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Daf Yomi

April 3, 2023 | ื™ืดื‘ ื‘ื ื™ืกืŸ ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

Sotah 5

 

Where can one find a warning not to be arrogant? What will happen to those who are arrogant? How does God reward those who are humble? The Mishna on Sotah 2a had said that the husband warns her not to speak with that man but if she does, she is still permitted to her husband. Since that doesnโ€™t make any sense, Abaye adds words into the Mishna to explain that only if he warned her not to go into a closed room and then she did, will she become a Sotah. The Mishna says that if the husband dies at this point and they have no children, the brother does not do yibum but he needs to do chalitza. What is the reason for this? There are three different versions of the answer given by Rav Yosef and the question that Abaye raises against his opinion.

ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื•ืฉื” ืฆื“ืงื” ื‘ืกืชืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืชืŸ ื‘ืกืชืจ ื™ื›ืคื” ืืฃ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืœื ื™ื ืงื” ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœ ื’ื™ื”ื ื


Even if the one who committed adultery performs charitable deeds secretly, as alluded to in the phrase โ€œhand to hand,โ€ and even if one might think that one who does so will go unpunished, as it is written with regard to charity of this kind: โ€œA gift in secret pacifies wrathโ€ (Proverbs 21:14), nevertheless, he will not be unpunished from the judgment of Gehenna.


ืื–ื”ืจื” ืœื’ืกื™ ื”ืจื•ื— ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื–ืขื™ืจื™ ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื”ืื–ื™ื ื• ืืœ ืชื’ื‘ื”ื• ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืจื ืœื‘ื‘ืš ื•ืฉื›ื—ืช ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืฉืžืจ ืœืš ืคืŸ ืชืฉื›ื— ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš


ยง The Gemara previously discussed the impropriety of the trait of arrogance. Now the Gemara discusses the source of its prohibition. From where is the warning derived, i.e., what is the source prohibiting the behavior of the arrogant? Rava says that Zeโ€™eiri says: The source is from the verse: โ€œHear, you, and give ear, be not proud, for the Lord has spokenโ€ (Jeremiah 13:15). Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said the warning is from here: โ€œThen your heart be lifted up, and you forget the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 8:14), and it is also written in that same passage: โ€œBeware lest you forget the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 8:11).


ื•ื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืฉืžืจ ืคืŸ ื•ืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืœื ืชืขืฉื”


The Gemara explains: And these sources are in accordance with a statement that Rabbi Avin says that Rabbi Ileโ€™a says, as Rabbi Avin says that Rabbi Ileโ€™a says: Wherever it is stated in a verse โ€œbeware,โ€ โ€œlest,โ€ or โ€œnot,โ€ this is nothing other than a prohibition. Since these verses employ these terms in the context of one who is arrogant, they serve as sources for the prohibition.


ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื•ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืœืกื•ืฃ ืžืชืžืขื˜ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจื•ืžื• ืžืขื˜ ื•ืฉืžื ืชืืžืจ ื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืื™ื ื ื•


Rav Avira interpreted the following verse homiletically: โ€œThey are exalted for a little while, and they are gone; yes, they are brought low, they are gathered in as all others, and wither as the tops of the husksโ€ (Job 24:24). There were times when he said this interpretation in the name of Rav Asi and there were times when he said it in the name of Rav Ami: Any person who has arrogance within him will ultimately be diminished in standing, as it is stated in the phrase: โ€œThey are exalted for a little while,โ€ indicating that one who raises himself above others will be exalted only briefly. And lest you say that even if he is diminished he will still exist in this world and live a full life, the verse states: โ€œAnd they are gone,โ€ indicating that they die before their time.


ื•ืื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื‘ื• ื ืืกืฃ ื‘ื–ืžื ื• ื›ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืžื›ื• ื›ื›ืœ ื™ืงืคืฆื•ืŸ ื›ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ื•ืื ืœืื• ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ื™ืžืœื•


He continues the interpretation: But if he repents from his arrogance, he is gathered in death at his proper time like Abraham our forefather, as it is stated: โ€œYes, they are brought low, they are gathered in as all [kakkol] othersโ€ (Job 24:24), indicating that when he repents from his arrogance he will die like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written about them that they were blessed with the term โ€œall,โ€ as in the verse above. With regard to Abraham, the verse states: โ€œAnd the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things [bakkol]โ€ (Genesis 24:1). With regard to Isaac, the verse states: โ€œAnd I have eaten of all [mikkol]โ€ (Genesis 27:33). With regard to Jacob, the verse states: โ€œAnd because I have all [khol]โ€ (Genesis 33:11). And if one does not repent, then, the verse in Job continues: โ€œAnd wither like the tops of the husks.โ€


ืžืื™ ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืกืืกื ื“ืฉื™ื‘ืœืชื ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืกืืกื ื“ืฉื™ื‘ืœืชื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืฉื•ื‘ืœืชื ืขืฆืžื” ืžืื™ ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืžืฉืœ ืœืื“ื ืฉื ื›ื ืก ืœืชื•ืš ืฉื“ื”ื• ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืœืงื˜:


The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase โ€œand wither like the tops of the husksโ€? Rav Huna and Rav แธคisda offered differing interpretations. One says that it means: Like the awn of bristle-like growth on the top of the husk, and one says that it means: Like the husk itself. The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the one who says: Like the awn of bristle-like growth on the top of the husk, that is that which is written in the verse: โ€œAnd wither like the tops of the husks,โ€ since this awn is on the top of the husk. But according to the one who says: Like the husk itself, what is the meaning of the expression โ€œand wither like the tops of the husksโ€? Rav Asi says, and similarly the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: This can be explained by way of an analogy to a person who enters into his field, as he gathers the taller stalks before the shorter ones. The verse is therefore referring to the tallest stalks, not the tops of the stalks.


ื•ืืช ื“ื›ื ื•ืฉืคืœ ืจื•ื— ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืืชื™ ื“ื›ื ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื ื™ ืืช ื“ื›ื


The Gemara continues the discussion of arrogance, and its converse, humility. The verse states: โ€œFor thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place, also with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite onesโ€ (Isaiah 57:15). Rav Huna and Rav แธคisda offered differing interpretations of this verse. One says that the verse means: Together with Me is the person who is contrite and humble. In other words, God elevates the humble. And one says that the verse means: I, God, descend, and am found together with the person who is contrite and humble.


ื•ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื ื™ ืืช ื“ื›ื ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ื— ื›ืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืจื” ืฉื›ื™ื ืชื• ืขืœ ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ื•ืœื ื’ื‘ื” ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ืœืžืขืœื”


The Gemara comments on this: And it stands to reason that the meaning of the verse is like the one who says: I am with the contrite person, as the Holy One, Blessed be He, disregarded all of the mountains and hills, and rested His Divine Presence on the lowly Mount Sinai, and He did not choose to raise Mount Sinai up toward Him. God chose to give the Torah on Mount Sinai, as it was a symbol of humility due to its lack of height, and He lowered His Divine Presence, as it were, to the mountain.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ ืื“ื ืžื“ืขืช ืงื•ื ื• ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ื— ื›ืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืจื” ืฉื›ื™ื ืชื• ืขืœ ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ื— ื›ืœ ืื™ืœื ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืจื” ืฉื›ื™ื ืชื• ื‘ืกื ื”


Rav Yosef says: A person should always learn proper behavior from the wisdom of his Creator, as the Holy One, Blessed be He, disregarded all of the mountains and hills and rested His Divine Presence on the lowly Mount Sinai. And similarly, when appearing to Moses, He disregarded all of the beautiful trees and rested His Divine Presence on the bush (Exodus 3:2).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืจืื•ื™ ืœื’ื“ืขื• ื›ืืฉื™ืจื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืจืžื™ ื”ืงื•ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ืืฉื™ืจื™ื”ื ืชื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ


Rabbi Elazar says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, it is fitting to hew him down, as a tree designated for idolatry [asheira] is hewn down, as it is written here with regard to the arrogant: โ€œAnd the high ones of stature shall be hewn down [geduโ€™im]โ€ (Isaiah 10:33), and it is written there with regard to trees designated for idolatry: โ€œAnd hew down [teggadeโ€™un] their trees worshipped as part of idolatrous rites [asheireihem]โ€ (Deuteronomy 7:5).


ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืื™ืŸ ืขืคืจื• ื ื ืขืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืงื™ืฆื• ื•ืจื ื ื• ืฉื›ื ื™ ืขืคืจ ืฉื›ื‘ื™ ื‘ืขืคืจ ืœื ื ืืžืจ ืืœื ืฉื›ื ื™ ืขืคืจ ืžื™ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ืฉื›ืŸ ืœืขืคืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื•


And Rabbi Elazar also says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, his dust, i.e., his remains in his grave, will not stir at the time of the resurrection of the dead, as it is stated: โ€œAwake and sing for joy, you who dwell in the dustโ€ (Isaiah 26:19). It is not stated: You who lie in the dust, which would indicate that all the dead will be awakened in the future, but rather: โ€œYou who dwell in the dust,โ€ indicating that only one who became a neighbor to the dust in his lifetime by living with extreme humility will stir at the time of the resurrection.


ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืžื™ืœืœืช ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื’ื‘ื” ืžืžืจื—ืง ื™ื™ื“ืข


And Rabbi Elazar says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, the Divine Presence wails over him. As it is stated: โ€œFor though the Lord is high, yet regards He the lowly, and from the haughty He is pained from afarโ€ (Psalms 138:6).


ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ืฉืœื ื›ืžื“ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืช ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ืžื“ืช ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ืฉืคืœ ืื‘ืœ ืžื“ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื• ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื•ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ืฉืคืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืจื ื”ืณ ื•ืฉืคืœ ื™ืจืื”


Rav Avira interpreted a verse homiletically, and some say that Rabbi Elazar interpreted as follows: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood. The attribute of flesh and blood is that the elevated sees the elevated, but the elevated does not see the lowly. But the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like that. He is elevated but sees specifically the lowly, as it is stated: โ€œFor though the Lord is high, yet regards He the lowlyโ€ (Psalms 138:6).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื™ืŸ ืื ื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื“ื•ืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžืœืฉื ื™ ื‘ืกืชืจ ืจืขื”ื• ืื•ืชื• ืืฆืžื™ืช ื’ื‘ื” ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•ืจื—ื‘ ืœื‘ื‘ ืืชื• ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืืชื• ืืœื ืืชื• ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืืžืกืคืจื™ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืจืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžืœืฉื ื™ ื‘ืกืชืจ ืจืขื”ื• ืื•ืชื• ืืฆืžื™ืช


Rav แธคisda says, and some say that Mar Ukva says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: He and I cannot dwell together in the world, as it is stated: โ€œHe who slanders his neighbor in secret, him will I destroy; he who is haughty of eye and proud of heart, him will I not suffer [oto lo ukhal]โ€ (Psalms 101:5โ€“6). These verses should be understood as follows: Do not read the verse as: โ€œOto lo ukhalโ€; rather, read it as: Itto lo ukhal, meaning, with him, I cannot bear to dwell. There are those who teach that this was stated with regard to those who speak slander because the beginning of the verse states: โ€œHe who slanders his neighbor in secret, him will I destroy.โ€


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื•ื— ืงื™ืžืขื ืขื•ื›ืจืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืจืฉืขื™ื ื›ื™ื ื ื’ืจืฉ ื•ืžื” ื™ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื›ืžื” ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช ืจื•ื— ืงื™ืžืขื ืขื•ื›ืจืชื• ืื“ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืืœื ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืื—ืช ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”


Rabbi Alexandri says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, even a slight wind disturbs him, as it is stated: โ€œBut the wicked are like the troubled sea, for it cannot restโ€ (Isaiah 57:20). And if with regard to the sea, which contains many quantities of quarters of a log of water, yet a slight wind disturbs it, certainly with regard to a person, who has in his body only one quarter-log of essential lifeblood, all the more so will a slight wind disturb him.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื”ื ื‘ื• ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื™ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ืžืขื˜ืจื ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ืกืืกื ืœืฉื‘ื•ืœืชื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืฉืžืชื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื‘ืฉืžืชื ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื”


Rav แธคiyya bar Ashi says that Rav says: Despite the opprobrium assigned to one who exhibits the trait of arrogance, a Torah scholar must have one-eighth of one-eighth of arrogance. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: And this minute measure of arrogance crowns him as the awn of bristle-like growth on the top of the husk. Rava said: A Torah scholar who has arrogance should be excommunicated, and one who does not have arrogance at all should be excommunicated as well. As such, he must have only a minute measure of arrogance.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœื ืžื™ื ื” ื•ืœื ืžืงืฆืชื” ืžื™ ื–ื•ื˜ืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืชื•ืขื‘ืช ื”ืณ ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื” ืœื‘


Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: Even a Torah scholar should not have any arrogance or any part of arrogance, i.e., not even one-eighth of one-eighth. He explains why arrogance should be avoided entirely by asking: Is it a small matter that it is written with regard to arrogance: โ€œEveryone that is proud of heart is an abomination to the Lordโ€ (Proverbs 16:5)?


ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืชืคืœืชื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ื ืฉืžืขืช ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื• ื›ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืžื“ื™ ื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉื• [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื™ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื‘ืฉืจ ืœื”ืฉืชื—ื•ื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ


แธคizkiyya says: The prayers of a person are heard only if he casts his heart to be like flesh, by being free of arrogance. As it is stated: โ€œAnd it shall come to pass, that from one New Moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, says the Lordโ€ (Isaiah 66:23).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื ืจืคื ืื“ื ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื ืจืคื


Rabbi Zeira said: Concerning leprosy of the flesh, it is written in the verse with regard to it: โ€œAnd when the flesh has in the skin thereof a boil, and it is healedโ€ (Leviticus 13:18), but concerning the leprosy of a person, it is not written in the verse with regard to it: And it is healed. Both verses discussing leprosy of a person make no mention of healing (Leviticus 13:2, 13:9). This indicates that one who sees himself as flesh will be cured, but one who holds himself in high regard will not be cured.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื“ื ืืคืจ ื“ื ืžืจื” ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ื•ืฉื” ืกืจื•ื—ื” ืจืžื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืฉืื•ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืฉื™ืŸ


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The Hebrew word for person, adam, written: Alef, dalet, mem, is an acronym for efer, dust; dam, blood; and mara, bile, alluding to manโ€™s insignificance. Similarly, the Hebrew word for flesh, basar, written: Beit, sin, reish, is an acronym for busha, shame; seruแธฅa, putrid; and rimma, worm, also alluding to his insignificance. There are those who say that the letter sin of the word basar actually is referring to a different word, sheol, the netherworld, as it is written with the Hebrew letter shin. The letter sin is phonetically similar to the letter samekh, the first letter of the word seruแธฅa, but is orthographically similar to the letter shin, the first letter of the word sheol. The dispute is whether the acronym should be based upon the pronunciation or upon the way it is written.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืœืกื•ืฃ ื ืคื—ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ


Rav Ashi says: Any person who has arrogance within him will ultimately be diminished in stature, as it is stated with regard to different types of leprosy:


ื•ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืกืคื—ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉืืช ืืœื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืœ [ื›ืœ ] ื”ื”ืจื™ื ื”ืจืžื™ื ื•ืขืœ [ื›ืœ ] ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ื ืฉืื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกืคื—ืช ืืœื ื˜ืคื™ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืกืคื—ื ื™ ื ื ืืœ ืื—ืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื•ืช ืœืื›ืœ ืคืช ืœื—ื


โ€œAnd for a sore [seโ€™et] and for a scab [sappaแธฅat]โ€ (Leviticus 14:56), and seโ€™et means nothing other than elevated, as it is stated: โ€œAnd upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up [nissaot]โ€ (Isaiah 2:14). And sappaแธฅat means nothing other than an appendage, as it is stated in the context of the curse given to the descendants of Eli: โ€œPut me [sefaแธฅeni], I pray of you, into one of the priestsโ€™ offices, that I may eat a morsel of breadโ€ (Iย Samuel 2:36). They will have to be joined with another priestly family to receive their priestly gifts. One can therefore interpret the verses discussing leprosy as teaching that one who initially is arrogant, seโ€™et, will eventually become a sappaแธฅat, diminished in stature.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื ืžื•ื›ื™ ื”ืจื•ื— ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืงื™ื™ื ืื“ื ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืขื•ืœื” ืฉื›ืจ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืžื ื—ื” ืฉื›ืจ ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ ืฉื“ืขืชื• ืฉืคืœื” ืžืขืœื” ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื”ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ืจื•ื— ื ืฉื‘ืจื” ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชืคืœืชื• ื ืžืืกืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื‘ ื ืฉื‘ืจ ื•ื ื“ื›ื” ืืœื”ื™ื ืœื ืชื‘ื–ื”


Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Come and see how great the lowly in spirit are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. For when the Temple was standing, a person would sacrifice a burnt-offering and the merit of a burnt-offering would be his; he would sacrifice a meal-offering and the merit of a meal-offering would be his. But with regard to one whose spirit is lowly, the verse ascribes him credit as if he had sacrificed all the sacrificial offerings, as it is stated: โ€œThe sacrifices of God are a broken spiritโ€ (Psalms 51:19), indicating that one who is humble of spirit is regarded as if he offered all the โ€œsacrifices of God.โ€ And not only that, but his prayer is not despised by God, as it is stated at the end of that verse: โ€œA broken and contrite heart, O God, You will not despise.โ€


ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื ืื•ืจื—ื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื–ื•ื›ื” ื•ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื™ืฉื•ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื ื“ืจืš ืืจืื ื• ื‘ื™ืฉืข ืืœื”ื™ื ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื•ืฉื ืืœื ื•ืฉื ื“ืจืš:


And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also says: Whoever appraises his ways in this world, i.e., whoever carefully considers all his actions before deciding on the proper mode of conduct, merits and sees the salvation of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: โ€œAnd to him that orders his way aright [vesam derekh] will I show the salvation of Godโ€ (Psalms 50:23). Do not read it as โ€œvesam,โ€ โ€œthat ordersโ€; rather, read it as vesham derekh, that appraises his way.


[ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžืงื ื ืœื” ื›ื•ืณ]: ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืืžืจ ืœื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจื™ ืขื ืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื–ื” ืืœืžื ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ืกืชื™ืจื” ื”ื•ื


ยง The mishna teaches: How does he issue a warning to her in an effective manner? If he says to her in the presence of two witnesses: Do not speak with the man called so-and-so, and she nevertheless spoke with him, she is still permitted to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband. However, if after he told her not to speak with so-and-so, she entered into a secluded place and remained with that man for sufficient time to engage in sexual intercourse, she is forbidden to her home, i.e., to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, from that moment until she undergoes the sota rite. The Gemara notes the apparent contradiction in the mishna: This matter itself is difficult: You said in detailing the wording of the warning that he said to her in the presence of two witnesses: Do not speak with the man called so-and-so, apparently indicating that speaking is tantamount to seclusion. Therefore, speaking with that man should result in the woman becoming forbidden to her husband.


ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืชื ื™ ื“ื™ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื• ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื•ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ืืœืžื ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื”ื•ื


But then the mishna teaches: If she nevertheless spoke with him, she is still permitted to her home, i.e., to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, and if she is the wife of a priest she is still permitted to partake of teruma, apparently indicating that speaking is nothing. Therefore, issuing a warning to her not to speak with a particular man should not qualify as an effective warning.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจื™ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื” ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจื™ ื•ื ืกืชืจื” ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ืืœ ืชืกืชืจื™ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื• ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื•ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื ื›ื ืกื” ืขืžื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืชืจ ื•ืฉื”ืชื” ื›ื“ื™ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืืกื•ืจื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื•ืืกื•ืจื” ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื”:


Abaye said an explanation: This is what the mishna is saying: If he said to her: Do not speak with so-and-so, and she later spoke with him; or if the husband said to her: Do not speak with so-and-so, and she later secluded herself with him, it is nothing, as this was not an effective warning. Similarly, if he said to her: Do not seclude yourself with so-and-so, and then she spoke with him without secluding herself with him, she is still permitted to her home, i.e., her husband, and she is still permitted to partake of teruma. However, if after he issued a warning to her not to seclude herself with someone, she entered with that man into a secluded place and remained there with him for a period of time sufficient for defilement, then she is forbidden to her home, i.e., her husband, and forbidden to partake of teruma.


ื•ืื ืžืช ื—ื•ืœืฆืช: ืืžืื™ ืชืชื™ื™ื‘ื ื ืžื™ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™


ยง The mishna teaches that after a woman who was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with another man, nevertheless secludes herself with another man, she becomes forbidden to her husband, and if her husband dies childless before she drank the bitter water, she performs แธฅalitza with her late husbandโ€™s brother and does not enter into levirate marriage. The Gemara asks: Why must she perform แธฅalitza? Let her enter into levirate marriage. After all, although she secluded herself with the other man after the warning, there is only an unverified suspicion of adultery. Why should it be prohibited for her to enter into levirate marriage with her deceased husbandโ€™s brother, the yavam?


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื™ืฆืื” ืžื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืœืื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ ืœืื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ ื•ืœื ืœื™ื‘ื


Rav Yosef said: With regard to a man who divorces his wife because: โ€œHe has found some unseemly matter about herโ€ (Deuteronomy 24:1), i.e., he suspects her of sexual impropriety, the verse states: โ€œAnd she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another manโ€™s wifeโ€ (Deuteronomy 24:2). It is inferred from this that she is free to marry another man, but she is not permitted to marry the yavam. The yavam is not considered โ€œanother man,โ€ as he takes the place of his brother.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื—ืœื™ืฆื” ื ืžื™ ืœื ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืœื• ืื™ืชื™ื” ืœื‘ืขืœ ืžื™ ืœื ื‘ืขื™ื ื’ื˜ ื”ืฉืชื ื ืžื™ ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ื—ืœื™ืฆื”


Abaye said to him: If that is so, that the Torah explicitly prohibits levirate marriage in this case, then she should not require แธฅalitza as well, as the verse explicitly permitted her to marry another man, seemingly abrogating the need for แธฅalitza to free her from the bond to the yavam. Rav Yosef said to him in response: If the husband were alive, would she not require a bill of divorce to permit her to remarry, even though she was forbidden to him? Now, as well, she should require แธฅalitza in order to release her bond with the yavam, even though, as the verse indicates, it remains prohibited for them to enter into levirate marriage.


ื•ืื™ืช ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืจื—ืžื ื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฆืื” ืžื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืœืื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืกืชืจื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื•ืืช ืืžืจืช ืชืชื™ื™ื‘ื ื ืžื™ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™


And there are those who say that in answer to Abayeโ€™s question Rav Yosef said: The Merciful One said with regard to a man who divorces his wife because he has found some unseemly matter about her: โ€œAnd she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another manโ€™s wife,โ€ indicating that the man should divorce her so that his house not be destroyed by his continuing to dwell with her, and you want to say that she should enter into levirate marriage? How can it be that the same verse instructing the husband to divorce her would also instruct the yavam to marry her? However, there is no reason to exempt her from performing แธฅalitza.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ืœื ืชื™ื ืฉื ื“ืœื ืชื™ืกืชืจื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื”


Abaye said to him: If that is so, that the verse would not tell the yavam to marry her, she should not marry another man either, so that the second husbandโ€™s house not be destroyed. How can it be that the same verse instructing the husband to divorce her would also instruct another man to marry her?


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื”


Rav Yosef said to him:


  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 5

ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื•ืฉื” ืฆื“ืงื” ื‘ืกืชืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืชืŸ ื‘ืกืชืจ ื™ื›ืคื” ืืฃ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืœื ื™ื ืงื” ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœ ื’ื™ื”ื ื


Even if the one who committed adultery performs charitable deeds secretly, as alluded to in the phrase โ€œhand to hand,โ€ and even if one might think that one who does so will go unpunished, as it is written with regard to charity of this kind: โ€œA gift in secret pacifies wrathโ€ (Proverbs 21:14), nevertheless, he will not be unpunished from the judgment of Gehenna.


ืื–ื”ืจื” ืœื’ืกื™ ื”ืจื•ื— ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื–ืขื™ืจื™ ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื”ืื–ื™ื ื• ืืœ ืชื’ื‘ื”ื• ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืจื ืœื‘ื‘ืš ื•ืฉื›ื—ืช ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืฉืžืจ ืœืš ืคืŸ ืชืฉื›ื— ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš


ยง The Gemara previously discussed the impropriety of the trait of arrogance. Now the Gemara discusses the source of its prohibition. From where is the warning derived, i.e., what is the source prohibiting the behavior of the arrogant? Rava says that Zeโ€™eiri says: The source is from the verse: โ€œHear, you, and give ear, be not proud, for the Lord has spokenโ€ (Jeremiah 13:15). Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said the warning is from here: โ€œThen your heart be lifted up, and you forget the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 8:14), and it is also written in that same passage: โ€œBeware lest you forget the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 8:11).


ื•ื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืฉืžืจ ืคืŸ ื•ืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืœื ืชืขืฉื”


The Gemara explains: And these sources are in accordance with a statement that Rabbi Avin says that Rabbi Ileโ€™a says, as Rabbi Avin says that Rabbi Ileโ€™a says: Wherever it is stated in a verse โ€œbeware,โ€ โ€œlest,โ€ or โ€œnot,โ€ this is nothing other than a prohibition. Since these verses employ these terms in the context of one who is arrogant, they serve as sources for the prohibition.


ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื•ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืœืกื•ืฃ ืžืชืžืขื˜ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจื•ืžื• ืžืขื˜ ื•ืฉืžื ืชืืžืจ ื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืื™ื ื ื•


Rav Avira interpreted the following verse homiletically: โ€œThey are exalted for a little while, and they are gone; yes, they are brought low, they are gathered in as all others, and wither as the tops of the husksโ€ (Job 24:24). There were times when he said this interpretation in the name of Rav Asi and there were times when he said it in the name of Rav Ami: Any person who has arrogance within him will ultimately be diminished in standing, as it is stated in the phrase: โ€œThey are exalted for a little while,โ€ indicating that one who raises himself above others will be exalted only briefly. And lest you say that even if he is diminished he will still exist in this world and live a full life, the verse states: โ€œAnd they are gone,โ€ indicating that they die before their time.


ื•ืื ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื‘ื• ื ืืกืฃ ื‘ื–ืžื ื• ื›ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืžื›ื• ื›ื›ืœ ื™ืงืคืฆื•ืŸ ื›ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ื•ืื ืœืื• ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ื™ืžืœื•


He continues the interpretation: But if he repents from his arrogance, he is gathered in death at his proper time like Abraham our forefather, as it is stated: โ€œYes, they are brought low, they are gathered in as all [kakkol] othersโ€ (Job 24:24), indicating that when he repents from his arrogance he will die like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written about them that they were blessed with the term โ€œall,โ€ as in the verse above. With regard to Abraham, the verse states: โ€œAnd the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things [bakkol]โ€ (Genesis 24:1). With regard to Isaac, the verse states: โ€œAnd I have eaten of all [mikkol]โ€ (Genesis 27:33). With regard to Jacob, the verse states: โ€œAnd because I have all [khol]โ€ (Genesis 33:11). And if one does not repent, then, the verse in Job continues: โ€œAnd wither like the tops of the husks.โ€


ืžืื™ ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืกืืกื ื“ืฉื™ื‘ืœืชื ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืกืืกื ื“ืฉื™ื‘ืœืชื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืฉื•ื‘ืœืชื ืขืฆืžื” ืžืื™ ื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ืœืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื•ื›ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืžืฉืœ ืœืื“ื ืฉื ื›ื ืก ืœืชื•ืš ืฉื“ื”ื• ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืœืงื˜:


The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase โ€œand wither like the tops of the husksโ€? Rav Huna and Rav แธคisda offered differing interpretations. One says that it means: Like the awn of bristle-like growth on the top of the husk, and one says that it means: Like the husk itself. The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the one who says: Like the awn of bristle-like growth on the top of the husk, that is that which is written in the verse: โ€œAnd wither like the tops of the husks,โ€ since this awn is on the top of the husk. But according to the one who says: Like the husk itself, what is the meaning of the expression โ€œand wither like the tops of the husksโ€? Rav Asi says, and similarly the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: This can be explained by way of an analogy to a person who enters into his field, as he gathers the taller stalks before the shorter ones. The verse is therefore referring to the tallest stalks, not the tops of the stalks.


ื•ืืช ื“ื›ื ื•ืฉืคืœ ืจื•ื— ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืืชื™ ื“ื›ื ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื ื™ ืืช ื“ื›ื


The Gemara continues the discussion of arrogance, and its converse, humility. The verse states: โ€œFor thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place, also with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite onesโ€ (Isaiah 57:15). Rav Huna and Rav แธคisda offered differing interpretations of this verse. One says that the verse means: Together with Me is the person who is contrite and humble. In other words, God elevates the humble. And one says that the verse means: I, God, descend, and am found together with the person who is contrite and humble.


ื•ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื ื™ ืืช ื“ื›ื ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ื— ื›ืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืจื” ืฉื›ื™ื ืชื• ืขืœ ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ื•ืœื ื’ื‘ื” ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ืœืžืขืœื”


The Gemara comments on this: And it stands to reason that the meaning of the verse is like the one who says: I am with the contrite person, as the Holy One, Blessed be He, disregarded all of the mountains and hills, and rested His Divine Presence on the lowly Mount Sinai, and He did not choose to raise Mount Sinai up toward Him. God chose to give the Torah on Mount Sinai, as it was a symbol of humility due to its lack of height, and He lowered His Divine Presence, as it were, to the mountain.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ ืื“ื ืžื“ืขืช ืงื•ื ื• ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ื— ื›ืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืจื” ืฉื›ื™ื ืชื• ืขืœ ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ื— ื›ืœ ืื™ืœื ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืจื” ืฉื›ื™ื ืชื• ื‘ืกื ื”


Rav Yosef says: A person should always learn proper behavior from the wisdom of his Creator, as the Holy One, Blessed be He, disregarded all of the mountains and hills and rested His Divine Presence on the lowly Mount Sinai. And similarly, when appearing to Moses, He disregarded all of the beautiful trees and rested His Divine Presence on the bush (Exodus 3:2).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืจืื•ื™ ืœื’ื“ืขื• ื›ืืฉื™ืจื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืจืžื™ ื”ืงื•ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ืืฉื™ืจื™ื”ื ืชื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ


Rabbi Elazar says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, it is fitting to hew him down, as a tree designated for idolatry [asheira] is hewn down, as it is written here with regard to the arrogant: โ€œAnd the high ones of stature shall be hewn down [geduโ€™im]โ€ (Isaiah 10:33), and it is written there with regard to trees designated for idolatry: โ€œAnd hew down [teggadeโ€™un] their trees worshipped as part of idolatrous rites [asheireihem]โ€ (Deuteronomy 7:5).


ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืื™ืŸ ืขืคืจื• ื ื ืขืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืงื™ืฆื• ื•ืจื ื ื• ืฉื›ื ื™ ืขืคืจ ืฉื›ื‘ื™ ื‘ืขืคืจ ืœื ื ืืžืจ ืืœื ืฉื›ื ื™ ืขืคืจ ืžื™ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ืฉื›ืŸ ืœืขืคืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื•


And Rabbi Elazar also says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, his dust, i.e., his remains in his grave, will not stir at the time of the resurrection of the dead, as it is stated: โ€œAwake and sing for joy, you who dwell in the dustโ€ (Isaiah 26:19). It is not stated: You who lie in the dust, which would indicate that all the dead will be awakened in the future, but rather: โ€œYou who dwell in the dust,โ€ indicating that only one who became a neighbor to the dust in his lifetime by living with extreme humility will stir at the time of the resurrection.


ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืžื™ืœืœืช ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื’ื‘ื” ืžืžืจื—ืง ื™ื™ื“ืข


And Rabbi Elazar says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, the Divine Presence wails over him. As it is stated: โ€œFor though the Lord is high, yet regards He the lowly, and from the haughty He is pained from afarโ€ (Psalms 138:6).


ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ืฉืœื ื›ืžื“ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืช ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ืžื“ืช ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ืฉืคืœ ืื‘ืœ ืžื“ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื• ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื•ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ืฉืคืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืจื ื”ืณ ื•ืฉืคืœ ื™ืจืื”


Rav Avira interpreted a verse homiletically, and some say that Rabbi Elazar interpreted as follows: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood. The attribute of flesh and blood is that the elevated sees the elevated, but the elevated does not see the lowly. But the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like that. He is elevated but sees specifically the lowly, as it is stated: โ€œFor though the Lord is high, yet regards He the lowlyโ€ (Psalms 138:6).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื™ืŸ ืื ื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื“ื•ืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžืœืฉื ื™ ื‘ืกืชืจ ืจืขื”ื• ืื•ืชื• ืืฆืžื™ืช ื’ื‘ื” ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•ืจื—ื‘ ืœื‘ื‘ ืืชื• ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืืชื• ืืœื ืืชื• ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืืžืกืคืจื™ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืจืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžืœืฉื ื™ ื‘ืกืชืจ ืจืขื”ื• ืื•ืชื• ืืฆืžื™ืช


Rav แธคisda says, and some say that Mar Ukva says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: He and I cannot dwell together in the world, as it is stated: โ€œHe who slanders his neighbor in secret, him will I destroy; he who is haughty of eye and proud of heart, him will I not suffer [oto lo ukhal]โ€ (Psalms 101:5โ€“6). These verses should be understood as follows: Do not read the verse as: โ€œOto lo ukhalโ€; rather, read it as: Itto lo ukhal, meaning, with him, I cannot bear to dwell. There are those who teach that this was stated with regard to those who speak slander because the beginning of the verse states: โ€œHe who slanders his neighbor in secret, him will I destroy.โ€


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื•ื— ืงื™ืžืขื ืขื•ื›ืจืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืจืฉืขื™ื ื›ื™ื ื ื’ืจืฉ ื•ืžื” ื™ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื›ืžื” ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช ืจื•ื— ืงื™ืžืขื ืขื•ื›ืจืชื• ืื“ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืืœื ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืื—ืช ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”


Rabbi Alexandri says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, even a slight wind disturbs him, as it is stated: โ€œBut the wicked are like the troubled sea, for it cannot restโ€ (Isaiah 57:20). And if with regard to the sea, which contains many quantities of quarters of a log of water, yet a slight wind disturbs it, certainly with regard to a person, who has in his body only one quarter-log of essential lifeblood, all the more so will a slight wind disturb him.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื”ื ื‘ื• ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื™ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ืžืขื˜ืจื ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ืกืืกื ืœืฉื‘ื•ืœืชื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืฉืžืชื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื‘ืฉืžืชื ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื”


Rav แธคiyya bar Ashi says that Rav says: Despite the opprobrium assigned to one who exhibits the trait of arrogance, a Torah scholar must have one-eighth of one-eighth of arrogance. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: And this minute measure of arrogance crowns him as the awn of bristle-like growth on the top of the husk. Rava said: A Torah scholar who has arrogance should be excommunicated, and one who does not have arrogance at all should be excommunicated as well. As such, he must have only a minute measure of arrogance.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœื ืžื™ื ื” ื•ืœื ืžืงืฆืชื” ืžื™ ื–ื•ื˜ืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืชื•ืขื‘ืช ื”ืณ ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื” ืœื‘


Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: Even a Torah scholar should not have any arrogance or any part of arrogance, i.e., not even one-eighth of one-eighth. He explains why arrogance should be avoided entirely by asking: Is it a small matter that it is written with regard to arrogance: โ€œEveryone that is proud of heart is an abomination to the Lordโ€ (Proverbs 16:5)?


ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืชืคืœืชื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ื ืฉืžืขืช ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื• ื›ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืžื“ื™ ื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉื• [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื™ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื‘ืฉืจ ืœื”ืฉืชื—ื•ื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ


แธคizkiyya says: The prayers of a person are heard only if he casts his heart to be like flesh, by being free of arrogance. As it is stated: โ€œAnd it shall come to pass, that from one New Moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, says the Lordโ€ (Isaiah 66:23).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื ืจืคื ืื“ื ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื ืจืคื


Rabbi Zeira said: Concerning leprosy of the flesh, it is written in the verse with regard to it: โ€œAnd when the flesh has in the skin thereof a boil, and it is healedโ€ (Leviticus 13:18), but concerning the leprosy of a person, it is not written in the verse with regard to it: And it is healed. Both verses discussing leprosy of a person make no mention of healing (Leviticus 13:2, 13:9). This indicates that one who sees himself as flesh will be cured, but one who holds himself in high regard will not be cured.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื“ื ืืคืจ ื“ื ืžืจื” ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ื•ืฉื” ืกืจื•ื—ื” ืจืžื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืฉืื•ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืฉื™ืŸ


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The Hebrew word for person, adam, written: Alef, dalet, mem, is an acronym for efer, dust; dam, blood; and mara, bile, alluding to manโ€™s insignificance. Similarly, the Hebrew word for flesh, basar, written: Beit, sin, reish, is an acronym for busha, shame; seruแธฅa, putrid; and rimma, worm, also alluding to his insignificance. There are those who say that the letter sin of the word basar actually is referring to a different word, sheol, the netherworld, as it is written with the Hebrew letter shin. The letter sin is phonetically similar to the letter samekh, the first letter of the word seruแธฅa, but is orthographically similar to the letter shin, the first letter of the word sheol. The dispute is whether the acronym should be based upon the pronunciation or upon the way it is written.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื’ืกื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ืœืกื•ืฃ ื ืคื—ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ


Rav Ashi says: Any person who has arrogance within him will ultimately be diminished in stature, as it is stated with regard to different types of leprosy:


ื•ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืกืคื—ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉืืช ืืœื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืœ [ื›ืœ ] ื”ื”ืจื™ื ื”ืจืžื™ื ื•ืขืœ [ื›ืœ ] ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ื ืฉืื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกืคื—ืช ืืœื ื˜ืคื™ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืกืคื—ื ื™ ื ื ืืœ ืื—ืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื•ืช ืœืื›ืœ ืคืช ืœื—ื


โ€œAnd for a sore [seโ€™et] and for a scab [sappaแธฅat]โ€ (Leviticus 14:56), and seโ€™et means nothing other than elevated, as it is stated: โ€œAnd upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up [nissaot]โ€ (Isaiah 2:14). And sappaแธฅat means nothing other than an appendage, as it is stated in the context of the curse given to the descendants of Eli: โ€œPut me [sefaแธฅeni], I pray of you, into one of the priestsโ€™ offices, that I may eat a morsel of breadโ€ (Iย Samuel 2:36). They will have to be joined with another priestly family to receive their priestly gifts. One can therefore interpret the verses discussing leprosy as teaching that one who initially is arrogant, seโ€™et, will eventually become a sappaแธฅat, diminished in stature.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื ืžื•ื›ื™ ื”ืจื•ื— ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืงื™ื™ื ืื“ื ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืขื•ืœื” ืฉื›ืจ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืžื ื—ื” ืฉื›ืจ ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ ืฉื“ืขืชื• ืฉืคืœื” ืžืขืœื” ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื”ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื›ื•ืœื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ืจื•ื— ื ืฉื‘ืจื” ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชืคืœืชื• ื ืžืืกืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื‘ ื ืฉื‘ืจ ื•ื ื“ื›ื” ืืœื”ื™ื ืœื ืชื‘ื–ื”


Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Come and see how great the lowly in spirit are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. For when the Temple was standing, a person would sacrifice a burnt-offering and the merit of a burnt-offering would be his; he would sacrifice a meal-offering and the merit of a meal-offering would be his. But with regard to one whose spirit is lowly, the verse ascribes him credit as if he had sacrificed all the sacrificial offerings, as it is stated: โ€œThe sacrifices of God are a broken spiritโ€ (Psalms 51:19), indicating that one who is humble of spirit is regarded as if he offered all the โ€œsacrifices of God.โ€ And not only that, but his prayer is not despised by God, as it is stated at the end of that verse: โ€œA broken and contrite heart, O God, You will not despise.โ€


ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื ืื•ืจื—ื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื–ื•ื›ื” ื•ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื™ืฉื•ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื ื“ืจืš ืืจืื ื• ื‘ื™ืฉืข ืืœื”ื™ื ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื•ืฉื ืืœื ื•ืฉื ื“ืจืš:


And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also says: Whoever appraises his ways in this world, i.e., whoever carefully considers all his actions before deciding on the proper mode of conduct, merits and sees the salvation of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: โ€œAnd to him that orders his way aright [vesam derekh] will I show the salvation of Godโ€ (Psalms 50:23). Do not read it as โ€œvesam,โ€ โ€œthat ordersโ€; rather, read it as vesham derekh, that appraises his way.


[ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžืงื ื ืœื” ื›ื•ืณ]: ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืืžืจ ืœื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจื™ ืขื ืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื–ื” ืืœืžื ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ืกืชื™ืจื” ื”ื•ื


ยง The mishna teaches: How does he issue a warning to her in an effective manner? If he says to her in the presence of two witnesses: Do not speak with the man called so-and-so, and she nevertheless spoke with him, she is still permitted to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband. However, if after he told her not to speak with so-and-so, she entered into a secluded place and remained with that man for sufficient time to engage in sexual intercourse, she is forbidden to her home, i.e., to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, from that moment until she undergoes the sota rite. The Gemara notes the apparent contradiction in the mishna: This matter itself is difficult: You said in detailing the wording of the warning that he said to her in the presence of two witnesses: Do not speak with the man called so-and-so, apparently indicating that speaking is tantamount to seclusion. Therefore, speaking with that man should result in the woman becoming forbidden to her husband.


ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืชื ื™ ื“ื™ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื• ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื•ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ืืœืžื ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื”ื•ื


But then the mishna teaches: If she nevertheless spoke with him, she is still permitted to her home, i.e., to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, and if she is the wife of a priest she is still permitted to partake of teruma, apparently indicating that speaking is nothing. Therefore, issuing a warning to her not to speak with a particular man should not qualify as an effective warning.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจื™ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื” ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจื™ ื•ื ืกืชืจื” ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ืืœ ืชืกืชืจื™ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื• ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื•ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื ื›ื ืกื” ืขืžื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืชืจ ื•ืฉื”ืชื” ื›ื“ื™ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืืกื•ืจื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื•ืืกื•ืจื” ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื”:


Abaye said an explanation: This is what the mishna is saying: If he said to her: Do not speak with so-and-so, and she later spoke with him; or if the husband said to her: Do not speak with so-and-so, and she later secluded herself with him, it is nothing, as this was not an effective warning. Similarly, if he said to her: Do not seclude yourself with so-and-so, and then she spoke with him without secluding herself with him, she is still permitted to her home, i.e., her husband, and she is still permitted to partake of teruma. However, if after he issued a warning to her not to seclude herself with someone, she entered with that man into a secluded place and remained there with him for a period of time sufficient for defilement, then she is forbidden to her home, i.e., her husband, and forbidden to partake of teruma.


ื•ืื ืžืช ื—ื•ืœืฆืช: ืืžืื™ ืชืชื™ื™ื‘ื ื ืžื™ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™


ยง The mishna teaches that after a woman who was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with another man, nevertheless secludes herself with another man, she becomes forbidden to her husband, and if her husband dies childless before she drank the bitter water, she performs แธฅalitza with her late husbandโ€™s brother and does not enter into levirate marriage. The Gemara asks: Why must she perform แธฅalitza? Let her enter into levirate marriage. After all, although she secluded herself with the other man after the warning, there is only an unverified suspicion of adultery. Why should it be prohibited for her to enter into levirate marriage with her deceased husbandโ€™s brother, the yavam?


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ื™ืฆืื” ืžื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืœืื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ ืœืื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ ื•ืœื ืœื™ื‘ื


Rav Yosef said: With regard to a man who divorces his wife because: โ€œHe has found some unseemly matter about herโ€ (Deuteronomy 24:1), i.e., he suspects her of sexual impropriety, the verse states: โ€œAnd she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another manโ€™s wifeโ€ (Deuteronomy 24:2). It is inferred from this that she is free to marry another man, but she is not permitted to marry the yavam. The yavam is not considered โ€œanother man,โ€ as he takes the place of his brother.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื—ืœื™ืฆื” ื ืžื™ ืœื ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืœื• ืื™ืชื™ื” ืœื‘ืขืœ ืžื™ ืœื ื‘ืขื™ื ื’ื˜ ื”ืฉืชื ื ืžื™ ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ื—ืœื™ืฆื”


Abaye said to him: If that is so, that the Torah explicitly prohibits levirate marriage in this case, then she should not require แธฅalitza as well, as the verse explicitly permitted her to marry another man, seemingly abrogating the need for แธฅalitza to free her from the bond to the yavam. Rav Yosef said to him in response: If the husband were alive, would she not require a bill of divorce to permit her to remarry, even though she was forbidden to him? Now, as well, she should require แธฅalitza in order to release her bond with the yavam, even though, as the verse indicates, it remains prohibited for them to enter into levirate marriage.


ื•ืื™ืช ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืจื—ืžื ื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฆืื” ืžื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืœืื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืกืชืจื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื•ืืช ืืžืจืช ืชืชื™ื™ื‘ื ื ืžื™ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™


And there are those who say that in answer to Abayeโ€™s question Rav Yosef said: The Merciful One said with regard to a man who divorces his wife because he has found some unseemly matter about her: โ€œAnd she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another manโ€™s wife,โ€ indicating that the man should divorce her so that his house not be destroyed by his continuing to dwell with her, and you want to say that she should enter into levirate marriage? How can it be that the same verse instructing the husband to divorce her would also instruct the yavam to marry her? However, there is no reason to exempt her from performing แธฅalitza.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ืœื ืชื™ื ืฉื ื“ืœื ืชื™ืกืชืจื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื”


Abaye said to him: If that is so, that the verse would not tell the yavam to marry her, she should not marry another man either, so that the second husbandโ€™s house not be destroyed. How can it be that the same verse instructing the husband to divorce her would also instruct another man to marry her?


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื”


Rav Yosef said to him:


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