Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

November 30, 2015 | ื™ืดื— ื‘ื›ืกืœื• ืชืฉืขืดื•

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sotah 35

More details about the spies’ tacticsย and what they said. ย How did Caleb get the people to listen to him after the spies told their bad report? ย Details of theย ark’s miraculous nature leads into a discussion of Uza who gets killed for disrespecting the ark. ย How many sets of stones were there? ย When they wrote the Torah on the stones after crossing the Jordan, was the limestone put on first and then they wrote the Torah or was is the reverse?

ื•ื™ืœื›ื• ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ืžืงื™ืฉ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ืœื‘ื™ืื” ืžื” ื‘ื™ืื” ื‘ืขืฆื” ืจืขื” ืืฃ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ืขืฆื” ืจืขื”

And they went and they cameโ€ (Numbers 13:25โ€“26). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: This verse likens their going to their coming. Just as their coming back was with wicked counsel, so too, their going to Eretz Yisrael was with wicked counsel.

ื•ื™ืกืคืจื• ืœื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ื‘ืื ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืคืก ื›ื™ ืขื– ื”ืขื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ (ืกื™ืžืŸ ืืžืช ืœื‘ื“ื• ืœื•ื™ื”) ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื›ืœ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืจืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืืžืช ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืชื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืคื•

The Torah states: โ€œAnd they told him, and said: We came to the land to which you sent us, and it also flows with milk and honeyโ€ (Numbers 13:27), and then it is written: โ€œHowever the people that dwell in the land are fierceโ€ (Numbers 13:28). Why did the spies praise the land and then slander it? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says three statements in the name of Rabbi Meir, represented by the mnemonic device: Truth, alone, borrowing. The first statement answers this question: Any slander that does not begin with a truthful statement ultimately does not stand, i.e., it is not accepted by others.

ื•ื™ื”ืก ื›ืœื‘ ืืช ื”ืขื ืืœ ืžืฉื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืฉื”ืกื™ืชืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื

The verse states: โ€œAnd Caleb stilled [vayyahas] the people toward Mosesโ€ (Numbers 13:30). Rabba says: This means that he persuaded them [hesitan] with his words. Vayyahas and hesitan share the same root in Hebrew.

ืคืชื— ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืงื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉ ืงื˜ื™ืขื” ื™ืžืœืœ

How did he do so? Joshua began to address the people, and as he was speaking they said to him: Should this person, who has a severed head, as he has no children, speak to the people about entering Eretz Yisrael?

ืืžืจ ืื™ ืžืฉืชืขื™ื ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ื—ืกืžื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื•ื›ื™ ื–ื• ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืขืฉื” ืœื ื• ื‘ืŸ ืขืžืจื ืกื‘ืจื™ ื‘ื’ื ื•ืชื™ื” ืงื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืื™ืฉืชื™ืงื•

Caleb said to himself: If I speak they will also say something about me and stop me from speaking. He began to speak and said to them: And is this the only thing that the son of Amram, Moses, has done to us? They thought that he wanted to relate something to the discredit of Moses, and they were silent.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื ื• ืžืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืงืจืข ืœื ื• ืืช ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ืื›ื™ืœื ื• ืืช ื”ืžืŸ ืื ื™ืืžืจ ืขืฉื• ืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ื•ืขืœื• ืœืจืงื™ืข ืœื ื ืฉืžืข ืœื• ืขืœื” ื ืขืœื” ื•ื™ืจืฉื ื• ืืชื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ

He then said to them: He took us out of Egypt, and split the sea for us, and fed us the manna. If he says to us: Build ladders and climb to the heavens, should we not listen to him? โ€œWe should go up at once,โ€ even to the heavens, โ€œand possess itโ€ (Numbers 13:30).

ื•ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœื• ืขืžื• ืืžืจื• ืœื ื ื•ื›ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ื“ื‘ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื• ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื›ื™ ื—ื–ืง ื”ื•ื ืžืžื ื• ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืžืžื ื• ืืœื ืžืžื ื• ื›ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื›ืœื™ื• ืžืฉื

The verses continue: โ€œBut the men that went up with him said: We are not able to go up against the people; as they are stronger than usโ€ (Numbers 13:31). Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappa says: The spies said a serious statement at that moment. When they said: โ€œThey are stronger,โ€ do not read the phrase as: Stronger than us [mimmennu], but rather read it as: Stronger than Him [mimmennu], meaning that even the Homeowner, God, is unable to remove His belongings from there, as it were. The spies were speaking heresy and claiming that the Canaanites were stronger than God Himself.

ืืจืฅ ืื›ืœืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื ื™ ื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ื” ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืœืจืขื” ืื ื™ ื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ื” ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื˜ื• ืžืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ื ื™ื˜ืจื“ื• ื•ืœื ืœืฉืืœื• ืื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื•ื‘ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ืื˜ืจื™ื“ื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ื‘ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื”ื ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืœืจืขื” ืืจืฅ ืื›ืœืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ื”ื™ื

The spies said: โ€œIt is a land that consumes its inhabitantsโ€ (Numbers 13:32). Rava taught: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I intended the land to appear to consume its inhabitants for their own good, but they considered this proof that the land was bad. I intended it for their good by causing many people to die there so that anywhere that the spies arrived, the most important of them died, so that the Canaanites would be preoccupied with mourning and would not inquire about them. And there are those who say that God caused Job to die at that time, and everyone in Canaan was preoccupied with his eulogy, and did not pay attention to the spies. However, the spies considered this proof that the land was bad and said: โ€œIt is a land that consumes its inhabitants.โ€

ื•ื ื”ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื ื• ื›ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ืฉืงืจื™ ื”ื•ื• ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื•ื ื”ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื ื• ื›ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ืœื—ื™ื™ ืืœื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื”ื ืžื ื ื”ื•ื• ื™ื“ืขื™

The spies said: โ€œAnd we were like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and so were we in their eyesโ€ (Numbers 13:33). Rav Mesharshiyya says: The spies were liars. Granted, to say: โ€œWe were like grasshoppers in our own eyes,โ€ is well, but to say: โ€œAnd so were we in their eyes,โ€ from where could they have known this?

ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื‘ืจื™ ืื‘ื™ืœื™ ืชื•ืชื™ ืืจื–ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื‘ืจื™ ื•ื›ื™ ื—ื–ื™ื ื”ื• ืกืœืงื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืื™ืœื ื™ ืฉืžืขื™ ื“ืงืืžืจื™ ืงื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื“ื“ืžื• ืœืงืžืฆื™ ื‘ืื™ืœื ื™

The Gemara responds: But that is not so, as when the Canaanites were having the mournersโ€™ meal, they had the meal beneath cedar trees, and when the spies saw them they climbed up the trees and sat in them. From there they heard the Canaanites saying: We see people who look like grasshoppers in the trees.

ื•ืชืฉื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื“ื” ื•ื™ืชื ื• ืืช ืงื•ืœื ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืจื‘ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื”ื™ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ื• ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื ื ื•ืื ื™ ืืงื‘ืข ืœื”ื ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช

The verse states: โ€œAnd all the congregation lifted up their voice and criedโ€ (Numbers 14:1). Rabba says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: That day was the eve of the Ninth of Av, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: On that day they wept a gratuitous weeping, so I will establish that day for them as a day of weeping for the future generations.

ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ื›ืœ ื”ืขื“ื” ืœืจื’ื•ื ืืชื ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืณ ื ืจืื” ื‘ืื”ืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ื˜ืœื• ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื–ืจืงื•ื ื›ืœืคื™ ืžืขืœื”

The verse states: โ€œBut all the congregation bade stone them with stonesโ€ (Numbers 14:10), and it is written immediately afterward: โ€œWhen the glory of the Lord appeared in the Tent of Meetingโ€ (Numbers 14:10). Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba says: This teaches that they took stones and threw them upward as if to throw them at God.

ื•ื™ืžืชื• ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ืžื•ืฆืื™ ื“ื‘ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืจืขื” ื‘ืžื’ืคื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืฉืžืชื• ืžื™ืชื” ืžืฉื•ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉื™ืœื ืื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ืชืžืจืชื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ืฉืชืจื‘ื‘ ืœืฉื•ื ื ื•ื ืคืœ ืขืœ ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืœืขื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื•ืช ืžืœืฉื•ื ื ื•ื ื›ื ืกื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ืžื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ื ื›ื ืกื•ืช ื‘ืœืฉื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ื‘ืืกื›ืจื” ืžืชื•

The verse states: โ€œAnd those men who brought out an evil report of the land, died by the plague before the Lordโ€ (Numbers 14:37). Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This means that they died an unusual death. Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappa says that Rabbi Sheila Ish Kefar Temarta taught: This teaches that their tongues were stretched out from their mouths and fell upon their navels, and worms were crawling out of their tongues and entering their navels, and worms were likewise coming out of their navels and entering their tongues. This is the painful death that they suffered. And Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: They died of diphtheria, which causes one to choke to death.

ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขืœื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื—ื–ืจื• ืžื™ื ืœืžืงื•ืžืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื ืฉืื™ ืืจื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืช ื”ืณ ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื ืชืงื• ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืืœ ื”ื—ืจื‘ื” ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืžื™ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืœืžืงื•ืžื ื•ื™ืœื›ื• ื›ืชืžื•ืœ ืฉืœืฉื•ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื’ื“ื•ืชื™ื•

ยง The Gemara returns to discuss the entry of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael. And once the last one of the Jewish people ascended out of the Jordan, the water returned to its place, as it is stated: โ€œAnd it came to pass, as the priests that bore the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord came up out of the midst of the Jordan, as soon as the soles of the priestsโ€™ feet were drawn up unto the dry ground, that the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, and went over all its banks, as it had beforeโ€ (Joshua 4:18). The Gemara understands that the priests who carried the Ark stood in the water until all of the Jewish people passed through the Jordan. Once all the Jewish people had reached the other side of the Jordan, the priests stepped back from the water and the Jordan returned to its natural state.

ื ืžืฆื ืืจื•ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืฉืื™ื• ื•ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื ืืจื•ืŸ ืืช ื ื•ืฉืื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ืชื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื ืœืขื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืขื‘ืจ ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืณ ื•ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืขื

It follows that the Ark and its bearers and the priests were on one side of the Jordan, the east side, and the rest of the Jewish people were on the other side, the west side. Subsequently, the Ark carried its bearers in the air and crossed the Jordan, as it is stated: โ€œWhen all the people were completely passed over, the Ark of the Lord passed on, and the priests, before the peopleโ€ (Joshua 4:11).

ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ืขื ืฉ ืขื•ื–ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืขื“ ื’ืจืŸ ื›ื™ื“ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืœื— ืขื–ื ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืœืื—ื– ืืช ื”ืืจื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื–ื ื ื•ืฉืื™ื• ื ืฉื ืขืฆืžื• ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

And over this matter Uzzah was punished for not taking proper care of the Ark, as it is stated: โ€œAnd when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon, Uzzah put forth his hand to hold the Ark; for the oxen stumbledโ€ (Iย Chronicles 13:9). The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Uzzah, the Ark carried its bearers when it crossed the Jordan; all the more so is it not clear that it can carry itself?

ื•ื™ื—ืจ ืืฃ ื”ืณ ื‘ืขื–ื” ื•ื™ื›ื”ื• ืฉื ืขืœ ื”ืฉืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืฉืœื• ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉืขืฉื” ืฆืจื›ื™ื• ื‘ืคื ื™ื•

ยง The verse states: โ€œAnd the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there for his error [hashal]โ€ (IIย Samuel 6:7). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed over the interpretation of this verse. One says: God smote him for his forgetfulness [shalo], because he did not remember that the Ark can carry itself. And one says: God smote him because he lifted the edges [shulayyim] of his garment in front of the Ark and relieved himself in its presence.

ื•ื™ืžืช ืฉื ืขื ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืขื•ื–ื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื” ืืจื•ืŸ ืœืขื•ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืืฃ ืขื•ื–ื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

The verse states: โ€œAnd he died there with the Ark of Godโ€ (IIย Samuel 6:7). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Uzzah entered the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œWith the Ark of God.โ€ Just as the Ark exists forever, so too, Uzzah entered the World-to-Come.

ื•ื™ื—ืจ ืœื“ื•ื“ ืขืœ ืืฉืจ ืคืจืฅ ื”ืณ ืคืจืฅ ื‘ืขื–ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืฉื ืฉืชื ื• ืคื ื™ื• ื›ื—ืจืจื”

The verse states: โ€œAnd David was displeased [vayyiแธฅar] because the Lord had broken forth upon Uzzahโ€ (IIย Samuel 6:8). Rabbi Elazar says: Vayyiแธฅar means that his face changed colors and darkened like baked bread [แธฅarara] from displeasure.

ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื—ืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื”ืชื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฃ ื”ื›ื ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฃ

The Gemara questions this statement: If that is so, anywhere that the word vayyiแธฅar is written, including when it is referring to God, should it be interpreted this way as well? The Gemara answers: There, it is written: โ€œAnd the anger of the Lord was kindled [vayyiแธฅar af ]โ€ (IIย Samuel 6:7), whereas here, the anger [af ] is not written, but only vayyiแธฅar. Therefore it is interpreted differently.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื ืขื ืฉ ื“ื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงืจื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื–ืžื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื–ืžืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื™ ื—ืงื™ืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืžื’ื•ืจื™

Rava taught: For what reason was David punished with Uzzahโ€™s death? He was punished because he called matters of Torah: Songs, as it is stated: โ€œYour statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimageโ€ (Psalms 119:54).

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืชืขื™ืฃ ืขื™ื ื™ืš ื‘ื• ื•ืื™ื ื ื• ืืชื” ืงื•ืจื ืื•ืชืŸ ื–ืžื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืš ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ ืงื”ืช ืœื ื ืชืŸ ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื“ืช ื”ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืื™ื”ื• ืืชื™ื™ื” ื‘ืขื’ืœืชื

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Matters of Torah are so difficult and demanding that it is written: โ€œWill you set your eyes upon it? It is goneโ€ (Proverbs 23:5), i.e., one whose eyes stray from the Torah even for a moment will forget it, and you call them songs? For this reason I will cause you to stumble in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written with regard to the wagons brought to the Tabernacle: โ€œAnd to the descendants of Kohath he did not give, because the service of the holy things belongs to them; they carry them upon their shouldersโ€ (Numbers 7:9). And although the Ark clearly must be carried on peopleโ€™s shoulders, David erred and brought it in a wagon.

ื•ื™ืš ื‘ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉ ื›ื™ ืจืื• ื‘ืืจื•ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจืื• ื•ื™ืš ืืœื”ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืงื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžื™ืœื™ ื ืžื™ ืืžื•ืจ

ยง When the Philistines returned the Ark during the period of Samuel, it is stated: โ€œAnd He smote of the men of Beit Shemesh because they had gazed upon the Ark of the Lordโ€ (I Samuel 6:19). The Gemara asks: Because they gazed upon it, God smote them? Why did their action warrant this punishment? Rabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazar disagreed with regard to the interpretation of the verse. One says that they were punished because they were reaping their crops and prostrating themselves at the same time; they did not stop working in reverence for the Ark. And one says that they also spoke denigrating words:

ืžืืŸ ืืžืจื™ืš (ืœื”ื) ื“ืื™ืžืจื™ื™ืช ื•ืžืืŸ ืืชื ืขืœืš ื“ืื™ืคื™ื™ืกืช

Who angered you, i.e., the Ark, so much that you became so angry that you gave yourself into captivity? And who came to you to appease you?

ื•ื™ืš ื‘ืขื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืื™ืฉ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืœืฃ ืื™ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืื™ืฉ ื”ื™ื• ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืœืฃ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืœืฃ ื”ื™ื• ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ

The verse states: โ€œAnd He smote of the people seventy men, fifty thousand menโ€ (I Samuel 6:19). Rabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazar disagree over the interpretation of the verse. One says that there were seventy men, and each and every one of them was equivalent to fifty thousand men. And one says that there were fifty thousand men, and each and every one was equivalent to the seventy men in the Sanhedrin.

ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ื™ ืฆืขื“ื• ื ืฉืื™ ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืณ ืฉืฉื” ืฆืขื“ื™ื ื•ื™ื–ื‘ื— ืฉื•ืจ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ืื™ืœื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืคืกื™ืขื” ื•ืคืกื™ืขื” ืฉื•ืจ ื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืฉ ื•ืฉืฉ ืคืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื” ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ืื™ืœื™ื

With regard to Davidโ€™s journey with the Ark to Jerusalem, the verse states: โ€œAnd when they who carried the Ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatlingโ€ (IIย Samuel 6:13). And it is written elsewhere that he sacrificed โ€œseven oxen and seven ramsโ€ (Iย Chronicles 15:26). Rav Pappa bar Shmuel says: For each and every step David took, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six steps that he took, he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื™ืœืืช ืืช ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื•ืช ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืฉ ื•ืฉืฉ ืคืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื•ืจ ื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืฉื” ืกื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉืฉ ืคืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื” ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ืื™ืœื™ื

Rav แธคisda said to him: If that is so, and he sacrificed an offering for every step that he took, you have filled all of Eretz Yisrael with altars, as they had to build a new altar for each offering. Rather, Rav แธคisda said: For every six steps he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six sets of six steps he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ื“ืŸ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื›ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื ื›ื•ืŸ

It is written that Uzzah died โ€œwhen they came to the threshing floor of Chidonโ€ (Iย Chronicles 13:9), and elsewhere it is written that it was โ€œthe threshing floor of Naconโ€ (II Samuel 6:6). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: At first the Ark was similar to a javelin [kidon], as it caused Uzzahโ€™s death. But ultimately, after the people asked for forgiveness, it was established [nakhon], i.e., placed, in the house of Obed Edom, where it was a source of blessing.

ื ืžืฆืืช ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžื™ื ื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืงื™ื ืžืฉื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ืžืฉื” ื‘ืืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ืชื‘ืช ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืืชื™ื ื‘ืืจ ื‘ืืจ

ยง The Gemara returns to the discussion of how the Ark was brought into Eretz Yisrael. You are found saying that there were three sets of stones. One is a set that Moses erected in the land of Moab, as it is stated: โ€œBeyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses took upon himself to expound [beโ€™er] this law, sayingโ€ (Deuteronomy 1:5). And it states there with regard to the mitzva to erect the stones on Mount Ebal: โ€œAnd you shall write on the stones all the words of this law clearly elucidated [baโ€™er]โ€ (Deuteronomy 27:8). It is derived through a verbal analogy between the word โ€œbeโ€™erโ€ that appears with regard to Moses, and the word โ€œbaโ€™erโ€ that appears with regard to the mitzva to write the Torah on the stones on Mount Ebal that Moses also wrote down the Torah on stones.

ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืงื™ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืงื™ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืงื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื’ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืช ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืืฉืจ ืœืงื—ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

And there is one set that Joshua erected in the Jordan, as it is stated: โ€œJoshua also set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests that bore the Ark of the Covenant stood, and they are there to this dayโ€ (Joshua 4:9). And there is one set that Joshua erected in Gilgal, as it is stated: โ€œAnd these twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgalโ€ (Joshua 4:20).

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ืชื‘ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื›ืชื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื›ืชื‘ืช ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืกื“ื• ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ืกื™ื“

The Sages taught: How did the Jewish people write the Torah? Rabbi Yehuda says: They wrote it on stones, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall write on the stones all the words of this lawโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:8). And afterward they plastered them over with plaster.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ื”ื™ืืš ืœืžื“ื• ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื™ื ื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ื ืชืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืฉื™ื’ืจื• ื ื•ื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœื”ืŸ ื•ืงื™ืœืคื• ืืช ื”ืกื™ื“ ื•ื”ืฉื™ืื•ื” ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ืชื—ืชื ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ื ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื—ืช ืฉื”ื™ื” ืœื”ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ ื•ืœื ืœืžื“ื•

Rabbi Shimon said to him: According to your statement that they plastered over the writing, how did the nations of the world study Torah? He said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, granted them an extra degree of understanding, and they sent their scribes [noteirin], and they peeled off the plaster and copied it down. And on account of this matter their decree to be sent to the pit of destruction was sealed, as once the Torah was in their possession they should have studied it, and they did not study.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืกื™ื“ ื›ืชื‘ื•ื” ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื”ืŸ ืœืžื˜ื” ื™ืœืžื“ื• ืืชื›ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ื›ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื”ื ืœืžื“ืช ืฉืื ื”ื™ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื• ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ

Rabbi Shimon says: That is not what happened. Rather, the Jewish people wrote the text of the Torah on top of the plaster, and they wrote below for the gentiles to read that the verse commands the Jewish people to destroy the gentile inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael: โ€œLest they teach you to do like all their abominationsโ€ (Deuteronomy 20:18). You derive from the fact that they wrote this verse that if the gentiles who lived in Eretz Israel would have repented, the Jews would have accepted them, i.e., allowed them to live in Eretz Yisrael.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืขืžื™ื ืžืฉืจืคื•ืช ืกื™ื“ ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืกื™ื“

Rava bar Sheila said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? As it is written: โ€œAnd the peoples shall be as the burnings of plasterโ€ (Isaiah 33:12). This is homiletically interpreted to mean that the nations were punished on account of matters of plaster, i.e., they did not study the Torah that was written on plaster.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื™ ืกื™ื“ ืžื” ืกื™ื“ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืชืงื ื” ืืœื ืฉืจื™ืคื” ืืฃ ืื•ึผืžึผื•ึผืช ื”ืขื•ึนืœื ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืชืงื ื” ืืœื ืฉืจื™ืคื”

The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the Torah was not written on plaster, interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: He explains that the gentiles are like plaster; just as plaster has no remedy but burning, i.e., it is created by burning stone, so too, the nations of the world have no remedy other than burning in Gehenna.

ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืช ืฉื‘ื™ื• ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืฆื” ืœืืจืฅ ืฉืื ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ

In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œWhen you go forth to battle against your enemies, and the Lord your God delivers them into your hands, and you take them captiveโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:10), implying that there is no obligation to destroy them, to include not only gentiles who are not Canaanites, but even Canaanites that are living outside of Eretz Yisrael, as, if they repent, they are accepted and allowed to live in Eretz Yisrael.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Sotah 35

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 35

ื•ื™ืœื›ื• ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ืžืงื™ืฉ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ืœื‘ื™ืื” ืžื” ื‘ื™ืื” ื‘ืขืฆื” ืจืขื” ืืฃ ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ืขืฆื” ืจืขื”

And they went and they cameโ€ (Numbers 13:25โ€“26). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: This verse likens their going to their coming. Just as their coming back was with wicked counsel, so too, their going to Eretz Yisrael was with wicked counsel.

ื•ื™ืกืคืจื• ืœื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ื‘ืื ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืคืก ื›ื™ ืขื– ื”ืขื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ (ืกื™ืžืŸ ืืžืช ืœื‘ื“ื• ืœื•ื™ื”) ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื›ืœ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืจืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืืžืช ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืชื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืคื•

The Torah states: โ€œAnd they told him, and said: We came to the land to which you sent us, and it also flows with milk and honeyโ€ (Numbers 13:27), and then it is written: โ€œHowever the people that dwell in the land are fierceโ€ (Numbers 13:28). Why did the spies praise the land and then slander it? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says three statements in the name of Rabbi Meir, represented by the mnemonic device: Truth, alone, borrowing. The first statement answers this question: Any slander that does not begin with a truthful statement ultimately does not stand, i.e., it is not accepted by others.

ื•ื™ื”ืก ื›ืœื‘ ืืช ื”ืขื ืืœ ืžืฉื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืฉื”ืกื™ืชืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื

The verse states: โ€œAnd Caleb stilled [vayyahas] the people toward Mosesโ€ (Numbers 13:30). Rabba says: This means that he persuaded them [hesitan] with his words. Vayyahas and hesitan share the same root in Hebrew.

ืคืชื— ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืงื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉ ืงื˜ื™ืขื” ื™ืžืœืœ

How did he do so? Joshua began to address the people, and as he was speaking they said to him: Should this person, who has a severed head, as he has no children, speak to the people about entering Eretz Yisrael?

ืืžืจ ืื™ ืžืฉืชืขื™ื ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ื—ืกืžื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื•ื›ื™ ื–ื• ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืขืฉื” ืœื ื• ื‘ืŸ ืขืžืจื ืกื‘ืจื™ ื‘ื’ื ื•ืชื™ื” ืงื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืื™ืฉืชื™ืงื•

Caleb said to himself: If I speak they will also say something about me and stop me from speaking. He began to speak and said to them: And is this the only thing that the son of Amram, Moses, has done to us? They thought that he wanted to relate something to the discredit of Moses, and they were silent.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื ื• ืžืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืงืจืข ืœื ื• ืืช ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ืื›ื™ืœื ื• ืืช ื”ืžืŸ ืื ื™ืืžืจ ืขืฉื• ืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ื•ืขืœื• ืœืจืงื™ืข ืœื ื ืฉืžืข ืœื• ืขืœื” ื ืขืœื” ื•ื™ืจืฉื ื• ืืชื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ

He then said to them: He took us out of Egypt, and split the sea for us, and fed us the manna. If he says to us: Build ladders and climb to the heavens, should we not listen to him? โ€œWe should go up at once,โ€ even to the heavens, โ€œand possess itโ€ (Numbers 13:30).

ื•ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœื• ืขืžื• ืืžืจื• ืœื ื ื•ื›ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ื“ื‘ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื• ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื›ื™ ื—ื–ืง ื”ื•ื ืžืžื ื• ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืžืžื ื• ืืœื ืžืžื ื• ื›ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื›ืœื™ื• ืžืฉื

The verses continue: โ€œBut the men that went up with him said: We are not able to go up against the people; as they are stronger than usโ€ (Numbers 13:31). Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappa says: The spies said a serious statement at that moment. When they said: โ€œThey are stronger,โ€ do not read the phrase as: Stronger than us [mimmennu], but rather read it as: Stronger than Him [mimmennu], meaning that even the Homeowner, God, is unable to remove His belongings from there, as it were. The spies were speaking heresy and claiming that the Canaanites were stronger than God Himself.

ืืจืฅ ืื›ืœืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื ื™ ื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ื” ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืœืจืขื” ืื ื™ ื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ื” ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื˜ื• ืžืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ื ื™ื˜ืจื“ื• ื•ืœื ืœืฉืืœื• ืื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื•ื‘ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ืื˜ืจื™ื“ื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ื‘ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื”ื ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืœืจืขื” ืืจืฅ ืื›ืœืช ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ื”ื™ื

The spies said: โ€œIt is a land that consumes its inhabitantsโ€ (Numbers 13:32). Rava taught: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I intended the land to appear to consume its inhabitants for their own good, but they considered this proof that the land was bad. I intended it for their good by causing many people to die there so that anywhere that the spies arrived, the most important of them died, so that the Canaanites would be preoccupied with mourning and would not inquire about them. And there are those who say that God caused Job to die at that time, and everyone in Canaan was preoccupied with his eulogy, and did not pay attention to the spies. However, the spies considered this proof that the land was bad and said: โ€œIt is a land that consumes its inhabitants.โ€

ื•ื ื”ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื ื• ื›ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ืฉืงืจื™ ื”ื•ื• ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื•ื ื”ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื ื• ื›ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ืœื—ื™ื™ ืืœื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื”ื ืžื ื ื”ื•ื• ื™ื“ืขื™

The spies said: โ€œAnd we were like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and so were we in their eyesโ€ (Numbers 13:33). Rav Mesharshiyya says: The spies were liars. Granted, to say: โ€œWe were like grasshoppers in our own eyes,โ€ is well, but to say: โ€œAnd so were we in their eyes,โ€ from where could they have known this?

ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื‘ืจื™ ืื‘ื™ืœื™ ืชื•ืชื™ ืืจื–ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื‘ืจื™ ื•ื›ื™ ื—ื–ื™ื ื”ื• ืกืœืงื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืื™ืœื ื™ ืฉืžืขื™ ื“ืงืืžืจื™ ืงื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื“ื“ืžื• ืœืงืžืฆื™ ื‘ืื™ืœื ื™

The Gemara responds: But that is not so, as when the Canaanites were having the mournersโ€™ meal, they had the meal beneath cedar trees, and when the spies saw them they climbed up the trees and sat in them. From there they heard the Canaanites saying: We see people who look like grasshoppers in the trees.

ื•ืชืฉื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื“ื” ื•ื™ืชื ื• ืืช ืงื•ืœื ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืขืจื‘ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื”ื™ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ื• ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื ื ื•ืื ื™ ืืงื‘ืข ืœื”ื ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช

The verse states: โ€œAnd all the congregation lifted up their voice and criedโ€ (Numbers 14:1). Rabba says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: That day was the eve of the Ninth of Av, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: On that day they wept a gratuitous weeping, so I will establish that day for them as a day of weeping for the future generations.

ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ื›ืœ ื”ืขื“ื” ืœืจื’ื•ื ืืชื ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืณ ื ืจืื” ื‘ืื”ืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ื˜ืœื• ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื–ืจืงื•ื ื›ืœืคื™ ืžืขืœื”

The verse states: โ€œBut all the congregation bade stone them with stonesโ€ (Numbers 14:10), and it is written immediately afterward: โ€œWhen the glory of the Lord appeared in the Tent of Meetingโ€ (Numbers 14:10). Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba says: This teaches that they took stones and threw them upward as if to throw them at God.

ื•ื™ืžืชื• ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ืžื•ืฆืื™ ื“ื‘ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืจืขื” ื‘ืžื’ืคื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืฉืžืชื• ืžื™ืชื” ืžืฉื•ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉื™ืœื ืื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ืชืžืจืชื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ืฉืชืจื‘ื‘ ืœืฉื•ื ื ื•ื ืคืœ ืขืœ ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืœืขื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื•ืช ืžืœืฉื•ื ื ื•ื ื›ื ืกื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ืžื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื•ื ื›ื ืกื•ืช ื‘ืœืฉื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ื‘ืืกื›ืจื” ืžืชื•

The verse states: โ€œAnd those men who brought out an evil report of the land, died by the plague before the Lordโ€ (Numbers 14:37). Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This means that they died an unusual death. Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappa says that Rabbi Sheila Ish Kefar Temarta taught: This teaches that their tongues were stretched out from their mouths and fell upon their navels, and worms were crawling out of their tongues and entering their navels, and worms were likewise coming out of their navels and entering their tongues. This is the painful death that they suffered. And Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: They died of diphtheria, which causes one to choke to death.

ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขืœื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื—ื–ืจื• ืžื™ื ืœืžืงื•ืžืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื ืฉืื™ ืืจื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืช ื”ืณ ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื ืชืงื• ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืืœ ื”ื—ืจื‘ื” ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืžื™ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืœืžืงื•ืžื ื•ื™ืœื›ื• ื›ืชืžื•ืœ ืฉืœืฉื•ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื’ื“ื•ืชื™ื•

ยง The Gemara returns to discuss the entry of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael. And once the last one of the Jewish people ascended out of the Jordan, the water returned to its place, as it is stated: โ€œAnd it came to pass, as the priests that bore the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord came up out of the midst of the Jordan, as soon as the soles of the priestsโ€™ feet were drawn up unto the dry ground, that the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, and went over all its banks, as it had beforeโ€ (Joshua 4:18). The Gemara understands that the priests who carried the Ark stood in the water until all of the Jewish people passed through the Jordan. Once all the Jewish people had reached the other side of the Jordan, the priests stepped back from the water and the Jordan returned to its natural state.

ื ืžืฆื ืืจื•ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืฉืื™ื• ื•ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฆื“ ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื ืืจื•ืŸ ืืช ื ื•ืฉืื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ืชื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื ืœืขื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืขื‘ืจ ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืณ ื•ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืขื

It follows that the Ark and its bearers and the priests were on one side of the Jordan, the east side, and the rest of the Jewish people were on the other side, the west side. Subsequently, the Ark carried its bearers in the air and crossed the Jordan, as it is stated: โ€œWhen all the people were completely passed over, the Ark of the Lord passed on, and the priests, before the peopleโ€ (Joshua 4:11).

ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ืขื ืฉ ืขื•ื–ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืขื“ ื’ืจืŸ ื›ื™ื“ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืœื— ืขื–ื ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืœืื—ื– ืืช ื”ืืจื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื–ื ื ื•ืฉืื™ื• ื ืฉื ืขืฆืžื• ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

And over this matter Uzzah was punished for not taking proper care of the Ark, as it is stated: โ€œAnd when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon, Uzzah put forth his hand to hold the Ark; for the oxen stumbledโ€ (Iย Chronicles 13:9). The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Uzzah, the Ark carried its bearers when it crossed the Jordan; all the more so is it not clear that it can carry itself?

ื•ื™ื—ืจ ืืฃ ื”ืณ ื‘ืขื–ื” ื•ื™ื›ื”ื• ืฉื ืขืœ ื”ืฉืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืฉืœื• ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉืขืฉื” ืฆืจื›ื™ื• ื‘ืคื ื™ื•

ยง The verse states: โ€œAnd the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there for his error [hashal]โ€ (IIย Samuel 6:7). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed over the interpretation of this verse. One says: God smote him for his forgetfulness [shalo], because he did not remember that the Ark can carry itself. And one says: God smote him because he lifted the edges [shulayyim] of his garment in front of the Ark and relieved himself in its presence.

ื•ื™ืžืช ืฉื ืขื ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืขื•ื–ื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื” ืืจื•ืŸ ืœืขื•ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืืฃ ืขื•ื–ื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

The verse states: โ€œAnd he died there with the Ark of Godโ€ (IIย Samuel 6:7). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Uzzah entered the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œWith the Ark of God.โ€ Just as the Ark exists forever, so too, Uzzah entered the World-to-Come.

ื•ื™ื—ืจ ืœื“ื•ื“ ืขืœ ืืฉืจ ืคืจืฅ ื”ืณ ืคืจืฅ ื‘ืขื–ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืฉื ืฉืชื ื• ืคื ื™ื• ื›ื—ืจืจื”

The verse states: โ€œAnd David was displeased [vayyiแธฅar] because the Lord had broken forth upon Uzzahโ€ (IIย Samuel 6:8). Rabbi Elazar says: Vayyiแธฅar means that his face changed colors and darkened like baked bread [แธฅarara] from displeasure.

ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื—ืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื”ืชื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฃ ื”ื›ื ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฃ

The Gemara questions this statement: If that is so, anywhere that the word vayyiแธฅar is written, including when it is referring to God, should it be interpreted this way as well? The Gemara answers: There, it is written: โ€œAnd the anger of the Lord was kindled [vayyiแธฅar af ]โ€ (IIย Samuel 6:7), whereas here, the anger [af ] is not written, but only vayyiแธฅar. Therefore it is interpreted differently.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื ืขื ืฉ ื“ื•ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงืจื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื–ืžื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื–ืžืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื™ ื—ืงื™ืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืžื’ื•ืจื™

Rava taught: For what reason was David punished with Uzzahโ€™s death? He was punished because he called matters of Torah: Songs, as it is stated: โ€œYour statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimageโ€ (Psalms 119:54).

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื”ืชืขื™ืฃ ืขื™ื ื™ืš ื‘ื• ื•ืื™ื ื ื• ืืชื” ืงื•ืจื ืื•ืชืŸ ื–ืžื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืš ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ ืงื”ืช ืœื ื ืชืŸ ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื“ืช ื”ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืื™ื”ื• ืืชื™ื™ื” ื‘ืขื’ืœืชื

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Matters of Torah are so difficult and demanding that it is written: โ€œWill you set your eyes upon it? It is goneโ€ (Proverbs 23:5), i.e., one whose eyes stray from the Torah even for a moment will forget it, and you call them songs? For this reason I will cause you to stumble in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written with regard to the wagons brought to the Tabernacle: โ€œAnd to the descendants of Kohath he did not give, because the service of the holy things belongs to them; they carry them upon their shouldersโ€ (Numbers 7:9). And although the Ark clearly must be carried on peopleโ€™s shoulders, David erred and brought it in a wagon.

ื•ื™ืš ื‘ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉ ื›ื™ ืจืื• ื‘ืืจื•ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจืื• ื•ื™ืš ืืœื”ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืงื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžื™ืœื™ ื ืžื™ ืืžื•ืจ

ยง When the Philistines returned the Ark during the period of Samuel, it is stated: โ€œAnd He smote of the men of Beit Shemesh because they had gazed upon the Ark of the Lordโ€ (I Samuel 6:19). The Gemara asks: Because they gazed upon it, God smote them? Why did their action warrant this punishment? Rabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazar disagreed with regard to the interpretation of the verse. One says that they were punished because they were reaping their crops and prostrating themselves at the same time; they did not stop working in reverence for the Ark. And one says that they also spoke denigrating words:

ืžืืŸ ืืžืจื™ืš (ืœื”ื) ื“ืื™ืžืจื™ื™ืช ื•ืžืืŸ ืืชื ืขืœืš ื“ืื™ืคื™ื™ืกืช

Who angered you, i.e., the Ark, so much that you became so angry that you gave yourself into captivity? And who came to you to appease you?

ื•ื™ืš ื‘ืขื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืื™ืฉ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืœืฃ ืื™ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืื™ืฉ ื”ื™ื• ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืœืฃ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืœืฃ ื”ื™ื• ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ

The verse states: โ€œAnd He smote of the people seventy men, fifty thousand menโ€ (I Samuel 6:19). Rabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazar disagree over the interpretation of the verse. One says that there were seventy men, and each and every one of them was equivalent to fifty thousand men. And one says that there were fifty thousand men, and each and every one was equivalent to the seventy men in the Sanhedrin.

ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ื™ ืฆืขื“ื• ื ืฉืื™ ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืณ ืฉืฉื” ืฆืขื“ื™ื ื•ื™ื–ื‘ื— ืฉื•ืจ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ืื™ืœื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืคืกื™ืขื” ื•ืคืกื™ืขื” ืฉื•ืจ ื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืฉ ื•ืฉืฉ ืคืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื” ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ืื™ืœื™ื

With regard to Davidโ€™s journey with the Ark to Jerusalem, the verse states: โ€œAnd when they who carried the Ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatlingโ€ (IIย Samuel 6:13). And it is written elsewhere that he sacrificed โ€œseven oxen and seven ramsโ€ (Iย Chronicles 15:26). Rav Pappa bar Shmuel says: For each and every step David took, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six steps that he took, he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื™ืœืืช ืืช ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื•ืช ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืฉ ื•ืฉืฉ ืคืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื•ืจ ื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืฉื” ืกื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉืฉ ืคืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื” ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ืื™ืœื™ื

Rav แธคisda said to him: If that is so, and he sacrificed an offering for every step that he took, you have filled all of Eretz Yisrael with altars, as they had to build a new altar for each offering. Rather, Rav แธคisda said: For every six steps he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six sets of six steps he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ื“ืŸ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื›ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื ื›ื•ืŸ

It is written that Uzzah died โ€œwhen they came to the threshing floor of Chidonโ€ (Iย Chronicles 13:9), and elsewhere it is written that it was โ€œthe threshing floor of Naconโ€ (II Samuel 6:6). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: At first the Ark was similar to a javelin [kidon], as it caused Uzzahโ€™s death. But ultimately, after the people asked for forgiveness, it was established [nakhon], i.e., placed, in the house of Obed Edom, where it was a source of blessing.

ื ืžืฆืืช ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžื™ื ื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืงื™ื ืžืฉื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ืžืฉื” ื‘ืืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ืชื‘ืช ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืืชื™ื ื‘ืืจ ื‘ืืจ

ยง The Gemara returns to the discussion of how the Ark was brought into Eretz Yisrael. You are found saying that there were three sets of stones. One is a set that Moses erected in the land of Moab, as it is stated: โ€œBeyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses took upon himself to expound [beโ€™er] this law, sayingโ€ (Deuteronomy 1:5). And it states there with regard to the mitzva to erect the stones on Mount Ebal: โ€œAnd you shall write on the stones all the words of this law clearly elucidated [baโ€™er]โ€ (Deuteronomy 27:8). It is derived through a verbal analogy between the word โ€œbeโ€™erโ€ that appears with regard to Moses, and the word โ€œbaโ€™erโ€ that appears with regard to the mitzva to write the Torah on the stones on Mount Ebal that Moses also wrote down the Torah on stones.

ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืงื™ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืงื™ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืงื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื’ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืช ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืืฉืจ ืœืงื—ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

And there is one set that Joshua erected in the Jordan, as it is stated: โ€œJoshua also set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests that bore the Ark of the Covenant stood, and they are there to this dayโ€ (Joshua 4:9). And there is one set that Joshua erected in Gilgal, as it is stated: โ€œAnd these twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgalโ€ (Joshua 4:20).

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ืชื‘ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื›ืชื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื›ืชื‘ืช ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืกื“ื• ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ืกื™ื“

The Sages taught: How did the Jewish people write the Torah? Rabbi Yehuda says: They wrote it on stones, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall write on the stones all the words of this lawโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:8). And afterward they plastered them over with plaster.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ื”ื™ืืš ืœืžื“ื• ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื™ื ื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ื ืชืŸ ื‘ื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืฉื™ื’ืจื• ื ื•ื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœื”ืŸ ื•ืงื™ืœืคื• ืืช ื”ืกื™ื“ ื•ื”ืฉื™ืื•ื” ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ืชื—ืชื ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ื ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื—ืช ืฉื”ื™ื” ืœื”ืŸ ืœืœืžื“ ื•ืœื ืœืžื“ื•

Rabbi Shimon said to him: According to your statement that they plastered over the writing, how did the nations of the world study Torah? He said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, granted them an extra degree of understanding, and they sent their scribes [noteirin], and they peeled off the plaster and copied it down. And on account of this matter their decree to be sent to the pit of destruction was sealed, as once the Torah was in their possession they should have studied it, and they did not study.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืกื™ื“ ื›ืชื‘ื•ื” ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื”ืŸ ืœืžื˜ื” ื™ืœืžื“ื• ืืชื›ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ื›ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื”ื ืœืžื“ืช ืฉืื ื”ื™ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื• ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ

Rabbi Shimon says: That is not what happened. Rather, the Jewish people wrote the text of the Torah on top of the plaster, and they wrote below for the gentiles to read that the verse commands the Jewish people to destroy the gentile inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael: โ€œLest they teach you to do like all their abominationsโ€ (Deuteronomy 20:18). You derive from the fact that they wrote this verse that if the gentiles who lived in Eretz Israel would have repented, the Jews would have accepted them, i.e., allowed them to live in Eretz Yisrael.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืขืžื™ื ืžืฉืจืคื•ืช ืกื™ื“ ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืกื™ื“

Rava bar Sheila said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? As it is written: โ€œAnd the peoples shall be as the burnings of plasterโ€ (Isaiah 33:12). This is homiletically interpreted to mean that the nations were punished on account of matters of plaster, i.e., they did not study the Torah that was written on plaster.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื™ ืกื™ื“ ืžื” ืกื™ื“ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืชืงื ื” ืืœื ืฉืจื™ืคื” ืืฃ ืื•ึผืžึผื•ึผืช ื”ืขื•ึนืœื ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืชืงื ื” ืืœื ืฉืจื™ืคื”

The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the Torah was not written on plaster, interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: He explains that the gentiles are like plaster; just as plaster has no remedy but burning, i.e., it is created by burning stone, so too, the nations of the world have no remedy other than burning in Gehenna.

ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืช ืฉื‘ื™ื• ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืฆื” ืœืืจืฅ ืฉืื ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ

In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œWhen you go forth to battle against your enemies, and the Lord your God delivers them into your hands, and you take them captiveโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:10), implying that there is no obligation to destroy them, to include not only gentiles who are not Canaanites, but even Canaanites that are living outside of Eretz Yisrael, as, if they repent, they are accepted and allowed to live in Eretz Yisrael.

Scroll To Top