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Today's Daf Yomi

December 7, 2015 | כ״ה בכסלו תשע״ו

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Sotah 42

More statements about the damaging nature of flattery. The new chapter deals with the kohen who gives a speech to the people before going out to war both to exempt certain people from war as well as to encourage those who are going not to be fearful because God is with them.  From here the mishna (and the gemara in turn) sidetracks to Goliath and extrapolates the verses about him and David’s fight against him.


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ויהי הוא בשער בנימן ושם בעל פקדת ושמו יראיה בן שלמיה בן חנניה ויתפש את ירמיהו הנביא לאמר אל הכשדים אתה נפל ויאמר לו ירמיהו שקר אינני נפל אל הכשדים וגו׳ וכתיב ויתפש ירמיהו ויבאהו אל השרים

“And when he was in the gate of Benjamin, a captain of the ward was there, whose name was Irijah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Hananiah; and he laid hold on Jeremiah the prophet, saying: You shall fall to the Chaldeans. Then Jeremiah said: It is false; I shall not fall to the Chaldeans” (Jeremiah 37:13–14). And it is then written: “So Irijah laid hold on Jeremiah, and brought him to the princes” (Jeremiah 37:14). Irijah was the grandson of Hananiah, and Jeremiah was punished by falling into his hands because he had flattered his grandfather.

ואמר רבי אלעזר כל עדה שיש בה חנופה מאוסה כנדה שנאמר כי עדת חנף גלמוד שכן בכרכי הים קורין לנדה גלמודה מאי גלמודה גמולה מבעלה

And Rabbi Elazar says: Any congregation in which there is flattery is as repulsive as a menstruating woman, as it is stated: “For a flattering congregation shall be desolate [galmud]” (Job 15:34), and in the cities overseas they call a menstruating woman galmuda. What is the meaning of the word galmuda? It means separated [gemula] from her husband [mibbala].

ואמר רבי אלעזר כל עדה שיש בה חנופה לסוף גולה כתיב הכא כי עדת חנף גלמוד וכתיב התם ואמרת בלבבך מי ילד לי את אלה ואני שכולה וגלמודה גלה וסורה וגו׳

And Rabbi Elazar says: Any congregation in which there is flattery is ultimately exiled. It is written here: “For a flattering congregation shall be desolate [galmud]” (Job 15:34), and it is written there: “Then you will say in your heart: Who has begotten me these, seeing I have been bereaved of my children, and am solitary [galmuda], an exile, and wandering?” (Isaiah 49:21). The verse states: “An exile,” as an appositive to “galmuda,” indicating that they are the same.

אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא ארבע כיתות אין מקבלות פני שכינה כת ליצים וכת חניפים וכת שקרים וכת מספרי לשון הרע

Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: Four classes of people will not greet the Divine Presence: The class of cynics, and the class of flatterers, and the class of liars, and the class of slanderers.

כת ליצים דכתיב משך ידו את לצצים כת חניפים דכתיב כי לא לפניו חנף יבוא כת שקרים דכתיב דבר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני

The proof for this statement is as follows: The class of cynics, as it is written: “He draws His hand from cynics” (Hosea 7:5), i.e., God does not want to be in their presence; the class of flatterers, as it is written: “That a flatterer cannot come before Him” (Job 13:16); the class of liars, as it is written: “He who speaks falsehood shall not dwell before My eyes” (Psalms 101:7).

כת מספרי לשון הרע דכתיב כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגרך רע צדיק אתה ה׳ לא יגור במגורך רע

The class of slanderers will not greet the Divine Presence, as it is written: “For You are not a god who has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You” (Psalms 5:5), which means: You, the Lord, are righteous and evil shall not dwell with You in Your dwelling place. “Evil” here is referring to slanderers, as is evident from the continuation of the chapter, which states: “For there is no sincerity in their mouth; their inward part is a yawning gulf, their throat is an open tomb, they make smooth their tongue” (Psalms 5:10).

הדרן עלך אלו נאמרין

 

מתני׳ משוח מלחמה בשעה שמדבר אל העם בלשון הקודש היה מדבר שנאמר והיה כקרבכם אל המלחמה ונגש הכהן זה כהן משוח מלחמה ודבר אל העם בלשון הקודש

MISHNA: With regard to the priest who was anointed for war, at the time that he would speak to the nation, he would speak to them in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, as it is stated: “And it shall be, when you draw near to the battle, that the priest shall approach and speak to the people” (Deuteronomy 20:2). This priest identified in the verse is the priest anointed for war, the priest who is inaugurated specifically to serve this function. “And speak to the people”; he addresses them in the sacred tongue, Hebrew.

ואמר אליהם שמע ישראל וגו׳ על אויביכם ולא על אחיכם לא יהודה על שמעון ולא שמעון על בנימין שאם תפלו בידם ירחמו עליכם כמה שנאמר ויקמו האנשים אשר נקבו בשמות ויחזיקו בשביה וכל מערמיהם הלבישו מן השלל וילבשום וינעלום ויאכלום וישקום ויסכום וינהלום בחמרים לכל כושל ויביאום ירחו עיר התמרים אצל אחיהם וישובו שמרון וגו׳ על אויביכם אתם הולכים שאם תפלו בידם אין מרחמין עליכם

The Torah dictates the priest’s address: “And he shall say to them: Hear Israel, you draw near today to battle against your enemies; let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3). The priest expounds: “Against your enemies” and not against your brothers. This is not a war of the tribe of Judah against Simon and not Simon against Benjamin, such that if you fall into their hands your brothers will have mercy on you, as it is stated with regard to a war between Judah and Israel: “And the men that have been mentioned by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them upon donkeys, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto their brethren; then they returned to Samaria” (II Chronicles 28:15). Rather, you are marching to war against your enemies, and if you fall into their hands, they will not have mercy on you.

אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו וגו׳ אל ירך לבבכם מפני צהלת סוסים וצחצוח חרבות אל תיראו מפני הגפת תריסין ושפעת הקלגסין אל תחפזו מקול קרנות אל תערצו מפני קול צווחות

The priest continues: “Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3). “Let not your heart faint” due to the neighing of horses and the sharpening of the enemy’s swords. “Fear not” due to the knocking of shields [terisin] and the noise of their boots [calgassin]. “Nor be alarmed” by the sound of trumpets. “Do not be terrified” due to the sound of shouts.

כי ה׳ אלהיכם ההלך עמכם הם באין בנצחונו של בשר ודם ואתם באים בנצחונו של מקום פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית מה היה סופו לסוף נפל בחרב ונפלו עמו בני עמון באו בנצחונו של שובך מה היה סופו לסוף נפל בחרב ונפלו עמו ואתם אי אתם כן כי ה׳ אלהיכם ההלך עמכם להלחם לכם וגו׳ זה מחנה הארון

The priest explains why the soldiers need not be terrified. “For the Lord your God is He that goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you” (Deuteronomy 20:4). Remember that they come to war championed by flesh and blood, and you are coming championed by the Omnipresent. The Philistines came championed by Goliath. What was his end? In the end, he fell by the sword, and they fell with him (see I Samuel, chapter 17). The Ammonites came championed by Shobach. What was his end? In the end, he fell by the sword, and they fell with him (see II Samuel, chapter 10). But as for you, you are not so, reliant upon the strength of mortals: “For the Lord your God is He that goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you”; this verse is referring to the camp of the Ark of the Covenant that accompanies them out to war.

גמ׳ מאי קאמר הכי קאמר שנאמר ודבר ולהלן אומר משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש

GEMARA: The Gemara clarifies an ambiguous point in the mishna: What is it saying when the mishna derives from the verse that the priest must address the people in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: This is what the mishna is saying: The ruling is derived from a verbal analogy, as it is stated here: “And speak” (Deuteronomy 20:2), and there, concerning the giving of the Torah, it is stated: “Moses spoke and God answered him by a voice” (Exodus 19:19). Just as there, the voice spoke in the sacred tongue, so too here, the priest speaks in the sacred tongue.

תנו רבנן ונגש הכהן ודבר אל העם יכול כל כהן שירצה תלמוד לומר ודברו השטרים מה שוטרים בממונה אף כהן בממונה ואימא כהן גדול דומיא דשוטר מה שוטר שיש ממונה על גביו אף כהן שיש ממונה על גביו

The Sages taught: “The priest shall approach and speak to the people” (Deuteronomy 20:2). One might have thought that any priest who would want to address the people may assume this role. To counter this idea, the verse states: “And the officers shall speak” (Deuteronomy 20:5). Just as the officers described are those who have been appointed to discharge their responsibilities, so too, the priest described is one who has been appointed for this role. The Gemara asks: But if so, why not say that the High Priest should deliver this address, as he is also appointed? The Gemara replies: The appointed priest must be similar to an appointed officer. Just as an officer is one who has someone else, i.e., a judge, with greater authority appointed above him, so too, the priest described must be one who has someone else, i.e., the High Priest, appointed above him.

כהן גדול נמי האיכא מלך על גביו בעבודתו קאמר ואימא סגן סגן לאו ממונה הוא דתניא אמר רבי חנינא סגן הכהנים למה סגן ממונה שאם אירע בו פסול בכהן גדול נכנס ומשמש תחתיו

The Gemara rejects this answer: The High Priest also meets this qualification, as there is the king above him, and therefore, the High Priest should deliver the address. The Gemara clarifies: The caveat that one must have someone appointed above him is saying someone above him in his function. That there is a king is irrelevant to the station of the High Priest, who ranks highest in the priesthood. The Gemara suggests: Then say it may be the deputy High Priest, who is second to the High Priest; he should deliver the address. The Gemara answers: The deputy is not an appointed office, as this position has no particular function other than being a ready substitute for the High Priest. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Ḥanina, the deputy High Priest, says: To what end is the deputy appointed? It is merely for the possibility that if some disqualification befalls the High Priest, the deputy steps in and serves in his stead. However, the deputy has no specific role of his own.

ואמר אליהם שמע ישראל מאי שנא שמע ישראל אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אמר להן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל אפילו לא קיימתם אלא קריאת שמע שחרית וערבית אי אתם נמסרין בידם

§ The Torah says about the priest anointed for war: “And he shall say to them: Hear Israel” (Deuteronomy 20:3). The Gemara asks: What is different in this setting that necessitates the usage of the phrase: “Hear Israel”? Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: Even if you have not fulfilled any mitzva except reciting Shema of the morning and the evening, you will not be delivered into the hands of your enemies. As an allusion to this promise, the priest’s address borrows the phrase “Hear Israel,” a phrase most familiar from the beginning of the recitation of Shema.

אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו כו׳ תנו רבנן פעמיים מדבר עמם אחת בספר ואחת במלחמה בספר מה הוא אומר

With respect to the mishna’s comments about the verse: “Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3), the Sages taught (Tosefta 7:18): The priest speaks with them twice, one time when they are gathered for war at the border, and one time when they are on the battlefield itself. When they are at the border, what does he say?

שמעו דברי מערכי המלחמה וחזרו במלחמה מה הוא אומר אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו ואל תערצו כנגד ארבעה דברים שאומות העולם עושין מגיפין ומריעין צווחין ורומסין

Hear my words, the regulations of war, and consider who is fit to participate in the battle. And return home, all of you who are exempt from combat. What does he say on the battlefield? “Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3). These four cautions correspond to four actions done by the nations of the world: They clash their weapons, and they blast horns, they shout, and they trample heavily with their horses to frighten their adversaries.

פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית כו׳ גלית אמר רבי יוחנן שעמד בגילוי פנים לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר ברו לכם איש וירד אלי ואין איש אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר ה׳ איש מלחמה אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא הריני מפילו על יד בן איש שנאמר ודוד בן איש אפרתי הזה

The mishna recorded the particulars of the priest’s address: The Philistines came championed by Goliath. The Gemara describes the battle between David and Goliath. What is implied by the name Goliath? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The verse indicates that he stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, with brazenness [gilui panim], as it is stated: “Choose yourselves a man [ish], and let him come down to me” (I Samuel 17:8), and man [ish] is referring to none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is a man [ish] of war” (Exodus 15:3). The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I will hereby fell him by the son of a man [ben ish], as it is stated: “Now David was the son of that man [ben ish] of Ephrath” (I Samuel 17:12).

אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי מאיר בשלשה מקומות לכדו פיו לאותו רשע אחד ברו לכם איש וירד אלי ואידך אם יוכל להלחם אתי והכני וגו׳ ואידך דקאמר ליה לדוד הכלב אנכי כי אתה בא אלי במקלות דוד נמי אמר ליה אתה בא אלי בחרב ובחנית ובכידון הדר אמר ליה ואנכי בא אליך בשם ה׳ צבאות אלהי (ישראל) מערכות ישראל אשר חרפת

Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Meir: In three instances, his own mouth ensnared that wicked one and unwittingly foretold his own downfall. One time he said: “Choose yourselves a man, and let him come down to me,” describing himself at the bottom. And another time, he said: “If he is able to fight with me and kill me then will we be your servants; but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall you be our servants, and serve us” (I Samuel 17:9). There, he supposed that his opponent would defeat him, before supposing that he, Goliath, would be victorious. Finally, the other time was when he said to David (I Samuel 17:43): “Am I a dog, that you come to me with staves?” The Gemara asks: But didn’t David also speak in this manner? David also said to him: “You come to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin” (I Samuel 17:45). The Gemara answers: David then said to him, immediately afterward: “But I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have taunted” (I Samuel 17:45).

ויגש הפלשתי השכם והערב אמר רבי יוחנן כדי לבטלן מקריאת שמע שחרית וערבית ויתיצב ארבעים יום אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד ארבעים יום שנתנה בהן תורה

The verse says: “And the Philistine drew near morning and evening” (I Samuel 17:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: He did this specifically in order to prevent them from completing the recitation of Shema in the required times of morning and evening. “And Goliath presented himself forty days” (I Samuel 17:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: These days correspond to the forty days over which the Torah was given, as he wanted to do away with it.

ויצא איש הבינים ממחנות פלשתים וגו׳ מאי בינים אמר רב שמבונה מכל מום ושמואל אמר בינוני שבאחיו דבי רבי שילא אמר שהוא עשוי כבנין רבי יוחנן אמר בר מאה פפי וחדא נאנאי

The verse introduces Goliath: “And a champion [ish habeinayim] went out from the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath” (I Samuel 17:4). The Gemara asks: What is indicated by the term beinayim? Rav said: The word is related to the root beit, nun, heh, meaning build, and means that he is built [muvneh] perfectly and free of any blemish. And Shmuel said: The word is related to the word bein, meaning between, and means that he was the middle [beinoni] among his brothers. A Sage from the school of Rabbi Sheila said: The word is related to the root beit, nun, heh, meaning build, and means that he was made strong as a building [binyan]. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The word is related to the word bein, meaning between, and means that he was born from among many, as follows: He was the son of one hundred fathers [pappi] and one dog [nanai], as his mother engaged in sexual intercourse with one hundred men and a dog, and he was fathered from among them.

וגלית שמו מגת תני רב יוסף שהכל דשין את אמו כגת כתיב מערות וקרינן מערכות תני רב יוסף שהכל הערו באמו

The verse recounts that he was “named Goliath, of Gath” (I Samuel 17:4). Rav Yosef taught: This is because everyone would thresh his mother by cohabiting with her like people do in a winepress [gat], where everyone tramples. It is written that Goliath came from “the caves [me’arot] of the Philistines” (I Samuel 17:23), but we read, according to the Masoretic text: He came from among “the ranks [ma’arkhot] of the Philistines.” What is meant by the written term me’arot? Rav Yosef taught: The word is related to the word he’era, meaning penetrated, and implies that everyone penetrated [he’eru], i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse with, his mother.

כתיב הרפה וכתיב ערפה רב ושמואל חד אמר הרפה שמה ולמה נקרא שמה ערפה שהכל עורפין אותה מאחריה וחד אמר ערפה שמה ולמה נקרא שמה הרפה שהכל דשין אותה כהריפות וכן הוא אומר ותקח האשה ותפרש המסך על פני הבאר ותשטח עליו הרפות ואי בעית אימא מהכא אם תכתוש את האויל במכתש בתוך הריפות בעלי

It is written that Goliath’s mother was: “Harafa” (II Samuel 21:16), and in another place it is written: “Orpah” (Ruth 1:4), and the Gemara will soon explain that this was the same woman. Rav and Shmuel engaged in a dispute concerning this matter. One of them said: Her name was Harafa, and why is she called by the name Orpah? It is because everyone came at her from behind [orfin] her, i.e., sodomized her. And one of them said: Her name was Orpah, and why is she called by the name Harafa? It is because everyone threshed her like groats [harifot], i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse with her, and so it says that this word means groats: “And the woman took and spread the covering over the well’s mouth, and strewed groats [harifot] thereon” (II Samuel 17:19). And if you wish, you can say from here: “Though you should crush a fool in a mortar with a pestle among groats [harifot], yet will not his foolishness depart from him” (Proverbs 27:22).

ואת ארבעת אלה ילדו להרפה בגת ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו מאי נינהו אמר רב חסדא סף ומדון גלית וישבי בנוב

The Gemara continues its discussion of the battle of David and Goliath. “These four were born to Harafa in Gath; and they fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants” (II Samuel 21:22). The Gemara asks: What are the names of the four siblings mentioned here? Rav Ḥisda said: They are Saph, and Madon, Goliath, and Ishbi in Nob (see II Samuel 21:16–20).

ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו דכתיב ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה אמר רבי יצחק אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא יבואו בני הנשוקה ויפלו ביד בני הדבוקה דרש רבא בשכר ארבע דמעות שהורידה ערפה על חמותה זכתה ויצאו ממנה ארבעה גבורים שנאמר ותשנה קולן ותבכינה עוד

It says: “And they fell into the hands of David and his servants.” Why? It is because of the acts of their forebears, as it is written: “And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, and Ruth cleaved to her” (Ruth 1:14). Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: The children of the one who kissed, referring to the four giants descended from Orpah, will come and fall into the hand of the children of the one who cleaved, referring to David, who was descended from Ruth. Rava taught: As a reward for the four tears that Orpah shed in sadness over her mother-in-law, she merited four mighty warriors descended from her, as it is stated: “And they lifted up their voice and wept again” (Ruth 1:14).

כתיב חץ חניתו וקרינן עץ חניתו אמר רבי אלעזר עדיין לא הגיענו לחצי שבחו של אותו רשע מכאן שאסור לספר בשבחן של רשעים ולא לפתח ביה כלל לאודועי שבחיה דדוד

It is written about Goliath: “And the half [ḥetz] of his spear was like a weaver’s beam” (I Samuel 17:7), and we read, according to the Masoretic tradition: “And the shaft [etz] of his spear.” Rabbi Elazar says: The written version of the text demonstrates that we have not yet reached half [ḥetzi] of the praise of that wicked man. Only half of his spear was as long as a weaver’s beam, but the Masoretic reading offers a less impressive description. It is learned from here that it is prohibited to relate the praise of wicked people. The Gemara asks: If so, then the verse should not begin by praising him at all. The Gemara answers: It was necessary in this case in order to relate the praise of David, who defeated Goliath.

בני עמון באו בנצחונו של שובך כו׳ כתיב שובך וכתיב שופך רב ושמואל חד אמר שופך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו שובך שעשוי כשובך וחד אמר שובך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו שופך שכל הרואה אותו נשפך לפניו כקיתון

§ According to the mishna, the priest would say: The Ammonites came championed by Shobach (see II Samuel, chapter 10). In one account, his name is written: “Shobach” (II Samuel 10:18), and in another place it is written: “Shophach” (I Chronicles 19:18). Rav and Shmuel engaged in a dispute concerning this matter. One of them said: His name was Shophach, and why is he called by the name Shobach? It is because he was built like a dovecote [shovakh], as he was exceptionally tall. And one of them said: His name was Shobach, and why is he called by the name Shophach? It is because anyone who would see him would become terrified and his courage would be spilled [nishpakh] before him like water from a jug.

אשפתו כקבר פתוח כלם גבורים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר בשעה שזורקין חץ עושין אשפתות אשפתות של חללים ושמא תאמר שאומנין בקרב תלמוד לומר כלם גבורים וחד אמר בשעה שעושין צורכיהן עושין אשפתות אשפתות של זבל ושמא תאמר מפני שחולי מעיים הם תלמוד לומר כלם גבורים

The Gemara records a dispute concerning the enemy forces of Nebuchadnezzar. The prophet states: “Their quiver [ashpato] is an open sepulcher, they are all mighty men” (Jeremiah 5:16). Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, engaged in a dispute concerning the implication of the verse. One of them said: When they shoot an arrow, they produce heaps and heaps [ashpatot ashpatot] of corpses. And lest you say that they are skilled in the arts of battle but they are not particularly strong, the verse states: “They are all mighty men.” And one of them said: When they perform their needs, i.e., relieve themselves, they produce heaps and heaps [ashpatot ashpatot] of excrement, which indicates they eat heartily, like mighty men. And lest you say it is because they are ill in their intestines, the verse states: “They are all mighty men” and are not ill.

אמר רב מרי שמע מינה האי מאן דנפיש זיבליה חולי מעיים הוא למאי נפקא מינה ליטרח בנפשיה

Rav Mari said: Learn from this exchange that if there is one whose excrement is abundant, he is ill in his intestines. The Gemara asks: What difference is there whether or not he is ill in his intestines? The Gemara answers: It is so that one who suffers these symptoms will tend to himself medically.

דאגה בלב איש ישחנה רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר ישחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים

In a similar vein, one is urged to relieve his distress. The verse states: “If there is a care in the heart of a man, let him bend it [yashḥena]” (Proverbs 12:25). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi dispute the verse’s meaning. One said: He should force it [yasḥena] out of his mind. He should remove his worries from his thoughts. And one said: It means he should tell [yesiḥena] his troubles to others, which will relieve his anxiety.

ואתם אי אתם כן כו׳ וכל כך למה מפני שהשם וכל כינויו

The mishna recounts the priest’s address: But you are not like them, because, as the verse states: “For the Lord your God is He that goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you” (Deuteronomy 20:4). And why does the verse elaborate so much in spelling out the nature of God’s attendance in battle? It is because the ineffable name of God and all of His appellations that are written on the tablets

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Sotah 42

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 42

ויהי הוא בשער בנימן ושם בעל פקדת ושמו יראיה בן שלמיה בן חנניה ויתפש את ירמיהו הנביא לאמר אל הכשדים אתה נפל ויאמר לו ירמיהו שקר אינני נפל אל הכשדים וגו׳ וכתיב ויתפש ירמיהו ויבאהו אל השרים

“And when he was in the gate of Benjamin, a captain of the ward was there, whose name was Irijah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Hananiah; and he laid hold on Jeremiah the prophet, saying: You shall fall to the Chaldeans. Then Jeremiah said: It is false; I shall not fall to the Chaldeans” (Jeremiah 37:13–14). And it is then written: “So Irijah laid hold on Jeremiah, and brought him to the princes” (Jeremiah 37:14). Irijah was the grandson of Hananiah, and Jeremiah was punished by falling into his hands because he had flattered his grandfather.

ואמר רבי אלעזר כל עדה שיש בה חנופה מאוסה כנדה שנאמר כי עדת חנף גלמוד שכן בכרכי הים קורין לנדה גלמודה מאי גלמודה גמולה מבעלה

And Rabbi Elazar says: Any congregation in which there is flattery is as repulsive as a menstruating woman, as it is stated: “For a flattering congregation shall be desolate [galmud]” (Job 15:34), and in the cities overseas they call a menstruating woman galmuda. What is the meaning of the word galmuda? It means separated [gemula] from her husband [mibbala].

ואמר רבי אלעזר כל עדה שיש בה חנופה לסוף גולה כתיב הכא כי עדת חנף גלמוד וכתיב התם ואמרת בלבבך מי ילד לי את אלה ואני שכולה וגלמודה גלה וסורה וגו׳

And Rabbi Elazar says: Any congregation in which there is flattery is ultimately exiled. It is written here: “For a flattering congregation shall be desolate [galmud]” (Job 15:34), and it is written there: “Then you will say in your heart: Who has begotten me these, seeing I have been bereaved of my children, and am solitary [galmuda], an exile, and wandering?” (Isaiah 49:21). The verse states: “An exile,” as an appositive to “galmuda,” indicating that they are the same.

אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא ארבע כיתות אין מקבלות פני שכינה כת ליצים וכת חניפים וכת שקרים וכת מספרי לשון הרע

Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: Four classes of people will not greet the Divine Presence: The class of cynics, and the class of flatterers, and the class of liars, and the class of slanderers.

כת ליצים דכתיב משך ידו את לצצים כת חניפים דכתיב כי לא לפניו חנף יבוא כת שקרים דכתיב דבר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני

The proof for this statement is as follows: The class of cynics, as it is written: “He draws His hand from cynics” (Hosea 7:5), i.e., God does not want to be in their presence; the class of flatterers, as it is written: “That a flatterer cannot come before Him” (Job 13:16); the class of liars, as it is written: “He who speaks falsehood shall not dwell before My eyes” (Psalms 101:7).

כת מספרי לשון הרע דכתיב כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגרך רע צדיק אתה ה׳ לא יגור במגורך רע

The class of slanderers will not greet the Divine Presence, as it is written: “For You are not a god who has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You” (Psalms 5:5), which means: You, the Lord, are righteous and evil shall not dwell with You in Your dwelling place. “Evil” here is referring to slanderers, as is evident from the continuation of the chapter, which states: “For there is no sincerity in their mouth; their inward part is a yawning gulf, their throat is an open tomb, they make smooth their tongue” (Psalms 5:10).

הדרן עלך אלו נאמרין

 

מתני׳ משוח מלחמה בשעה שמדבר אל העם בלשון הקודש היה מדבר שנאמר והיה כקרבכם אל המלחמה ונגש הכהן זה כהן משוח מלחמה ודבר אל העם בלשון הקודש

MISHNA: With regard to the priest who was anointed for war, at the time that he would speak to the nation, he would speak to them in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, as it is stated: “And it shall be, when you draw near to the battle, that the priest shall approach and speak to the people” (Deuteronomy 20:2). This priest identified in the verse is the priest anointed for war, the priest who is inaugurated specifically to serve this function. “And speak to the people”; he addresses them in the sacred tongue, Hebrew.

ואמר אליהם שמע ישראל וגו׳ על אויביכם ולא על אחיכם לא יהודה על שמעון ולא שמעון על בנימין שאם תפלו בידם ירחמו עליכם כמה שנאמר ויקמו האנשים אשר נקבו בשמות ויחזיקו בשביה וכל מערמיהם הלבישו מן השלל וילבשום וינעלום ויאכלום וישקום ויסכום וינהלום בחמרים לכל כושל ויביאום ירחו עיר התמרים אצל אחיהם וישובו שמרון וגו׳ על אויביכם אתם הולכים שאם תפלו בידם אין מרחמין עליכם

The Torah dictates the priest’s address: “And he shall say to them: Hear Israel, you draw near today to battle against your enemies; let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3). The priest expounds: “Against your enemies” and not against your brothers. This is not a war of the tribe of Judah against Simon and not Simon against Benjamin, such that if you fall into their hands your brothers will have mercy on you, as it is stated with regard to a war between Judah and Israel: “And the men that have been mentioned by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them upon donkeys, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto their brethren; then they returned to Samaria” (II Chronicles 28:15). Rather, you are marching to war against your enemies, and if you fall into their hands, they will not have mercy on you.

אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו וגו׳ אל ירך לבבכם מפני צהלת סוסים וצחצוח חרבות אל תיראו מפני הגפת תריסין ושפעת הקלגסין אל תחפזו מקול קרנות אל תערצו מפני קול צווחות

The priest continues: “Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3). “Let not your heart faint” due to the neighing of horses and the sharpening of the enemy’s swords. “Fear not” due to the knocking of shields [terisin] and the noise of their boots [calgassin]. “Nor be alarmed” by the sound of trumpets. “Do not be terrified” due to the sound of shouts.

כי ה׳ אלהיכם ההלך עמכם הם באין בנצחונו של בשר ודם ואתם באים בנצחונו של מקום פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית מה היה סופו לסוף נפל בחרב ונפלו עמו בני עמון באו בנצחונו של שובך מה היה סופו לסוף נפל בחרב ונפלו עמו ואתם אי אתם כן כי ה׳ אלהיכם ההלך עמכם להלחם לכם וגו׳ זה מחנה הארון

The priest explains why the soldiers need not be terrified. “For the Lord your God is He that goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you” (Deuteronomy 20:4). Remember that they come to war championed by flesh and blood, and you are coming championed by the Omnipresent. The Philistines came championed by Goliath. What was his end? In the end, he fell by the sword, and they fell with him (see I Samuel, chapter 17). The Ammonites came championed by Shobach. What was his end? In the end, he fell by the sword, and they fell with him (see II Samuel, chapter 10). But as for you, you are not so, reliant upon the strength of mortals: “For the Lord your God is He that goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you”; this verse is referring to the camp of the Ark of the Covenant that accompanies them out to war.

גמ׳ מאי קאמר הכי קאמר שנאמר ודבר ולהלן אומר משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש

GEMARA: The Gemara clarifies an ambiguous point in the mishna: What is it saying when the mishna derives from the verse that the priest must address the people in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: This is what the mishna is saying: The ruling is derived from a verbal analogy, as it is stated here: “And speak” (Deuteronomy 20:2), and there, concerning the giving of the Torah, it is stated: “Moses spoke and God answered him by a voice” (Exodus 19:19). Just as there, the voice spoke in the sacred tongue, so too here, the priest speaks in the sacred tongue.

תנו רבנן ונגש הכהן ודבר אל העם יכול כל כהן שירצה תלמוד לומר ודברו השטרים מה שוטרים בממונה אף כהן בממונה ואימא כהן גדול דומיא דשוטר מה שוטר שיש ממונה על גביו אף כהן שיש ממונה על גביו

The Sages taught: “The priest shall approach and speak to the people” (Deuteronomy 20:2). One might have thought that any priest who would want to address the people may assume this role. To counter this idea, the verse states: “And the officers shall speak” (Deuteronomy 20:5). Just as the officers described are those who have been appointed to discharge their responsibilities, so too, the priest described is one who has been appointed for this role. The Gemara asks: But if so, why not say that the High Priest should deliver this address, as he is also appointed? The Gemara replies: The appointed priest must be similar to an appointed officer. Just as an officer is one who has someone else, i.e., a judge, with greater authority appointed above him, so too, the priest described must be one who has someone else, i.e., the High Priest, appointed above him.

כהן גדול נמי האיכא מלך על גביו בעבודתו קאמר ואימא סגן סגן לאו ממונה הוא דתניא אמר רבי חנינא סגן הכהנים למה סגן ממונה שאם אירע בו פסול בכהן גדול נכנס ומשמש תחתיו

The Gemara rejects this answer: The High Priest also meets this qualification, as there is the king above him, and therefore, the High Priest should deliver the address. The Gemara clarifies: The caveat that one must have someone appointed above him is saying someone above him in his function. That there is a king is irrelevant to the station of the High Priest, who ranks highest in the priesthood. The Gemara suggests: Then say it may be the deputy High Priest, who is second to the High Priest; he should deliver the address. The Gemara answers: The deputy is not an appointed office, as this position has no particular function other than being a ready substitute for the High Priest. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Ḥanina, the deputy High Priest, says: To what end is the deputy appointed? It is merely for the possibility that if some disqualification befalls the High Priest, the deputy steps in and serves in his stead. However, the deputy has no specific role of his own.

ואמר אליהם שמע ישראל מאי שנא שמע ישראל אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אמר להן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל אפילו לא קיימתם אלא קריאת שמע שחרית וערבית אי אתם נמסרין בידם

§ The Torah says about the priest anointed for war: “And he shall say to them: Hear Israel” (Deuteronomy 20:3). The Gemara asks: What is different in this setting that necessitates the usage of the phrase: “Hear Israel”? Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: Even if you have not fulfilled any mitzva except reciting Shema of the morning and the evening, you will not be delivered into the hands of your enemies. As an allusion to this promise, the priest’s address borrows the phrase “Hear Israel,” a phrase most familiar from the beginning of the recitation of Shema.

אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו כו׳ תנו רבנן פעמיים מדבר עמם אחת בספר ואחת במלחמה בספר מה הוא אומר

With respect to the mishna’s comments about the verse: “Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3), the Sages taught (Tosefta 7:18): The priest speaks with them twice, one time when they are gathered for war at the border, and one time when they are on the battlefield itself. When they are at the border, what does he say?

שמעו דברי מערכי המלחמה וחזרו במלחמה מה הוא אומר אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו ואל תערצו כנגד ארבעה דברים שאומות העולם עושין מגיפין ומריעין צווחין ורומסין

Hear my words, the regulations of war, and consider who is fit to participate in the battle. And return home, all of you who are exempt from combat. What does he say on the battlefield? “Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, and do not be terrified of them” (Deuteronomy 20:3). These four cautions correspond to four actions done by the nations of the world: They clash their weapons, and they blast horns, they shout, and they trample heavily with their horses to frighten their adversaries.

פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית כו׳ גלית אמר רבי יוחנן שעמד בגילוי פנים לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר ברו לכם איש וירד אלי ואין איש אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר ה׳ איש מלחמה אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא הריני מפילו על יד בן איש שנאמר ודוד בן איש אפרתי הזה

The mishna recorded the particulars of the priest’s address: The Philistines came championed by Goliath. The Gemara describes the battle between David and Goliath. What is implied by the name Goliath? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The verse indicates that he stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, with brazenness [gilui panim], as it is stated: “Choose yourselves a man [ish], and let him come down to me” (I Samuel 17:8), and man [ish] is referring to none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is a man [ish] of war” (Exodus 15:3). The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I will hereby fell him by the son of a man [ben ish], as it is stated: “Now David was the son of that man [ben ish] of Ephrath” (I Samuel 17:12).

אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי מאיר בשלשה מקומות לכדו פיו לאותו רשע אחד ברו לכם איש וירד אלי ואידך אם יוכל להלחם אתי והכני וגו׳ ואידך דקאמר ליה לדוד הכלב אנכי כי אתה בא אלי במקלות דוד נמי אמר ליה אתה בא אלי בחרב ובחנית ובכידון הדר אמר ליה ואנכי בא אליך בשם ה׳ צבאות אלהי (ישראל) מערכות ישראל אשר חרפת

Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Meir: In three instances, his own mouth ensnared that wicked one and unwittingly foretold his own downfall. One time he said: “Choose yourselves a man, and let him come down to me,” describing himself at the bottom. And another time, he said: “If he is able to fight with me and kill me then will we be your servants; but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall you be our servants, and serve us” (I Samuel 17:9). There, he supposed that his opponent would defeat him, before supposing that he, Goliath, would be victorious. Finally, the other time was when he said to David (I Samuel 17:43): “Am I a dog, that you come to me with staves?” The Gemara asks: But didn’t David also speak in this manner? David also said to him: “You come to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin” (I Samuel 17:45). The Gemara answers: David then said to him, immediately afterward: “But I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have taunted” (I Samuel 17:45).

ויגש הפלשתי השכם והערב אמר רבי יוחנן כדי לבטלן מקריאת שמע שחרית וערבית ויתיצב ארבעים יום אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד ארבעים יום שנתנה בהן תורה

The verse says: “And the Philistine drew near morning and evening” (I Samuel 17:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: He did this specifically in order to prevent them from completing the recitation of Shema in the required times of morning and evening. “And Goliath presented himself forty days” (I Samuel 17:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: These days correspond to the forty days over which the Torah was given, as he wanted to do away with it.

ויצא איש הבינים ממחנות פלשתים וגו׳ מאי בינים אמר רב שמבונה מכל מום ושמואל אמר בינוני שבאחיו דבי רבי שילא אמר שהוא עשוי כבנין רבי יוחנן אמר בר מאה פפי וחדא נאנאי

The verse introduces Goliath: “And a champion [ish habeinayim] went out from the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath” (I Samuel 17:4). The Gemara asks: What is indicated by the term beinayim? Rav said: The word is related to the root beit, nun, heh, meaning build, and means that he is built [muvneh] perfectly and free of any blemish. And Shmuel said: The word is related to the word bein, meaning between, and means that he was the middle [beinoni] among his brothers. A Sage from the school of Rabbi Sheila said: The word is related to the root beit, nun, heh, meaning build, and means that he was made strong as a building [binyan]. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The word is related to the word bein, meaning between, and means that he was born from among many, as follows: He was the son of one hundred fathers [pappi] and one dog [nanai], as his mother engaged in sexual intercourse with one hundred men and a dog, and he was fathered from among them.

וגלית שמו מגת תני רב יוסף שהכל דשין את אמו כגת כתיב מערות וקרינן מערכות תני רב יוסף שהכל הערו באמו

The verse recounts that he was “named Goliath, of Gath” (I Samuel 17:4). Rav Yosef taught: This is because everyone would thresh his mother by cohabiting with her like people do in a winepress [gat], where everyone tramples. It is written that Goliath came from “the caves [me’arot] of the Philistines” (I Samuel 17:23), but we read, according to the Masoretic text: He came from among “the ranks [ma’arkhot] of the Philistines.” What is meant by the written term me’arot? Rav Yosef taught: The word is related to the word he’era, meaning penetrated, and implies that everyone penetrated [he’eru], i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse with, his mother.

כתיב הרפה וכתיב ערפה רב ושמואל חד אמר הרפה שמה ולמה נקרא שמה ערפה שהכל עורפין אותה מאחריה וחד אמר ערפה שמה ולמה נקרא שמה הרפה שהכל דשין אותה כהריפות וכן הוא אומר ותקח האשה ותפרש המסך על פני הבאר ותשטח עליו הרפות ואי בעית אימא מהכא אם תכתוש את האויל במכתש בתוך הריפות בעלי

It is written that Goliath’s mother was: “Harafa” (II Samuel 21:16), and in another place it is written: “Orpah” (Ruth 1:4), and the Gemara will soon explain that this was the same woman. Rav and Shmuel engaged in a dispute concerning this matter. One of them said: Her name was Harafa, and why is she called by the name Orpah? It is because everyone came at her from behind [orfin] her, i.e., sodomized her. And one of them said: Her name was Orpah, and why is she called by the name Harafa? It is because everyone threshed her like groats [harifot], i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse with her, and so it says that this word means groats: “And the woman took and spread the covering over the well’s mouth, and strewed groats [harifot] thereon” (II Samuel 17:19). And if you wish, you can say from here: “Though you should crush a fool in a mortar with a pestle among groats [harifot], yet will not his foolishness depart from him” (Proverbs 27:22).

ואת ארבעת אלה ילדו להרפה בגת ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו מאי נינהו אמר רב חסדא סף ומדון גלית וישבי בנוב

The Gemara continues its discussion of the battle of David and Goliath. “These four were born to Harafa in Gath; and they fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants” (II Samuel 21:22). The Gemara asks: What are the names of the four siblings mentioned here? Rav Ḥisda said: They are Saph, and Madon, Goliath, and Ishbi in Nob (see II Samuel 21:16–20).

ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו דכתיב ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה אמר רבי יצחק אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא יבואו בני הנשוקה ויפלו ביד בני הדבוקה דרש רבא בשכר ארבע דמעות שהורידה ערפה על חמותה זכתה ויצאו ממנה ארבעה גבורים שנאמר ותשנה קולן ותבכינה עוד

It says: “And they fell into the hands of David and his servants.” Why? It is because of the acts of their forebears, as it is written: “And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, and Ruth cleaved to her” (Ruth 1:14). Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: The children of the one who kissed, referring to the four giants descended from Orpah, will come and fall into the hand of the children of the one who cleaved, referring to David, who was descended from Ruth. Rava taught: As a reward for the four tears that Orpah shed in sadness over her mother-in-law, she merited four mighty warriors descended from her, as it is stated: “And they lifted up their voice and wept again” (Ruth 1:14).

כתיב חץ חניתו וקרינן עץ חניתו אמר רבי אלעזר עדיין לא הגיענו לחצי שבחו של אותו רשע מכאן שאסור לספר בשבחן של רשעים ולא לפתח ביה כלל לאודועי שבחיה דדוד

It is written about Goliath: “And the half [ḥetz] of his spear was like a weaver’s beam” (I Samuel 17:7), and we read, according to the Masoretic tradition: “And the shaft [etz] of his spear.” Rabbi Elazar says: The written version of the text demonstrates that we have not yet reached half [ḥetzi] of the praise of that wicked man. Only half of his spear was as long as a weaver’s beam, but the Masoretic reading offers a less impressive description. It is learned from here that it is prohibited to relate the praise of wicked people. The Gemara asks: If so, then the verse should not begin by praising him at all. The Gemara answers: It was necessary in this case in order to relate the praise of David, who defeated Goliath.

בני עמון באו בנצחונו של שובך כו׳ כתיב שובך וכתיב שופך רב ושמואל חד אמר שופך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו שובך שעשוי כשובך וחד אמר שובך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו שופך שכל הרואה אותו נשפך לפניו כקיתון

§ According to the mishna, the priest would say: The Ammonites came championed by Shobach (see II Samuel, chapter 10). In one account, his name is written: “Shobach” (II Samuel 10:18), and in another place it is written: “Shophach” (I Chronicles 19:18). Rav and Shmuel engaged in a dispute concerning this matter. One of them said: His name was Shophach, and why is he called by the name Shobach? It is because he was built like a dovecote [shovakh], as he was exceptionally tall. And one of them said: His name was Shobach, and why is he called by the name Shophach? It is because anyone who would see him would become terrified and his courage would be spilled [nishpakh] before him like water from a jug.

אשפתו כקבר פתוח כלם גבורים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר בשעה שזורקין חץ עושין אשפתות אשפתות של חללים ושמא תאמר שאומנין בקרב תלמוד לומר כלם גבורים וחד אמר בשעה שעושין צורכיהן עושין אשפתות אשפתות של זבל ושמא תאמר מפני שחולי מעיים הם תלמוד לומר כלם גבורים

The Gemara records a dispute concerning the enemy forces of Nebuchadnezzar. The prophet states: “Their quiver [ashpato] is an open sepulcher, they are all mighty men” (Jeremiah 5:16). Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, engaged in a dispute concerning the implication of the verse. One of them said: When they shoot an arrow, they produce heaps and heaps [ashpatot ashpatot] of corpses. And lest you say that they are skilled in the arts of battle but they are not particularly strong, the verse states: “They are all mighty men.” And one of them said: When they perform their needs, i.e., relieve themselves, they produce heaps and heaps [ashpatot ashpatot] of excrement, which indicates they eat heartily, like mighty men. And lest you say it is because they are ill in their intestines, the verse states: “They are all mighty men” and are not ill.

אמר רב מרי שמע מינה האי מאן דנפיש זיבליה חולי מעיים הוא למאי נפקא מינה ליטרח בנפשיה

Rav Mari said: Learn from this exchange that if there is one whose excrement is abundant, he is ill in his intestines. The Gemara asks: What difference is there whether or not he is ill in his intestines? The Gemara answers: It is so that one who suffers these symptoms will tend to himself medically.

דאגה בלב איש ישחנה רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר ישחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים

In a similar vein, one is urged to relieve his distress. The verse states: “If there is a care in the heart of a man, let him bend it [yashḥena]” (Proverbs 12:25). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi dispute the verse’s meaning. One said: He should force it [yasḥena] out of his mind. He should remove his worries from his thoughts. And one said: It means he should tell [yesiḥena] his troubles to others, which will relieve his anxiety.

ואתם אי אתם כן כו׳ וכל כך למה מפני שהשם וכל כינויו

The mishna recounts the priest’s address: But you are not like them, because, as the verse states: “For the Lord your God is He that goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you” (Deuteronomy 20:4). And why does the verse elaborate so much in spelling out the nature of God’s attendance in battle? It is because the ineffable name of God and all of His appellations that are written on the tablets

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