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Today's Daf Yomi

May 30, 2020 | ז׳ בסיון תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 85

Today’s daf is dedicated by Shira Merili Mervis in memory of her father, Yitzchak Eliahu ben Aliza and Moshe z”l.

From where do we learn that the area the rabbis determined for planting five different types of seeds is reliable? How much space does one need to leave around each square area of 6×6 handbreaths? Rav and Shmuel disagree regarding the mishna – was it stated in a case where the garden bed was alone or surrounded by others? Rabbi Yochanan explained how one can plant a number of different types in a square of 6×6 – using a circle or circles. There is  debate about whether one can plant in betwteen the circles.

וקים להו לרבנן דחמשא בשיתא לא ינקי מהדדי

And the Sages have an accepted tradition that five seeds in a six-handbreadth space do not draw sustenance from one another.

ומנלן דהא דקים להו לרבנן (דחמשא בשיתא) מילתא היא דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב לא תסיג גבול רעך [אשר גבלו ראשונים] גבול שגבלו ראשונים לא תסיג מאי גבלו ראשונים אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן (מאי) דכתיב אלה בני שעיר החרי ישבי הארץ אטו כולי עלמא יושבי רקיע נינהו אלא שהיו בקיאין בישובה של ארץ שהיו אומרים מלא קנה זה לזית מלא קנה זה לגפנים מלא קנה זה לתאנים וחרי שמריחים את הארץ וחוי אמר רב פפא שהיו טועמין את הארץ כחויא רב אחא בר יעקב אמר חרי שנעשו בני חורין מנכסיהן

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that when the Sages have an accepted tradition it is a substantial matter, meaning that the tradition is reliable? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You shall not cross your neighbor’s border, which they of the old times have set in your inheritance that you shall inherit” (Deuteronomy 19:14)? It means that you shall not cross the border that the early generations set, establishing the parameters necessary for each plant. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: The early generations set? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which was written: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite who inhabit the land, Lotan and Shoval and Zibeon and Ana” (Genesis 36:20)? And is everyone else inhabitants of the heavens, that it was necessary for the verse to emphasize that these inhabit the land? Rather, it means that they were experts in the settlement of the land, as they would say: This tract of land that is the full length of a rod is fit for olive trees; this full length of a rod is fit for grapes, this full length of a rod is fit for figs. And the members of this tribe were called Horites [ḥori] since they smelled [heriḥu] the earth to determine what is fit to be grown there. The allusion is based on a transposition of the letters ḥet and reish. And in explanation of why the early inhabitants of Seir were called Hivites [ḥivi] (see Genesis 36:2), Rav Pappa said: Because they would taste the earth like a snake [ḥivya] and determine what should be grown there according to the taste. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said that they were called Horites [ḥori] because they became free [benei ḥorin] of their possessions when the children of Esau drove them from their lands. Their primary name was actually Hivites.

אמר רב אסי ערוגה תוכה ששה חוץ מגבוליה תניא נמי הכי ערוגה תוכה ששה גבוליה בכמה כדתנן רבי יהודה אומר רוחב כמלא רוחב פרסה אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי טעמא דרבי יהודה דכתיב והשקית ברגלך כגן הירק מה רגל טפח אף גבול נמי טפח

With regard to the halakha itself, Rav Asi said: The garden bed in the mishna whose area is six by six handbreadths is one whose internal area is six by six handbreadths excluding the area of its boundaries, which must be added to the total area. That was also taught in a baraita: The internal area of a garden bed is six by six handbreadths. The Gemara asks: How much is the size of its boundaries? The Gemara answers, as we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: The width of the border is like the width of a foot. And Rabbi Zeira said, and some say it was Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa who said: What is the reason for the statement of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “And you water it with your foot like a garden of herbs” (Deuteronomy 11:10), meaning that just as one’s foot is a handbreadth wide, so too, the boundary between garden beds where one walks to water plants is also a handbreadth wide.

אמר רב ערוגה בחורבה שנינו והאיכא מקום קרנות אמרי בי רב משמיה דרב בממלא את הקרנות וליזרע מאבראי ולא לימלי מגואי

Rav said: When we learned in the mishna that one may plant five kinds of seeds within a garden bed without violating the prohibition of diverse kinds, we learned this with regard to a garden bed in a desolate area not surrounded by other plants. However, if the garden bed is among other garden beds, it is prohibited to plant that many species there because seeds from the different beds will intermingle. The Gemara asks: If the mishna is dealing with a solitary garden bed, isn’t there space in the corners, where more species of seeds could be planted without encountering the prohibition of diverse seeds? The school of Rav taught in the name of Rav: Rav’s statement is referring to a case where one fills the corners of the flowerbed with the five species of seeds, leaving no room in the corners for other varieties. The Gemara asks: And let him plant on the outside and not fill up the inside, to increase the different seed types instead of filling up the corners.

גזירה שמא ימלא את הקרנות ולא יהא אלא ראש תור ירק מי לא תנן היה ראש תור ירק נכנס לתוך שדה אחר מותר מפני שנראה סוף שדה אין ראש תור בערוגה

Rather, Rav’s reasoning must be: It is a decree lest one will fill the corners after having first planted the garden bed, and thereby violate the prohibition of diverse kinds. The Gemara asks: And why should that matter, the legal status of the garden bed should merely be like a triangular [rosh tor] plot of vegetables. Didn’t we learn in a mishna: If a triangular plot of vegetables was protruding into another field, it is permitted; there, it is not considered a prohibited mixture of diverse kinds, because the end of the field is distinguishable. Based on the shapes of the two fields where they intersect, the demarcation between them is clear. And the Gemara answers: There is no leniency with regard to a triangular plot in a garden bed. This allowance with regard to a triangular section of one field jutting into another field applies only to a large field where the triangular shape can clearly be attributed to a different field, but in a small garden bed where the seeds are adjacent to one another, it is impossible to distinguish between the seeds.

ושמואל אמר ערוגה בין הערוגות שנינו והא קא מיתערבי בהדדי בנוטה שורה לכאן ושורה לכאן

And Shmuel said: When we learned in the mishna that one may plant five kinds of seeds within a garden bed without violating the prohibition of diverse kinds, we learned this even with regard to a garden bed among garden beds, not only in a solitary bed. The Gemara asks: Don’t the seeds become intermingled with one another? The Gemara answers: It is referring to a case where one inclines one row to here, in one direction, and one row to here, in a different direction (Me’iri). In that way they do not appear intermingled.

אמר עולא בעו במערבא הפקיע תלם אחד על פני כולה מהו אמר רב ששת בא ערבוב וביטל את השורה רב אסי אמר אין עירובו מבטל את השורה איתיביה רבינא לרב אשי הנוטע שתי שורות של קישואין שתי שורות של דילועין שתי שורות של פול המצרי מותר שורה אחת של קישואין ושורה אחת של דילועין ושורה אחת של פול המצרי אסור שאני הכא דאיכא שראכא

Ulla said: They raise a dilemma in the West, Eretz Yisrael: What is the halakha if one opened a single furrow across its entirety? Is it considered demarcation between the garden beds if one dug a furrow between two garden beds (ge’onim, Tosafot)? Rav Sheshet said: The intermingling of these garden beds comes and nullifies the row. The furrow is not considered to be a demarcation between the beds. Rav Asi said: Its intermingling does not disqualify the row. Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Ashi from a mishna: One who plants two rows of cucumbers and two rows of gourds and two rows of Egyptian beans, it is permitted because each of the species is distinct. However, if he plants one row of cucumbers and one row of gourds and one row of Egyptian beans, it is prohibited because in single rows there is no clear demarcation between the species. This indicates that a furrow between different species of seeds does not prevent intermingling between them. Rav Ashi replied: The case in that mishna is an exception. Here, it is different because there are branches that grow out from these species which become entangled with each other, nullifying the furrow between them. Other vegetables, whose branches do not become entangled, may be planted with a single furrow between them.

אמר רב כהנא אמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה למלאות כל גינתו ירק עושה ערוגה ששה על ששה ועוגל בה חמשה וממלא קרנותיה כל מה שירצה

Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who wishes to fill his entire garden with vegetables and does not want to distance the rows of seeds from one another may make a garden bed that is six by six handbreadths and make five circles inside it (ge’onim, Rambam). He plants different species in the different circles and fills its corners with whatever additional species that he wants.

והא איכא דביני וביני אמרי דבי רבי ינאי במחריב בין הביניים רב אשי אמר אם היו זרועין שתי זורען ערב ערב זורען שתי איתיביה רבינא לרב אשי עבודת ירק בירק אחר ששה טפחים ורואין אותם

The Gemara asks: Aren’t there seeds between the circles, which intermingle with the species that are in the circles? The school of Rabbi Yannai say in response to this: This is referring to a case where one leaves the space in between them barren and does not plant there. Rav Ashi said: He may fill the entire bed with seeds, and demarcate between the different types of seeds in the following manner. If the circles were planted lengthwise, he plants the seeds in between widthwise; and if the circles were planted widthwise, he plants the seeds in between lengthwise. Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Ashi: We learned that the work space of a vegetable of one species, when planted with a vegetable of a different species, is six handbreadths. And one views them

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 85

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Shabbat 85

וקים להו לרבנן דחמשא בשיתא לא ינקי מהדדי

And the Sages have an accepted tradition that five seeds in a six-handbreadth space do not draw sustenance from one another.

ומנלן דהא דקים להו לרבנן (דחמשא בשיתא) מילתא היא דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב לא תסיג גבול רעך [אשר גבלו ראשונים] גבול שגבלו ראשונים לא תסיג מאי גבלו ראשונים אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן (מאי) דכתיב אלה בני שעיר החרי ישבי הארץ אטו כולי עלמא יושבי רקיע נינהו אלא שהיו בקיאין בישובה של ארץ שהיו אומרים מלא קנה זה לזית מלא קנה זה לגפנים מלא קנה זה לתאנים וחרי שמריחים את הארץ וחוי אמר רב פפא שהיו טועמין את הארץ כחויא רב אחא בר יעקב אמר חרי שנעשו בני חורין מנכסיהן

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that when the Sages have an accepted tradition it is a substantial matter, meaning that the tradition is reliable? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You shall not cross your neighbor’s border, which they of the old times have set in your inheritance that you shall inherit” (Deuteronomy 19:14)? It means that you shall not cross the border that the early generations set, establishing the parameters necessary for each plant. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: The early generations set? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which was written: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite who inhabit the land, Lotan and Shoval and Zibeon and Ana” (Genesis 36:20)? And is everyone else inhabitants of the heavens, that it was necessary for the verse to emphasize that these inhabit the land? Rather, it means that they were experts in the settlement of the land, as they would say: This tract of land that is the full length of a rod is fit for olive trees; this full length of a rod is fit for grapes, this full length of a rod is fit for figs. And the members of this tribe were called Horites [ḥori] since they smelled [heriḥu] the earth to determine what is fit to be grown there. The allusion is based on a transposition of the letters ḥet and reish. And in explanation of why the early inhabitants of Seir were called Hivites [ḥivi] (see Genesis 36:2), Rav Pappa said: Because they would taste the earth like a snake [ḥivya] and determine what should be grown there according to the taste. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said that they were called Horites [ḥori] because they became free [benei ḥorin] of their possessions when the children of Esau drove them from their lands. Their primary name was actually Hivites.

אמר רב אסי ערוגה תוכה ששה חוץ מגבוליה תניא נמי הכי ערוגה תוכה ששה גבוליה בכמה כדתנן רבי יהודה אומר רוחב כמלא רוחב פרסה אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי טעמא דרבי יהודה דכתיב והשקית ברגלך כגן הירק מה רגל טפח אף גבול נמי טפח

With regard to the halakha itself, Rav Asi said: The garden bed in the mishna whose area is six by six handbreadths is one whose internal area is six by six handbreadths excluding the area of its boundaries, which must be added to the total area. That was also taught in a baraita: The internal area of a garden bed is six by six handbreadths. The Gemara asks: How much is the size of its boundaries? The Gemara answers, as we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: The width of the border is like the width of a foot. And Rabbi Zeira said, and some say it was Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa who said: What is the reason for the statement of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “And you water it with your foot like a garden of herbs” (Deuteronomy 11:10), meaning that just as one’s foot is a handbreadth wide, so too, the boundary between garden beds where one walks to water plants is also a handbreadth wide.

אמר רב ערוגה בחורבה שנינו והאיכא מקום קרנות אמרי בי רב משמיה דרב בממלא את הקרנות וליזרע מאבראי ולא לימלי מגואי

Rav said: When we learned in the mishna that one may plant five kinds of seeds within a garden bed without violating the prohibition of diverse kinds, we learned this with regard to a garden bed in a desolate area not surrounded by other plants. However, if the garden bed is among other garden beds, it is prohibited to plant that many species there because seeds from the different beds will intermingle. The Gemara asks: If the mishna is dealing with a solitary garden bed, isn’t there space in the corners, where more species of seeds could be planted without encountering the prohibition of diverse seeds? The school of Rav taught in the name of Rav: Rav’s statement is referring to a case where one fills the corners of the flowerbed with the five species of seeds, leaving no room in the corners for other varieties. The Gemara asks: And let him plant on the outside and not fill up the inside, to increase the different seed types instead of filling up the corners.

גזירה שמא ימלא את הקרנות ולא יהא אלא ראש תור ירק מי לא תנן היה ראש תור ירק נכנס לתוך שדה אחר מותר מפני שנראה סוף שדה אין ראש תור בערוגה

Rather, Rav’s reasoning must be: It is a decree lest one will fill the corners after having first planted the garden bed, and thereby violate the prohibition of diverse kinds. The Gemara asks: And why should that matter, the legal status of the garden bed should merely be like a triangular [rosh tor] plot of vegetables. Didn’t we learn in a mishna: If a triangular plot of vegetables was protruding into another field, it is permitted; there, it is not considered a prohibited mixture of diverse kinds, because the end of the field is distinguishable. Based on the shapes of the two fields where they intersect, the demarcation between them is clear. And the Gemara answers: There is no leniency with regard to a triangular plot in a garden bed. This allowance with regard to a triangular section of one field jutting into another field applies only to a large field where the triangular shape can clearly be attributed to a different field, but in a small garden bed where the seeds are adjacent to one another, it is impossible to distinguish between the seeds.

ושמואל אמר ערוגה בין הערוגות שנינו והא קא מיתערבי בהדדי בנוטה שורה לכאן ושורה לכאן

And Shmuel said: When we learned in the mishna that one may plant five kinds of seeds within a garden bed without violating the prohibition of diverse kinds, we learned this even with regard to a garden bed among garden beds, not only in a solitary bed. The Gemara asks: Don’t the seeds become intermingled with one another? The Gemara answers: It is referring to a case where one inclines one row to here, in one direction, and one row to here, in a different direction (Me’iri). In that way they do not appear intermingled.

אמר עולא בעו במערבא הפקיע תלם אחד על פני כולה מהו אמר רב ששת בא ערבוב וביטל את השורה רב אסי אמר אין עירובו מבטל את השורה איתיביה רבינא לרב אשי הנוטע שתי שורות של קישואין שתי שורות של דילועין שתי שורות של פול המצרי מותר שורה אחת של קישואין ושורה אחת של דילועין ושורה אחת של פול המצרי אסור שאני הכא דאיכא שראכא

Ulla said: They raise a dilemma in the West, Eretz Yisrael: What is the halakha if one opened a single furrow across its entirety? Is it considered demarcation between the garden beds if one dug a furrow between two garden beds (ge’onim, Tosafot)? Rav Sheshet said: The intermingling of these garden beds comes and nullifies the row. The furrow is not considered to be a demarcation between the beds. Rav Asi said: Its intermingling does not disqualify the row. Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Ashi from a mishna: One who plants two rows of cucumbers and two rows of gourds and two rows of Egyptian beans, it is permitted because each of the species is distinct. However, if he plants one row of cucumbers and one row of gourds and one row of Egyptian beans, it is prohibited because in single rows there is no clear demarcation between the species. This indicates that a furrow between different species of seeds does not prevent intermingling between them. Rav Ashi replied: The case in that mishna is an exception. Here, it is different because there are branches that grow out from these species which become entangled with each other, nullifying the furrow between them. Other vegetables, whose branches do not become entangled, may be planted with a single furrow between them.

אמר רב כהנא אמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה למלאות כל גינתו ירק עושה ערוגה ששה על ששה ועוגל בה חמשה וממלא קרנותיה כל מה שירצה

Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who wishes to fill his entire garden with vegetables and does not want to distance the rows of seeds from one another may make a garden bed that is six by six handbreadths and make five circles inside it (ge’onim, Rambam). He plants different species in the different circles and fills its corners with whatever additional species that he wants.

והא איכא דביני וביני אמרי דבי רבי ינאי במחריב בין הביניים רב אשי אמר אם היו זרועין שתי זורען ערב ערב זורען שתי איתיביה רבינא לרב אשי עבודת ירק בירק אחר ששה טפחים ורואין אותם

The Gemara asks: Aren’t there seeds between the circles, which intermingle with the species that are in the circles? The school of Rabbi Yannai say in response to this: This is referring to a case where one leaves the space in between them barren and does not plant there. Rav Ashi said: He may fill the entire bed with seeds, and demarcate between the different types of seeds in the following manner. If the circles were planted lengthwise, he plants the seeds in between widthwise; and if the circles were planted widthwise, he plants the seeds in between lengthwise. Ravina raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Ashi: We learned that the work space of a vegetable of one species, when planted with a vegetable of a different species, is six handbreadths. And one views them

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