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Today's Daf Yomi

November 17, 2015 | 讛壮 讘讻住诇讜 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Sotah 22

What is a mentioned in the Mishna?聽Who are the other shady characters in the Mishna who cause the downfall of the world? Much time is dedicated to criticizing those who learn Torah and Mishna but do not learn the reasons behind the laws.


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砖拽专讗 讜砖谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讬诪砖 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐

is one who read the Written Torah and learned the Mishna but did not serve Torah scholars in order to learn the reasoning behind the halakhot. Since he believes himself knowledgeable, he issues halakhic rulings, but due to his lack of understanding he rules erroneously and is therefore considered wicked. His cunning is in his public display of knowledge, which misleads others into considering him a true Torah scholar.

讗转诪专 拽专讗 讜砖谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讬诪砖 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 注诐 讛讗专抓 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 讘讜专 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 讻讜转讬

It was stated: With regard to one who read the Written Torah and learned the Mishna but did not serve Torah scholars, Rabbi Elazar says: This person is an ignoramus. Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: This person is a boor. Rabbi Yannai says: This person is comparable to a Samaritan, who follows the Written Torah but not the traditions of the Sages.

专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讙讜砖 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪住转讘专讗 讻专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 专讟讬谉 诪讙讜砖讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讗诪专 转谞讬 转谞讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讗诪专

Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov says: This person is comparable to a sorcerer [magosh], who uses his knowledge to mislead people. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It is reasonable to accept the opinion of Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov, as people say proverbially: The sorcerer chants and does not know what he is saying; so too, the tanna teaches the Mishna and does not know what he is saying.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 注诐 讛讗专抓 讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讘讘专讻讜转讬讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 爪讬爪讬转 讘讘讙讚讜 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻诇 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讙讚诇谉 诇诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 拽讜专讗 讜砖讜谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讬诪砖 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讝讛讜 注诐 讛讗专抓

The Sages taught: Who is an ignoramus [am ha鈥檃retz]? It is anyone who does not recite Shema in the morning and evening with its blessings; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is anyone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says: It is anyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef said: It is anyone who has sons and does not raise them to study Torah. A岣rim say: Even if one reads the Written Torah and learns the Mishna but does not serve Torah scholars, he is an ignoramus.

拽专讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讘讜专 诇讗 拽专讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讝专注转讬 讗转 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗转 讘讬转 讬讛讜讚讛 讝专注 讗讚诐 讜讝专注 讘讛诪讛

If one read the Written Torah but did not learn the Mishna, he is a boor. With regard to one who did not read and did not learn at all, the verse states: 鈥淏ehold, the days come, says the Lord, and I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast鈥 (Jeremiah 31:26). One who has not studied at all is comparable to a beast.

讬专讗 讗转 讛壮 讘谞讬 讜诪诇讱 注诐 砖讜谞讬诐 讗诇 转转注专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讜 砖砖讜谞讬诐 讛诇讻讜转 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 砖讜谞讬谉 讘讞讟讗 讜讻讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讚诐 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The verse states: 鈥淢y son, fear the Lord and the king; and meddle not with those who are repeating鈥 (Proverbs 24:21). Rabbi Yitz岣k says: These are individuals who repeatedly learn the halakhot but do not know the reasons behind them. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 that obvious? How else could the verse be understood? The Gemara answers: He states this lest you say that the verse is referring to individuals who repeatedly commit sins, and this is in accordance with the words of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person committed a transgression and repeated it, in his eyes it became permitted for him. Since the verse could be interpreted in this manner, Rabbi Yitz岣k teaches us that the verse is referring to those who learn without understanding.

转谞讗 讛转谞讗讬诐 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 砖诪讜专讬谉 讛诇讻讛 诪转讜讱 诪砖谞转谉 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜讻讬 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐 讛谉 讜讛诇讗 诪讬讬砖讘讬 注讜诇诐 讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛诇讬讻讜转 注讜诇诐 诇讜 讗诇讗 砖诪讜专讬谉 讛诇讻讛 诪转讜讱 诪砖谞转谉

It was taught in a baraita: The tanna鈥檌m, who recite the tannaitic sources by rote, are individuals who erode the world. The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: Could it enter your mind that they are individuals who erode the world? Ravina says: This statement is referring to those who issue halakhic rulings based on their knowledge of mishnayot. This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua said: Are they individuals who erode the world? Aren鈥檛 they settling the world, as it is stated: 鈥淗is ways [halikhot] are eternal鈥 (Habakkuk 3:6)? The Sages read the term halikhot as halakhot, inferring that one who learns halakhot attains eternal life. Rather, this is referring to those who issue halakhic rulings based on their knowledge of mishnayot.

讗砖讛 驻专讜砖讛 讜讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘转讜诇讛 爪诇讬讬谞讬转 讜讗诇诪谞讛 砖讜讘讘讬转 讜拽讟谉 砖诇讗 讻诇讜 诇讜 讞讚砖讬讜 讛专讬 讗诇讜 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐

搂 The mishna states that an abstinent woman is among those who erode the world. The Sages taught: A maiden who prays constantly, and a neighborly [shovavit] widow who constantly visits her neighbors, and a child whose months of gestation were not completed, all these are people who erode the world.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇诪讚谞讜 讬专讗转 讞讟讗 诪讘转讜诇讛 讜拽讬讘讜诇 砖讻专 诪讗诇诪谞讛 讬专讗转 讞讟讗 诪讘转讜诇讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诪注讛 诇讛讛讬讗 讘转讜诇讛 讚谞驻诇讛 讗讗驻讛 讜拽讗诪专讛 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讘专讗转 讙谉 注讚谉 讜讘专讗转 讙讬讛谞诐 讘专讗转 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜讘专讗转 专砖注讬诐 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 诪诇驻谞讬讱 砖诇讗 讬讻砖诇讜 讘讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: We learned the meaning of fear of sin from a maiden, and the significance of receiving divine reward from a widow. The meaning of fear of sin can be learned from a maiden, as Rabbi Yo岣nan heard a certain maiden who fell on her face in prayer, and she was saying: Master of the Universe, You created the Garden of Eden and You created Gehenna, You created the righteous and You created the wicked. May it be Your will that men shall not stumble because of me and consequently go to Gehenna.

拽讬讘讜诇 砖讻专 诪讗诇诪谞讛 讚讛讛讬讗 讗诇诪谞讛 讚讛讜讗讬 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讛 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜转 讗转讬讗 讜诪爪诇讛 讘讬 诪讚专砖讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讛 讘转讬 诇讗 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讱 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讜诇讗 砖讻专 驻住讬注讜转 讬砖 诇讬

The significance of receiving divine reward can be learned from a widow, as there was a certain widow in whose neighborhood there was a synagogue, and despite this every day she went and prayed in the study hall of Rabbi Yo岣nan. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: My daughter, is there not a synagogue in your neighborhood? She said to him: My teacher, don鈥檛 I attain a reward for all the steps I take while walking to pray in the distant study hall?

讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻讙讜谉 讬讜讞谞讬 讘转 专讟讬讘讬

The Gemara answers: When it is stated in the baraita that a maiden who prays constantly is one who erodes the world, it is referring, for example, to Yo岣ni bat Retivi, who constantly prayed and pretended to be saintly but actually engaged in sorcery.

诪讗讬 拽讟谉 砖诇讗 讻诇讜 诇讜 讞讚砖讬讜 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛诪讘注讟 讘专讘讜转讬讜

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of a child whose months of gestation were not completed? Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted this as alluding to an imperfect, incomplete Torah scholar who scorns his teachers.

专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 砖诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇讛讜专讗讛 讜诪讜专讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 专讘讬诐 讞诇诇讬诐 讛驻讬诇讛 讜注爪讜诪讬诐 讻诇 讛专讜讙讬讛 讻讬 专讘讬诐 讞诇诇讬诐 讛驻讬诇讛 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇讛讜专讗讛 讜诪讜专讛 讜注爪讜诪讬诐 讻诇 讛专讜讙讬讛 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖讛讙讬注 诇讛讜专讗讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讜专讛

Rabbi Abba says: This is a student who has not yet attained the ability to issue halakhic rulings, and yet he issues rulings and is therefore compared to a prematurely born child. This is as Rabbi Abbahu says that Rav Huna says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淔or she has cast down many wounded; and a mighty host are all her slain鈥 (Proverbs 7:26)? 鈥淔or she has cast down [hippila] many wounded鈥; this is referring to a Torah scholar who has not yet attained the ability to issue rulings, and yet he issues rulings. 鈥淎nd a mighty host [ve鈥檃tzumim] are all her slain鈥; this is referring to a Torah scholar who has attained the ability to issue rulings, but does not issue rulings and prevents the masses from learning Torah properly.

讜注讚 讻诪讛 注讚 讗专讘注讬谉 砖谞讬谉 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘讛 讗讜专讬 讘砖讜讬谉

And until when is it considered too premature for a scholar to issue halakhic rulings? It is until forty years. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabba issue rulings, even though he lived for only forty years? The Gemara answers: It is permitted for a scholar who has not studied for so long to issue rulings when his knowledge reaches the level of the foremost scholar in his city and they are equals.

讜诪讻讜转 驻专讜砖讬谉 讜讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖讘注讛 驻专讜砖讬谉 讛谉 驻专讜砖 砖讬讻诪讬 驻专讜砖 谞拽驻讬 驻专讜砖 拽讬讝讗讬 驻专讜砖 诪讚讜讻讬讗 驻专讜砖 诪讛 讞讜讘转讬 讜讗注砖谞讛 驻专讜砖 诪讗讛讘讛 驻专讜砖 诪讬专讗讛

搂 It states in the mishna: And those who injure themselves out of false abstinence [perushin] are people who erode the world. The Sages taught: There are seven pseudo-righteous people who erode the world: The righteous of Shechem, the self-flagellating righteous, the bloodletting righteous, the pestle-like righteous, the righteous who say: Tell me what my obligation is and I will perform it, those who are righteous due to love, and those who are righteous due to fear.

驻专讜砖 砖讬讻诪讬 讝讛 讛注讜砖讛 诪注砖讛 砖讻诐 驻专讜砖 谞拽驻讬 讝讛 讛诪谞拽讬祝 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 驻专讜砖 拽讬讝讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讝讛 讛诪拽讬讝 讚诐 诇讻转诇讬诐 驻专讜砖 诪讚讜讻讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讚诪砖驻注 讻讬 诪讚讜讻讬讗

The Gemara explains: The righteous of Shechem [shikhmi]; this is one who performs actions comparable to the action of the people of Shechem, who agreed to circumcise themselves for personal gain (see Genesis, chapter 34); so too, he behaves righteously only in order to be honored. The self-flagellating righteous; this is one who injures his feet, as he walks slowly, dragging his feet on the ground in an attempt to appear humble, and injures his feet in the process. The bloodletting righteous; Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says that this is one who lets blood by banging his head against the walls because he walks with his eyes shut, ostensibly out of modesty. The pestle-like righteous; Rabba bar Sheila says that this is one who walks bent over like the pestle of a mortar.

驻专讜砖 诪讛 讞讜讘转讬 讜讗注砖谞讛 讛讗 诪注诇讬讜转讗 讛讬讗 讗诇讗 讚讗诪专 诪讛 讞讜讘转讬 转讜 讜讗注砖谞讛

With regard to the righteous one who says: Tell me what my obligation is and I will perform it, the Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this virtuous behavior, as he desires to be aware of his obligations? Rather, this is referring to one who says: Tell me what further obligations are incumbent upon me and I will perform them, indicating that he fulfills all of his mitzvot perfectly and therefore seeks additional obligations.

驻专讜砖 诪讗讛讘讛 驻专讜砖 诪讬专讗讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜专讘讗 诇转谞讗 诇讗 转讬转谞讬 驻专讜砖 诪讗讛讘讛 驻专讜砖 诪讬专讗讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬注住讜拽 讗讚诐 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 砖诇讗 诇砖诪讛 砖诪转讜讱 砖诇讗 诇砖诪讛 讘讗 诇砖诪讛

The baraita also includes in the list of pseudo-righteous people those who are righteous due to love and those who are righteous due to fear, i.e., one who performs mitzvot due to love of their reward or due to fear of punishment. Abaye and Rava said to the tanna who transmitted this baraita: Do not teach in the baraita: Those who are righteous due to love and those who are righteous due to fear, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should always engage in Torah study and in performance of the mitzvot even if he does not do so for their own sake, as through performing them not for their own sake, one comes to perform them for their own sake.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讚诪讟诪专讗 诪讟诪专讗 讜讚诪讙诇讬讗 诪讙诇讬讗 讘讬 讚讬谞讗 专讘讛 诇讬转驻专注 诪讛谞讬 讚讞驻讜 讙讜谞讚讬 讗诪专 诇讛 讬谞讗讬 诪诇讻讗 诇讚讘讬转讬讛 讗诇 转转讬专讗讬 诪谉 讛驻专讜砖讬谉 讜诇讗 诪诪讬 砖讗讬谞谉 驻专讜砖讬谉 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛爪讘讜注讬谉 砖讚讜诪讬谉 诇驻专讜砖讬谉 砖诪注砖讬讛谉 讻诪注砖讛 讝诪专讬 讜诪讘拽砖讬谉 砖讻专 讻驻谞讞住

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: That which is hidden is hidden, and that which is revealed is revealed, but in Heaven everything is known, and the great court in Heaven will exact payment from those who wear the cloak of the righteous but are in fact unworthy. The Gemara relates: King Yannai said to his wife before he died: Do not be afraid of the Pharisees [perushin], and neither should you fear from those who are not Pharisees, i.e., the Sadducees; rather, beware of the hypocrites who appear like Pharisees, as their actions are like the act of the wicked Zimri and they request a reward like that of the righteous Pinehas (see Numbers, chapter 25).

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 讝讻讜转 转讜诇讛 讘诪讬诐 讛诪专讬诐 讜讗诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讛讝讻讜转 转讜诇讛 讘诪讬诐 讛诪讗专专讬谉 诪讚讛讛 讗转讛 讗转 讛诪讬诐 讘驻谞讬 讻诇 讛谞砖讬诐 讛砖讜转讜转 讜诪讜爪讬讗 讗转讛 砖诐 专注 注诇 讛讟讛讜专讜转 砖砖转讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讟诪讗讜转 讛谉 讗诇讗 砖转诇转讛 诇讛谉 讝讻讜转 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讛讝讻讜转 转讜诇讛 讘诪讬诐 讛诪讗专专讬诐 讜讗讬谞讛 讬讜诇讚转 讜讗讬谞讛 诪砖讘讞转 讗诇讗 诪转谞讜讜谞讛 讜讛讜诇讻转 诇住讜祝 讛讬讗 诪转讛 讘讗讜转讛 诪讬转讛

MISHNA: Rabbi Shimon says: Merit does not delay the punishment of the bitter water of a sota, and if you say that merit does delay the punishment of the water that causes the curse, as stated earlier by the Rabbis (20a), you weaken [madhe] the power of the bitter water before all the women who drink the water, who will no longer be afraid of it, as they will rely on their merit to save them. And you defame the untainted women who drank the water and survived, as people say: They are defiled but it is their merit that delayed the punishment for them. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Merit delays the punishment of the water that causes the curse, but a woman whose punishment is delayed does not give birth and does not flourish; rather, she progressively deteriorates. Ultimately she dies by the same death as a sota who dies immediately.

谞讟诪讗转 诪谞讞转讛 注讚 砖诇讗 拽讚砖讛 讘讻诇讬 讛专讬 讛讬讗 讻讻诇 讛诪谞讞讜转 讜转驻讚讛 讜讗诐 诪砖拽讚砖讛 讘讻诇讬 讛专讬 讛讬讗 讻讻诇 讛诪谞讞讜转 讜转砖专祝 讜讗诇讜 砖诪谞讞讜转讬讛谉 谞砖专驻讜转

搂 If the meal-offering of the sota is rendered impure before it has been sanctified in the service vessel, its status is like that of all the other meal-offerings that are rendered impure before being sanctified in a service vessel, and it is redeemed. But if it is rendered impure after it has been sanctified in the service vessel, its status is like that of all the other meal-offerings that are rendered impure after being sanctified in a service vessel, and it is burned. And these are the sota women whose meal-offerings are burned if they have already been sanctified in a service vessel:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Sotah 22

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 22

砖拽专讗 讜砖谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讬诪砖 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐

is one who read the Written Torah and learned the Mishna but did not serve Torah scholars in order to learn the reasoning behind the halakhot. Since he believes himself knowledgeable, he issues halakhic rulings, but due to his lack of understanding he rules erroneously and is therefore considered wicked. His cunning is in his public display of knowledge, which misleads others into considering him a true Torah scholar.

讗转诪专 拽专讗 讜砖谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讬诪砖 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 注诐 讛讗专抓 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 讘讜专 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 讻讜转讬

It was stated: With regard to one who read the Written Torah and learned the Mishna but did not serve Torah scholars, Rabbi Elazar says: This person is an ignoramus. Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: This person is a boor. Rabbi Yannai says: This person is comparable to a Samaritan, who follows the Written Torah but not the traditions of the Sages.

专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讙讜砖 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪住转讘专讗 讻专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 专讟讬谉 诪讙讜砖讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讗诪专 转谞讬 转谞讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讗诪专

Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov says: This person is comparable to a sorcerer [magosh], who uses his knowledge to mislead people. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It is reasonable to accept the opinion of Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov, as people say proverbially: The sorcerer chants and does not know what he is saying; so too, the tanna teaches the Mishna and does not know what he is saying.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 注诐 讛讗专抓 讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讘讘专讻讜转讬讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讻诇 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 爪讬爪讬转 讘讘讙讚讜 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻诇 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讙讚诇谉 诇诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 拽讜专讗 讜砖讜谞讛 讜诇讗 砖讬诪砖 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讝讛讜 注诐 讛讗专抓

The Sages taught: Who is an ignoramus [am ha鈥檃retz]? It is anyone who does not recite Shema in the morning and evening with its blessings; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is anyone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says: It is anyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef said: It is anyone who has sons and does not raise them to study Torah. A岣rim say: Even if one reads the Written Torah and learns the Mishna but does not serve Torah scholars, he is an ignoramus.

拽专讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讘讜专 诇讗 拽专讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讝专注转讬 讗转 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗转 讘讬转 讬讛讜讚讛 讝专注 讗讚诐 讜讝专注 讘讛诪讛

If one read the Written Torah but did not learn the Mishna, he is a boor. With regard to one who did not read and did not learn at all, the verse states: 鈥淏ehold, the days come, says the Lord, and I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast鈥 (Jeremiah 31:26). One who has not studied at all is comparable to a beast.

讬专讗 讗转 讛壮 讘谞讬 讜诪诇讱 注诐 砖讜谞讬诐 讗诇 转转注专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讜 砖砖讜谞讬诐 讛诇讻讜转 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 砖讜谞讬谉 讘讞讟讗 讜讻讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讚诐 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The verse states: 鈥淢y son, fear the Lord and the king; and meddle not with those who are repeating鈥 (Proverbs 24:21). Rabbi Yitz岣k says: These are individuals who repeatedly learn the halakhot but do not know the reasons behind them. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 that obvious? How else could the verse be understood? The Gemara answers: He states this lest you say that the verse is referring to individuals who repeatedly commit sins, and this is in accordance with the words of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person committed a transgression and repeated it, in his eyes it became permitted for him. Since the verse could be interpreted in this manner, Rabbi Yitz岣k teaches us that the verse is referring to those who learn without understanding.

转谞讗 讛转谞讗讬诐 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 砖诪讜专讬谉 讛诇讻讛 诪转讜讱 诪砖谞转谉 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜讻讬 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐 讛谉 讜讛诇讗 诪讬讬砖讘讬 注讜诇诐 讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛诇讬讻讜转 注讜诇诐 诇讜 讗诇讗 砖诪讜专讬谉 讛诇讻讛 诪转讜讱 诪砖谞转谉

It was taught in a baraita: The tanna鈥檌m, who recite the tannaitic sources by rote, are individuals who erode the world. The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: Could it enter your mind that they are individuals who erode the world? Ravina says: This statement is referring to those who issue halakhic rulings based on their knowledge of mishnayot. This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua said: Are they individuals who erode the world? Aren鈥檛 they settling the world, as it is stated: 鈥淗is ways [halikhot] are eternal鈥 (Habakkuk 3:6)? The Sages read the term halikhot as halakhot, inferring that one who learns halakhot attains eternal life. Rather, this is referring to those who issue halakhic rulings based on their knowledge of mishnayot.

讗砖讛 驻专讜砖讛 讜讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘转讜诇讛 爪诇讬讬谞讬转 讜讗诇诪谞讛 砖讜讘讘讬转 讜拽讟谉 砖诇讗 讻诇讜 诇讜 讞讚砖讬讜 讛专讬 讗诇讜 诪讘诇讬 注讜诇诐

搂 The mishna states that an abstinent woman is among those who erode the world. The Sages taught: A maiden who prays constantly, and a neighborly [shovavit] widow who constantly visits her neighbors, and a child whose months of gestation were not completed, all these are people who erode the world.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇诪讚谞讜 讬专讗转 讞讟讗 诪讘转讜诇讛 讜拽讬讘讜诇 砖讻专 诪讗诇诪谞讛 讬专讗转 讞讟讗 诪讘转讜诇讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诪注讛 诇讛讛讬讗 讘转讜诇讛 讚谞驻诇讛 讗讗驻讛 讜拽讗诪专讛 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讘专讗转 讙谉 注讚谉 讜讘专讗转 讙讬讛谞诐 讘专讗转 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜讘专讗转 专砖注讬诐 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 诪诇驻谞讬讱 砖诇讗 讬讻砖诇讜 讘讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: We learned the meaning of fear of sin from a maiden, and the significance of receiving divine reward from a widow. The meaning of fear of sin can be learned from a maiden, as Rabbi Yo岣nan heard a certain maiden who fell on her face in prayer, and she was saying: Master of the Universe, You created the Garden of Eden and You created Gehenna, You created the righteous and You created the wicked. May it be Your will that men shall not stumble because of me and consequently go to Gehenna.

拽讬讘讜诇 砖讻专 诪讗诇诪谞讛 讚讛讛讬讗 讗诇诪谞讛 讚讛讜讗讬 讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讛 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜转 讗转讬讗 讜诪爪诇讛 讘讬 诪讚专砖讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讛 讘转讬 诇讗 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讱 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讜诇讗 砖讻专 驻住讬注讜转 讬砖 诇讬

The significance of receiving divine reward can be learned from a widow, as there was a certain widow in whose neighborhood there was a synagogue, and despite this every day she went and prayed in the study hall of Rabbi Yo岣nan. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to her: My daughter, is there not a synagogue in your neighborhood? She said to him: My teacher, don鈥檛 I attain a reward for all the steps I take while walking to pray in the distant study hall?

讻讬 拽讗诪专 讻讙讜谉 讬讜讞谞讬 讘转 专讟讬讘讬

The Gemara answers: When it is stated in the baraita that a maiden who prays constantly is one who erodes the world, it is referring, for example, to Yo岣ni bat Retivi, who constantly prayed and pretended to be saintly but actually engaged in sorcery.

诪讗讬 拽讟谉 砖诇讗 讻诇讜 诇讜 讞讚砖讬讜 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛诪讘注讟 讘专讘讜转讬讜

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of a child whose months of gestation were not completed? Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted this as alluding to an imperfect, incomplete Torah scholar who scorns his teachers.

专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 砖诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇讛讜专讗讛 讜诪讜专讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 专讘讬诐 讞诇诇讬诐 讛驻讬诇讛 讜注爪讜诪讬诐 讻诇 讛专讜讙讬讛 讻讬 专讘讬诐 讞诇诇讬诐 讛驻讬诇讛 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇讛讜专讗讛 讜诪讜专讛 讜注爪讜诪讬诐 讻诇 讛专讜讙讬讛 讝讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖讛讙讬注 诇讛讜专讗讛 讜讗讬谞讜 诪讜专讛

Rabbi Abba says: This is a student who has not yet attained the ability to issue halakhic rulings, and yet he issues rulings and is therefore compared to a prematurely born child. This is as Rabbi Abbahu says that Rav Huna says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淔or she has cast down many wounded; and a mighty host are all her slain鈥 (Proverbs 7:26)? 鈥淔or she has cast down [hippila] many wounded鈥; this is referring to a Torah scholar who has not yet attained the ability to issue rulings, and yet he issues rulings. 鈥淎nd a mighty host [ve鈥檃tzumim] are all her slain鈥; this is referring to a Torah scholar who has attained the ability to issue rulings, but does not issue rulings and prevents the masses from learning Torah properly.

讜注讚 讻诪讛 注讚 讗专讘注讬谉 砖谞讬谉 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘讛 讗讜专讬 讘砖讜讬谉

And until when is it considered too premature for a scholar to issue halakhic rulings? It is until forty years. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabba issue rulings, even though he lived for only forty years? The Gemara answers: It is permitted for a scholar who has not studied for so long to issue rulings when his knowledge reaches the level of the foremost scholar in his city and they are equals.

讜诪讻讜转 驻专讜砖讬谉 讜讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖讘注讛 驻专讜砖讬谉 讛谉 驻专讜砖 砖讬讻诪讬 驻专讜砖 谞拽驻讬 驻专讜砖 拽讬讝讗讬 驻专讜砖 诪讚讜讻讬讗 驻专讜砖 诪讛 讞讜讘转讬 讜讗注砖谞讛 驻专讜砖 诪讗讛讘讛 驻专讜砖 诪讬专讗讛

搂 It states in the mishna: And those who injure themselves out of false abstinence [perushin] are people who erode the world. The Sages taught: There are seven pseudo-righteous people who erode the world: The righteous of Shechem, the self-flagellating righteous, the bloodletting righteous, the pestle-like righteous, the righteous who say: Tell me what my obligation is and I will perform it, those who are righteous due to love, and those who are righteous due to fear.

驻专讜砖 砖讬讻诪讬 讝讛 讛注讜砖讛 诪注砖讛 砖讻诐 驻专讜砖 谞拽驻讬 讝讛 讛诪谞拽讬祝 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 驻专讜砖 拽讬讝讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讝讛 讛诪拽讬讝 讚诐 诇讻转诇讬诐 驻专讜砖 诪讚讜讻讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讚诪砖驻注 讻讬 诪讚讜讻讬讗

The Gemara explains: The righteous of Shechem [shikhmi]; this is one who performs actions comparable to the action of the people of Shechem, who agreed to circumcise themselves for personal gain (see Genesis, chapter 34); so too, he behaves righteously only in order to be honored. The self-flagellating righteous; this is one who injures his feet, as he walks slowly, dragging his feet on the ground in an attempt to appear humble, and injures his feet in the process. The bloodletting righteous; Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says that this is one who lets blood by banging his head against the walls because he walks with his eyes shut, ostensibly out of modesty. The pestle-like righteous; Rabba bar Sheila says that this is one who walks bent over like the pestle of a mortar.

驻专讜砖 诪讛 讞讜讘转讬 讜讗注砖谞讛 讛讗 诪注诇讬讜转讗 讛讬讗 讗诇讗 讚讗诪专 诪讛 讞讜讘转讬 转讜 讜讗注砖谞讛

With regard to the righteous one who says: Tell me what my obligation is and I will perform it, the Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this virtuous behavior, as he desires to be aware of his obligations? Rather, this is referring to one who says: Tell me what further obligations are incumbent upon me and I will perform them, indicating that he fulfills all of his mitzvot perfectly and therefore seeks additional obligations.

驻专讜砖 诪讗讛讘讛 驻专讜砖 诪讬专讗讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜专讘讗 诇转谞讗 诇讗 转讬转谞讬 驻专讜砖 诪讗讛讘讛 驻专讜砖 诪讬专讗讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬注住讜拽 讗讚诐 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 砖诇讗 诇砖诪讛 砖诪转讜讱 砖诇讗 诇砖诪讛 讘讗 诇砖诪讛

The baraita also includes in the list of pseudo-righteous people those who are righteous due to love and those who are righteous due to fear, i.e., one who performs mitzvot due to love of their reward or due to fear of punishment. Abaye and Rava said to the tanna who transmitted this baraita: Do not teach in the baraita: Those who are righteous due to love and those who are righteous due to fear, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should always engage in Torah study and in performance of the mitzvot even if he does not do so for their own sake, as through performing them not for their own sake, one comes to perform them for their own sake.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讚诪讟诪专讗 诪讟诪专讗 讜讚诪讙诇讬讗 诪讙诇讬讗 讘讬 讚讬谞讗 专讘讛 诇讬转驻专注 诪讛谞讬 讚讞驻讜 讙讜谞讚讬 讗诪专 诇讛 讬谞讗讬 诪诇讻讗 诇讚讘讬转讬讛 讗诇 转转讬专讗讬 诪谉 讛驻专讜砖讬谉 讜诇讗 诪诪讬 砖讗讬谞谉 驻专讜砖讬谉 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛爪讘讜注讬谉 砖讚讜诪讬谉 诇驻专讜砖讬谉 砖诪注砖讬讛谉 讻诪注砖讛 讝诪专讬 讜诪讘拽砖讬谉 砖讻专 讻驻谞讞住

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: That which is hidden is hidden, and that which is revealed is revealed, but in Heaven everything is known, and the great court in Heaven will exact payment from those who wear the cloak of the righteous but are in fact unworthy. The Gemara relates: King Yannai said to his wife before he died: Do not be afraid of the Pharisees [perushin], and neither should you fear from those who are not Pharisees, i.e., the Sadducees; rather, beware of the hypocrites who appear like Pharisees, as their actions are like the act of the wicked Zimri and they request a reward like that of the righteous Pinehas (see Numbers, chapter 25).

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 讝讻讜转 转讜诇讛 讘诪讬诐 讛诪专讬诐 讜讗诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讛讝讻讜转 转讜诇讛 讘诪讬诐 讛诪讗专专讬谉 诪讚讛讛 讗转讛 讗转 讛诪讬诐 讘驻谞讬 讻诇 讛谞砖讬诐 讛砖讜转讜转 讜诪讜爪讬讗 讗转讛 砖诐 专注 注诇 讛讟讛讜专讜转 砖砖转讜 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讟诪讗讜转 讛谉 讗诇讗 砖转诇转讛 诇讛谉 讝讻讜转 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讛讝讻讜转 转讜诇讛 讘诪讬诐 讛诪讗专专讬诐 讜讗讬谞讛 讬讜诇讚转 讜讗讬谞讛 诪砖讘讞转 讗诇讗 诪转谞讜讜谞讛 讜讛讜诇讻转 诇住讜祝 讛讬讗 诪转讛 讘讗讜转讛 诪讬转讛

MISHNA: Rabbi Shimon says: Merit does not delay the punishment of the bitter water of a sota, and if you say that merit does delay the punishment of the water that causes the curse, as stated earlier by the Rabbis (20a), you weaken [madhe] the power of the bitter water before all the women who drink the water, who will no longer be afraid of it, as they will rely on their merit to save them. And you defame the untainted women who drank the water and survived, as people say: They are defiled but it is their merit that delayed the punishment for them. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Merit delays the punishment of the water that causes the curse, but a woman whose punishment is delayed does not give birth and does not flourish; rather, she progressively deteriorates. Ultimately she dies by the same death as a sota who dies immediately.

谞讟诪讗转 诪谞讞转讛 注讚 砖诇讗 拽讚砖讛 讘讻诇讬 讛专讬 讛讬讗 讻讻诇 讛诪谞讞讜转 讜转驻讚讛 讜讗诐 诪砖拽讚砖讛 讘讻诇讬 讛专讬 讛讬讗 讻讻诇 讛诪谞讞讜转 讜转砖专祝 讜讗诇讜 砖诪谞讞讜转讬讛谉 谞砖专驻讜转

搂 If the meal-offering of the sota is rendered impure before it has been sanctified in the service vessel, its status is like that of all the other meal-offerings that are rendered impure before being sanctified in a service vessel, and it is redeemed. But if it is rendered impure after it has been sanctified in the service vessel, its status is like that of all the other meal-offerings that are rendered impure after being sanctified in a service vessel, and it is burned. And these are the sota women whose meal-offerings are burned if they have already been sanctified in a service vessel:

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