sulfur is equivalent to that which is used to seal a hole in a vessel and to make a small hole in that seal. The measure that determines liability for carrying out wax is equivalent to that which is used to place on the opening of a small hole to seal it. The measure that determines liability for carrying out crushed earthenware is equivalent to that which is used to knead and make from it an opening for the bellows to be placed in a gold refiners鈥 crucible. Rabbi Yehuda says: Equivalent to that which is used to make a small tripod [pitput] for the crucible. The measure that determines liability for carrying out bran is equivalent to that which is used to place on the hole of a gold refiners鈥 crucible. The measure that determines liability for carrying out lime is equivalent to that which is used to spread as a depilatory on the smallest of girls. Rabbi Yehuda says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on the hair that grows over the temple so that it will lie flat. Rabbi Ne岣mya says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on the temple to remove fine hairs.

讙诪壮 讞讘诇 谞诪讬 诇讬讞讬讬讘 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 转诇讗讬 诇谞驻讛 讜诇讻讘专讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讞专讬拽 讘诪谞讗 诇讗 注讘讚讬 讗讬谞砖讬 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讜爪讬谉 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讗讜讝谉 诇住诇 讻驻讬驻讛 诪爪专讬转 住讬讘 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 注诇 驻讬 诪砖驻讱 拽讟谉 诇住谞谉 讗转 讛讬讬谉 专讘讘 讻讚讬 诇住讜讱 转讞转 讗住驻讙讬谉 拽讟谞讛 讜讻诪讛 砖讬注讜专讛 讻住诇注 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻讙专讜讙专转 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗 诪讜讻讬谉 讻讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讻讚讜专 拽讟谞讛 讜讻诪讛 砖讬注讜专讜 讻讗讙讜讝:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out a rope is equivalent to that which is used to form an ear-shaped handle for a basket. The Gemara asks: In the case of rope, too, let one be liable for carrying out a measure equivalent to that which is used to make a loop for hanging a sifter or a sieve, as he is with a reed. The Gemara answers: Since rope is tough and would cut grooves in the vessel, people do not make loops from it. The Sages taught: The measure that determines liability for carrying out hard palm leaves is equivalent to that which is used to make an ear-shaped handle for an Egyptian wicker basket, which is made from woven palm branches. A岣rim say: The measure that determines liability for carrying out bast is equivalent to that which is used to place on the opening of a small funnel to filter the wine. The measure that determines liability for carrying out fat is equivalent to that which is used to smear beneath a small cake. And how much is its measure? Equivalent to the size of a sela. The Gemara asks: Was it not taught in a baraita that its measure is equivalent to a dried fig? The Gemara answers: This, the width of a sela, and that, the volume of a dried fig, are one measure. The measure that determines liability for carrying out soft material is equivalent to that which is used to make a small ball. And how much is its measure? It is like the size of a nut.

谞讬讬专 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 注诇讬讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉: 转谞讗 讻诪讛 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 (砖诇 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉) 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讛诪讜爪讬讗 谞讬讬专 讞诇拽 讗诐 讬砖 讘讜 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讞讬讬讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 驻讟讜专 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诪讗讬 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖诇 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 专讘讗 讗诪专 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讚讬讚谉 讜讘讬转 讗讞讬讝讛 讚讛讬讬谞讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper is equivalent to that which is used to write a tax receipt. A tanna taught in a Tosefta: How much is the measure of a tax receipt? Enough to write two letters characteristic of a tax receipt, which are larger than regular letters. And the Gemara raises a contradiction: One who carries out blank paper; if it has space equivalent to that which is used to write two letters, he is liable, and if not, he is exempt. That paper is smaller than a tax receipt. Rav Sheshet said: What are the two letters taught in the Tosefta? Two letters of a tax receipt. Rava said: The Tosefta can even be explained as referring to two standard-size letters of ours and blank space with which to hold the paper on which the text is written, which is the size of a tax receipt.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诪讜爪讬讗 谞讬讬专 诪讞讜拽 讜砖讟专 驻专讜注 讗诐 讬砖 讘诇讜讘谉 砖诇讜 讻讚讬 诇讻转讜讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讗讜 讘讻讜诇讜 讻讚讬 诇讻专讜讱 注诇 驻讬 爪诇讜讞讬转 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 驻诇讬讬讟讜谉 讞讬讬讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 驻讟讜专 讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘 砖砖转 讚讗诪专 诪讗讬 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 砖诇 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 砖驻讬专 讗诇讗 诇专讘讗 讚讗诪专 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讚讬讚谉 讜讘讬转 讗讞讬讝讛 讚讛讬讬谞讜 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 讛讻讗 讘讬转 讗讞讬讝讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara raises an objection: One who carries out paper from which the writing has been erased or a promissory note whose debt has been repaid, if there is in its white section, the space with no text, equivalent to that which is used to write two letters, or if the entire paper is equivalent to that which is used to wrap around a small jar of perfume, he is liable; and if not, if it is smaller, he is exempt. The Gemara elaborates: Granted, according to Rav Sheshet, who said: What are the two letters taught in the Tosefta, two letters of a tax receipt, it works out well. However, according to Rava, who said: Two standard-size letters of ours and blank space with which to hold the paper on which the text is written, which is the size of a tax receipt, here, on this paper or document, blank space with which to hold the paper is not necessary, as one can hold it on the erased part or on the text of the voided promissory note. Nevertheless, the measure for liability in the Tosefta for carrying out paper from which the writing was erased is no smaller. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is difficult.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讜爪讬讗 拽砖专 诪讜讻住讬谉 注讚 砖诇讗 讛专讗讛讜 诇诪讜讻住 讞讬讬讘 诪砖讛专讗讛讜 诇诪讜讻住 驻讟讜专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诪砖讛专讗讛讜 诇诪讜讻住 讞讬讬讘 诪驻谞讬 砖爪专讬讱 诇讜 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 专讛讬讟讬 诪讜讻住讗 专讘讗 讗诪专 诪讜讻住 讙讚讜诇 讜诪讜讻住 拽讟谉 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讞讚 诪讜讻住 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诪驻谞讬 砖爪专讬讱 诇讜 诇讛专讗讜转 诇诪讜讻住 砖谞讬 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬 讙讘专讗 讚诪讜讻住 讗谞讗:

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One who carries out a tax receipt on Shabbat before he has shown it to the tax collector, and he still needs it, is liable for carrying out on Shabbat. Once he has shown it to the tax collector he is exempt, as it has no significance. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once he has shown it to the tax collector he is liable because there will be a time when he needs it. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between their opinions? Abaye said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to tax runners. Occasionally, the tax collectors send inspectors after those who already passed the tax audit in order to verify that they indeed paid. In that case, even though one already showed it to the original tax collector, he will be required to produce it again. Rava said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to a senior tax collector and a junior tax collector. Sometimes, when the first tax collector that one encounters is a minor official, he will need to keep the receipt with him and produce it if he encounters a more senior official. Rav Ashi said: There is a difference between them even in a case where there is just one tax collector. Nevertheless, it is to his advantage to keep it in his possession because he needs it to show it to a second tax collector whom he may encounter in the future, as he says to him: Look, I am a man trusted by the tax collector. The document in his possession proves that he is on good terms with the tax authorities.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讜爪讬讗 砖讟专 讞讜讘 注讚 砖诇讗 驻专注讜 讞讬讬讘 诪砖驻专注讜 驻讟讜专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诪砖驻专注讜 讞讬讬讘 诪驻谞讬 砖爪专讬讱 诇讜 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗住讜专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讗住讜专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 诪讜转专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注

The Sages taught: One who carries out a promissory note on Shabbat before he repaid the debt is liable; however, once he repaid it, he is exempt. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once he repaid the debt, he is liable for carrying out the document because he needs it. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between their opinions? Rav Yosef said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to the halakha whether or not it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession. The Rabbis hold: It is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession, so that the creditor will not use it to collect the debt a second time. Since it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note, the document has no value. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: It is permitted to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession and use it as paper.

讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讜专 诇砖讛讜转 砖讟专 驻专讜注 讜讛讻讗 讘诪讜讚讛 讘砖讟专 砖讻转讘讜 砖爪专讬讱 诇拽讬讬诪讜 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 诪讜讚讛 讘砖讟专 砖讻转讘讜 爪专讬讱 诇拽讬讬诪讜 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 诪讜讚讛 讘砖讟专 砖讻转讘讜 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇拽讬讬诪讜 讜诪讗讬 注讚 砖诇讗 驻专注讜 讜诪砖驻专注讜

Abaye said: Everyone agrees that it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one鈥檚 possession, and here they disagree with regard to the question whether or not, in a case where a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor must ratify it in court. The first tanna holds: When a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor must ratify it in court to confirm that it is not a forgery. If it cannot be ratified, the debtor can claim that he already repaid the debt. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: When a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor need not ratify it in court and can collect his debt without ratification. The document is considered more reliable than the debtor鈥檚 claims. And what is the meaning of: Before he repaid the debt and once he repaid it?

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