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Today's Daf Yomi

December 13, 2015 | 讗壮 讘讟讘转 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sotah 48

A list of various takkanot that were instituted at various points in time. 聽And also things that ceased to exist after the destruction of the temple.

讜讗谞谉 拽讗 讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讻讛谞讬诐

and we give it to the priests. Ezra penalized the Levites for not ascending with him from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael by taking away their right to the first tithe. Consequently, the owner of the produce can no longer recite the declaration of tithes, which includes the statement: 鈥淚 have done according to all that You have commanded me鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:14), as he did not give the tithe to the Levites.

讜诇讜讚讬 讗砖讗专 诪注砖专讜转 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讘讬转 砖讗讬谉 诪转讜讚讛 注诇 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 砖讜讘 讗讬谉 诪转讜讚讛 注诇 砖讗专 诪注砖专讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜驻转讞 讘讜 讛讻转讜讘 转讞讬诇讛

The Gemara asks: And let him at least declare that he donated the other tithes in the proper manner. Reish Lakish said: Any house that does not state the declaration about the first tithe can no longer state the declaration of the other types of tithes. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Abaye said: Because the written verse began the declaration with the tithe given to the Levites: 鈥淎nd I also gave it to the Levite, and to the stranger, to the orphan, and to the widow, in accordance with all Your mitzvot that You commanded me鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:13). If he cannot say the first part of the declaration, he cannot say the rest.

诪讻诇诇 讚讗驻专讜砖讬 讛讜讜 诪驻专砖讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讗祝 讛讜讗 讘讬讟诇 讗转 讛讜讬讚讜讬 讜讙讝专 注诇 讛讚诪讗讬 诇驻讬 砖砖诇讞 讘讻诇 讙讘讜诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜专讗讛 砖讗讬谉 诪驻专讬砖讬谉 讗诇讗 转专讜诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讘诇讘讚 讜诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 诪拽爪转谉 诪注砖专讬谉 讜诪拽爪转谉 讗讬谉 诪注砖专讬谉

The Gemara poses a question: The fact that Rabbi Yo岣nan canceled the declaration of tithes proves by inference that they would separate tithes in his days. But isn鈥檛 it taught (Tosefta 13:10): He, Yo岣nan the High Priest, also canceled the declaration of tithes and decreed with regard to doubtfully tithed produce [demai]? Why did he issue this decree? Because he sent messengers throughout the land, to all the borders of Eretz Yisrael to investigate, and saw that they would separate only teruma gedola, and as for first tithe and second tithe, some people would tithe and some people would not tithe.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬 讘讜讗讜 讜讗讜诪专 诇讻诐 讻砖诐 砖转专讜诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讬砖 讘讛 注讜谉 诪讬转讛 讻讱 转专讜诪转 诪注砖专 讜讟讘诇 讬砖 讘讛谉 注讜谉 诪讬转讛

He said to them: My sons, come and I will tell you something: Just as the halakhot of teruma gedola include a transgression punishable by death at the hand of God, as one who ate produce from which teruma has not been separated is punished with death from Heaven, so too, the teruma of the tithe, the portion the Levites must separate from their first tithe and give to priests, and untithed produce, these include a transgression punishable by death at the hand of God, if the produce is eaten without the tithes having been taken.

注诪讚 讜讛转拽讬谉 诇讛诐 讛诇讜拽讞 驻讬专讜转 诪注诐 讛讗专抓 诪驻专讬砖 诪讛谉 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 诪驻专讬砖 诪诪谞讛 转专讜诪转 诪注砖专 讜谞讜转谞讛 诇讻讛谉 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 注讜诇讛 讜讗讜讻诇讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 讛诪讜爪讬讗 诪讞讘讬专讜 注诇讬讜 讛专讗讬讛

Realizing that it was uncertain with regard to whether or not people were separating tithes, he arose and instituted an ordinance for them with regard to doubtfully tithed produce: One who purchases produce from an am ha鈥檃retz, which may or may not have been tithed, must separate from the produce first tithe and second tithe due to the uncertainty as to whether or not the am ha鈥檃retz separated them. As for first tithe, he then separates teruma of the tithe from it and gives it to a priest, and with regard to second tithe, he goes up and eats it in Jerusalem. However, with regard to the giving of first tithe to the Levite, and the poor man鈥檚 tithe, which can be eaten by anyone, as the Levites and the poor only have monetary rights to the produce, the burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Since the Levites and the poor cannot prove that these tithes had not already been set aside by the am ha鈥檃retz, they cannot force the buyer to give them those tithes.

转专转讬 转拽谉 讘讬讟诇 讜讬讚讜讬 讚讞讘讬专讬诐 讜讙讝专 注诇 讚诪讗讬 砖诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓

In any case, the Gemara proves from the baraita that not all people would separate tithes in the time of Yo岣nan the High Priest. The Gemara answers: He instituted two ordinances: He canceled the declaration of tithes of those devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot [岣verim], especially halakhot of teruma and tithes, and he decreed with regard to doubtfully tithed produce purchased from amei ha鈥檃retz, because they may not have separated tithes at all.

讜讗祝 讛讜讗 讘讬讟诇 讗转 讛诪注讜专专讬诐 诪讗讬 诪注讜专专讬诐 讗诪专 专讞讘讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讛讬讜 注讜诪讚讬诐 诇讜讬诐 注诇 讚讜讻谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 注讜专讛 诇诪讛 转讬砖谉 讛壮 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讜讻讬 讬砖 砖讬谞讛 诇驻谞讬 讛诪拽讜诐 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 诇讗 讬谞讜诐 讜诇讗 讬讬砖谉 砖讜诪专 讬砖专讗诇 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 讘爪注专 讜讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘谞讞转 讜砖诇讜讛 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 注讜专讛 诇诪讛 转讬砖谉 讛壮

搂 The mishna further taught: He also nullified the actions of the awakeners. The Gemara poses a question: What are awakeners? Ra岣va says: On each and every day when the Levites stood on the platform in the Temple they would say: 鈥淎wake, why do you sleep, O Lord?鈥 (Psalms 44:24). Therefore, they were called awakeners. Yo岣nan the High Priest said to them: Does the Omnipresent sleep, that you call upon Him to awaken? But isn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淏ehold, He that keeps Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps鈥 (Psalms 121:4)? Rather, when the Jewish people are in a state of suffering, and the nations of the world are in a state of calm and serenity, it is with regard to this that it is stated: 鈥淎wake, why do you sleep, O Lord?鈥 If the verse were to be recited every morning it would be interpreted in the wrong way, so Yo岣nan the High Priest therefore canceled the daily recitation of this verse.

讜讗转 讛谞讜拽驻讬诐 诪讗讬 谞讜拽驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讛讬讜 诪住专讟讬谉 诇注讙诇 讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讜 讻讚讬 砖讬驻讜诇 讚诐 讘注讬谞讬讜 讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 讘讟讬诇 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬 诪讜诪讗

The mishna also taught that Yo岣nan the High Priest canceled the strikers. The Gemara asks: What are strikers? Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They are those who would scratch the calf being prepared for slaughter as an offering between its horns, in order that blood should fall in its eyes, so that the animal would not see and resist being slaughtered. He came and nullified this practice, because it looked like they are causing a blemish.

讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 砖讛讬讜 讞讜讘讟讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘诪拽诇讜转 讻讚专讱 砖注讜砖讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇驻谞讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 注讚 诪转讬 讗转诐 诪讗讻讬诇讬谉 谞讘讬诇讜转 诇诪讝讘讞 谞讘讬诇讜转 讛讗 砖讞讬讟 诇讛讜 讗诇讗 讟专讬驻讜转 砖诪讗 谞讬拽讘 拽专讜诐 砖诇 诪讜讞 注诪讚 讜讛转拽讬谉 诇讛诐 讟讘注讜转 讘拽专拽注

A different explanation of strikers was taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:9): They are those who would beat the calf with sticks, to stun it before it was slaughtered, in the manner that they do it before idols. Yo岣nan the High Priest said to them: Until when will you feed unslaughtered animal carcasses to the altar? The Gemara asks: Are these animal carcasses actually unslaughtered animal carcasses? They were slaughtered, i.e., they did not die of their own accord. Rather, he said that the beatings would cause them to become like animals with a wound that will cause them to die within twelve months [tereifot], as perhaps these beatings will perforate the membrane surrounding the brain, which would make the calf a tereifa. He therefore arose and instituted an ordinance for them to put rings in the ground with which they could secure the animals, thereby making it easier to slaughter the animals without having to scratch them between the horns or hit them with sticks.

注讚 讬诪讬讜 讛讬讛 驻讟讬砖 诪讻讛 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚

The mishna stated that until the days of Yo岣nan the High Priest the hammer of smiths would strike in Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: This is referring to the intermediate days of a Festival. Though certain types of labor are permitted on those days, the banging of a hammer was outlawed, as the noise it made would detract from the feeling of sanctity of the day.

讻诇 讬诪讬讜 诇讗 讛讬讛 讗讚诐 爪专讬讱 诇砖讗讜诇 注诇 讛讚诪讗讬 讻讚讗诪专谉

They further taught that in all of his days a person did not need to inquire with regard to doubtfully tithed produce. The Gemara notes that this is like that which we stated above, that he instituted an ordinance with regard to the tithing of doubtfully tithed produce.

诪转谞讬壮 诪砖讘讟诇讛 住谞讛讚专讬谉 讘讟诇 讛砖讬专 诪讘讬转 讛诪砖转讗讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讘砖讬专 诇讗 讬砖转讜 讬讬谉 讜讙讜壮

MISHNA: This mishna continues with the list of items that were nullified. From the time when the Sanhedrin ceased song was also nullified from the places of feasts, i.e., it was no longer permitted to sing at a feast where wine was served, as it is stated: 鈥淲ith song they shall not drink wine鈥 (Isaiah 24:9).

诪砖诪转讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讟诇讜 讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讟诇 讛砖诪讬专 讜谞讜驻转 爪讜驻讬诐 讜驻住拽讜 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜砖讬注讛 讛壮 讻讬 讙诪专 讞住讬讚 讜讙讜壮

From the time when the early prophets died the Urim VeTummim was nullified. From the time when the Second Temple was destroyed the shamir worm ceased to exist and also the sweetness of the honeycomb, as the verse says with regard to the laws of the Torah: 鈥淢ore to be desired are they than gold, indeed, than much fine gold; sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb鈥 (Psalms 19:11). And men of faith ceased from being among the Jewish people, as it is stated: 鈥淗elp, Lord, for the pious man is finished; for the faithful fail from among the children of men鈥 (Psalms 12:2).

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讬讜诐 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 拽诇诇讛 讜诇讗 讬专讚 讛讟诇 诇讘专讻讛 讜谞讬讟诇 讟注诐 讛驻讬专讜转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 谞讬讟诇 砖讜诪谉 讛驻讬专讜转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讛讟讛专讛 谞讟诇讛 讗转 讛讟注诐 讜讗转 讛专讬讞 讛诪注砖专讜转 谞讟诇讜 讗转 砖讜诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讝谞讜转 讜讛讻砖驻讬诐 讻讬诇讜 讗转 讛讻诇

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that Rabbi Yehoshua testified: From the day the Temple was destroyed there is no day that does not include some form of curse. And since then the dew has not descended for blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. Rabbi Yosei says: Since then, the fat of fruit has also been removed. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Since then, the lost purity has removed the taste and the aroma from fruit; the tithes that were not separated have removed the fat of the grain. And the Sages say: Promiscuity and witchcraft have consumed it all.

讙诪壮 讜诪诪讗讬 讚诪砖讘讟诇讛 住谞讛讚专讬 讻转讬讘 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讝拽谞讬诐 诪砖注专 砖讘转讜 讘讞讜专讬诐 诪谞讙讬谞转诐

GEMARA: The Gemara poses a question with regard to the first clause of the mishna: And from where is it derived that the verse: 鈥淲ith song they shall not drink wine鈥 (Isaiah 24:9) is written about the period from the time when the Sanhedrin was nullified? Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: From that which the verse states: 鈥淭he Elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music鈥 (Lamentations 5:14). This indicates that the dissolution of the Sanhedrin, who are the Elders from the gate, is linked to the end of the young men singing.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讜讚谞讗 讚砖诪注讗 讝诪专讗 转注拽专 讗诪专 专讘讗 讝诪专讗 讘讘讬转讗 讞讜专讘讗 讘住讬驻讗 砖谞讗诪专 拽讜诇 讬砖讜专专 讘讞诇讜谉 讞专讘 讘住祝 讻讬 讗专讝讛 注专讛

Rav said: The ear that hears song should be uprooted, as it is prohibited to listen to music after the destruction of the Temple. Rava said: If there is song in a house there will be destruction on the threshold, as it is stated: 鈥淰oices shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be in the doorposts; for its cedar work shall be uncovered鈥 (Zephaniah 2:14).

诪讗讬 讻讬 讗专讝讛 注专讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘讬转 讛诪住讜讘讱 讘讗专讝讬诐 注讬专 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬转 讛诪住讜讘讱 讘讗专讝讬诐 诪转专讜注注 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讻讬 诪转讞讬诇 讞讜专讘讗 讘住讬驻讗 诪转讞讬诇 砖谞讗诪专 讞专讘 讘住祝 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讜砖讗讬讛 讬讻转 砖注专 讗诪专 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讜诪谞讙讞 讻讬 转讜专讗

The word 鈥渦ncovered鈥 [era] could be read to mean: Its city [ira]. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: For its cedar work shall be its city? Furthermore, Rabbi Yitz岣k wondered when he said: Is a house interlaced with cedars not as strong as a city, and therefore not threatened by desolation? Rather, it means that even a house interlaced with cedars will become unstable [mitroe鈥檃] if song is heard there. Rav Ashi said: Learn from it that when the destruction starts it starts with the threshold, as it is stated: 鈥淒esolation shall be in the posts.鈥 And if you wish, say instead that they derive this idea from here: 鈥淚n the city is left desolation, and the gate is smitten unto ruin [she鈥檌yya]鈥 (Isaiah 24:12). The term 鈥渞uin鈥 here is referring to the destructive demon known as She鈥檌yya, who strikes the gate first. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I saw it, this She鈥檌yya, and it was goring and wreaking havoc like an ox.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讝诪专讗 讚谞讙讚讬 讜讚讘拽专讬 砖专讬 讚讙专讚讗讬 讗住讬专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘讟讬诇 讝诪专讗 拽诐 诪讗讛 讗讜讜讝讬 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诪讗讛 住讗讛 讞讬讟讬 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诇讗 讗讬讘注讬 讗转讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讝诇讝讬诇 讘讬讛 讗讬讘注讗讬 讗讜讜讝讗 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诇讗 诪砖转讻讞

Rav Huna said: The song of those who pull ships and lead the herd is permitted, for their singing assists them to establish a rhythm in their work. However, that of weavers is forbidden, as they sing only for their own enjoyment. The Gemara relates that subsequently, Rav Huna nullified all types of song, and this led to a general blessing: The price of one hundred ducks stood at a dinar, and one hundred se鈥檃 of wheat at a dinar, and there was no desire for them even at such a cheap price, due to their great abundance. Later, when Rav 岣sda came and belittled this prohibition, people began to sing again. As a result, prices increased greatly, and this led to a situation whereby one wanted a single duck for one dinar and it could not be found.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝诪专讬 讙讘专讬 讜注谞讬 谞砖讬 驻专讬爪讜转讗 讝诪专讬 谞砖讬 讜注谞讬 讙讘专讬 讻讗砖 讘谞注讜专转 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇讘讟讜诇讬 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 讛讗

Rav Yosef said: If men sing and women respond, this is licentiousness. If women sing and men respond, it causes the evil inclination to burn as if one were setting fire to chips of kindling. The Gemara poses a question: What difference is there? Rav Yosef indicates that in any case both are prohibited. The Gemara answers: To nullify one before the other, i.e., if it is impossible to ban singing entirely, they should at least stop the most problematic form.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛砖讜转讛 讘讗专讘注讛 诪讬谞讬 讝诪专 诪讘讬讗 讞诪砖 驻讜专注谞讬讜转 诇注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讬 诪砖讻讬诪讬 讘讘拽专 砖讻专 讬专讚驻讜 诪讗讞专讬 讘谞砖祝 讬讬谉 讬讚诇讬拽诐 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讜专 讜谞讘诇 转祝 讜讞诇讬诇 讜讬讬谉 诪砖转讬讛诐 讜讗转 驻注诇 讛壮 诇讗 讬讘讬讟讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Anyone who drinks wine with the accompaniment of four types of instruments brings five types of retribution to the world, as it is stated: 鈥淲oe to them who rise early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; who tarry late into the night, until wine inflames them. And the harp and the psaltery, the drum and the pipe and wine, are at their feasts, but they do not regard the work of the Lord鈥 (Isaiah 5:11鈥12).

诪讛 讻转讬讘 讗讞专讬讜 诇讻谉 讙诇讛 注诪讬 诪讘诇讬 讚注转 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 讙诇讜转 诇注讜诇诐 讜讻讘讜讚讜 诪转讬 专注讘 砖诪讘讬讗讬谉 专注讘 诇注讜诇诐 讜讛诪讜谞讜 爪讞讛 爪诪讗 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 诇转讜专讛 砖转砖转讻讞 诪诇讜诪讚讬讛 讜讬砖讞 讗讚诐 讜讬砖驻诇 讗讬砖 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 砖驻诇讜转 诇砖讜谞讗讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜讗讬谉 讗讬砖 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖谞讗诪专 讛壮 讗讬砖 诪诇讞诪讛 讜注讬谞讬 讙讘讛讬诐 转砖驻诇谞讛 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 砖驻诇讜转 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇

After listing the sin of those who drink wine with musical accompaniment, the verse states their punishment: What is written afterward? 鈥淭herefore, My people have gone into captivity, for want of knowledge鈥 (Isaiah 5:13), meaning that they cause exile to the world; 鈥渁nd their honorable men are famished鈥 (Isaiah 5:13), as they bring famine to the world; 鈥渁nd their multitude are parched with thirst鈥 (Isaiah 5:13), that they cause the Torah, which is compared to water, to be forgotten by those who learn it. 鈥淎nd mankind is bowed down, and man is humbled鈥 (Isaiah 5:15), that they cause the enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He, i.e., God Himself, to be brought down, as 鈥渕an鈥 in the phrase 鈥渁nd man is humbled鈥 means nothing other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord is a man of war鈥 (Exodus 15:3). The verse continues: 鈥淎nd the eyes of the lofty are humbled鈥 (Isaiah 5:15), that they cause the Jewish people to be brought down. These are the five retributions.

讜诪讛 讻转讬讘 讗讞专讬讜 诇讻谉

And what punishment is written afterward for the people who drank wine with musical accompaniment? 鈥淭herefore,

讛专讞讬讘讛 砖讗讜诇 谞驻砖讛 讜驻注专讛 驻讬讛 诇讘诇讬 讞拽 讜讬专讚 讛讚专讛 讜讛诪讜谞讛 讜砖讗讜谞讛 讜注诇讝 讘讛

the netherworld has enlarged her desire, and opened her mouth without measure, and down goes their glory and their tumult and their uproar, and he who rejoices among them鈥 (Isaiah 5:14). Their punishment is that they shall descend into the netherworld.

诪砖诪转讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪讗谉 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讝讛 讚讜讚 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讜砖诇诪讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讘讬诪讬 讚讜讚 讝讬诪谞讬谉 住诇讬拽 讜讝讬诪谞讬谉 诇讗 住诇讬拽 砖讛专讬 砖讗诇 爪讚讜拽 讜注诇转讛 诇讜 砖讗诇 讗讘讬转专 讜诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诇 讗讘讬转专

搂 The mishna taught: From the time when the early prophets died, the Urim VeTummim was nullified. The Gemara poses a question: Who are the early prophets? Rav Huna says: This is referring to David, and Samuel, and Solomon, and after their death the Urim VeTummim was no longer used. Rav Na岣an said: In the days of David there were times an answer rose up for them from the Urim VeTummim and there were times an answer did not rise up, i.e., they did not receive an answer. The proof for this is that Tzadok, the High Priest in David鈥檚 time, asked the Urim VeTummim and an answer rose up for him, whereas Abiathar asked and an answer did not rise up for him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abiathar went up鈥 (II聽Samuel 15:24), and he was removed from serving as the High Priest as a result.

诪转讬讘 专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讬讛讬 诇讚专砖 讗诇讛讬诐 讘讬诪讬 讝讻专讬讛讜 讛诪讘讬谉 讘专讗转 讛讗诇讛讬诐 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐 诇讗 讘谞讘讬讗讬诐

Rabba bar Shmuel raises an objection: The verse states concerning Uzziah: 鈥淎nd he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had an understanding of the vision of God鈥 (II聽Chronicles 26:5). What, is the verse not stating that Uzziah would seek God by asking questions of the Urim VeTummim, despite the fact that he lived after the time of Solomon? The Gemara rejects this claim: No, he would seek God by asking questions of the prophets, but not of the Urim VeTummim.

转讗 砖诪注 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讘讟诇讜 注专讬 诪讙专砖 讜驻住拽讜 讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐 讜驻住拽 诪诇讱 诪讘讬转 讚讜讚

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from a baraita (Tosefta 13:2) with regard to when the Urim VeTummim ceased: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed, the cities with fields that were allocated to the Levites were nullified, and the Urim VeTummim ceased, and the monarchy ceased from the house of David.

讜讗诐 诇讞砖讱 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讛转专砖转讗 诇讛诐 讗砖专 诇讗 讬讗讻诇讜 诪拽讚砖 讛拽讚砖讬诐 注讚 注诪讚 讻讛谉 诇讗讜专讬诐 讜诇转诪讬诐 讗诪讜专 诇讜 讻讗讚诐 砖讗讜诪专 诇讞讘讬专讜 注讚 砖讬讞讬讜 诪转讬诐 讜讬讘讗 诪砖讬讞 讘谉 讚讜讚

And if a person would whisper to you saying that the Urim VeTummim was still extant, as it states with regard to when the Second Temple first stood: 鈥淎nd the Tirshatha said to them that they should not eat of the most sacred things, until there stood a priest with the Urim VeTummim (Ezra 2:63), which seems to indicate that they merely had to wait until the Second Temple was built for the reappearance of the Urim VeTummim; you should say to him that this is not referring to an expectation of a short-term development, but it is like a person who says to his friend, with regard to something that will occur in the distant future: Until the dead live and the Messiah, the son of David, comes. In any case, the baraita indicates that the Urim VeTummim ceased only from the time when the First Temple was destroyed, and not in the time of Solomon.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讗谉 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讞讙讬 讝讻专讬讛 讜诪诇讗讻讬 讚讗讞专讜谞讬诐 谞讬谞讛讜 讚转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖诪转讜 讞讙讬 讝讻专讬讛 讜诪诇讗讻讬 谞住转诇拽讛 专讜讞 讛拽讜讚砖 诪讬砖专讗诇 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讛讬讜 诪砖转诪砖讬诐 讘讘转 拽讜诇

Rather, Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Who are the early prophets, with regard to whom it states that use of the Urim VeTummim ceased immediately after their death? This term early prophets serves to exclude Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who are the latter prophets. The Urim VeTummim was used throughout the First Temple period, up to, but not including, their time. As the Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:3): From the time when Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died the Divine Spirit departed from the Jewish people, as these three were considered to be the last prophets. And even after the Urim VeTummim ceased to exist, they would nevertheless still make use of a Divine Voice to receive instructions from Above, even after this time.

砖驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讜 诪住讜讘讬谉 讘注诇讬讬转 讘讬转 讙讜专讬讗 讘讬专讬讞讜 谞转谞讛 注诇讬讛谉 讘转 拽讜诇 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讗诪专讛 讬砖 讘讻诐 讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖专讗讜讬 砖转砖专讛 砖讻讬谞讛 注诇讬讜 讗诇讗 砖讗讬谉 讚讜专讜 专讗讜讬 诇讻讱 谞转谞讜 注讬谞讬讛诐 讘讛诇诇 讛讝拽谉 讜讻砖诪转 讛住驻讬讚讜讛讜 讛讬 讞住讬讚 讛讬 注谞讬讜 转诇诪讬讚讜 砖诇 注讝专讗

For on one occasion the Sages were reclining in the upper story of the house of Gurya in Jericho. A Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and it said: There is one person among you for whom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him as a prophet, but his generation is not fit for it; they do not deserve to have a prophet among them. The Sages present directed their gaze to Hillel the Elder. And when he died, they eulogized him in the following manner: Alas pious one, alas humble one, student of Ezra.

讜砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞专转 讛讬讜 诪住讜讘讬谉 讘注诇讬讬讛 讘讬讘谞讛 谞转谞讛 诇讛谉 讘转 拽讜诇 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 讬砖 讘讻诐 讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖专讗讜讬 砖转砖专讛 砖讻讬谞讛 注诇讬讜 讗诇讗 砖讗讬谉 讚讜专讜 讝讻讗讬谉 诇讻讱 谞转谞讜 注讬谞讬讛诐 讘砖诪讜讗诇 讛拽讟谉 讜讻砖诪转 讛住驻讬讚讜讛讜 讛讬 注谞讬讜 讛讬 讞住讬讚 转诇诪讬讚讜 砖诇 讛诇诇

And again, on another occasion several generations later, the Sages were reclining in an upper story of a house in Yavne, and a Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and said: There is one person among you for whom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, but his generation is not fit for it. The Sages present directed their gaze to Shmuel HaKatan. And when he died, they eulogized him in the following manner: Alas humble one, alas pious one, student of Hillel.

讜讗祝 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讘砖注转 诪讬转转讜 砖诪注讜谉 讜讬砖诪注讗诇 诇讞专讘讗 讜讞讘专讜讛讬 诇拽讟诇讗 讜砖讗专 注诪讗 诇讘讬讝讗 讜注拽谉 住讙讬讗讬谉 注转讬讚讬谉 诇诪讬转讬 注诇 注诪讗 讜讗祝 注诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讘拽砖讜 诇讜诪专 讛讬 讞住讬讚 讛讬 注谞讬讜 讗诇讗 砖谞讟专驻讛 砖注讛 砖讗讬谉 诪住驻讬讚讬谉 注诇 讛专讜讙讬 诪诇讻讜转

And he too, Shmuel HaKatan, said the following statement of divinely inspired prediction at the time of his death: Shimon, i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and Yishmael, i.e., Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha the High Priest, are slated for the sword, and their colleagues for killing, and the rest of the people for plunder, and great troubles are destined to befall the people. The Gemara relates: And they also sought to say about Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava, when eulogizing him: Alas pious one, alas humble one, but the moment was disturbed and they could not do so. That is because eulogies are not given for those killed by the monarchy, which was Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba鈥檚 fate, in order not to arouse the monarchy鈥檚 wrath.

诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讟诇 讛砖诪讬专 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪讬专 砖讘讜 讘谞讛 砖诇诪讛 讗转 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讘讬转 讘讛讘谞转讜 讗讘谉 砖诇诪讛 诪住注 谞讘谞讛 讛讚讘专讬诐 讻讻转讘谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

搂 The mishna taught: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed the shamir ceased to exist. The Sages taught: This shamir is the creature with which Solomon built the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淔or the house, when it was built, was built of whole stone from the quarry鈥 (I聽Kings 6:7). Now these words should be understood exactly as they are written, that King Solomon took whole stones and shaped them by having the shamir do the cutting. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讜讻讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜诪专 讻谉 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讻诇 讗诇讛 讗讘谞讬诐 讬拽专转 讜讙讜壮 诪讙专专讜转 讘诪讙专讛 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇讗 谞砖诪注 讘讘讬转 讘讛讘谞转讜 砖讛讬讛 诪转拽讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讜诪讻谞讬住 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞专讗讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讗讘谞讬 诪拽讚砖 讜讚讘专讬 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讘讗讘谞讬 讘讬转讜

Rabbi Ne岣mya said to him: And is it possible to say so? But isn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淎ll these were costly stones, according to the measures of hewn stones, sawed with saws鈥 (II聽Kings 7:9), which indicates that saws, which are iron implements, were used to shape the stones? If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎nd hammer, ax, and any tool of iron were not heard in the house when it was being built鈥 (I聽Kings 6:7)? It means that he would prepare the stones outside the Temple Mount using tools, and bring them inside already cut, so that no iron tools were used inside the Temple itself. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: The statement of Rabbi Yehuda that no iron tools were used appears to be correct with regard to the Temple stones, and the statement of Rabbi Ne岣mya that tools were used appears to be correct with regard to the stones of the king鈥檚 own house.

讜专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 砖诪讬专 诇诪讗讬 讗转讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚转谞讬讗 讗讘谞讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讗讬谉 讻讜转讘讬谉 讗讜转谉 讘讚讬讜 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 驻转讜讞讬 讞讜转诐 讜讗讬谉 诪住专讟讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 讘讗讬讝诪诇 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讘诪诇讜讗转诐

The Gemara poses a question: And according to Rabbi Ne岣mya, who maintains that they used iron tools even in the cutting of the stones for the Temple, for what purpose did the shamir come? The Gemara answers: It was necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: These stones in the breastplate and ephod, upon which were inscribed the names of the tribes, they may not be written on with ink, because it is stated: 鈥淟ike the engravings of a signet鈥 (Exodus 28:21), which means the names must be engraved onto the stones. And they may not be scratched on with a scalpel [izemel], because it is stated: 鈥淚n their full settings鈥 (Exodus 28:20), indicating that the stones must be complete and not missing any of their mass.

讗诇讗 讻讜转讘 注诇讬讛诐 讘讚讬讜 讜诪专讗讛 诇讛谉 砖诪讬专 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讛谉 谞讘拽注讜转 诪讗诇讬讛谉 讻转讗讬谞讛 讝讜 砖谞讘拽注转 讘讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜讗讬谞讛 讞住讬专讛 讻诇讜诐 讜讻讘拽注讛 讝讜 砖谞讘拽注转 讘讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞讛 讞住讬专讛 讻诇讜诐

The baraita continues: Rather, one writes the letters on them in ink, and shows them, i.e., he places the shamir close to the ink markings from outside, without having it touch the stones, and they split open along the lines of the ink of their own accord, like this fig that splits in the summer without losing anything of its mass, and like this field in a valley that cracks in the rainy season without losing anything of its mass. The shamir was used in this way for these engravings.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪讬专 讝讛 讘专讬讬转讜 讻砖注讜专讛 讜诪砖砖转 讬诪讬 讘专讗砖讬转 谞讘专讗 讜讗讬谉 讻诇 讚讘专 拽砖讛 讬讻讜诇 诇注诪讜讚 讘驻谞讬讜 讘诪讛 诪砖诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讻讜专讻讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘住驻讜讙讬谉 砖诇 爪诪专 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讗讬讟谞讬 砖诇 讗讘专 诪诇讬讗讛 住讜讘讬 砖注讜专讬谉

The Sages taught: This shamir, its size is that of a barleycorn, and it was created in the six days of creation, and nothing hard can withstand it. In what is it kept, so that it will not break everything in the vicinity? They wrap it in tufts [sefogin] of wool and place it in a leaden vessel [itenei], full of barley bran, which is soft and will not be broken by the shamir.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪砖讞专讘 诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讘讟诇讛 砖讬专讗 驻专谞讚讗 讜讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 诪砖讞专讘 诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讘讟诇讛 砖讬专讗 驻专谞讚讗 讜讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 讜专讻讘 讘专讝诇 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讬讬谉 拽专讜砖 讛讘讗 诪砖谞讬专 讛讚讜诪讛 讻注讬讙讜诇讬 讚讘讬诇讛

Rabbi Ami says: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed, shiny [peranda] silk [shira] and white glass ceased to exist. This is also taught in a baraita: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed, shiny silk, white glass, and iron chariots ceased; and some say that even congealed wine that comes from Senir, the Hermon, which is similar to round fig cakes after it congeals, ceased to exist as well.

讜谞讜驻转 爪讜驻讬诐 诪讗讬 谞讜驻转 爪讜驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 住讜诇转 砖爪驻讛 注诇 讙讘讬 谞驻讛 讜讚讜诪讛 诇注讬住讛 砖谞讬诇讜砖讛 讘讚讘砖 讜砖诪谉 讜诇讜讬 讗诪专 砖转讬 讻讻专讜转 讛谞讚讘拽讜转 讘转谞讜专 讜转讜驻讞讜转 讜讘讗讜转 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讜转 讝讜 诇讝讜 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讝讛 讚讘砖 讛讘讗 诪谉 讛爪讬驻讬讗 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讻讚诪转专讙诐 专讘 砖砖转 讻诪讗 讚谞转讝谉 讚讘专讬讗转讛 讜砖讬讬讟谉 讘专讜诪讬 注诇诪讗 讜诪转讬讬谉 讚讜讘砖讗 诪注讬砖讘讬 讟讜专讗

The mishna taught: And the sweetness of the honeycomb [nofet tzufim] also ceased when the First Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: What is nofet tzufim? Rav says: Fine flour that floats up and remains on the top of the sieve [nafa], which is similar in taste to dough kneaded with honey and oil. And Levi says that nofet tzufim is the term for two loaves stuck together in an oven, which keep swelling until they reach each other. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is honey that comes from elevated areas [tzipiyya]. The Gemara explains: From where may it be inferred that this is what nofet tzufim is? As Rav Sheshet would translate the words: 鈥淎s the bees do鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:44): Like the bees spread out and fly all over the world and bring honey from mountainous plants. Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi states that honey comes from elevated areas.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讻诇 讛谞爪讜拽 讟讛讜专 讞讜抓 诪讚讘砖 讝讬驻讬诐 讜讛爪驻讬讞讬诐 诪讗讬 讝讬驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讘砖 砖诪讝讬讬驻讬谉 讘讜 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 注诇 砖诐 诪拽讜诪讜 讻讚讻转讬讘 讝讬祝 讜讟诇诐 讜讘注诇讜转

We learned in a mishna there (Makhshirin 5:9): Anything that is poured remains ritually pure. In other words, even if a liquid is poured into a ritually impure utensil, the stream of the liquid does not defile the contents that remain in the ritually pure utensil from which they were poured, apart from zifim honey and wafer batter. These substances are too viscous to be considered liquids. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of zifim? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Honey of such rare quality that they could falsify [mezayyefin] it, by diluting it with other substances, and it would not be noticed. And Reish Lakish says: It is named after its place, as it is written: 鈥淶iph and Telem and Bealoth鈥 (Joshua 15:24).

讻讬讜爪讗 讘讚讘专 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘讘讜讗 讛讝讬驻讬诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇砖讗讜诇 讛诇讗 讚讜讚 讜讙讜壮 诪讗讬 讝讬驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛诪讝讬讬驻讬谉 讚讘专讬讛诐 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 注诇 砖诐 诪拽讜诪谉 讻讚讻转讬讘 讝讬祝 讜讟诇诐 讜讘注诇讜转

Similarly, you can say with regard to the verse: 鈥淲hen the zifim came and said to Saul, does not David hide himself with us鈥 (Psalms 54:2). What is the meaning of zifim, mentioned in this verse? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It means people who would falsify [hamzayyefin] their words. And Rabbi Elazar says: They are called after their place, as it is written: 鈥淶iph and Telem and Bealoth.鈥

讜驻住拽讜 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讛谉 诪讗诪讬谞讬谉 讘讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 驻转 讘住诇讜 讜讗讜诪专 诪讛 讗讜讻诇 诇诪讞专 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 诪拽讟谞讬 讗诪谞讛

搂 The mishna states that from the time when the Second Temple was destroyed men of faith ceased. Rabbi Yitz岣k says: These are people who believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He, and place their trust in Him in all their ways. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer the Great says that whoever has bread in his basket to eat today and says: What shall I eat tomorrow, meaning he does not know how he will acquire bread for tomorrow, he is nothing other than from those of little faith. One must trust in God to provide him with his sustenance.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诪讬 讘讝 诇讬讜诐 拽讟谞讜转 诪讬 讙专诐 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 砖讬转讘讝讘讝 砖讜诇讞谞谉 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 拽讟谞讜转 砖讛讬讛 讘讛谉 砖诇讗 讛讗诪讬谞讜 讘讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讗 讗诪专 讗诇讜 拽讟谞讬 讘谞讬 专砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇

And this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淔or who plunders the day of small things鈥 (Zechariah 4:10)? What caused the table, i.e., the reward, of the righteous to be plundered, meaning wasted, in the future? It was the small-mindedness they possessed. And what is this small-mindedness? That they did not believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He, with a complete faith. Rava said: Who plunders the day of small things? These are the small children of the wicked ones of the Jewish people, who die young,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Sotah 48

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 48

讜讗谞谉 拽讗 讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讻讛谞讬诐

and we give it to the priests. Ezra penalized the Levites for not ascending with him from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael by taking away their right to the first tithe. Consequently, the owner of the produce can no longer recite the declaration of tithes, which includes the statement: 鈥淚 have done according to all that You have commanded me鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:14), as he did not give the tithe to the Levites.

讜诇讜讚讬 讗砖讗专 诪注砖专讜转 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讘讬转 砖讗讬谉 诪转讜讚讛 注诇 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 砖讜讘 讗讬谉 诪转讜讚讛 注诇 砖讗专 诪注砖专讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜驻转讞 讘讜 讛讻转讜讘 转讞讬诇讛

The Gemara asks: And let him at least declare that he donated the other tithes in the proper manner. Reish Lakish said: Any house that does not state the declaration about the first tithe can no longer state the declaration of the other types of tithes. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Abaye said: Because the written verse began the declaration with the tithe given to the Levites: 鈥淎nd I also gave it to the Levite, and to the stranger, to the orphan, and to the widow, in accordance with all Your mitzvot that You commanded me鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:13). If he cannot say the first part of the declaration, he cannot say the rest.

诪讻诇诇 讚讗驻专讜砖讬 讛讜讜 诪驻专砖讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讗祝 讛讜讗 讘讬讟诇 讗转 讛讜讬讚讜讬 讜讙讝专 注诇 讛讚诪讗讬 诇驻讬 砖砖诇讞 讘讻诇 讙讘讜诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜专讗讛 砖讗讬谉 诪驻专讬砖讬谉 讗诇讗 转专讜诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讘诇讘讚 讜诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 诪拽爪转谉 诪注砖专讬谉 讜诪拽爪转谉 讗讬谉 诪注砖专讬谉

The Gemara poses a question: The fact that Rabbi Yo岣nan canceled the declaration of tithes proves by inference that they would separate tithes in his days. But isn鈥檛 it taught (Tosefta 13:10): He, Yo岣nan the High Priest, also canceled the declaration of tithes and decreed with regard to doubtfully tithed produce [demai]? Why did he issue this decree? Because he sent messengers throughout the land, to all the borders of Eretz Yisrael to investigate, and saw that they would separate only teruma gedola, and as for first tithe and second tithe, some people would tithe and some people would not tithe.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬 讘讜讗讜 讜讗讜诪专 诇讻诐 讻砖诐 砖转专讜诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讬砖 讘讛 注讜谉 诪讬转讛 讻讱 转专讜诪转 诪注砖专 讜讟讘诇 讬砖 讘讛谉 注讜谉 诪讬转讛

He said to them: My sons, come and I will tell you something: Just as the halakhot of teruma gedola include a transgression punishable by death at the hand of God, as one who ate produce from which teruma has not been separated is punished with death from Heaven, so too, the teruma of the tithe, the portion the Levites must separate from their first tithe and give to priests, and untithed produce, these include a transgression punishable by death at the hand of God, if the produce is eaten without the tithes having been taken.

注诪讚 讜讛转拽讬谉 诇讛诐 讛诇讜拽讞 驻讬专讜转 诪注诐 讛讗专抓 诪驻专讬砖 诪讛谉 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 诪驻专讬砖 诪诪谞讛 转专讜诪转 诪注砖专 讜谞讜转谞讛 诇讻讛谉 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 注讜诇讛 讜讗讜讻诇讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 讛诪讜爪讬讗 诪讞讘讬专讜 注诇讬讜 讛专讗讬讛

Realizing that it was uncertain with regard to whether or not people were separating tithes, he arose and instituted an ordinance for them with regard to doubtfully tithed produce: One who purchases produce from an am ha鈥檃retz, which may or may not have been tithed, must separate from the produce first tithe and second tithe due to the uncertainty as to whether or not the am ha鈥檃retz separated them. As for first tithe, he then separates teruma of the tithe from it and gives it to a priest, and with regard to second tithe, he goes up and eats it in Jerusalem. However, with regard to the giving of first tithe to the Levite, and the poor man鈥檚 tithe, which can be eaten by anyone, as the Levites and the poor only have monetary rights to the produce, the burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Since the Levites and the poor cannot prove that these tithes had not already been set aside by the am ha鈥檃retz, they cannot force the buyer to give them those tithes.

转专转讬 转拽谉 讘讬讟诇 讜讬讚讜讬 讚讞讘讬专讬诐 讜讙讝专 注诇 讚诪讗讬 砖诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓

In any case, the Gemara proves from the baraita that not all people would separate tithes in the time of Yo岣nan the High Priest. The Gemara answers: He instituted two ordinances: He canceled the declaration of tithes of those devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot [岣verim], especially halakhot of teruma and tithes, and he decreed with regard to doubtfully tithed produce purchased from amei ha鈥檃retz, because they may not have separated tithes at all.

讜讗祝 讛讜讗 讘讬讟诇 讗转 讛诪注讜专专讬诐 诪讗讬 诪注讜专专讬诐 讗诪专 专讞讘讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讛讬讜 注讜诪讚讬诐 诇讜讬诐 注诇 讚讜讻谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 注讜专讛 诇诪讛 转讬砖谉 讛壮 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讜讻讬 讬砖 砖讬谞讛 诇驻谞讬 讛诪拽讜诐 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 诇讗 讬谞讜诐 讜诇讗 讬讬砖谉 砖讜诪专 讬砖专讗诇 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 讘爪注专 讜讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘谞讞转 讜砖诇讜讛 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 注讜专讛 诇诪讛 转讬砖谉 讛壮

搂 The mishna further taught: He also nullified the actions of the awakeners. The Gemara poses a question: What are awakeners? Ra岣va says: On each and every day when the Levites stood on the platform in the Temple they would say: 鈥淎wake, why do you sleep, O Lord?鈥 (Psalms 44:24). Therefore, they were called awakeners. Yo岣nan the High Priest said to them: Does the Omnipresent sleep, that you call upon Him to awaken? But isn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淏ehold, He that keeps Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps鈥 (Psalms 121:4)? Rather, when the Jewish people are in a state of suffering, and the nations of the world are in a state of calm and serenity, it is with regard to this that it is stated: 鈥淎wake, why do you sleep, O Lord?鈥 If the verse were to be recited every morning it would be interpreted in the wrong way, so Yo岣nan the High Priest therefore canceled the daily recitation of this verse.

讜讗转 讛谞讜拽驻讬诐 诪讗讬 谞讜拽驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讛讬讜 诪住专讟讬谉 诇注讙诇 讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讜 讻讚讬 砖讬驻讜诇 讚诐 讘注讬谞讬讜 讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 讘讟讬诇 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬 诪讜诪讗

The mishna also taught that Yo岣nan the High Priest canceled the strikers. The Gemara asks: What are strikers? Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They are those who would scratch the calf being prepared for slaughter as an offering between its horns, in order that blood should fall in its eyes, so that the animal would not see and resist being slaughtered. He came and nullified this practice, because it looked like they are causing a blemish.

讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 砖讛讬讜 讞讜讘讟讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘诪拽诇讜转 讻讚专讱 砖注讜砖讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇驻谞讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 注讚 诪转讬 讗转诐 诪讗讻讬诇讬谉 谞讘讬诇讜转 诇诪讝讘讞 谞讘讬诇讜转 讛讗 砖讞讬讟 诇讛讜 讗诇讗 讟专讬驻讜转 砖诪讗 谞讬拽讘 拽专讜诐 砖诇 诪讜讞 注诪讚 讜讛转拽讬谉 诇讛诐 讟讘注讜转 讘拽专拽注

A different explanation of strikers was taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:9): They are those who would beat the calf with sticks, to stun it before it was slaughtered, in the manner that they do it before idols. Yo岣nan the High Priest said to them: Until when will you feed unslaughtered animal carcasses to the altar? The Gemara asks: Are these animal carcasses actually unslaughtered animal carcasses? They were slaughtered, i.e., they did not die of their own accord. Rather, he said that the beatings would cause them to become like animals with a wound that will cause them to die within twelve months [tereifot], as perhaps these beatings will perforate the membrane surrounding the brain, which would make the calf a tereifa. He therefore arose and instituted an ordinance for them to put rings in the ground with which they could secure the animals, thereby making it easier to slaughter the animals without having to scratch them between the horns or hit them with sticks.

注讚 讬诪讬讜 讛讬讛 驻讟讬砖 诪讻讛 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚

The mishna stated that until the days of Yo岣nan the High Priest the hammer of smiths would strike in Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: This is referring to the intermediate days of a Festival. Though certain types of labor are permitted on those days, the banging of a hammer was outlawed, as the noise it made would detract from the feeling of sanctity of the day.

讻诇 讬诪讬讜 诇讗 讛讬讛 讗讚诐 爪专讬讱 诇砖讗讜诇 注诇 讛讚诪讗讬 讻讚讗诪专谉

They further taught that in all of his days a person did not need to inquire with regard to doubtfully tithed produce. The Gemara notes that this is like that which we stated above, that he instituted an ordinance with regard to the tithing of doubtfully tithed produce.

诪转谞讬壮 诪砖讘讟诇讛 住谞讛讚专讬谉 讘讟诇 讛砖讬专 诪讘讬转 讛诪砖转讗讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讘砖讬专 诇讗 讬砖转讜 讬讬谉 讜讙讜壮

MISHNA: This mishna continues with the list of items that were nullified. From the time when the Sanhedrin ceased song was also nullified from the places of feasts, i.e., it was no longer permitted to sing at a feast where wine was served, as it is stated: 鈥淲ith song they shall not drink wine鈥 (Isaiah 24:9).

诪砖诪转讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讟诇讜 讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讟诇 讛砖诪讬专 讜谞讜驻转 爪讜驻讬诐 讜驻住拽讜 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜砖讬注讛 讛壮 讻讬 讙诪专 讞住讬讚 讜讙讜壮

From the time when the early prophets died the Urim VeTummim was nullified. From the time when the Second Temple was destroyed the shamir worm ceased to exist and also the sweetness of the honeycomb, as the verse says with regard to the laws of the Torah: 鈥淢ore to be desired are they than gold, indeed, than much fine gold; sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb鈥 (Psalms 19:11). And men of faith ceased from being among the Jewish people, as it is stated: 鈥淗elp, Lord, for the pious man is finished; for the faithful fail from among the children of men鈥 (Psalms 12:2).

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讬讜诐 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 拽诇诇讛 讜诇讗 讬专讚 讛讟诇 诇讘专讻讛 讜谞讬讟诇 讟注诐 讛驻讬专讜转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 谞讬讟诇 砖讜诪谉 讛驻讬专讜转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讛讟讛专讛 谞讟诇讛 讗转 讛讟注诐 讜讗转 讛专讬讞 讛诪注砖专讜转 谞讟诇讜 讗转 砖讜诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讝谞讜转 讜讛讻砖驻讬诐 讻讬诇讜 讗转 讛讻诇

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that Rabbi Yehoshua testified: From the day the Temple was destroyed there is no day that does not include some form of curse. And since then the dew has not descended for blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. Rabbi Yosei says: Since then, the fat of fruit has also been removed. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Since then, the lost purity has removed the taste and the aroma from fruit; the tithes that were not separated have removed the fat of the grain. And the Sages say: Promiscuity and witchcraft have consumed it all.

讙诪壮 讜诪诪讗讬 讚诪砖讘讟诇讛 住谞讛讚专讬 讻转讬讘 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讝拽谞讬诐 诪砖注专 砖讘转讜 讘讞讜专讬诐 诪谞讙讬谞转诐

GEMARA: The Gemara poses a question with regard to the first clause of the mishna: And from where is it derived that the verse: 鈥淲ith song they shall not drink wine鈥 (Isaiah 24:9) is written about the period from the time when the Sanhedrin was nullified? Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: From that which the verse states: 鈥淭he Elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music鈥 (Lamentations 5:14). This indicates that the dissolution of the Sanhedrin, who are the Elders from the gate, is linked to the end of the young men singing.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讜讚谞讗 讚砖诪注讗 讝诪专讗 转注拽专 讗诪专 专讘讗 讝诪专讗 讘讘讬转讗 讞讜专讘讗 讘住讬驻讗 砖谞讗诪专 拽讜诇 讬砖讜专专 讘讞诇讜谉 讞专讘 讘住祝 讻讬 讗专讝讛 注专讛

Rav said: The ear that hears song should be uprooted, as it is prohibited to listen to music after the destruction of the Temple. Rava said: If there is song in a house there will be destruction on the threshold, as it is stated: 鈥淰oices shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be in the doorposts; for its cedar work shall be uncovered鈥 (Zephaniah 2:14).

诪讗讬 讻讬 讗专讝讛 注专讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘讬转 讛诪住讜讘讱 讘讗专讝讬诐 注讬专 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬转 讛诪住讜讘讱 讘讗专讝讬诐 诪转专讜注注 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讻讬 诪转讞讬诇 讞讜专讘讗 讘住讬驻讗 诪转讞讬诇 砖谞讗诪专 讞专讘 讘住祝 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讜砖讗讬讛 讬讻转 砖注专 讗诪专 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讜诪谞讙讞 讻讬 转讜专讗

The word 鈥渦ncovered鈥 [era] could be read to mean: Its city [ira]. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: For its cedar work shall be its city? Furthermore, Rabbi Yitz岣k wondered when he said: Is a house interlaced with cedars not as strong as a city, and therefore not threatened by desolation? Rather, it means that even a house interlaced with cedars will become unstable [mitroe鈥檃] if song is heard there. Rav Ashi said: Learn from it that when the destruction starts it starts with the threshold, as it is stated: 鈥淒esolation shall be in the posts.鈥 And if you wish, say instead that they derive this idea from here: 鈥淚n the city is left desolation, and the gate is smitten unto ruin [she鈥檌yya]鈥 (Isaiah 24:12). The term 鈥渞uin鈥 here is referring to the destructive demon known as She鈥檌yya, who strikes the gate first. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I saw it, this She鈥檌yya, and it was goring and wreaking havoc like an ox.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讝诪专讗 讚谞讙讚讬 讜讚讘拽专讬 砖专讬 讚讙专讚讗讬 讗住讬专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘讟讬诇 讝诪专讗 拽诐 诪讗讛 讗讜讜讝讬 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诪讗讛 住讗讛 讞讬讟讬 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诇讗 讗讬讘注讬 讗转讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讝诇讝讬诇 讘讬讛 讗讬讘注讗讬 讗讜讜讝讗 讘讝讜讝讗 讜诇讗 诪砖转讻讞

Rav Huna said: The song of those who pull ships and lead the herd is permitted, for their singing assists them to establish a rhythm in their work. However, that of weavers is forbidden, as they sing only for their own enjoyment. The Gemara relates that subsequently, Rav Huna nullified all types of song, and this led to a general blessing: The price of one hundred ducks stood at a dinar, and one hundred se鈥檃 of wheat at a dinar, and there was no desire for them even at such a cheap price, due to their great abundance. Later, when Rav 岣sda came and belittled this prohibition, people began to sing again. As a result, prices increased greatly, and this led to a situation whereby one wanted a single duck for one dinar and it could not be found.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝诪专讬 讙讘专讬 讜注谞讬 谞砖讬 驻专讬爪讜转讗 讝诪专讬 谞砖讬 讜注谞讬 讙讘专讬 讻讗砖 讘谞注讜专转 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇讘讟讜诇讬 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 讛讗

Rav Yosef said: If men sing and women respond, this is licentiousness. If women sing and men respond, it causes the evil inclination to burn as if one were setting fire to chips of kindling. The Gemara poses a question: What difference is there? Rav Yosef indicates that in any case both are prohibited. The Gemara answers: To nullify one before the other, i.e., if it is impossible to ban singing entirely, they should at least stop the most problematic form.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛砖讜转讛 讘讗专讘注讛 诪讬谞讬 讝诪专 诪讘讬讗 讞诪砖 驻讜专注谞讬讜转 诇注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讬 诪砖讻讬诪讬 讘讘拽专 砖讻专 讬专讚驻讜 诪讗讞专讬 讘谞砖祝 讬讬谉 讬讚诇讬拽诐 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讜专 讜谞讘诇 转祝 讜讞诇讬诇 讜讬讬谉 诪砖转讬讛诐 讜讗转 驻注诇 讛壮 诇讗 讬讘讬讟讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Anyone who drinks wine with the accompaniment of four types of instruments brings five types of retribution to the world, as it is stated: 鈥淲oe to them who rise early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; who tarry late into the night, until wine inflames them. And the harp and the psaltery, the drum and the pipe and wine, are at their feasts, but they do not regard the work of the Lord鈥 (Isaiah 5:11鈥12).

诪讛 讻转讬讘 讗讞专讬讜 诇讻谉 讙诇讛 注诪讬 诪讘诇讬 讚注转 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 讙诇讜转 诇注讜诇诐 讜讻讘讜讚讜 诪转讬 专注讘 砖诪讘讬讗讬谉 专注讘 诇注讜诇诐 讜讛诪讜谞讜 爪讞讛 爪诪讗 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 诇转讜专讛 砖转砖转讻讞 诪诇讜诪讚讬讛 讜讬砖讞 讗讚诐 讜讬砖驻诇 讗讬砖 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 砖驻诇讜转 诇砖讜谞讗讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜讗讬谉 讗讬砖 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖谞讗诪专 讛壮 讗讬砖 诪诇讞诪讛 讜注讬谞讬 讙讘讛讬诐 转砖驻诇谞讛 砖讙讜专诪讬谉 砖驻诇讜转 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇

After listing the sin of those who drink wine with musical accompaniment, the verse states their punishment: What is written afterward? 鈥淭herefore, My people have gone into captivity, for want of knowledge鈥 (Isaiah 5:13), meaning that they cause exile to the world; 鈥渁nd their honorable men are famished鈥 (Isaiah 5:13), as they bring famine to the world; 鈥渁nd their multitude are parched with thirst鈥 (Isaiah 5:13), that they cause the Torah, which is compared to water, to be forgotten by those who learn it. 鈥淎nd mankind is bowed down, and man is humbled鈥 (Isaiah 5:15), that they cause the enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He, i.e., God Himself, to be brought down, as 鈥渕an鈥 in the phrase 鈥渁nd man is humbled鈥 means nothing other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord is a man of war鈥 (Exodus 15:3). The verse continues: 鈥淎nd the eyes of the lofty are humbled鈥 (Isaiah 5:15), that they cause the Jewish people to be brought down. These are the five retributions.

讜诪讛 讻转讬讘 讗讞专讬讜 诇讻谉

And what punishment is written afterward for the people who drank wine with musical accompaniment? 鈥淭herefore,

讛专讞讬讘讛 砖讗讜诇 谞驻砖讛 讜驻注专讛 驻讬讛 诇讘诇讬 讞拽 讜讬专讚 讛讚专讛 讜讛诪讜谞讛 讜砖讗讜谞讛 讜注诇讝 讘讛

the netherworld has enlarged her desire, and opened her mouth without measure, and down goes their glory and their tumult and their uproar, and he who rejoices among them鈥 (Isaiah 5:14). Their punishment is that they shall descend into the netherworld.

诪砖诪转讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪讗谉 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讝讛 讚讜讚 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讜砖诇诪讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讘讬诪讬 讚讜讚 讝讬诪谞讬谉 住诇讬拽 讜讝讬诪谞讬谉 诇讗 住诇讬拽 砖讛专讬 砖讗诇 爪讚讜拽 讜注诇转讛 诇讜 砖讗诇 讗讘讬转专 讜诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诇 讗讘讬转专

搂 The mishna taught: From the time when the early prophets died, the Urim VeTummim was nullified. The Gemara poses a question: Who are the early prophets? Rav Huna says: This is referring to David, and Samuel, and Solomon, and after their death the Urim VeTummim was no longer used. Rav Na岣an said: In the days of David there were times an answer rose up for them from the Urim VeTummim and there were times an answer did not rise up, i.e., they did not receive an answer. The proof for this is that Tzadok, the High Priest in David鈥檚 time, asked the Urim VeTummim and an answer rose up for him, whereas Abiathar asked and an answer did not rise up for him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abiathar went up鈥 (II聽Samuel 15:24), and he was removed from serving as the High Priest as a result.

诪转讬讘 专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讬讛讬 诇讚专砖 讗诇讛讬诐 讘讬诪讬 讝讻专讬讛讜 讛诪讘讬谉 讘专讗转 讛讗诇讛讬诐 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐 诇讗 讘谞讘讬讗讬诐

Rabba bar Shmuel raises an objection: The verse states concerning Uzziah: 鈥淎nd he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had an understanding of the vision of God鈥 (II聽Chronicles 26:5). What, is the verse not stating that Uzziah would seek God by asking questions of the Urim VeTummim, despite the fact that he lived after the time of Solomon? The Gemara rejects this claim: No, he would seek God by asking questions of the prophets, but not of the Urim VeTummim.

转讗 砖诪注 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讘讟诇讜 注专讬 诪讙专砖 讜驻住拽讜 讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐 讜驻住拽 诪诇讱 诪讘讬转 讚讜讚

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from a baraita (Tosefta 13:2) with regard to when the Urim VeTummim ceased: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed, the cities with fields that were allocated to the Levites were nullified, and the Urim VeTummim ceased, and the monarchy ceased from the house of David.

讜讗诐 诇讞砖讱 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讛转专砖转讗 诇讛诐 讗砖专 诇讗 讬讗讻诇讜 诪拽讚砖 讛拽讚砖讬诐 注讚 注诪讚 讻讛谉 诇讗讜专讬诐 讜诇转诪讬诐 讗诪讜专 诇讜 讻讗讚诐 砖讗讜诪专 诇讞讘讬专讜 注讚 砖讬讞讬讜 诪转讬诐 讜讬讘讗 诪砖讬讞 讘谉 讚讜讚

And if a person would whisper to you saying that the Urim VeTummim was still extant, as it states with regard to when the Second Temple first stood: 鈥淎nd the Tirshatha said to them that they should not eat of the most sacred things, until there stood a priest with the Urim VeTummim (Ezra 2:63), which seems to indicate that they merely had to wait until the Second Temple was built for the reappearance of the Urim VeTummim; you should say to him that this is not referring to an expectation of a short-term development, but it is like a person who says to his friend, with regard to something that will occur in the distant future: Until the dead live and the Messiah, the son of David, comes. In any case, the baraita indicates that the Urim VeTummim ceased only from the time when the First Temple was destroyed, and not in the time of Solomon.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讗谉 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讞讙讬 讝讻专讬讛 讜诪诇讗讻讬 讚讗讞专讜谞讬诐 谞讬谞讛讜 讚转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖诪转讜 讞讙讬 讝讻专讬讛 讜诪诇讗讻讬 谞住转诇拽讛 专讜讞 讛拽讜讚砖 诪讬砖专讗诇 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讛讬讜 诪砖转诪砖讬诐 讘讘转 拽讜诇

Rather, Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Who are the early prophets, with regard to whom it states that use of the Urim VeTummim ceased immediately after their death? This term early prophets serves to exclude Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who are the latter prophets. The Urim VeTummim was used throughout the First Temple period, up to, but not including, their time. As the Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:3): From the time when Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died the Divine Spirit departed from the Jewish people, as these three were considered to be the last prophets. And even after the Urim VeTummim ceased to exist, they would nevertheless still make use of a Divine Voice to receive instructions from Above, even after this time.

砖驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讜 诪住讜讘讬谉 讘注诇讬讬转 讘讬转 讙讜专讬讗 讘讬专讬讞讜 谞转谞讛 注诇讬讛谉 讘转 拽讜诇 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讗诪专讛 讬砖 讘讻诐 讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖专讗讜讬 砖转砖专讛 砖讻讬谞讛 注诇讬讜 讗诇讗 砖讗讬谉 讚讜专讜 专讗讜讬 诇讻讱 谞转谞讜 注讬谞讬讛诐 讘讛诇诇 讛讝拽谉 讜讻砖诪转 讛住驻讬讚讜讛讜 讛讬 讞住讬讚 讛讬 注谞讬讜 转诇诪讬讚讜 砖诇 注讝专讗

For on one occasion the Sages were reclining in the upper story of the house of Gurya in Jericho. A Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and it said: There is one person among you for whom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him as a prophet, but his generation is not fit for it; they do not deserve to have a prophet among them. The Sages present directed their gaze to Hillel the Elder. And when he died, they eulogized him in the following manner: Alas pious one, alas humble one, student of Ezra.

讜砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞专转 讛讬讜 诪住讜讘讬谉 讘注诇讬讬讛 讘讬讘谞讛 谞转谞讛 诇讛谉 讘转 拽讜诇 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 讬砖 讘讻诐 讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖专讗讜讬 砖转砖专讛 砖讻讬谞讛 注诇讬讜 讗诇讗 砖讗讬谉 讚讜专讜 讝讻讗讬谉 诇讻讱 谞转谞讜 注讬谞讬讛诐 讘砖诪讜讗诇 讛拽讟谉 讜讻砖诪转 讛住驻讬讚讜讛讜 讛讬 注谞讬讜 讛讬 讞住讬讚 转诇诪讬讚讜 砖诇 讛诇诇

And again, on another occasion several generations later, the Sages were reclining in an upper story of a house in Yavne, and a Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and said: There is one person among you for whom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, but his generation is not fit for it. The Sages present directed their gaze to Shmuel HaKatan. And when he died, they eulogized him in the following manner: Alas humble one, alas pious one, student of Hillel.

讜讗祝 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讘砖注转 诪讬转转讜 砖诪注讜谉 讜讬砖诪注讗诇 诇讞专讘讗 讜讞讘专讜讛讬 诇拽讟诇讗 讜砖讗专 注诪讗 诇讘讬讝讗 讜注拽谉 住讙讬讗讬谉 注转讬讚讬谉 诇诪讬转讬 注诇 注诪讗 讜讗祝 注诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讘拽砖讜 诇讜诪专 讛讬 讞住讬讚 讛讬 注谞讬讜 讗诇讗 砖谞讟专驻讛 砖注讛 砖讗讬谉 诪住驻讬讚讬谉 注诇 讛专讜讙讬 诪诇讻讜转

And he too, Shmuel HaKatan, said the following statement of divinely inspired prediction at the time of his death: Shimon, i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and Yishmael, i.e., Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha the High Priest, are slated for the sword, and their colleagues for killing, and the rest of the people for plunder, and great troubles are destined to befall the people. The Gemara relates: And they also sought to say about Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava, when eulogizing him: Alas pious one, alas humble one, but the moment was disturbed and they could not do so. That is because eulogies are not given for those killed by the monarchy, which was Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba鈥檚 fate, in order not to arouse the monarchy鈥檚 wrath.

诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讟诇 讛砖诪讬专 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪讬专 砖讘讜 讘谞讛 砖诇诪讛 讗转 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讘讬转 讘讛讘谞转讜 讗讘谉 砖诇诪讛 诪住注 谞讘谞讛 讛讚讘专讬诐 讻讻转讘谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

搂 The mishna taught: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed the shamir ceased to exist. The Sages taught: This shamir is the creature with which Solomon built the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淔or the house, when it was built, was built of whole stone from the quarry鈥 (I聽Kings 6:7). Now these words should be understood exactly as they are written, that King Solomon took whole stones and shaped them by having the shamir do the cutting. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讜讻讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜诪专 讻谉 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讻诇 讗诇讛 讗讘谞讬诐 讬拽专转 讜讙讜壮 诪讙专专讜转 讘诪讙专讛 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇讗 谞砖诪注 讘讘讬转 讘讛讘谞转讜 砖讛讬讛 诪转拽讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讜诪讻谞讬住 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞专讗讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讗讘谞讬 诪拽讚砖 讜讚讘专讬 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讘讗讘谞讬 讘讬转讜

Rabbi Ne岣mya said to him: And is it possible to say so? But isn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淎ll these were costly stones, according to the measures of hewn stones, sawed with saws鈥 (II聽Kings 7:9), which indicates that saws, which are iron implements, were used to shape the stones? If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎nd hammer, ax, and any tool of iron were not heard in the house when it was being built鈥 (I聽Kings 6:7)? It means that he would prepare the stones outside the Temple Mount using tools, and bring them inside already cut, so that no iron tools were used inside the Temple itself. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: The statement of Rabbi Yehuda that no iron tools were used appears to be correct with regard to the Temple stones, and the statement of Rabbi Ne岣mya that tools were used appears to be correct with regard to the stones of the king鈥檚 own house.

讜专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 砖诪讬专 诇诪讗讬 讗转讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚转谞讬讗 讗讘谞讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讗讬谉 讻讜转讘讬谉 讗讜转谉 讘讚讬讜 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 驻转讜讞讬 讞讜转诐 讜讗讬谉 诪住专讟讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 讘讗讬讝诪诇 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讘诪诇讜讗转诐

The Gemara poses a question: And according to Rabbi Ne岣mya, who maintains that they used iron tools even in the cutting of the stones for the Temple, for what purpose did the shamir come? The Gemara answers: It was necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: These stones in the breastplate and ephod, upon which were inscribed the names of the tribes, they may not be written on with ink, because it is stated: 鈥淟ike the engravings of a signet鈥 (Exodus 28:21), which means the names must be engraved onto the stones. And they may not be scratched on with a scalpel [izemel], because it is stated: 鈥淚n their full settings鈥 (Exodus 28:20), indicating that the stones must be complete and not missing any of their mass.

讗诇讗 讻讜转讘 注诇讬讛诐 讘讚讬讜 讜诪专讗讛 诇讛谉 砖诪讬专 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讛谉 谞讘拽注讜转 诪讗诇讬讛谉 讻转讗讬谞讛 讝讜 砖谞讘拽注转 讘讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜讗讬谞讛 讞住讬专讛 讻诇讜诐 讜讻讘拽注讛 讝讜 砖谞讘拽注转 讘讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞讛 讞住讬专讛 讻诇讜诐

The baraita continues: Rather, one writes the letters on them in ink, and shows them, i.e., he places the shamir close to the ink markings from outside, without having it touch the stones, and they split open along the lines of the ink of their own accord, like this fig that splits in the summer without losing anything of its mass, and like this field in a valley that cracks in the rainy season without losing anything of its mass. The shamir was used in this way for these engravings.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪讬专 讝讛 讘专讬讬转讜 讻砖注讜专讛 讜诪砖砖转 讬诪讬 讘专讗砖讬转 谞讘专讗 讜讗讬谉 讻诇 讚讘专 拽砖讛 讬讻讜诇 诇注诪讜讚 讘驻谞讬讜 讘诪讛 诪砖诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讻讜专讻讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘住驻讜讙讬谉 砖诇 爪诪专 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讗讬讟谞讬 砖诇 讗讘专 诪诇讬讗讛 住讜讘讬 砖注讜专讬谉

The Sages taught: This shamir, its size is that of a barleycorn, and it was created in the six days of creation, and nothing hard can withstand it. In what is it kept, so that it will not break everything in the vicinity? They wrap it in tufts [sefogin] of wool and place it in a leaden vessel [itenei], full of barley bran, which is soft and will not be broken by the shamir.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪砖讞专讘 诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讘讟诇讛 砖讬专讗 驻专谞讚讗 讜讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 诪砖讞专讘 诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讘讟诇讛 砖讬专讗 驻专谞讚讗 讜讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 讜专讻讘 讘专讝诇 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讬讬谉 拽专讜砖 讛讘讗 诪砖谞讬专 讛讚讜诪讛 讻注讬讙讜诇讬 讚讘讬诇讛

Rabbi Ami says: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed, shiny [peranda] silk [shira] and white glass ceased to exist. This is also taught in a baraita: From the time when the First Temple was destroyed, shiny silk, white glass, and iron chariots ceased; and some say that even congealed wine that comes from Senir, the Hermon, which is similar to round fig cakes after it congeals, ceased to exist as well.

讜谞讜驻转 爪讜驻讬诐 诪讗讬 谞讜驻转 爪讜驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 住讜诇转 砖爪驻讛 注诇 讙讘讬 谞驻讛 讜讚讜诪讛 诇注讬住讛 砖谞讬诇讜砖讛 讘讚讘砖 讜砖诪谉 讜诇讜讬 讗诪专 砖转讬 讻讻专讜转 讛谞讚讘拽讜转 讘转谞讜专 讜转讜驻讞讜转 讜讘讗讜转 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讜转 讝讜 诇讝讜 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讝讛 讚讘砖 讛讘讗 诪谉 讛爪讬驻讬讗 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讻讚诪转专讙诐 专讘 砖砖转 讻诪讗 讚谞转讝谉 讚讘专讬讗转讛 讜砖讬讬讟谉 讘专讜诪讬 注诇诪讗 讜诪转讬讬谉 讚讜讘砖讗 诪注讬砖讘讬 讟讜专讗

The mishna taught: And the sweetness of the honeycomb [nofet tzufim] also ceased when the First Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: What is nofet tzufim? Rav says: Fine flour that floats up and remains on the top of the sieve [nafa], which is similar in taste to dough kneaded with honey and oil. And Levi says that nofet tzufim is the term for two loaves stuck together in an oven, which keep swelling until they reach each other. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is honey that comes from elevated areas [tzipiyya]. The Gemara explains: From where may it be inferred that this is what nofet tzufim is? As Rav Sheshet would translate the words: 鈥淎s the bees do鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:44): Like the bees spread out and fly all over the world and bring honey from mountainous plants. Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi states that honey comes from elevated areas.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讻诇 讛谞爪讜拽 讟讛讜专 讞讜抓 诪讚讘砖 讝讬驻讬诐 讜讛爪驻讬讞讬诐 诪讗讬 讝讬驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讘砖 砖诪讝讬讬驻讬谉 讘讜 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 注诇 砖诐 诪拽讜诪讜 讻讚讻转讬讘 讝讬祝 讜讟诇诐 讜讘注诇讜转

We learned in a mishna there (Makhshirin 5:9): Anything that is poured remains ritually pure. In other words, even if a liquid is poured into a ritually impure utensil, the stream of the liquid does not defile the contents that remain in the ritually pure utensil from which they were poured, apart from zifim honey and wafer batter. These substances are too viscous to be considered liquids. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of zifim? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Honey of such rare quality that they could falsify [mezayyefin] it, by diluting it with other substances, and it would not be noticed. And Reish Lakish says: It is named after its place, as it is written: 鈥淶iph and Telem and Bealoth鈥 (Joshua 15:24).

讻讬讜爪讗 讘讚讘专 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘讘讜讗 讛讝讬驻讬诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇砖讗讜诇 讛诇讗 讚讜讚 讜讙讜壮 诪讗讬 讝讬驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛诪讝讬讬驻讬谉 讚讘专讬讛诐 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 注诇 砖诐 诪拽讜诪谉 讻讚讻转讬讘 讝讬祝 讜讟诇诐 讜讘注诇讜转

Similarly, you can say with regard to the verse: 鈥淲hen the zifim came and said to Saul, does not David hide himself with us鈥 (Psalms 54:2). What is the meaning of zifim, mentioned in this verse? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It means people who would falsify [hamzayyefin] their words. And Rabbi Elazar says: They are called after their place, as it is written: 鈥淶iph and Telem and Bealoth.鈥

讜驻住拽讜 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讛谉 诪讗诪讬谞讬谉 讘讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 驻转 讘住诇讜 讜讗讜诪专 诪讛 讗讜讻诇 诇诪讞专 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 诪拽讟谞讬 讗诪谞讛

搂 The mishna states that from the time when the Second Temple was destroyed men of faith ceased. Rabbi Yitz岣k says: These are people who believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He, and place their trust in Him in all their ways. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer the Great says that whoever has bread in his basket to eat today and says: What shall I eat tomorrow, meaning he does not know how he will acquire bread for tomorrow, he is nothing other than from those of little faith. One must trust in God to provide him with his sustenance.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诪讬 讘讝 诇讬讜诐 拽讟谞讜转 诪讬 讙专诐 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 砖讬转讘讝讘讝 砖讜诇讞谞谉 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 拽讟谞讜转 砖讛讬讛 讘讛谉 砖诇讗 讛讗诪讬谞讜 讘讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讗 讗诪专 讗诇讜 拽讟谞讬 讘谞讬 专砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇

And this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淔or who plunders the day of small things鈥 (Zechariah 4:10)? What caused the table, i.e., the reward, of the righteous to be plundered, meaning wasted, in the future? It was the small-mindedness they possessed. And what is this small-mindedness? That they did not believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He, with a complete faith. Rava said: Who plunders the day of small things? These are the small children of the wicked ones of the Jewish people, who die young,

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