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Today's Daf Yomi

June 2, 2020 | 讬壮 讘住讬讜谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 88

Today’s daf is sponsored by Josh Adler in honor of Dr. Rebecca Eisen’s graduation from University of Toronto Medical School. Mazel tov! May our learning merit an end to the violence going on now in America.聽

The gemara brings more sources that raise questions on Rabbi Yosi or the rabbis opinion regarding the day the Torah was given. Then drashot regarding the giving of the Torah are brought. Some discuss whether the Jews were forced into acceptance of the Torah. Others discuss the fact that they first said “we will do” and then “let’s hear what it says in the Torah.” What is the greatness of the Torah and of the commandments that were given at matan Torah? A number of drashot relate to the connection between angels and the Jewish people at the giving of the Torah from a number of different perspectives. A midrash is brought that describes the scene in heaven when Moshe goes up to get the Torah and the angels ask why is God giving the Torah to humans. God tells Moshe to answer. What is Moshe’s immediate reaction?

诇专讘谞谉 砖诪讜谞讛 讞住专讬诐 注讘讜讚

and according to the Rabbis, they established eight months that were lacking.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讘住讚专 注讜诇诐 谞讬住谉 砖讘讜 讬爪讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪爪专讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讞讟讜 驻住讞讬讛谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬爪讗讜 讜讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注专讘 砖讘转 讛讬讛 讜诪讚专讬砖 讬专讞讗 讚谞讬住谉 注专讘 砖讘转 专讬砖 讬专讞讗 讚讗讬讬专 讞讚 讘砖讘讗 讜住讬讜谉 讘转专讬 讘砖讘讗 拽砖讬讗 诇专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘谞谉 讛讬讗

The Gemara cites another objection. Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita in the anthology called Seder Olam: In the month of Nisan during which the Jewish people left Egypt, on the fourteenth they slaughtered their Paschal lambs, on the fifteenth they left Egypt, and that day was Shabbat eve. From the fact that the New Moon of Nisan was on Shabbat eve, we can infer that the New Moon of Iyyar was on the first day of the week, and the New Moon of Sivan was on the second day of the week. This is difficult according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who holds that the New Moon of Sivan was on Sunday. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Whose is the opinion in this baraita? It is the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, this baraita poses no difficulty to the opinion of the Rabbi Yosei.

转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讘砖谞讬 注诇讛 诪砖讛 讜讬专讚 讘砖诇讬砖讬 注诇讛 讜讬专讚 讘专讘讬注讬 讬专讚 讜砖讜讘 诇讗 注诇讛 讜诪讗讞专 砖诇讗 注诇讛 诪讛讬讻谉 讬专讚 讗诇讗 讘专讘讬注讬 注诇讛 讜讬专讚 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘谞讛 诪讝讘讞 讜讛拽专讬讘 注诇讬讜 拽专讘谉 讘砖砖讬 诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讜 驻谞讗讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 转讜专讛

The Gemara cites another objection: Come and hear from that which was taught, that Rabbi Yosei says: On the second day of Sivan, Moses ascended Mount Sinai and descended. On the third day, he ascended and descended. On the fourth day, he descended and did not ascend Mount Sinai again until he was commanded along with all of the Jewish people. And the Gemara asks: How is it possible that he descended on the fourth day? Since he did not ascend, from where did he descend? Rather, this must be emended: On the fourth day, he ascended and descended. On the fifth day, he built an altar and sacrificed an offering. On the sixth day, he had no time. The Gemara asks: Is that not because he received the Torah on the sixth day of the month? Apparently, this baraita supports the opinion of the Rabbis.

诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讟讜专讞 砖讘转 讚专砖 讛讛讜讗 讙诇讬诇讗讛 注诇讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讘专讬讱 专讞诪谞讗 讚讬讛讘 讗讜专讬讗谉 转诇讬转讗讬 诇注诐 转诇讬转讗讬 注诇 讬讚讬 转诇讬转讗讬 讘讬讜诐 转诇讬转讗讬 讘讬专讞讗 转诇讬转讗讬 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘谞谉:

The Gemara rejects this: No, he had no time due to the burden of preparing for Shabbat. The Gemara adds: A Galilean taught, while standing above Rav 岣sda: Blessed is the all-Merciful One, Who gave the three-fold Torah: Torah, Prophets, and Writings, to the three-fold nation: Priests, Levites, and Israelites, by means of a third-born: Moses, who followed Aaron and Miriam in birth order, on the third day of the separation of men and women, in the third month: Sivan. On whose opinion is this homily based? It is based on the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that the Torah was given on the third day of separation and not on the fourth day.

讜讬转讬爪讘讜 讘转讞转讬转 讛讛专 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘讚讬诪讬 讘专 讞诪讗 讘专 讞住讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讻驻讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇讬讛诐 讗转 讛讛专 讻讙讬讙讬转 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讗转诐 诪拽讘诇讬诐 讛转讜专讛 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 砖诐 转讛讗 拽讘讜专转讻诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 诪讻讗谉 诪讜讚注讗 专讘讛 诇讗讜专讬讬转讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讛讚讜专 拽讘诇讜讛 讘讬诪讬 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 讚讻转讬讘 拽讬诪讜 讜拽讘诇讜 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 拽讬讬诪讜 诪讛 砖拽讬讘诇讜 讻讘专

The Gemara cites additional homiletic interpretations on the topic of the revelation at Sinai. The Torah says, 鈥淎nd Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the lowermost part of the mount鈥 (Exodus 19:17). Rabbi Avdimi bar 岣ma bar 岣sa said: the Jewish people actually stood beneath the mountain, and the verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, overturned the mountain above the Jews like a tub, and said to them: If you accept the Torah, excellent, and if not, there will be your burial. Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: From here there is a substantial caveat to the obligation to fulfill the Torah. The Jewish people can claim that they were coerced into accepting the Torah, and it is therefore not binding. Rava said: Even so, they again accepted it willingly in the time of Ahasuerus, as it is written: 鈥淭he Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them鈥 (Esther 9:27), and he taught: The Jews ordained what they had already taken upon themselves through coercion at Sinai.

讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪砖诪讬诐 讛砖诪注转 讚讬谉 讗专抓 讬专讗讛 讜砖拽讟讛 讗诐 讬专讗讛 诇诪讛 砖拽讟讛 讜讗诐 砖拽讟讛 诇诪讛 讬专讗讛 讗诇讗 讘转讞讬诇讛 讬专讗讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 砖拽讟讛 讜诇诪讛 讬专讗讛 讻讚专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讛砖砖讬 讛壮 讬转讬专讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 诪诇诪讚 砖讛转谞讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诐 诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讬砖专讗诇 诪拽讘诇讬诐 讛转讜专讛 讗转诐 诪转拽讬讬诪讬谉 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗谞讬 诪讞讝讬专 讗转讻诐 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜:

岣zkiya said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard from heaven; the earth feared, and was silent鈥 (Psalms 76:9)? If it was afraid, why was it silent; and if it was silent, why was it afraid? Rather, the meaning is: At first, it was afraid, and in the end, it was silent. 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard from heaven鈥 refers to the revelation at Sinai. And why was the earth afraid? It is in accordance with the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day鈥 (Genesis 1:31)? Why do I require the superfluous letter heh, the definite article, which does not appear on any of the other days? It teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the act of Creation, and said to them: If Israel accepts the Torah on the sixth day of Sivan, you will exist; and if they do not accept it, I will return you to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. Therefore, the earth was afraid until the Torah was given to Israel, lest it be returned to a state of chaos. Once the Jewish people accepted the Torah, the earth was calmed.

讚专砖 专讘讬 住讬诪讗讬 讘砖注讛 砖讛拽讚讬诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 谞注砖讛 诇谞砖诪注 讘讗讜 砖砖讬诐 专讬讘讜讗 砖诇 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诪讬砖专讗诇 拽砖专讜 诇讜 砖谞讬 讻转专讬诐 讗讞讚 讻谞讙讚 谞注砖讛 讜讗讞讚 讻谞讙讚 谞砖诪注 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讞讟讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 讬专讚讜 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 专讬讘讜讗 诪诇讗讻讬 讞讘诇讛 讜驻讬专拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬转谞爪诇讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 注讚讬诐 诪讛专 讞讜专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘讞讜专讘 讟注谞讜 讘讞讜专讘 驻专拽讜 讘讞讜专讘 讟注谞讜 讻讚讗诪专谉 讘讞讜专讘 驻专拽讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转谞爪诇讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讻讜诇谉 讝讻讛 诪砖讛 讜谞讟诇谉 讚住诪讬讱 诇讬讛 讜诪砖讛 讬拽讞 讗转 讛讗讛诇 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 注转讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讛讞讝讬专谉 诇谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜驻讚讜讬讬 讛壮 讬砖讘讜谉 讜讘讗讜 爪讬讜谉 讘专谞讛 讜砖诪讞转 注讜诇诐 注诇 专讗砖诐 砖诪讞讛 砖诪注讜诇诐 注诇 专讗砖诐

Rabbi Simai taught: When Israel accorded precedence to the declaration 鈥淲e will do鈥 over the declaration 鈥淲e will hear,鈥 600,000 ministering angels came and tied two crowns to each and every member of the Jewish people, one corresponding to 鈥淲e will do鈥 and one corresponding to 鈥淲e will hear.鈥 And when the people sinned with the Golden Calf, 1,200,000 angels of destruction descended and removed them from the people, as it is stated in the wake of the sin of the Golden Calf: 鈥淎nd the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments from Mount Horeb onward鈥 (Exodus 33:6). Rabbi 岣ma, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: At Horeb they put on their ornaments, and at Horeb they removed them. The source for this is: At Horeb they put them on, as we have said; at Horeb they removed them, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments from Mount Horeb.鈥 Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And Moses merited all of these crowns and took them. What is the source for this? Because juxtaposed to this verse, it is stated: 鈥淎nd Moses would take the tent [ohel]鈥 (Exodus 33:7). The word ohel is interpreted homiletically as an allusion to an aura or illumination [hila]. Reish Lakish said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will return them to us, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto Zion, and everlasting joy shall be upon their heads鈥 (Isaiah 35:10). The joy that they once had will once again be upon their heads.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘砖注讛 砖讛拽讚讬诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 谞注砖讛 诇谞砖诪注 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 诪讬 讙诇讛 诇讘谞讬 专讝 讝讛 砖诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪砖转诪砖讬谉 讘讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘专讻讜 讛壮 诪诇讗讻讬讜 讙讘专讬 讻讞 注砖讬 讚讘专讜 诇砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 讚讘专讜 讘专讬砖讗 注砖讬 讜讛讚专 诇砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻转驻讜讞 讘注爪讬 讛讬注专 讜讙讜壮 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇转驻讜讞 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 转驻讜讞 讝讛 驻专讬讜 拽讜讚诐 诇注诇讬讜 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讛拽讚讬诪讜 谞注砖讛 诇谞砖诪注

Rabbi Elazar said: When the Jewish people accorded precedence to the declaration 鈥淲e will do鈥 over 鈥淲e will hear,鈥 a Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Who revealed to my children this secret that the ministering angels use? As it is written: 鈥淏less the Lord, you angels of His, you mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, hearkening unto the voice of His word鈥 (Psalms 103:20). At first, the angels fulfill His word, and then afterward they hearken. Rabbi 岣ma, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎s an apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit and its fruit was sweet to my taste鈥 (Song of Songs 2:3)? Why were the Jewish people likened to an apple tree? It is to tell you that just as this apple tree, its fruit grows before its leaves, so too, the Jewish people accorded precedence to 鈥淲e will do鈥 over 鈥淲e will hear.鈥

讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 讚讞讝讬讬讛 诇专讘讗 讚拽讗 诪注讬讬谉 讘砖诪注转讗 讜讬转讘讛 讗爪讘注转讗 讚讬讚讬讛 转讜转讬 讻专注讗 讜拽讗 诪讬讬抓 讘讛讜 讜拽讗 诪讘注谉 讗爪讘注转讬讛 讚诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注诪讗 驻讝讬讝讗 讚拽讚诪讬转讜 驻讜诪讬讬讻讜 诇讗讜讚谞讬讬讻讜 讗讻转讬 讘驻讞讝讜转讬讬讻讜 拽讬讬诪讬转讜 讘专讬砖讗 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讻讜 诇诪砖诪注 讗讬 诪爪讬转讜 拽讘诇讬转讜 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 拽讘诇讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞谉

The Gemara relates that a heretic saw that Rava was immersed in studying halakha, and his fingers were beneath his leg and he was squeezing them, and his fingers were spurting blood. Rava did not notice that he was bleeding because he was engrossed in study. The heretic said to Rava: You impulsive nation, who accorded precedence to your mouths over your ears. You still bear your impulsiveness, as you act without thinking. You should listen first. Then, if you are capable of fulfilling the commands, accept them. And if not, do not accept them. He said to him: About us,

讚住讙讬谞谉 讘砖诇讬诪讜转讗 讻转讬讘 讘谉 转诪转 讬砖专讬诐 转谞讞诐 讛谞讱 讗讬谞砖讬 讚住讙谉 讘注诇讬诇讜转讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讜住诇祝 讘讜讙讚讬诐 讬砖讚诐:

who proceed wholeheartedly and with integrity, it is written: 鈥淭he integrity of the upright will guide them鈥 (Proverbs 11:3), whereas about those people who walk in deceit, it is written at the end of the same verse: 鈥淎nd the perverseness of the faithless will destroy them.鈥

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诇讘讘转谞讬 讗讞讜转讬 讻诇讛 诇讘讘转谞讬 讘讗讞转 诪注讬谞讬讱 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讗讞转 诪注讬谞讬讱 诇讻砖转注砖讬 讘砖转讬 注讬谞讬讱 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 注诇讜讘讛 讻诇讛 诪讝谞讛 讘转讜讱 讞讜驻转讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪专讬 讘专讛 讚讘转 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗讬 拽专讗 注讚 砖讛诪诇讱 讘诪住讘讜 谞专讚讬 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讜注讚讬讬谉 讞讘讬讘讜转讗 讛讬讗 讙讘谉 讚讻转讬讘 谞转谉 讜诇讗 讻转讘 讛住专讬讞 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注诇讜讘讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 注讜诇讘讬谉 砖讜诪注讬谉 讞专驻转谉 讜讗讬谞谉 诪砖讬讘讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪讗讛讘讛 讜砖诪讞讬谉 讘讬住讜专讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讗讛讘讬讜 讻爪讗转 讛砖诪砖 讘讙讘专转讜

Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣mani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou have ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; you have ravished my heart with one of your eyes, with one bead of your necklace鈥 (Song of Songs 4:9)? At first when you, the Jewish people, merely accepted the Torah upon yourselves it was with one of your eyes; however, when you actually perform the mitzvot it will be with both of your eyes. Ulla said with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: Insolent is the bride who is promiscuous under her wedding canopy. Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, said: What verse alludes to this? 鈥淲hile the king was still at his table my spikenard gave off its fragrance鈥 (Song of Songs 1:12). Its pleasant odor dissipated, leaving only an offensive odor. Rav said: Nevertheless, it is apparent from the verse that the affection of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is still upon us, as it is written euphemistically as 鈥gave off its fragrance,鈥 and the verse did not write, it reeked. And the Sages taught: About those who are insulted and do not insult, who hear their shame and do not respond, who act out of love and are joyful in suffering, the verse says: 鈥淎nd they that love Him are as the sun going forth in its might鈥 (Judges 5:31).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛壮 讬转谉 讗诪专 讛诪讘砖专讜转 爪讘讗 专讘 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛讙讘讜专讛 谞讞诇拽 诇砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谞讜转 转谞讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讻驻讟讬砖 讬驻爪抓 住诇注 诪讛 驻讟讬砖 讝讛 谞讞诇拽 诇讻诪讛 谞讬爪讜爪讜转 讗祝 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞讞诇拽 诇砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谞讜转 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谞讗诇 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注讜 讻讬 谞讙讬讚讬诐 讗讚讘专 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讻谞讙讬讚 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 谞讙讬讚 讝讛 讬砖 讘讜 诇讛诪讬转 讜诇讛讞讬讜转 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讬砖 讘诐 诇讛诪讬转 讜诇讛讞讬讜转

With regard to the revelation at Sinai, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭he Lord gives the word; the women that proclaim the tidings are a great host鈥 (Psalms 68:12)? It means that each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Almighty divided into seventy languages, a great host. And, similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught with regard to the verse: 鈥淏ehold, is My word not like fire, declares the Lord, and like a hammer that shatters a rock?鈥 (Jeremiah 23:29). Just as this hammer breaks a stone into several fragments, so too, each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, divided into seventy languages. The Gemara continues in praise of the Torah. Rav 岣nanel bar Pappa said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淟isten, for I will speak royal things, and my lips will open with upright statements鈥 (Proverbs 8:6)? Why are matters of Torah likened to a king? To teach you that just as this king has the power to kill and to grant life, so too, matters of Torah have the power to kill and to grant life.

讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 诇诪讬讬诪讬谞讬谉 讘讛 住诪讗 讚讞讬讬 诇诪砖诪讗讬诇讬诐 讘讛 住诪讗 讚诪讜转讗 讚讘专 讗讞专 谞讙讬讚讬诐 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 拽讜砖专讬诐 诇讜 砖谞讬 讻转专讬诐: 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 爪专讜专 讛诪讜专 讚讜讚讬 诇讬 讘讬谉 砖讚讬 讬诇讬谉 讗诪专讛 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诪讬爪专 讜诪讬诪专 诇讬 讚讜讚讬 讘讬谉 砖讚讬 讬诇讬谉 讗砖讻诇 讛讻驻专 讚讜讚讬 诇讬 讘讻专诪讬 注讬谉 讙讚讬 诪讬 砖讛讻诇 砖诇讜 诪讻驻专 诇讬 注诇 注讜谉 讙讚讬 砖讻专诪转讬 诇讬 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讻专诪讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诪讻谞讬砖 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻讚转谞谉 讻住讗 砖诇 讻讜讘住 砖讻讜专诪讬诐 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐:

And that is what Rava said: To those who are right-handed in their approach to Torah, and engage in its study with strength, good will, and sanctity, Torah is a drug of life, and to those who are left-handed in their approach to Torah, it is a drug of death. Alternatively, why are matters of Torah referred to as royal? Because to each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, two crowns are tied. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淢y beloved is to me like a bundle of myrrh that lies between my breasts鈥 (Song of Songs 1:13)? The Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even though my beloved, God, causes me suffering and bitterness, He still lies between my breasts. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi interpreted the verse: 鈥淢y beloved is to me like a cluster [eshkol] of henna [hakofer] in the vineyards of [karmei] Ein Gedi鈥 (Song of Songs 1:14). He, Whom everything [shehakol] is His, forgives [mekhapper] me for the sin of the kid [gedi], i.e., the calf, that I collected [shekaramti] for myself. The Gemara explains: From where is it inferred that the word in this verse, karmei, is a term of gathering? Mar Zutra, son of Rav Na岣an, said that it is as we learned in a mishna: A launderer鈥檚 chair upon which one gathers [koremim] the garments.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诇讞讬讜 讻注专讜讙转 讛讘砖诐 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞转诪诇讗 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讘砖诪讬诐 讜讻讬讜谉 砖诪讚讬讘讜专 专讗砖讜谉 谞转诪诇讗 讚讬讘讜专 砖谞讬 诇讛讬讻谉 讛诇讱 讛讜爪讬讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛专讜讞 诪讗讜爪专讜转讬讜 讜讛讬讛 诪注讘讬专 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻转讜转讬讜 砖讜砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪讜专 注讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖讜砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖砖讜谞讬诐:

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淗is cheeks are as a bed of spices, as banks of sweet herbs, his lips are lilies dripping with flowing myrrh鈥 (Song of Songs 5:13)? It is interpreted homiletically: From each and every utterance that emerged from His cheeks, i.e., the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the entire world was filled with fragrant spices. And since the world was already filled by the first utterance, where was there room for the spices of the second utterance to go? The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought forth wind from His treasuries and made the spices pass one at a time, leaving room for the consequences of the next utterance. As it is stated: 鈥淗is lips are lilies [shoshanim] dripping with flowing myrrh.鈥 Each and every utterance resulted in flowing myrrh. Do not read the word in the verse as shoshanim; rather, read it as sheshonim, meaning repeat. Each repeat utterance produced its own fragrance.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 谞驻砖讬 讬爪讗讛 讘讚讘专讜 讜诪讗讞专 砖诪讚讬讘讜专 专讗砖讜谉 讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转谉 讚讬讘讜专 砖谞讬 讛讬讗讱 拽讬讘诇讜 讛讜专讬讚 讟诇 砖注转讬讚 诇讛讞讬讜转 讘讜 诪转讬诐 讜讛讞讬讛 讗讜转诐 砖谞讗诪专 讙砖诐 谞讚讘讜转 转谞讬祝 讗诇讛讬诐 谞讞诇转讱 讜谞诇讗讛 讗转讛 讻讜谞谞转讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讞讝专讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗讞讜专讬讛谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诪讬诇 讜讛讬讜 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪讚讚讬谉 讗讜转谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪诇讗讻讬 爪讘讗讜转 讬讚讚讜谉 讬讚讚讜谉 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讬讚讚讜谉 讗诇讗 讬讚讚讜谉:

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: From each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the souls of the Jewish people left their bodies, as it is stated: 鈥淢y soul departed when he spoke鈥 (Song of Songs 5:6). And since their souls left their bodies from the first utterance, how did they receive the second utterance? Rather, God rained the dew upon them that, in the future, will revive the dead, and He revived them, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou, God, poured down a bountiful rain; when Your inheritance was weary You sustained it鈥 (Psalms 68:10). And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: With each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the Jewish people retreated in fear twelve mil, and the ministering angels walked them back toward the mountain, as it is stated: 鈥淭he hosts of angels will scatter [yidodun]鈥 (Psalms 68:13). Do not read the word as yidodun, meaning scattered; rather, read it as yedadun, they walked them.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘砖注讛 砖注诇讛 诪砖讛 诇诪专讜诐 讗诪专讜 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讛 诇讬诇讜讚 讗砖讛 讘讬谞讬谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇拽讘诇 转讜专讛 讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇驻谞讬讜 讞诪讜讚讛 讙谞讜讝讛 砖讙谞讜讝讛 诇讱 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜砖讘注讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讚讜专讜转 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 诇讬转谞讛 诇讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪讛 讗谞讜砖 讻讬 转讝讻专谞讜 讜讘谉 讗讚诐 讻讬 转驻拽讚谞讜 讛壮 讗讚谞讬谞讜 诪讛 讗讚讬专 砖诪讱 讘讻诇 讛讗专抓 讗砖专 转谞讛 讛讜讚讱 注诇 讛砖诪讬诐

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When Moses ascended on High to receive the Torah, the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, what is one born of a woman doing here among us? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: He came to receive the Torah. The angels said before Him: The Torah is a hidden treasure that was concealed by you 974 generations before the creation of the world, and you seek to give it to flesh and blood? As it is stated: 鈥淭he word which He commanded to a thousand generations鈥 (Psalms 105:8). Since the Torah, the word of God, was given to the twenty-sixth generation after Adam, the first man, the remaining 974 generations must have preceded the creation of the world. 鈥淲hat is man that You are mindful of him and the son of man that You think of him?鈥 (Psalms 8:5). Rather, 鈥淕od our Lord, how glorious is Your name in all the earth that Your majesty is placed above the heavens鈥 (Psalms 8:2). The rightful place of God鈥檚 majesty, the Torah, is in the heavens.

讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 讛讞讝讬专 诇讛谉 转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪转讬讬专讗 讗谞讬 砖诪讗 讬砖专驻讜谞讬 讘讛讘诇 砖讘驻讬讛诐 讗诪专 诇讜 讗讞讜讝 讘讻住讗 讻讘讜讚讬 讜讞讝讜专 诇讛谉 转砖讜讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪讗讞讝 驻谞讬 讻住讗 驻专砖讝 注诇讬讜 注谞谞讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 谞讞讜诐 诪诇诪讚 砖驻讬专砖 砖讚讬 诪讝讬讜 砖讻讬谞转讜 讜注谞谞讜 注诇讬讜 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 转讜专讛 砖讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讬 诪讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讗谞讻讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讗砖专 讛讜爪讗转讬讱 诪讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇诪爪专讬诐 讬专讚转诐 诇驻专注讛 讛砖转注讘讚转诐 转讜专讛 诇诪讛 转讛讗 诇讻诐 砖讜讘 诪讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诇讱 讗诇讛讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 讘讬谉 讛讙讜讬诐 讗转诐 砖专讜讬讬谉 砖注讜讘讚讬谉

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Provide them with an answer as to why the Torah should be given to the people. Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, I am afraid lest they burn me with the breath of their mouths. God said to him: Grasp My throne of glory for strength and protection, and provide them with an answer. And from where is this derived? As it is stated: 鈥淗e causes him to grasp the front of the throne, and spreads His cloud over it鈥 (Job 26:9), and Rabbi Na岣m said: This verse teaches that God spread the radiance of His presence and His cloud over Moses. Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, the Torah that You are giving me, what is written in it? God said to him: 鈥淚 am the Lord your God Who brought you out of Egypt from the house of bondage鈥 (Exodus 20:2). Moses said to the angels: Did you descend to Egypt? Were you enslaved to Pharaoh? Why should the Torah be yours? Again Moses asked: What else is written in it? God said to him: 鈥淵ou shall have no other gods before Me鈥 (Exodus 20:3). Moses said to the angels: Do you dwell among the nations who worship

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Shabbat 88: Who Needs Free Will Anyway?

Were Bnei Yisrael forced to keep the Torah? That seems inappropriate. But was there any other way for God to...

Shabbat 88

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Shabbat 88

诇专讘谞谉 砖诪讜谞讛 讞住专讬诐 注讘讜讚

and according to the Rabbis, they established eight months that were lacking.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讘住讚专 注讜诇诐 谞讬住谉 砖讘讜 讬爪讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪爪专讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讞讟讜 驻住讞讬讛谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬爪讗讜 讜讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注专讘 砖讘转 讛讬讛 讜诪讚专讬砖 讬专讞讗 讚谞讬住谉 注专讘 砖讘转 专讬砖 讬专讞讗 讚讗讬讬专 讞讚 讘砖讘讗 讜住讬讜谉 讘转专讬 讘砖讘讗 拽砖讬讗 诇专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘谞谉 讛讬讗

The Gemara cites another objection. Come and hear that which was taught in a baraita in the anthology called Seder Olam: In the month of Nisan during which the Jewish people left Egypt, on the fourteenth they slaughtered their Paschal lambs, on the fifteenth they left Egypt, and that day was Shabbat eve. From the fact that the New Moon of Nisan was on Shabbat eve, we can infer that the New Moon of Iyyar was on the first day of the week, and the New Moon of Sivan was on the second day of the week. This is difficult according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who holds that the New Moon of Sivan was on Sunday. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Whose is the opinion in this baraita? It is the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, this baraita poses no difficulty to the opinion of the Rabbi Yosei.

转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讘砖谞讬 注诇讛 诪砖讛 讜讬专讚 讘砖诇讬砖讬 注诇讛 讜讬专讚 讘专讘讬注讬 讬专讚 讜砖讜讘 诇讗 注诇讛 讜诪讗讞专 砖诇讗 注诇讛 诪讛讬讻谉 讬专讚 讗诇讗 讘专讘讬注讬 注诇讛 讜讬专讚 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘谞讛 诪讝讘讞 讜讛拽专讬讘 注诇讬讜 拽专讘谉 讘砖砖讬 诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讜 驻谞讗讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 转讜专讛

The Gemara cites another objection: Come and hear from that which was taught, that Rabbi Yosei says: On the second day of Sivan, Moses ascended Mount Sinai and descended. On the third day, he ascended and descended. On the fourth day, he descended and did not ascend Mount Sinai again until he was commanded along with all of the Jewish people. And the Gemara asks: How is it possible that he descended on the fourth day? Since he did not ascend, from where did he descend? Rather, this must be emended: On the fourth day, he ascended and descended. On the fifth day, he built an altar and sacrificed an offering. On the sixth day, he had no time. The Gemara asks: Is that not because he received the Torah on the sixth day of the month? Apparently, this baraita supports the opinion of the Rabbis.

诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讟讜专讞 砖讘转 讚专砖 讛讛讜讗 讙诇讬诇讗讛 注诇讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讘专讬讱 专讞诪谞讗 讚讬讛讘 讗讜专讬讗谉 转诇讬转讗讬 诇注诐 转诇讬转讗讬 注诇 讬讚讬 转诇讬转讗讬 讘讬讜诐 转诇讬转讗讬 讘讬专讞讗 转诇讬转讗讬 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘谞谉:

The Gemara rejects this: No, he had no time due to the burden of preparing for Shabbat. The Gemara adds: A Galilean taught, while standing above Rav 岣sda: Blessed is the all-Merciful One, Who gave the three-fold Torah: Torah, Prophets, and Writings, to the three-fold nation: Priests, Levites, and Israelites, by means of a third-born: Moses, who followed Aaron and Miriam in birth order, on the third day of the separation of men and women, in the third month: Sivan. On whose opinion is this homily based? It is based on the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that the Torah was given on the third day of separation and not on the fourth day.

讜讬转讬爪讘讜 讘转讞转讬转 讛讛专 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘讚讬诪讬 讘专 讞诪讗 讘专 讞住讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讻驻讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇讬讛诐 讗转 讛讛专 讻讙讬讙讬转 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讗转诐 诪拽讘诇讬诐 讛转讜专讛 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 砖诐 转讛讗 拽讘讜专转讻诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 诪讻讗谉 诪讜讚注讗 专讘讛 诇讗讜专讬讬转讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讛讚讜专 拽讘诇讜讛 讘讬诪讬 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 讚讻转讬讘 拽讬诪讜 讜拽讘诇讜 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 拽讬讬诪讜 诪讛 砖拽讬讘诇讜 讻讘专

The Gemara cites additional homiletic interpretations on the topic of the revelation at Sinai. The Torah says, 鈥淎nd Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the lowermost part of the mount鈥 (Exodus 19:17). Rabbi Avdimi bar 岣ma bar 岣sa said: the Jewish people actually stood beneath the mountain, and the verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, overturned the mountain above the Jews like a tub, and said to them: If you accept the Torah, excellent, and if not, there will be your burial. Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: From here there is a substantial caveat to the obligation to fulfill the Torah. The Jewish people can claim that they were coerced into accepting the Torah, and it is therefore not binding. Rava said: Even so, they again accepted it willingly in the time of Ahasuerus, as it is written: 鈥淭he Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them鈥 (Esther 9:27), and he taught: The Jews ordained what they had already taken upon themselves through coercion at Sinai.

讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪砖诪讬诐 讛砖诪注转 讚讬谉 讗专抓 讬专讗讛 讜砖拽讟讛 讗诐 讬专讗讛 诇诪讛 砖拽讟讛 讜讗诐 砖拽讟讛 诇诪讛 讬专讗讛 讗诇讗 讘转讞讬诇讛 讬专讗讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 砖拽讟讛 讜诇诪讛 讬专讗讛 讻讚专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讛砖砖讬 讛壮 讬转讬专讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 诪诇诪讚 砖讛转谞讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诐 诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讬砖专讗诇 诪拽讘诇讬诐 讛转讜专讛 讗转诐 诪转拽讬讬诪讬谉 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗谞讬 诪讞讝讬专 讗转讻诐 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜:

岣zkiya said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard from heaven; the earth feared, and was silent鈥 (Psalms 76:9)? If it was afraid, why was it silent; and if it was silent, why was it afraid? Rather, the meaning is: At first, it was afraid, and in the end, it was silent. 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard from heaven鈥 refers to the revelation at Sinai. And why was the earth afraid? It is in accordance with the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day鈥 (Genesis 1:31)? Why do I require the superfluous letter heh, the definite article, which does not appear on any of the other days? It teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the act of Creation, and said to them: If Israel accepts the Torah on the sixth day of Sivan, you will exist; and if they do not accept it, I will return you to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. Therefore, the earth was afraid until the Torah was given to Israel, lest it be returned to a state of chaos. Once the Jewish people accepted the Torah, the earth was calmed.

讚专砖 专讘讬 住讬诪讗讬 讘砖注讛 砖讛拽讚讬诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 谞注砖讛 诇谞砖诪注 讘讗讜 砖砖讬诐 专讬讘讜讗 砖诇 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诪讬砖专讗诇 拽砖专讜 诇讜 砖谞讬 讻转专讬诐 讗讞讚 讻谞讙讚 谞注砖讛 讜讗讞讚 讻谞讙讚 谞砖诪注 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讞讟讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 讬专讚讜 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 专讬讘讜讗 诪诇讗讻讬 讞讘诇讛 讜驻讬专拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬转谞爪诇讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 注讚讬诐 诪讛专 讞讜专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘讞讜专讘 讟注谞讜 讘讞讜专讘 驻专拽讜 讘讞讜专讘 讟注谞讜 讻讚讗诪专谉 讘讞讜专讘 驻专拽讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转谞爪诇讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讻讜诇谉 讝讻讛 诪砖讛 讜谞讟诇谉 讚住诪讬讱 诇讬讛 讜诪砖讛 讬拽讞 讗转 讛讗讛诇 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 注转讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讛讞讝讬专谉 诇谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜驻讚讜讬讬 讛壮 讬砖讘讜谉 讜讘讗讜 爪讬讜谉 讘专谞讛 讜砖诪讞转 注讜诇诐 注诇 专讗砖诐 砖诪讞讛 砖诪注讜诇诐 注诇 专讗砖诐

Rabbi Simai taught: When Israel accorded precedence to the declaration 鈥淲e will do鈥 over the declaration 鈥淲e will hear,鈥 600,000 ministering angels came and tied two crowns to each and every member of the Jewish people, one corresponding to 鈥淲e will do鈥 and one corresponding to 鈥淲e will hear.鈥 And when the people sinned with the Golden Calf, 1,200,000 angels of destruction descended and removed them from the people, as it is stated in the wake of the sin of the Golden Calf: 鈥淎nd the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments from Mount Horeb onward鈥 (Exodus 33:6). Rabbi 岣ma, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: At Horeb they put on their ornaments, and at Horeb they removed them. The source for this is: At Horeb they put them on, as we have said; at Horeb they removed them, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments from Mount Horeb.鈥 Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And Moses merited all of these crowns and took them. What is the source for this? Because juxtaposed to this verse, it is stated: 鈥淎nd Moses would take the tent [ohel]鈥 (Exodus 33:7). The word ohel is interpreted homiletically as an allusion to an aura or illumination [hila]. Reish Lakish said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will return them to us, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto Zion, and everlasting joy shall be upon their heads鈥 (Isaiah 35:10). The joy that they once had will once again be upon their heads.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘砖注讛 砖讛拽讚讬诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 谞注砖讛 诇谞砖诪注 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 诪讬 讙诇讛 诇讘谞讬 专讝 讝讛 砖诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪砖转诪砖讬谉 讘讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘专讻讜 讛壮 诪诇讗讻讬讜 讙讘专讬 讻讞 注砖讬 讚讘专讜 诇砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 讚讘专讜 讘专讬砖讗 注砖讬 讜讛讚专 诇砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻转驻讜讞 讘注爪讬 讛讬注专 讜讙讜壮 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇转驻讜讞 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 转驻讜讞 讝讛 驻专讬讜 拽讜讚诐 诇注诇讬讜 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讛拽讚讬诪讜 谞注砖讛 诇谞砖诪注

Rabbi Elazar said: When the Jewish people accorded precedence to the declaration 鈥淲e will do鈥 over 鈥淲e will hear,鈥 a Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Who revealed to my children this secret that the ministering angels use? As it is written: 鈥淏less the Lord, you angels of His, you mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, hearkening unto the voice of His word鈥 (Psalms 103:20). At first, the angels fulfill His word, and then afterward they hearken. Rabbi 岣ma, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎s an apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit and its fruit was sweet to my taste鈥 (Song of Songs 2:3)? Why were the Jewish people likened to an apple tree? It is to tell you that just as this apple tree, its fruit grows before its leaves, so too, the Jewish people accorded precedence to 鈥淲e will do鈥 over 鈥淲e will hear.鈥

讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 讚讞讝讬讬讛 诇专讘讗 讚拽讗 诪注讬讬谉 讘砖诪注转讗 讜讬转讘讛 讗爪讘注转讗 讚讬讚讬讛 转讜转讬 讻专注讗 讜拽讗 诪讬讬抓 讘讛讜 讜拽讗 诪讘注谉 讗爪讘注转讬讛 讚诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注诪讗 驻讝讬讝讗 讚拽讚诪讬转讜 驻讜诪讬讬讻讜 诇讗讜讚谞讬讬讻讜 讗讻转讬 讘驻讞讝讜转讬讬讻讜 拽讬讬诪讬转讜 讘专讬砖讗 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讻讜 诇诪砖诪注 讗讬 诪爪讬转讜 拽讘诇讬转讜 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 拽讘诇讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞谉

The Gemara relates that a heretic saw that Rava was immersed in studying halakha, and his fingers were beneath his leg and he was squeezing them, and his fingers were spurting blood. Rava did not notice that he was bleeding because he was engrossed in study. The heretic said to Rava: You impulsive nation, who accorded precedence to your mouths over your ears. You still bear your impulsiveness, as you act without thinking. You should listen first. Then, if you are capable of fulfilling the commands, accept them. And if not, do not accept them. He said to him: About us,

讚住讙讬谞谉 讘砖诇讬诪讜转讗 讻转讬讘 讘谉 转诪转 讬砖专讬诐 转谞讞诐 讛谞讱 讗讬谞砖讬 讚住讙谉 讘注诇讬诇讜转讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讜住诇祝 讘讜讙讚讬诐 讬砖讚诐:

who proceed wholeheartedly and with integrity, it is written: 鈥淭he integrity of the upright will guide them鈥 (Proverbs 11:3), whereas about those people who walk in deceit, it is written at the end of the same verse: 鈥淎nd the perverseness of the faithless will destroy them.鈥

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诇讘讘转谞讬 讗讞讜转讬 讻诇讛 诇讘讘转谞讬 讘讗讞转 诪注讬谞讬讱 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讗讞转 诪注讬谞讬讱 诇讻砖转注砖讬 讘砖转讬 注讬谞讬讱 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 注诇讜讘讛 讻诇讛 诪讝谞讛 讘转讜讱 讞讜驻转讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪专讬 讘专讛 讚讘转 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗讬 拽专讗 注讚 砖讛诪诇讱 讘诪住讘讜 谞专讚讬 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讜注讚讬讬谉 讞讘讬讘讜转讗 讛讬讗 讙讘谉 讚讻转讬讘 谞转谉 讜诇讗 讻转讘 讛住专讬讞 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注诇讜讘讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 注讜诇讘讬谉 砖讜诪注讬谉 讞专驻转谉 讜讗讬谞谉 诪砖讬讘讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪讗讛讘讛 讜砖诪讞讬谉 讘讬住讜专讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讗讛讘讬讜 讻爪讗转 讛砖诪砖 讘讙讘专转讜

Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣mani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou have ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; you have ravished my heart with one of your eyes, with one bead of your necklace鈥 (Song of Songs 4:9)? At first when you, the Jewish people, merely accepted the Torah upon yourselves it was with one of your eyes; however, when you actually perform the mitzvot it will be with both of your eyes. Ulla said with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: Insolent is the bride who is promiscuous under her wedding canopy. Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, said: What verse alludes to this? 鈥淲hile the king was still at his table my spikenard gave off its fragrance鈥 (Song of Songs 1:12). Its pleasant odor dissipated, leaving only an offensive odor. Rav said: Nevertheless, it is apparent from the verse that the affection of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is still upon us, as it is written euphemistically as 鈥gave off its fragrance,鈥 and the verse did not write, it reeked. And the Sages taught: About those who are insulted and do not insult, who hear their shame and do not respond, who act out of love and are joyful in suffering, the verse says: 鈥淎nd they that love Him are as the sun going forth in its might鈥 (Judges 5:31).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛壮 讬转谉 讗诪专 讛诪讘砖专讜转 爪讘讗 专讘 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛讙讘讜专讛 谞讞诇拽 诇砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谞讜转 转谞讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讻驻讟讬砖 讬驻爪抓 住诇注 诪讛 驻讟讬砖 讝讛 谞讞诇拽 诇讻诪讛 谞讬爪讜爪讜转 讗祝 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞讞诇拽 诇砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谞讜转 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谞讗诇 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注讜 讻讬 谞讙讬讚讬诐 讗讚讘专 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讻谞讙讬讚 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 谞讙讬讚 讝讛 讬砖 讘讜 诇讛诪讬转 讜诇讛讞讬讜转 讗祝 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讬砖 讘诐 诇讛诪讬转 讜诇讛讞讬讜转

With regard to the revelation at Sinai, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭he Lord gives the word; the women that proclaim the tidings are a great host鈥 (Psalms 68:12)? It means that each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Almighty divided into seventy languages, a great host. And, similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught with regard to the verse: 鈥淏ehold, is My word not like fire, declares the Lord, and like a hammer that shatters a rock?鈥 (Jeremiah 23:29). Just as this hammer breaks a stone into several fragments, so too, each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, divided into seventy languages. The Gemara continues in praise of the Torah. Rav 岣nanel bar Pappa said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淟isten, for I will speak royal things, and my lips will open with upright statements鈥 (Proverbs 8:6)? Why are matters of Torah likened to a king? To teach you that just as this king has the power to kill and to grant life, so too, matters of Torah have the power to kill and to grant life.

讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 诇诪讬讬诪讬谞讬谉 讘讛 住诪讗 讚讞讬讬 诇诪砖诪讗讬诇讬诐 讘讛 住诪讗 讚诪讜转讗 讚讘专 讗讞专 谞讙讬讚讬诐 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 拽讜砖专讬诐 诇讜 砖谞讬 讻转专讬诐: 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 爪专讜专 讛诪讜专 讚讜讚讬 诇讬 讘讬谉 砖讚讬 讬诇讬谉 讗诪专讛 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诪讬爪专 讜诪讬诪专 诇讬 讚讜讚讬 讘讬谉 砖讚讬 讬诇讬谉 讗砖讻诇 讛讻驻专 讚讜讚讬 诇讬 讘讻专诪讬 注讬谉 讙讚讬 诪讬 砖讛讻诇 砖诇讜 诪讻驻专 诇讬 注诇 注讜谉 讙讚讬 砖讻专诪转讬 诇讬 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讻专诪讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诪讻谞讬砖 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻讚转谞谉 讻住讗 砖诇 讻讜讘住 砖讻讜专诪讬诐 注诇讬讜 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐:

And that is what Rava said: To those who are right-handed in their approach to Torah, and engage in its study with strength, good will, and sanctity, Torah is a drug of life, and to those who are left-handed in their approach to Torah, it is a drug of death. Alternatively, why are matters of Torah referred to as royal? Because to each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, two crowns are tied. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淢y beloved is to me like a bundle of myrrh that lies between my breasts鈥 (Song of Songs 1:13)? The Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even though my beloved, God, causes me suffering and bitterness, He still lies between my breasts. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi interpreted the verse: 鈥淢y beloved is to me like a cluster [eshkol] of henna [hakofer] in the vineyards of [karmei] Ein Gedi鈥 (Song of Songs 1:14). He, Whom everything [shehakol] is His, forgives [mekhapper] me for the sin of the kid [gedi], i.e., the calf, that I collected [shekaramti] for myself. The Gemara explains: From where is it inferred that the word in this verse, karmei, is a term of gathering? Mar Zutra, son of Rav Na岣an, said that it is as we learned in a mishna: A launderer鈥檚 chair upon which one gathers [koremim] the garments.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诇讞讬讜 讻注专讜讙转 讛讘砖诐 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞转诪诇讗 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讘砖诪讬诐 讜讻讬讜谉 砖诪讚讬讘讜专 专讗砖讜谉 谞转诪诇讗 讚讬讘讜专 砖谞讬 诇讛讬讻谉 讛诇讱 讛讜爪讬讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛专讜讞 诪讗讜爪专讜转讬讜 讜讛讬讛 诪注讘讬专 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻转讜转讬讜 砖讜砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪讜专 注讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖讜砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖砖讜谞讬诐:

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淗is cheeks are as a bed of spices, as banks of sweet herbs, his lips are lilies dripping with flowing myrrh鈥 (Song of Songs 5:13)? It is interpreted homiletically: From each and every utterance that emerged from His cheeks, i.e., the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the entire world was filled with fragrant spices. And since the world was already filled by the first utterance, where was there room for the spices of the second utterance to go? The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought forth wind from His treasuries and made the spices pass one at a time, leaving room for the consequences of the next utterance. As it is stated: 鈥淗is lips are lilies [shoshanim] dripping with flowing myrrh.鈥 Each and every utterance resulted in flowing myrrh. Do not read the word in the verse as shoshanim; rather, read it as sheshonim, meaning repeat. Each repeat utterance produced its own fragrance.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 谞驻砖讬 讬爪讗讛 讘讚讘专讜 讜诪讗讞专 砖诪讚讬讘讜专 专讗砖讜谉 讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转谉 讚讬讘讜专 砖谞讬 讛讬讗讱 拽讬讘诇讜 讛讜专讬讚 讟诇 砖注转讬讚 诇讛讞讬讜转 讘讜 诪转讬诐 讜讛讞讬讛 讗讜转诐 砖谞讗诪专 讙砖诐 谞讚讘讜转 转谞讬祝 讗诇讛讬诐 谞讞诇转讱 讜谞诇讗讛 讗转讛 讻讜谞谞转讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讚讬讘讜专 讜讚讬讘讜专 砖讬爪讗 诪驻讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讞讝专讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗讞讜专讬讛谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诪讬诇 讜讛讬讜 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪讚讚讬谉 讗讜转谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪诇讗讻讬 爪讘讗讜转 讬讚讚讜谉 讬讚讚讜谉 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讬讚讚讜谉 讗诇讗 讬讚讚讜谉:

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: From each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the souls of the Jewish people left their bodies, as it is stated: 鈥淢y soul departed when he spoke鈥 (Song of Songs 5:6). And since their souls left their bodies from the first utterance, how did they receive the second utterance? Rather, God rained the dew upon them that, in the future, will revive the dead, and He revived them, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou, God, poured down a bountiful rain; when Your inheritance was weary You sustained it鈥 (Psalms 68:10). And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: With each and every utterance that emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the Jewish people retreated in fear twelve mil, and the ministering angels walked them back toward the mountain, as it is stated: 鈥淭he hosts of angels will scatter [yidodun]鈥 (Psalms 68:13). Do not read the word as yidodun, meaning scattered; rather, read it as yedadun, they walked them.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘砖注讛 砖注诇讛 诪砖讛 诇诪专讜诐 讗诪专讜 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讛 诇讬诇讜讚 讗砖讛 讘讬谞讬谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇拽讘诇 转讜专讛 讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇驻谞讬讜 讞诪讜讚讛 讙谞讜讝讛 砖讙谞讜讝讛 诇讱 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜砖讘注讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讚讜专讜转 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 诇讬转谞讛 诇讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪讛 讗谞讜砖 讻讬 转讝讻专谞讜 讜讘谉 讗讚诐 讻讬 转驻拽讚谞讜 讛壮 讗讚谞讬谞讜 诪讛 讗讚讬专 砖诪讱 讘讻诇 讛讗专抓 讗砖专 转谞讛 讛讜讚讱 注诇 讛砖诪讬诐

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When Moses ascended on High to receive the Torah, the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, what is one born of a woman doing here among us? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: He came to receive the Torah. The angels said before Him: The Torah is a hidden treasure that was concealed by you 974 generations before the creation of the world, and you seek to give it to flesh and blood? As it is stated: 鈥淭he word which He commanded to a thousand generations鈥 (Psalms 105:8). Since the Torah, the word of God, was given to the twenty-sixth generation after Adam, the first man, the remaining 974 generations must have preceded the creation of the world. 鈥淲hat is man that You are mindful of him and the son of man that You think of him?鈥 (Psalms 8:5). Rather, 鈥淕od our Lord, how glorious is Your name in all the earth that Your majesty is placed above the heavens鈥 (Psalms 8:2). The rightful place of God鈥檚 majesty, the Torah, is in the heavens.

讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 讛讞讝讬专 诇讛谉 转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪转讬讬专讗 讗谞讬 砖诪讗 讬砖专驻讜谞讬 讘讛讘诇 砖讘驻讬讛诐 讗诪专 诇讜 讗讞讜讝 讘讻住讗 讻讘讜讚讬 讜讞讝讜专 诇讛谉 转砖讜讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪讗讞讝 驻谞讬 讻住讗 驻专砖讝 注诇讬讜 注谞谞讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 谞讞讜诐 诪诇诪讚 砖驻讬专砖 砖讚讬 诪讝讬讜 砖讻讬谞转讜 讜注谞谞讜 注诇讬讜 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 转讜专讛 砖讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讬 诪讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讗谞讻讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讗砖专 讛讜爪讗转讬讱 诪讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇诪爪专讬诐 讬专讚转诐 诇驻专注讛 讛砖转注讘讚转诐 转讜专讛 诇诪讛 转讛讗 诇讻诐 砖讜讘 诪讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诇讱 讗诇讛讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 讘讬谉 讛讙讜讬诐 讗转诐 砖专讜讬讬谉 砖注讜讘讚讬谉

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Provide them with an answer as to why the Torah should be given to the people. Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, I am afraid lest they burn me with the breath of their mouths. God said to him: Grasp My throne of glory for strength and protection, and provide them with an answer. And from where is this derived? As it is stated: 鈥淗e causes him to grasp the front of the throne, and spreads His cloud over it鈥 (Job 26:9), and Rabbi Na岣m said: This verse teaches that God spread the radiance of His presence and His cloud over Moses. Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, the Torah that You are giving me, what is written in it? God said to him: 鈥淚 am the Lord your God Who brought you out of Egypt from the house of bondage鈥 (Exodus 20:2). Moses said to the angels: Did you descend to Egypt? Were you enslaved to Pharaoh? Why should the Torah be yours? Again Moses asked: What else is written in it? God said to him: 鈥淵ou shall have no other gods before Me鈥 (Exodus 20:3). Moses said to the angels: Do you dwell among the nations who worship

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