Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

June 10, 2020 | י״ח בסיון תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 96

Today’s daf is sponsored by Audrey and Jake Levant in honour of Audrey’s mother, Geri Goldstein, who made aliya 10 years ago today.

The gemara finishes the discussion regarding the sizes of holes in earthenware utensils and what the halachic implications are for each size. The eleventh chapter starts with throwing items – from public to private domain or the reverse or from private to private through a public domain. In which cases is one obligated? On what does it depend? What is the source for the prohibition to take an item from a private domain to a public? From where do we learn that one cannot take an item from a public domain and move it into a private domain? Why is it important to categorize actions as Avot (primary categories) or Toladot (sub-categories)? If one throws an item more than four cubits in a public domain and it lands on a wall, if it lands higher than 10 handbreaths, one is not obligated as it landed in an “exempt space.” If it landed lower than 10 handbreaths from the ground, one is obligated for carrying in a public domain. From where is this law derived? When the Jews were in the desert, there was a man accused of gathering wood – what melacha did he transgress? Why is it important to determine that? The gemara explains that it has implications for a statement of Isi ben Yehuda who claims that there is one melacha that one is not obligated by the death penalty. There is a debate about whether this person was Tzelofchad.

הא ברברבי והא בזוטרי אמר רב אסי שונין כלי חרס שיעורו בכונס משקה ולא אמרו מוציא משקה אלא לענין גיסטרא בלבד מאי טעמא אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן לפי שאין אומרים הבא גיסטרא לגיסטרא

This statement, that a hole must be large enough to enable a pomegranate to go out in order to purify the vessel, is referring to large vessels. And this statement, that teaches that a vessel is purified only when the majority of the vessel is broken, is referring to small vessels. Rav Asi said that they teach this halakha: With regard to an earthenware vessel, the measure of the hole that renders it unable to become ritually impure is large enough to enable liquid to enter it. And they only said: The measure of a small hole from which liquid seeps, with regard to the impurity of a shard [gistera]. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara answers that Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: A shard is used as a plate beneath a perforated earthenware vessel. If the shard is also perforated and leaks, it is no longer of any use. Because one does not say: Bring another shard to seal the leak of a shard, but throws it out immediately.

אמר עולא פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא רבי יוסי ברבי אבין ורבי יוסי בר זבדא חד אמר כמוציא רמון וחד אמר כשורש קטן וסימניך אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט אמר רב חיננא בר כהנא משמיה דרבי אליעזר כלי חרס שיעורו כמוציא זיתים ומר קשישא בריה דרבה מסיים בה משמיה דרבי אליעזר והרי הן ככלי גללים וכלי אבנים וכלי אדמה שאין מקבלין טומאה לא מדברי תורה ולא מדברי סופרים ולענין צמיד פתיל עד שיפחת רובו:

Ulla said: Two amora’im in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this topic: They are Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Avin, and Rabbi Yosei bar Zavda. One said: The measure of a hole that purifies an earthenware vessel is large enough to enable a pomegranate to go out. And one said: The size of a small root. And your mnemonic to remember that neither holds that the measure is size of an olive is the expression: Both one who increases and one who decreases. They hold extreme positions in this dispute and eschew the intermediate position. Rav Ḥinnana bar Kahana said an intermediate position in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: An earthenware vessel becomes ritually pure with a hole large enough to enable olives to go out. And Mar Kashisha, son of Rabba, concluded this halakha in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: And vessels that have been perforated are like dung vessels, and so too, stone vessels and earth vessels that were not baked in a kiln, which neither become impure by Torah law nor by rabbinic law. And, as far as the matter of an earthenware vessel with a sealed cover in a room with a corpse, it maintains its impurity until the majority of it is broken.

הדרן עלך המצניע

 

מתני׳ הזורק מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים מרשות הרבים לרשות היחיד חייב מרשות היחיד לרשות היחיד ורשות הרבים באמצע רבי עקיבא מחייב וחכמים פוטרין

MISHNA: One who throws an object on Shabbat from the private domain to the public domain or from the public domain to the private domain is liable. However, one who throws an object from the private domain to the other private domain, and the object passes through the public domain between the two, Rabbi Akiva deems him liable for carrying into the public domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

כיצד שתי גזוזטראות זו כנגד זו ברשות הרבים המושיט והזורק מזו לזו פטור היו שתיהן בדיוטא אחת המושיט חייב והזורק פטור שכך היתה עבודת הלוים

How so? If there are two balconies [gezuztra’ot] that are private domains opposite each other on either side of the public domain, one who passes or throws an object from the one on this side to the one on that side is exempt. However, if the balconies were on the same level on the same side of the public thoroughfare, and the public domain separated the two, one who passes from one to the other is liable, and one who throws is exempt, as that method, passing, was the service of the Levites who carried the beams of the Tabernacle.

שתי עגלות זו אחר זו ברשות הרבים מושיטין הקרשים מזו לזו אבל לא זורקין:

In the Tabernacle, two wagons along the same level stood behind one another in the public domain, and the Levites passed the beams from one wagon to the other through the public domain on the same side of a thoroughfare. But they did not throw from one wagon to another because the beams were heavy. Passing, which was performed in the Tabernacle, is prohibited. Throwing, which was not performed in the Tabernacle, is not prohibited.

גמ׳ מכדי זריקה תולדה דהוצאה היא הוצאה גופה היכא כתיבא אמר רבי יוחנן דאמר קרא ויצו משה ויעבירו קול במחנה משה היכן הוה יתיב במחנה לויה ומחנה לויה רשות הרבים הואי וקאמר להו לישראל לא תפיקו ותיתו מרשות היחיד דידכו לרשות הרבים

GEMARA: With regard to the main issue, the Gemara asks: After all, throwing is a subcategory of carrying out. Where is the primary category of prohibited labor of carrying out itself written in the Torah? Isn’t it necessary to clarify the primary category before discussing the subcategory? Rabbi Yoḥanan said: As the verse said: “And Moses commanded, and they passed a proclamation throughout the camp saying: Neither man nor woman should perform any more work to contribute to the Sanctuary; and the people stopped bringing” (Exodus 36:6). According to Rabbi Yoḥanan, Moses commanded the people to cease bringing contributions in order to prevent them from bringing their contributions on Shabbat. He then explains: Where was Moses sitting? He was in the camp of the Levites, and the Levites’ camp was the public domain. And he said to Israel: Do not carry out and bring objects from the private domain, your camp, to the public domain, the camp of the Levites.

וממאי דבשבת קאי דילמא בחול קאי ומשום דשלימא לה מלאכה כדכתיב והמלאכה היתה דים וגו׳ גמר העברה העברה מיום הכפורים

The Gemara asks: And how do you know that he was standing and commanding the people on Shabbat? Perhaps he was standing during the week, and Moses commanded the cessation of contributions because the labor of the Tabernacle was completed, since all the necessary material was already donated, as it is written: “And the work was sufficient for them for all of the work to perform it, and there was extra” (Exodus 36:7). Rather, derive this by means of a verbal analogy between passing mentioned in this context and passing mentioned with regard to Yom Kippur.

כתיב הכא ויעבירו קול במחנה וכתיב התם והעברת שופר תרועה מה להלן ביום אסור אף כאן ביום אסור

It is written here, with regard to the Tabernacle: “And they passed a proclamation throughout the camp,” and it is written there, with regard to Yom Kippur: “And you shall pass a blast of a shofar on the tenth day of the seventh month, on Yom Kippur you shall sound a shofar throughout your land” (Leviticus 25:9). Just as there, with regard to the shofar of the Jubilee Year, passing is on a day on which it is prohibited to perform labor, so too, here passing is on a day on which it is prohibited to perform labor.

אשכחן הוצאה הכנסה מנלן סברא היא מכדי מרשות לרשות הוא מה לי אפוקי ומה לי עיולי מיהו הוצאה אב הכנסה תולדה

The Gemara asks: We found a source prohibiting carrying out from a private domain into the camp of the Levites. From where do we derive that carrying in is also considered a prohibited labor? The Gemara answers: It is a logical inference. After all, carrying is from one domain to another, so what difference is there to me whether it is carrying out or carrying in? Carrying from one domain to another is prohibited; the direction in which the object is carried makes no difference. However, carrying out is a primary category, while carrying in is a subcategory, as it is not stated explicitly in the biblical text.

ומכדי אהא מיחייב ואהא מיחייב אמאי קרי לה האי אב ואמאי קרי לה האי תולדה

The Gemara now questions the distinction between primary categories and subcategories of labor. After all, one is liable for this, carrying out, and one is liable for that, carrying in. Why is this called a primary category, and why is this called a subcategory? What is the point of the distinction?

נפקא מינה דאי עביד שתי אבות בהדי הדדי אי נמי שתי תולדות בהדי הדדי מיחייב תרתי ואי עביד אב ותולדה דידיה לא מיחייב אלא חדא

The Gemara answers: The practical ramification is that if one performs two different primary categories together, or alternatively, if one performs two subcategories of two different primary categories together, he is liable to bring two sin-offerings. And if one performs a primary category of labor together with its own subcategory, he is liable to bring only one sin-offering.

ולרבי אליעזר דמחייב אתולדה במקום אב אמאי קרו לה אב ואמאי קרו לה תולדה הך דהואי במשכן חשיבא קרי לה אב הך דלא הואי במשכן חשיבא לא קרי לה אב אי נמי הך דכתיבא קרי אב והאי דלא כתיבא קרי תולדה

The Gemara further asks: And according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who renders one liable for the performance of a subcategory of prohibited labor when performed together with a primary category, why is this called a primary category, and why is this called a subcategory? The Gemara answers: According to him, that which was a significant labor in the Tabernacle is called a primary category; that which was not a significant labor in the Tabernacle is not called a primary category. Alternatively, perhaps that which is written explicitly in the Torah is called a primary category, and that which is not written explicitly in the Torah is called a subcategory.

והא דתנן הזורק ארבע אמות בכותל למעלה מעשרה טפחים כזורק באויר למטה מעשרה טפחים כזורק בארץ והזורק בארץ ארבע אמות חייב

And as for the halakha that we learned in a mishna: With regard to one who throws an object on Shabbat a distance of four cubits in the public domain and it lands on a wall, if the wall was higher than ten handbreadths, it is as if he threw it into the air, and he is exempt. If the wall was lower than ten handbreadths, it is as if he threw it onto the ground, and one who throws an object a distance of four cubits onto the ground in the public domain is liable.

זרק ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים מנלן דמיחייב אמר רבי יאשיה שכן אורגי יריעות זורקין מחטיהן זה לזה אורגין מחטין למה להו אלא שכן תופרי יריעות זורקין מחטיהן זה לזה

The Gemara asks: If one threw an object four cubits in the public domain, and it did not go from one domain to another, from where do we derive that he is liable? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoshiya said: Because the weavers of the tapestries in the Tabernacle throw their needles to each other when they need to borrow the other’s needle. Throwing was a labor performed in the Tabernacle; therefore, one is liable for performing it. The Gemara wonders: Why do weavers need needles? Rather, emend the statement to say: Because those who sewed the tapestries throw their needles to each other.

ודילמא גבי הדדי הוו יתבי מטו הדדי במחטין דילמא בתוך ארבע הוו יתבי

The Gemara asks: Is it clear that they had to throw needles to each other? Perhaps they sat next to each other. The Gemara answers: It is clear that they kept their distance from each other. If they sat too close, they would reach each other and hurt one another with their needles. The Gemara asks: Perhaps, even though they kept their distance, they sat within four cubits of each other, and they would not throw the needles farther than that. In the absence of proof of their sitting arrangement, this halakha cannot be derived from those who sewed the tapestries.

אלא אמר רב חסדא שכן אורגי יריעות זורקין בוכיאר ביריעה והלא אוגדו בידו בניסכא בתרא

Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: Throwing an object four cubits in the public domain is prohibited because the weavers of the tapestries in the Tabernacle threw the shuttle, to which the thread of the warp was tied on the tapestry. Weaving entails throwing the thread of the warp through the threads of the woof. The Gemara asks: That is not actually throwing, as didn’t the weaver hold the end of the thread in his hand? One is not liable for throwing an object when part of it remains in his hand. Rather, this must be referring to the final throw, when the weaving was finished and the weaver released the thread from his hand.

והא במקום פטור קאזלא אלא שכן אורגי יריעות זורקין בוכיאר לשואליהן ודילמא גבי הדדי הוו יתבי מטו הדדי בחפת

The Gemara asks: Doesn’t the shuttle go in an exempt domain? The tapestry was less than four handbreadths wide, rendering it an exempt domain even though it is four cubits long. One who throws in an exempt domain is exempt. Rather, it is because the weavers of tapestries throw the shuttle to those who seek to borrow it from them. The Gemara asks: But perhaps they sat next to each other? The Gemara answers: That is impossible because they would reach one another and disturb one another when tightening the thread at the end of the tapestry.

ודילמא שלחופי הוו משלחפי ותו מי שאילי מהדדי והתניא לודא איש איש ממלאכתו אשר המה עשים ממלאכתו הוא עושה ואינו עושה ממלאכת חבירו

The Gemara asks: And perhaps they were not in a straight line but staggered. That would enable the weavers to sit adjacent to each other without disturbing each other’s work. And furthermore, did they borrow from each another? Wasn’t the following taught in a baraita of the Sage Luda? The verse states: “And all the wise men who performed all of the work of the Sanctuary came, each one from the work he was doing” (Exodus 36:4). From that verse it is derived: Each performed the labor from his own work, and they would not perform the labor from their friends’ work. Each person had his own tools and did not need to borrow from others.

ותו מעביר ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים מנלן דמחייב אלא כל ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים גמרא גמירי לה:

And furthermore, the Gemara asks: Even if the halakha of throwing was derived from here, from where do we derive that one who carries an object four cubits in the public domain is liable? Rather, apparently, this halakha is not derived from the labor performed in the construction of the Tabernacle. Rather, all the halakhot related to carrying four cubits in the public domain are learned through tradition and not derived from the text.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מקושש מעביר ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים הוה במתניתא תנא תולש הוה רב אחא ברבי יעקב אמר מעמר הוה

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The wood gatherer who was sentenced to death for desecrating Shabbat (see Numbers 15:33–36) was one who carried four cubits in the public domain. He was stoned for performing the prohibited labor of carrying. It was taught in a baraita: He was one who detached still-growing branches. He was stoned for performing the prohibited labor of detaching. Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ya’akov, said: He was one who gathered sticks together into a pile.

למאי נפקא מינה לכדרב דאמר רב מצאתי מגלת סתרים בי רבי חייא וכתוב ביה איסי בן יהודה אומר אבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת (ואם עשאן כולם בהעלם אחת) ואינו חייב אלא אחת אחת ותו לא והתנן אבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת והוינן בה מניינא למה לי ואמר רבי יוחנן שאם עשאן כולם בהעלם אחד חייב על כל אחת ואחת

The Gemara asks: What is the practical ramification of determining precisely which prohibited labor the wood gathered performed? The Gemara answers: The ramification is with regard to the statement of Rav, as Rav said: I found a hidden scroll in the house of Rabbi Ḥiyya. And in it, it is written that Isi ben Yehuda says: The number of primary categories of labor prohibited on Shabbat is forty-less-one. And if one performed all of them in the course of one lapse of awareness, he is liable to bring only one sin-offering. The Gemara asks: One and no more? We learned in a mishna: The number of primary categories of prohibited labors on Shabbat is forty-less-one, which the mishna proceeds to list. And we discussed this mishna: Why do I need this tally of forty-less-one? And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The tally was included to teach that if one performed all the prohibited labors in the course of one lapse of awareness, during which he was unaware of the prohibition involved, he is liable for each and every one.

אימא אינו חייב על אחת מהם

This citation from the hidden scroll cannot be accurate. Rather, emend this statement in the hidden scroll and say that one is not liable for one of them. There is a primary category of labor among the thirty-nine primary categories of prohibited labor whose violation does not incur the death penalty. The identity of this category that is not punishable by death was not specified.

רב יהודה פשיטא ליה דהמעביר חייב ומתניתין פשיטא ליה דתולש חייב ורב אחא בר יעקב פשיטא ליה דמעמר חייב מר סבר הא מיהת לא מספקא ומר סבר הא מיהת לא מספקא:

It is obvious to Rav Yehuda that one who carries four cubits in the public domain is liable to receive the death penalty. And it is obvious to the baraita that one who detaches is liable to receive the death penalty. And it is obvious to Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov that one who gathers is liable to receive the death penalty. In other words, this Master maintains: With regard to this labor, in any case, there is no uncertainty. And this Master maintains: With regard to that labor, in any case, there is no uncertainty. Each Sage maintains that the prohibited labor that he attributed to the wood gatherer incurs the death penalty and is certainly not the labor referred to in the hidden scroll.

תנו רבנן מקושש זה צלפחד וכן הוא אומר ויהיו בני ישראל במדבר וימצאו איש וגו׳ ולהלן הוא אומר אבינו מת במדבר מה להלן צלפחד אף כאן צלפחד דברי רבי עקיבא

On the topic of the wood gatherer, the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita: The wood gatherer mentioned in the Torah was Zelophehad, and it says: “And the children of Israel were in the desert and they found a man gathering wood on the day of Shabbat” (Numbers 15:32), and below, in the appeal of the daughters of Zelophehad, it is stated: “Our father died in the desert and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin, and he had no sons” (Numbers 27:3). Just as below the man in the desert is Zelophehad, so too, here, in the case of the wood gatherer, the unnamed man in the desert is Zelophehad; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

אמר לו רבי יהודה בן בתירא עקיבא בין כך ובין כך אתה עתיד ליתן את הדין אם כדבריך התורה כיסתו ואתה מגלה אותו ואם לאו אתה מוציא לעז על אותו צדיק

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him: Akiva, in either case you will be judged in the future for this teaching. If the truth is in accordance with your statement that the wood gatherer was Zelophehad, the Torah concealed his identity, and you reveal it. And if it the truth is not in accordance with your statement, you are unjustly slandering that righteous man.

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

One week at a time

Daf Yomi One Week at a Time – Shabbat 96-102

This week we will review Daf 96-102 and learn about different laws pertaining to throwing on Shabbat. We will also...
One week at a time

Daf Yomi One Week at a Time – Shabbat 89-95

https://youtu.be/uRqRSVp0l6s Join Rabbanit Dr. Tamara Spitz each week as she reviews the key topics of the previous week’s seven pages....
Weaving Wisdom

Weaving Sounds Dangerous!

In Shabbat Daf 96, we hear a lot about weavers throwing needles and shuttles (the tool that holds the thread...
talking talmud_square

Shabbat 96: Catch!

The new chapter, HaZorek: Throwing an item between public and private domains; throwing an item from a private domain to...

Shabbat 96

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 96

הא ברברבי והא בזוטרי אמר רב אסי שונין כלי חרס שיעורו בכונס משקה ולא אמרו מוציא משקה אלא לענין גיסטרא בלבד מאי טעמא אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן לפי שאין אומרים הבא גיסטרא לגיסטרא

This statement, that a hole must be large enough to enable a pomegranate to go out in order to purify the vessel, is referring to large vessels. And this statement, that teaches that a vessel is purified only when the majority of the vessel is broken, is referring to small vessels. Rav Asi said that they teach this halakha: With regard to an earthenware vessel, the measure of the hole that renders it unable to become ritually impure is large enough to enable liquid to enter it. And they only said: The measure of a small hole from which liquid seeps, with regard to the impurity of a shard [gistera]. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara answers that Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: A shard is used as a plate beneath a perforated earthenware vessel. If the shard is also perforated and leaks, it is no longer of any use. Because one does not say: Bring another shard to seal the leak of a shard, but throws it out immediately.

אמר עולא פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא רבי יוסי ברבי אבין ורבי יוסי בר זבדא חד אמר כמוציא רמון וחד אמר כשורש קטן וסימניך אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט אמר רב חיננא בר כהנא משמיה דרבי אליעזר כלי חרס שיעורו כמוציא זיתים ומר קשישא בריה דרבה מסיים בה משמיה דרבי אליעזר והרי הן ככלי גללים וכלי אבנים וכלי אדמה שאין מקבלין טומאה לא מדברי תורה ולא מדברי סופרים ולענין צמיד פתיל עד שיפחת רובו:

Ulla said: Two amora’im in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this topic: They are Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Avin, and Rabbi Yosei bar Zavda. One said: The measure of a hole that purifies an earthenware vessel is large enough to enable a pomegranate to go out. And one said: The size of a small root. And your mnemonic to remember that neither holds that the measure is size of an olive is the expression: Both one who increases and one who decreases. They hold extreme positions in this dispute and eschew the intermediate position. Rav Ḥinnana bar Kahana said an intermediate position in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: An earthenware vessel becomes ritually pure with a hole large enough to enable olives to go out. And Mar Kashisha, son of Rabba, concluded this halakha in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: And vessels that have been perforated are like dung vessels, and so too, stone vessels and earth vessels that were not baked in a kiln, which neither become impure by Torah law nor by rabbinic law. And, as far as the matter of an earthenware vessel with a sealed cover in a room with a corpse, it maintains its impurity until the majority of it is broken.

הדרן עלך המצניע

 

מתני׳ הזורק מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים מרשות הרבים לרשות היחיד חייב מרשות היחיד לרשות היחיד ורשות הרבים באמצע רבי עקיבא מחייב וחכמים פוטרין

MISHNA: One who throws an object on Shabbat from the private domain to the public domain or from the public domain to the private domain is liable. However, one who throws an object from the private domain to the other private domain, and the object passes through the public domain between the two, Rabbi Akiva deems him liable for carrying into the public domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

כיצד שתי גזוזטראות זו כנגד זו ברשות הרבים המושיט והזורק מזו לזו פטור היו שתיהן בדיוטא אחת המושיט חייב והזורק פטור שכך היתה עבודת הלוים

How so? If there are two balconies [gezuztra’ot] that are private domains opposite each other on either side of the public domain, one who passes or throws an object from the one on this side to the one on that side is exempt. However, if the balconies were on the same level on the same side of the public thoroughfare, and the public domain separated the two, one who passes from one to the other is liable, and one who throws is exempt, as that method, passing, was the service of the Levites who carried the beams of the Tabernacle.

שתי עגלות זו אחר זו ברשות הרבים מושיטין הקרשים מזו לזו אבל לא זורקין:

In the Tabernacle, two wagons along the same level stood behind one another in the public domain, and the Levites passed the beams from one wagon to the other through the public domain on the same side of a thoroughfare. But they did not throw from one wagon to another because the beams were heavy. Passing, which was performed in the Tabernacle, is prohibited. Throwing, which was not performed in the Tabernacle, is not prohibited.

גמ׳ מכדי זריקה תולדה דהוצאה היא הוצאה גופה היכא כתיבא אמר רבי יוחנן דאמר קרא ויצו משה ויעבירו קול במחנה משה היכן הוה יתיב במחנה לויה ומחנה לויה רשות הרבים הואי וקאמר להו לישראל לא תפיקו ותיתו מרשות היחיד דידכו לרשות הרבים

GEMARA: With regard to the main issue, the Gemara asks: After all, throwing is a subcategory of carrying out. Where is the primary category of prohibited labor of carrying out itself written in the Torah? Isn’t it necessary to clarify the primary category before discussing the subcategory? Rabbi Yoḥanan said: As the verse said: “And Moses commanded, and they passed a proclamation throughout the camp saying: Neither man nor woman should perform any more work to contribute to the Sanctuary; and the people stopped bringing” (Exodus 36:6). According to Rabbi Yoḥanan, Moses commanded the people to cease bringing contributions in order to prevent them from bringing their contributions on Shabbat. He then explains: Where was Moses sitting? He was in the camp of the Levites, and the Levites’ camp was the public domain. And he said to Israel: Do not carry out and bring objects from the private domain, your camp, to the public domain, the camp of the Levites.

וממאי דבשבת קאי דילמא בחול קאי ומשום דשלימא לה מלאכה כדכתיב והמלאכה היתה דים וגו׳ גמר העברה העברה מיום הכפורים

The Gemara asks: And how do you know that he was standing and commanding the people on Shabbat? Perhaps he was standing during the week, and Moses commanded the cessation of contributions because the labor of the Tabernacle was completed, since all the necessary material was already donated, as it is written: “And the work was sufficient for them for all of the work to perform it, and there was extra” (Exodus 36:7). Rather, derive this by means of a verbal analogy between passing mentioned in this context and passing mentioned with regard to Yom Kippur.

כתיב הכא ויעבירו קול במחנה וכתיב התם והעברת שופר תרועה מה להלן ביום אסור אף כאן ביום אסור

It is written here, with regard to the Tabernacle: “And they passed a proclamation throughout the camp,” and it is written there, with regard to Yom Kippur: “And you shall pass a blast of a shofar on the tenth day of the seventh month, on Yom Kippur you shall sound a shofar throughout your land” (Leviticus 25:9). Just as there, with regard to the shofar of the Jubilee Year, passing is on a day on which it is prohibited to perform labor, so too, here passing is on a day on which it is prohibited to perform labor.

אשכחן הוצאה הכנסה מנלן סברא היא מכדי מרשות לרשות הוא מה לי אפוקי ומה לי עיולי מיהו הוצאה אב הכנסה תולדה

The Gemara asks: We found a source prohibiting carrying out from a private domain into the camp of the Levites. From where do we derive that carrying in is also considered a prohibited labor? The Gemara answers: It is a logical inference. After all, carrying is from one domain to another, so what difference is there to me whether it is carrying out or carrying in? Carrying from one domain to another is prohibited; the direction in which the object is carried makes no difference. However, carrying out is a primary category, while carrying in is a subcategory, as it is not stated explicitly in the biblical text.

ומכדי אהא מיחייב ואהא מיחייב אמאי קרי לה האי אב ואמאי קרי לה האי תולדה

The Gemara now questions the distinction between primary categories and subcategories of labor. After all, one is liable for this, carrying out, and one is liable for that, carrying in. Why is this called a primary category, and why is this called a subcategory? What is the point of the distinction?

נפקא מינה דאי עביד שתי אבות בהדי הדדי אי נמי שתי תולדות בהדי הדדי מיחייב תרתי ואי עביד אב ותולדה דידיה לא מיחייב אלא חדא

The Gemara answers: The practical ramification is that if one performs two different primary categories together, or alternatively, if one performs two subcategories of two different primary categories together, he is liable to bring two sin-offerings. And if one performs a primary category of labor together with its own subcategory, he is liable to bring only one sin-offering.

ולרבי אליעזר דמחייב אתולדה במקום אב אמאי קרו לה אב ואמאי קרו לה תולדה הך דהואי במשכן חשיבא קרי לה אב הך דלא הואי במשכן חשיבא לא קרי לה אב אי נמי הך דכתיבא קרי אב והאי דלא כתיבא קרי תולדה

The Gemara further asks: And according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who renders one liable for the performance of a subcategory of prohibited labor when performed together with a primary category, why is this called a primary category, and why is this called a subcategory? The Gemara answers: According to him, that which was a significant labor in the Tabernacle is called a primary category; that which was not a significant labor in the Tabernacle is not called a primary category. Alternatively, perhaps that which is written explicitly in the Torah is called a primary category, and that which is not written explicitly in the Torah is called a subcategory.

והא דתנן הזורק ארבע אמות בכותל למעלה מעשרה טפחים כזורק באויר למטה מעשרה טפחים כזורק בארץ והזורק בארץ ארבע אמות חייב

And as for the halakha that we learned in a mishna: With regard to one who throws an object on Shabbat a distance of four cubits in the public domain and it lands on a wall, if the wall was higher than ten handbreadths, it is as if he threw it into the air, and he is exempt. If the wall was lower than ten handbreadths, it is as if he threw it onto the ground, and one who throws an object a distance of four cubits onto the ground in the public domain is liable.

זרק ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים מנלן דמיחייב אמר רבי יאשיה שכן אורגי יריעות זורקין מחטיהן זה לזה אורגין מחטין למה להו אלא שכן תופרי יריעות זורקין מחטיהן זה לזה

The Gemara asks: If one threw an object four cubits in the public domain, and it did not go from one domain to another, from where do we derive that he is liable? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoshiya said: Because the weavers of the tapestries in the Tabernacle throw their needles to each other when they need to borrow the other’s needle. Throwing was a labor performed in the Tabernacle; therefore, one is liable for performing it. The Gemara wonders: Why do weavers need needles? Rather, emend the statement to say: Because those who sewed the tapestries throw their needles to each other.

ודילמא גבי הדדי הוו יתבי מטו הדדי במחטין דילמא בתוך ארבע הוו יתבי

The Gemara asks: Is it clear that they had to throw needles to each other? Perhaps they sat next to each other. The Gemara answers: It is clear that they kept their distance from each other. If they sat too close, they would reach each other and hurt one another with their needles. The Gemara asks: Perhaps, even though they kept their distance, they sat within four cubits of each other, and they would not throw the needles farther than that. In the absence of proof of their sitting arrangement, this halakha cannot be derived from those who sewed the tapestries.

אלא אמר רב חסדא שכן אורגי יריעות זורקין בוכיאר ביריעה והלא אוגדו בידו בניסכא בתרא

Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: Throwing an object four cubits in the public domain is prohibited because the weavers of the tapestries in the Tabernacle threw the shuttle, to which the thread of the warp was tied on the tapestry. Weaving entails throwing the thread of the warp through the threads of the woof. The Gemara asks: That is not actually throwing, as didn’t the weaver hold the end of the thread in his hand? One is not liable for throwing an object when part of it remains in his hand. Rather, this must be referring to the final throw, when the weaving was finished and the weaver released the thread from his hand.

והא במקום פטור קאזלא אלא שכן אורגי יריעות זורקין בוכיאר לשואליהן ודילמא גבי הדדי הוו יתבי מטו הדדי בחפת

The Gemara asks: Doesn’t the shuttle go in an exempt domain? The tapestry was less than four handbreadths wide, rendering it an exempt domain even though it is four cubits long. One who throws in an exempt domain is exempt. Rather, it is because the weavers of tapestries throw the shuttle to those who seek to borrow it from them. The Gemara asks: But perhaps they sat next to each other? The Gemara answers: That is impossible because they would reach one another and disturb one another when tightening the thread at the end of the tapestry.

ודילמא שלחופי הוו משלחפי ותו מי שאילי מהדדי והתניא לודא איש איש ממלאכתו אשר המה עשים ממלאכתו הוא עושה ואינו עושה ממלאכת חבירו

The Gemara asks: And perhaps they were not in a straight line but staggered. That would enable the weavers to sit adjacent to each other without disturbing each other’s work. And furthermore, did they borrow from each another? Wasn’t the following taught in a baraita of the Sage Luda? The verse states: “And all the wise men who performed all of the work of the Sanctuary came, each one from the work he was doing” (Exodus 36:4). From that verse it is derived: Each performed the labor from his own work, and they would not perform the labor from their friends’ work. Each person had his own tools and did not need to borrow from others.

ותו מעביר ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים מנלן דמחייב אלא כל ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים גמרא גמירי לה:

And furthermore, the Gemara asks: Even if the halakha of throwing was derived from here, from where do we derive that one who carries an object four cubits in the public domain is liable? Rather, apparently, this halakha is not derived from the labor performed in the construction of the Tabernacle. Rather, all the halakhot related to carrying four cubits in the public domain are learned through tradition and not derived from the text.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מקושש מעביר ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים הוה במתניתא תנא תולש הוה רב אחא ברבי יעקב אמר מעמר הוה

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The wood gatherer who was sentenced to death for desecrating Shabbat (see Numbers 15:33–36) was one who carried four cubits in the public domain. He was stoned for performing the prohibited labor of carrying. It was taught in a baraita: He was one who detached still-growing branches. He was stoned for performing the prohibited labor of detaching. Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ya’akov, said: He was one who gathered sticks together into a pile.

למאי נפקא מינה לכדרב דאמר רב מצאתי מגלת סתרים בי רבי חייא וכתוב ביה איסי בן יהודה אומר אבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת (ואם עשאן כולם בהעלם אחת) ואינו חייב אלא אחת אחת ותו לא והתנן אבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת והוינן בה מניינא למה לי ואמר רבי יוחנן שאם עשאן כולם בהעלם אחד חייב על כל אחת ואחת

The Gemara asks: What is the practical ramification of determining precisely which prohibited labor the wood gathered performed? The Gemara answers: The ramification is with regard to the statement of Rav, as Rav said: I found a hidden scroll in the house of Rabbi Ḥiyya. And in it, it is written that Isi ben Yehuda says: The number of primary categories of labor prohibited on Shabbat is forty-less-one. And if one performed all of them in the course of one lapse of awareness, he is liable to bring only one sin-offering. The Gemara asks: One and no more? We learned in a mishna: The number of primary categories of prohibited labors on Shabbat is forty-less-one, which the mishna proceeds to list. And we discussed this mishna: Why do I need this tally of forty-less-one? And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The tally was included to teach that if one performed all the prohibited labors in the course of one lapse of awareness, during which he was unaware of the prohibition involved, he is liable for each and every one.

אימא אינו חייב על אחת מהם

This citation from the hidden scroll cannot be accurate. Rather, emend this statement in the hidden scroll and say that one is not liable for one of them. There is a primary category of labor among the thirty-nine primary categories of prohibited labor whose violation does not incur the death penalty. The identity of this category that is not punishable by death was not specified.

רב יהודה פשיטא ליה דהמעביר חייב ומתניתין פשיטא ליה דתולש חייב ורב אחא בר יעקב פשיטא ליה דמעמר חייב מר סבר הא מיהת לא מספקא ומר סבר הא מיהת לא מספקא:

It is obvious to Rav Yehuda that one who carries four cubits in the public domain is liable to receive the death penalty. And it is obvious to the baraita that one who detaches is liable to receive the death penalty. And it is obvious to Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov that one who gathers is liable to receive the death penalty. In other words, this Master maintains: With regard to this labor, in any case, there is no uncertainty. And this Master maintains: With regard to that labor, in any case, there is no uncertainty. Each Sage maintains that the prohibited labor that he attributed to the wood gatherer incurs the death penalty and is certainly not the labor referred to in the hidden scroll.

תנו רבנן מקושש זה צלפחד וכן הוא אומר ויהיו בני ישראל במדבר וימצאו איש וגו׳ ולהלן הוא אומר אבינו מת במדבר מה להלן צלפחד אף כאן צלפחד דברי רבי עקיבא

On the topic of the wood gatherer, the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita: The wood gatherer mentioned in the Torah was Zelophehad, and it says: “And the children of Israel were in the desert and they found a man gathering wood on the day of Shabbat” (Numbers 15:32), and below, in the appeal of the daughters of Zelophehad, it is stated: “Our father died in the desert and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin, and he had no sons” (Numbers 27:3). Just as below the man in the desert is Zelophehad, so too, here, in the case of the wood gatherer, the unnamed man in the desert is Zelophehad; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

אמר לו רבי יהודה בן בתירא עקיבא בין כך ובין כך אתה עתיד ליתן את הדין אם כדבריך התורה כיסתו ואתה מגלה אותו ואם לאו אתה מוציא לעז על אותו צדיק

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him: Akiva, in either case you will be judged in the future for this teaching. If the truth is in accordance with your statement that the wood gatherer was Zelophehad, the Torah concealed his identity, and you reveal it. And if it the truth is not in accordance with your statement, you are unjustly slandering that righteous man.

More Ways to Learn with Hadran

Join Hadran Communities! Connect with women learning in your area.

Scroll To Top