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Today's Daf Yomi

August 5, 2021 | 讻状讝 讘讗讘 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Sukkah is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his mother Margaret Katz (Ruth bat Avraham).

A month of shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha for a refuah shleima for her beloved husband Rabbi Hayim Herring.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Sukkah 29

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Natalie Taylor for the refuah shleima of two women whom I love very much: Bracha bat Rachel and Devora Shulamit bat Yocheved Chana. May both these amazing women have successful operations this week and an easy recovery.

What items should/should not be brought into the Sukkah? If it starts to rain, at what point can you leave and at what point do you need to come back to the Sukkah once the rain stops? If it rains on Sukkot, it is seen as a bad sign. The gemara explains the parable mentioned in the mishna. The gemara mentioned other natural phenomena that are seen as a bad sign from God, such as, solar and lunar eclipse. Several sources are brought which suggest the meaning behind those events. A stolen lulav or a dry one is disqualified. Also, one from an Ashera tree and a city whose inhabitants all worships idols (ir hanidachat) are disqualified. What are other potential issues regarding a lulav? The gemara assumes that the mishna is referring to all the days of the holiday. If a stolen sukkah is disqualified because the lulav has to be your own, that would only be relevant for the first day! Rabbi Yochanan explains that it is disqualified as one cannot fulfill a mitzva through means of a transgression.

讻讬 讛讗 (讚专讘讛) 讘专 讞诪讗 讻讬 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 诪拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 诪专讛讟讬 讘讙诪专讗 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讜讛讚专 诪注讬讬谞讬 讘住讘专讗

As in that situation involving Rava and Rami bar 岣ma, when they would stand before Rav 岣sda, after he taught them a halakha they would quickly review the tradition that they heard from him together and only then analyze the rationale of the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.

讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讗谞讬 诪砖转讬讗 讘诪讟诇诇转讗 诪讗谞讬 诪讬讻诇讗 讘专 诪诪讟诇诇转讗 讞爪讘讗 讜砖讞讬诇 讘专 诪诪讟诇诇转讗 讜砖专讙讗 讘诪讟诇诇转讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘专 诪诪讟诇诇转讗 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讘住讜讻讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讛讗 讘住讜讻讛 拽讟谞讛

With regard to residence in the sukka, Rava said: Drinking vessels such as cups, which are usually clean, remain in the sukka. Eating vessels are taken out of the sukka after use. An earthenware jug and a wicker basket [sha岣l ] that are used for drawing water are taken outside the sukka. And a lamp remains inside the sukka, and some say it is taken outside the sukka. The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. Rather, this opinion, that a lamp remains inside the sukka, is referring to a large sukka, where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the sukka. And that opinion, that the lamp is taken outside the sukka, is referring to a small sukka, where the lamp鈥檚 odor is offensive.

讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 转谞讗 诪砖转住专讞 讛诪拽驻讛 砖诇 讙专讬住讬谉

搂 The mishna stated: If rain fell, it is permitted to leave the sukka from the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. It was taught in the Tosefta: The measure is from when a congealed dish of pounded grain, a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, will spoil.

讗讘讬讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘诪讟诇诇转讗 谞砖讘 讝讬拽讗 讜拽讗 诪讬讬转讬 爪讬讘讜转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘 讬讜住祝 驻谞讜 诇讬 诪讗谞讬 诪讛讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 转谞谉 诪砖转住专讞 讛诪拽驻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讗谞讬谞讗 讚注转讗讬 讻诪讬 砖转住专讞 讛诪拽驻讛 讚诪讬 诇讬

Abaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the sukka. The wind blew and brought with it splinters from the roofing, and they fell onto the food. Rav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here, and I will eat in the house. Abaye said to him: Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that one remains in the sukka until the congealed dish will spoil? That is not yet the case. He said to him: For me, since I am delicate, this situation is as if the congealed dish will spoil.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讛 讗讜讻诇 讘住讜讻讛 讜讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讜讬专讚 讗讬谉 诪讟专讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇注诇讜转 注讚 砖讬讙诪讜专 住注讜讚转讜 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 转讞转 讛住讜讻讛 讜讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讜讬专讚 讗讬谉 诪讟专讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇注诇讜转 注讚 砖讬讗讜专

The Sages taught: If one was eating in the sukka, and rain fell, and he descended from the sukka on the roof to eat in his house, one does not burden him to ascend back to the sukka once the rain ceases until after he finishes his meal. Similarly, if one was sleeping under the roofing of the sukka, and rain fell, and he descended to sleep in the house, one does not burden him to ascend back to the sukka once the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house until it becomes light.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 注讚 砖讬注讜专 讗讜 注讚 砖讬讗讜专 转讗 砖诪注 注讚 砖讬讗讜专 讜讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 转专转讬 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 注讚 砖讬注讜专 讜讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the correct reading of the baraita: Until one awakens [sheyeor], spelled with an ayin, and once he awakens he returns to the sukka even in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: Until it becomes light [sheyeor], spelled with an alef, and he need not return to the sukka until morning? Come and hear a proof that will resolve the matter from a related baraita: One need not return to the sukka until it becomes light [sheyeor], spelled with an alef, and dawn arrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the baraita repeat the arrival of light two times (Ritva)? Rather, say instead: Until he awakens [sheyeor], spelled with an ayin, and the dawn arrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.

诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讬 砖驻讱 诇诪讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 砖驻讱 诇讜 专讘讜 拽讬转讜谉 注诇 驻谞讬讜 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗讬 讗驻砖讬 讘砖诪讜砖讱

搂 The mishna continues: The Sages told a parable: To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Who poured the water in whose face? Come and hear a proof, as it is taught explicitly in a baraita: His master poured a jug of water on his face and said to him: I do not want your service.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖注砖讛 住注讜讚讛 诇注讘讚讬讜 讜讛谞讬讞 驻谞住 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讻注住 注诇讬讛诐 讜讗诪专 诇注讘讚讜 讟讜诇 驻谞住 诪驻谞讬讛诐 讜讛讜砖讬讘诐 讘讞讜砖讱

Apropos the fact that rain on Sukkot is an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. The Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world. The Gemara tells a parable. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [panas] before them to illuminate the hall. He became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讗讜专讜转 诇讜拽讬谉 住讬诪谉 专注 诇砖讜谞讗讬讛诐 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪驻谞讬 砖诪诇讜诪讚讬谉 讘诪讻讜转讬讛谉 诪砖诇 诇住讜驻专 砖讘讗 诇讘讬转 讛住驻专 讜专爪讜注讛 讘讬讚讜 诪讬 讚讜讗讙 诪讬 砖专讙讬诇 诇诇拽讜转 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讜讗 讚讜讗讙

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir says: When the heavenly lights, i.e., the sun and the moon, are eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people, which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, because they are experienced in their beatings. Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests a parable: This is similar to a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries? The child who is accustomed to be beaten each and every day is the one who worries.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讙讜讬诐 诇讘谞讛 诇讜拽讛 住讬诪谉 专注 诇砖讜谞讗讬讛诐 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖专讗诇 诪讜谞讬谉 诇诇讘谞讛 讜讙讜讬诐 诇讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 讘诪讝专讞 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讬讜砖讘讬 诪讝专讞 讘诪注专讘 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讬讜砖讘讬 诪注专讘 讘讗诪爪注 讛专拽讬注 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

The Sages taught in another baraita: When the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the other nations. When the moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people. This is due to the fact that the Jewish people calculate their calendar primarily based on the moon, and the other nations calculate based on the sun. When the sun is eclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residents of the lands of the east. When it is eclipsed in the west, it is a bad omen for the residents of the lands of the west. When it is eclipsed in the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world.

驻谞讬讜 讚讜诪讬谉 诇讚诐 讞专讘 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 诇砖拽 讞讬爪讬 专注讘 讘讗讬谉 诇注讜诇诐 诇讝讜 讜诇讝讜 讞专讘 讜讞讬爪讬 专注讘 讘讗讬谉 诇注讜诇诐 诇拽讛 讘讻谞讬住转讜 驻讜专注谞讜转 砖讜讛讛 诇讘讗 讘讬爪讬讗转讜 诪诪讛专转 诇讘讗 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞讬诇讜祝 讛讚讘专讬诐

If, during an eclipse, the visage of the sun is red like blood, it is an omen that sword, i.e., war, is coming to the world. If the sun is black like sackcloth made of dark goat hair, it is an omen that arrows of hunger are coming to the world, because hunger darkens people鈥檚 faces. When it is similar both to this, to blood, and to that, to sackcloth, it is a sign that both sword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world. If it was eclipsed upon its entry, soon after rising, it is an omen that calamity is tarrying to come. If the sun is eclipsed upon its departure at the end of the day, it is an omen that calamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed: An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.

讜讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 讗讜诪讛 讜讗讜诪讛 砖诇讜拽讛 砖讗讬谉 讗诇讛讬讛 诇讜拽讛 注诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讻诇 讗诇讛讬 诪爪专讬诐 讗注砖讛 砖驻讟讬诐 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 注讜砖讬谉 专爪讜谞讜 砖诇 诪拽讜诐 讗讬谉 诪转讬专讗讬谉 诪讻诇 讗诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 讚专讱 讛讙讜讬诐 讗诇 转诇诪讚讜 讜诪讗讜转讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 讗诇 转讞转讜 讻讬 讬讞转讜 讛讙讜讬诐 诪讛诪讛 讙讜讬诐 讬讞转讜 讜讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 讬讞转讜

The Sages said: There is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God鈥 (Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: When the Jewish people perform God鈥檚 will, they need not fear any of these omens, as it is stated: 鈥淭hus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them鈥 (Jeremiah 10:2). The nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed, provided they do not follow the ways of the nations.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 注诇 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诪转 讜讗讬谞讜 谞住驻讚 讻讛诇讻讛 讜注诇 谞注专讛 讛诪讗讜专住讛 砖爪注拽讛 讘注讬专 讜讗讬谉 诪讜砖讬注 诇讛 讜注诇 诪砖讻讘 讝讻讜专 讜注诇 砖谞讬 讗讞讬谉 砖谞砖驻讱 讚诪谉 讻讗讞讚

The Sages taught that on account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: On account of a president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately, and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; on account of a betrothed young woman who screamed in the city that she was being raped and there was no one to rescue her; on account of homosexuality; and on account of two brothers whose blood was spilled as one.

讜讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讗讜专讜转 诇讜拽讬谉 注诇 讻讜转讘讬 (驻诇住转专) 讜注诇 诪注讬讚讬 注讚讜转 砖拽专 讜注诇 诪讙讚诇讬 讘讛诪讛 讚拽讛 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讜注诇 拽讜爪爪讬 讗讬诇谞讜转 讟讜讘讜转

And on account of four matters the heavenly lights are eclipsed: On account of forgers of a fraudulent document [pelaster] that is intended to discredit others; on account of testifiers of false testimony; on account of raisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisrael in a settled area; and on account of choppers of good, fruit-producing trees.

讜讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讻住讬 讘注诇讬 讘转讬诐 谞诪住专讬谉 诇诪诇讻讜转 注诇 诪砖讛讬 砖讟专讜转 驻专讜注讬诐 讜注诇 诪诇讜讬 讘专讘讬转

And on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchy as punishment: On account of those keepers of paid promissory notes, who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; and on account of lenders with interest;

讜注诇 砖讛讬讛 住驻拽 讘讬讚诐 诇诪讞讜转 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讜注诇 砖驻讜住拽讬诐 爪讚拽讛 讘专讘讬诐 讜讗讬谞谉 谞讜转谞讬谉

and on account of those who had the ability to reprimand sinners and did not reprimand them; and on account of those who issued a commitment to give charity in public and ultimately do not give the charity to which they committed.

讗诪专 专讘 讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讻住讬 讘注诇讬 讘转讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诇讟诪讬讜谉 注诇 讻讜讘砖讬 砖讻专 砖讻讬专 讜注诇 注讜砖拽讬 砖讻专 砖讻讬专 讜注诇 砖驻讜专拽讬谉 注讜诇 诪注诇 爪讜讗专讬讛谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 注诇 讞讘专讬讛谉 讜注诇 讙住讜转 讛专讜讞 讜讙住讜转 讛专讜讞 讻谞讙讚 讻讜诇谉 讗讘诇 讘注谞讜讬诐 讻转讬讘 讜注谞讜讬诐 讬讬专砖讜 讗专抓 讜讛转注谞讙讜 注诇 专讘 砖诇讜诐

Rav said: On account of four matters the property of homeowners is confiscated by the state treasury [timyon]: On account of those who delay payment of the salary of hired laborers (see Leviticus 19:13; Deuteronomy 24:15); on account of those who withhold the salary of hired laborers and do not pay at all; and on account of those who throw off the yoke of communal responsibility from their own necks and place that yoke on the necks of their friends; and on account of the arrogance of those who, due to their wealth, exercise power over the community. And the punishment for arrogance is equal to them all. However, with regard to the humble it is written: 鈥淭he humble will inherit the land and delight themselves in the abundance of peace鈥 (Psalms 37:11).

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛讬砖谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 诇讜诇讘 讛讙讝讜诇 讜讛讬讘砖 驻住讜诇 砖诇 讗砖讬专讛 讜砖诇 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 驻住讜诇 谞拽讟诐 专讗砖讜 谞驻专爪讜 注诇讬讜 驻住讜诇 谞驻专讚讜 注诇讬讜 讻砖专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讬讗讙讚谞讜 诪诇诪注诇讛 爪讬谞讬 讛专 讛讘专讝诇 讻砖讬专讜转 诇讜诇讘 砖讬砖 讘讜 砖诇砖讛 讟驻讞讬诐 讻讚讬 诇谞注谞注 讘讜 讻砖专

MISHNA: A lulav that was stolen or that is completely dry is unfit for use in fulfilling the mitzva of the four species. The lulav of a tree worshipped as idolatry [asheira] and a lulav from a city whose residents were incited to idolatry, which must be burned along with all the city鈥檚 property, are unfit. If the top of the lulav was severed or if the palm leaves were severed from the spine of the lulav, it is unfit. If its leaves, although still attached, were spread and are no longer completely joined to the spine, it is fit. Rabbi Yehuda says: In that case, one should bind the lulav from the top, to join the leaves that spread to the spine. A lulav from the palms of the Iron Mountain are fit for use, although it differs from one taken from a standard palm tree, in that its leaves are shorter and do not cover the entire spine. A lulav that has three handbreadths in length, sufficient to enable one to wave with it, is fit for use in fulfilling the mitzva.

讙诪壮 拽讗 驻住讬拽 讜转谞讬 诇讗 砖谞讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖谞讬

GEMARA: The ruling in the mishna is that a stolen lulav is unfit. The Gemara posits: The mishna teaches this halakha unequivocally, indicating that there is no difference whether the stolen lulav is used on the first day of the festival of Sukkot, when taking the four species is a mitzva by Torah law, and there is no difference whether the stolen lulav is used beginning on the second day of the festival of Sukkot, when it is a mitzva by rabbinic law.

讘砖诇诪讗 讬讘砖 讛讚专 讘注讬谞谉 讜诇讬讻讗 讗诇讗 讙讝讜诇 讘砖诇诪讗 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 诇讻诐 诪砖诇讻诐 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖谞讬 讗诪讗讬 诇讗

The Gemara asks: Granted, a dry lulav is unfit both on the first day and subsequently. It is unfit for use because the term hadar is used with regard to the four species, from which it is derived that we require beauty. And since in a dry lulav there is not beauty, it is unfit. However, with regard to a stolen lulav, granted, on the first day of the Festival it is unfit, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall take for yourselves on the first day鈥 (Leviticus 23:40), indicating that the four species must be taken from your own property. However, beginning on the second day of the Festival, why does one not fulfill his obligation with a stolen lulav?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i:

Masechet Sukkah is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his mother Margaret Katz (Ruth bat Avraham).
  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Sukkah 29

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Sukkah 29

讻讬 讛讗 (讚专讘讛) 讘专 讞诪讗 讻讬 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 诪拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 诪专讛讟讬 讘讙诪专讗 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讜讛讚专 诪注讬讬谞讬 讘住讘专讗

As in that situation involving Rava and Rami bar 岣ma, when they would stand before Rav 岣sda, after he taught them a halakha they would quickly review the tradition that they heard from him together and only then analyze the rationale of the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.

讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讗谞讬 诪砖转讬讗 讘诪讟诇诇转讗 诪讗谞讬 诪讬讻诇讗 讘专 诪诪讟诇诇转讗 讞爪讘讗 讜砖讞讬诇 讘专 诪诪讟诇诇转讗 讜砖专讙讗 讘诪讟诇诇转讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘专 诪诪讟诇诇转讗 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讘住讜讻讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讛讗 讘住讜讻讛 拽讟谞讛

With regard to residence in the sukka, Rava said: Drinking vessels such as cups, which are usually clean, remain in the sukka. Eating vessels are taken out of the sukka after use. An earthenware jug and a wicker basket [sha岣l ] that are used for drawing water are taken outside the sukka. And a lamp remains inside the sukka, and some say it is taken outside the sukka. The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. Rather, this opinion, that a lamp remains inside the sukka, is referring to a large sukka, where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the sukka. And that opinion, that the lamp is taken outside the sukka, is referring to a small sukka, where the lamp鈥檚 odor is offensive.

讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 转谞讗 诪砖转住专讞 讛诪拽驻讛 砖诇 讙专讬住讬谉

搂 The mishna stated: If rain fell, it is permitted to leave the sukka from the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. It was taught in the Tosefta: The measure is from when a congealed dish of pounded grain, a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, will spoil.

讗讘讬讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘诪讟诇诇转讗 谞砖讘 讝讬拽讗 讜拽讗 诪讬讬转讬 爪讬讘讜转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘 讬讜住祝 驻谞讜 诇讬 诪讗谞讬 诪讛讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 转谞谉 诪砖转住专讞 讛诪拽驻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讗谞讬谞讗 讚注转讗讬 讻诪讬 砖转住专讞 讛诪拽驻讛 讚诪讬 诇讬

Abaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the sukka. The wind blew and brought with it splinters from the roofing, and they fell onto the food. Rav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here, and I will eat in the house. Abaye said to him: Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that one remains in the sukka until the congealed dish will spoil? That is not yet the case. He said to him: For me, since I am delicate, this situation is as if the congealed dish will spoil.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讛 讗讜讻诇 讘住讜讻讛 讜讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讜讬专讚 讗讬谉 诪讟专讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇注诇讜转 注讚 砖讬讙诪讜专 住注讜讚转讜 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 转讞转 讛住讜讻讛 讜讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讜讬专讚 讗讬谉 诪讟专讬讞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇注诇讜转 注讚 砖讬讗讜专

The Sages taught: If one was eating in the sukka, and rain fell, and he descended from the sukka on the roof to eat in his house, one does not burden him to ascend back to the sukka once the rain ceases until after he finishes his meal. Similarly, if one was sleeping under the roofing of the sukka, and rain fell, and he descended to sleep in the house, one does not burden him to ascend back to the sukka once the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house until it becomes light.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 注讚 砖讬注讜专 讗讜 注讚 砖讬讗讜专 转讗 砖诪注 注讚 砖讬讗讜专 讜讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 转专转讬 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 注讚 砖讬注讜专 讜讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the correct reading of the baraita: Until one awakens [sheyeor], spelled with an ayin, and once he awakens he returns to the sukka even in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: Until it becomes light [sheyeor], spelled with an alef, and he need not return to the sukka until morning? Come and hear a proof that will resolve the matter from a related baraita: One need not return to the sukka until it becomes light [sheyeor], spelled with an alef, and dawn arrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the baraita repeat the arrival of light two times (Ritva)? Rather, say instead: Until he awakens [sheyeor], spelled with an ayin, and the dawn arrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.

诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讬 砖驻讱 诇诪讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 砖驻讱 诇讜 专讘讜 拽讬转讜谉 注诇 驻谞讬讜 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗讬 讗驻砖讬 讘砖诪讜砖讱

搂 The mishna continues: The Sages told a parable: To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Who poured the water in whose face? Come and hear a proof, as it is taught explicitly in a baraita: His master poured a jug of water on his face and said to him: I do not want your service.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖注砖讛 住注讜讚讛 诇注讘讚讬讜 讜讛谞讬讞 驻谞住 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讻注住 注诇讬讛诐 讜讗诪专 诇注讘讚讜 讟讜诇 驻谞住 诪驻谞讬讛诐 讜讛讜砖讬讘诐 讘讞讜砖讱

Apropos the fact that rain on Sukkot is an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. The Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world. The Gemara tells a parable. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [panas] before them to illuminate the hall. He became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讗讜专讜转 诇讜拽讬谉 住讬诪谉 专注 诇砖讜谞讗讬讛诐 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪驻谞讬 砖诪诇讜诪讚讬谉 讘诪讻讜转讬讛谉 诪砖诇 诇住讜驻专 砖讘讗 诇讘讬转 讛住驻专 讜专爪讜注讛 讘讬讚讜 诪讬 讚讜讗讙 诪讬 砖专讙讬诇 诇诇拽讜转 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讜讗 讚讜讗讙

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir says: When the heavenly lights, i.e., the sun and the moon, are eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people, which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, because they are experienced in their beatings. Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests a parable: This is similar to a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries? The child who is accustomed to be beaten each and every day is the one who worries.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讛讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讙讜讬诐 诇讘谞讛 诇讜拽讛 住讬诪谉 专注 诇砖讜谞讗讬讛诐 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖专讗诇 诪讜谞讬谉 诇诇讘谞讛 讜讙讜讬诐 诇讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 讘诪讝专讞 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讬讜砖讘讬 诪讝专讞 讘诪注专讘 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讬讜砖讘讬 诪注专讘 讘讗诪爪注 讛专拽讬注 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

The Sages taught in another baraita: When the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the other nations. When the moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people. This is due to the fact that the Jewish people calculate their calendar primarily based on the moon, and the other nations calculate based on the sun. When the sun is eclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residents of the lands of the east. When it is eclipsed in the west, it is a bad omen for the residents of the lands of the west. When it is eclipsed in the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world.

驻谞讬讜 讚讜诪讬谉 诇讚诐 讞专讘 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 诇砖拽 讞讬爪讬 专注讘 讘讗讬谉 诇注讜诇诐 诇讝讜 讜诇讝讜 讞专讘 讜讞讬爪讬 专注讘 讘讗讬谉 诇注讜诇诐 诇拽讛 讘讻谞讬住转讜 驻讜专注谞讜转 砖讜讛讛 诇讘讗 讘讬爪讬讗转讜 诪诪讛专转 诇讘讗 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞讬诇讜祝 讛讚讘专讬诐

If, during an eclipse, the visage of the sun is red like blood, it is an omen that sword, i.e., war, is coming to the world. If the sun is black like sackcloth made of dark goat hair, it is an omen that arrows of hunger are coming to the world, because hunger darkens people鈥檚 faces. When it is similar both to this, to blood, and to that, to sackcloth, it is a sign that both sword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world. If it was eclipsed upon its entry, soon after rising, it is an omen that calamity is tarrying to come. If the sun is eclipsed upon its departure at the end of the day, it is an omen that calamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed: An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.

讜讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 讗讜诪讛 讜讗讜诪讛 砖诇讜拽讛 砖讗讬谉 讗诇讛讬讛 诇讜拽讛 注诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讻诇 讗诇讛讬 诪爪专讬诐 讗注砖讛 砖驻讟讬诐 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 注讜砖讬谉 专爪讜谞讜 砖诇 诪拽讜诐 讗讬谉 诪转讬专讗讬谉 诪讻诇 讗诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 讚专讱 讛讙讜讬诐 讗诇 转诇诪讚讜 讜诪讗讜转讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 讗诇 转讞转讜 讻讬 讬讞转讜 讛讙讜讬诐 诪讛诪讛 讙讜讬诐 讬讞转讜 讜讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 讬讞转讜

The Sages said: There is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God鈥 (Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: When the Jewish people perform God鈥檚 will, they need not fear any of these omens, as it is stated: 鈥淭hus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them鈥 (Jeremiah 10:2). The nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed, provided they do not follow the ways of the nations.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 讞诪讛 诇讜拽讛 注诇 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诪转 讜讗讬谞讜 谞住驻讚 讻讛诇讻讛 讜注诇 谞注专讛 讛诪讗讜专住讛 砖爪注拽讛 讘注讬专 讜讗讬谉 诪讜砖讬注 诇讛 讜注诇 诪砖讻讘 讝讻讜专 讜注诇 砖谞讬 讗讞讬谉 砖谞砖驻讱 讚诪谉 讻讗讞讚

The Sages taught that on account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: On account of a president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately, and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; on account of a betrothed young woman who screamed in the city that she was being raped and there was no one to rescue her; on account of homosexuality; and on account of two brothers whose blood was spilled as one.

讜讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讗讜专讜转 诇讜拽讬谉 注诇 讻讜转讘讬 (驻诇住转专) 讜注诇 诪注讬讚讬 注讚讜转 砖拽专 讜注诇 诪讙讚诇讬 讘讛诪讛 讚拽讛 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讜注诇 拽讜爪爪讬 讗讬诇谞讜转 讟讜讘讜转

And on account of four matters the heavenly lights are eclipsed: On account of forgers of a fraudulent document [pelaster] that is intended to discredit others; on account of testifiers of false testimony; on account of raisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisrael in a settled area; and on account of choppers of good, fruit-producing trees.

讜讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讻住讬 讘注诇讬 讘转讬诐 谞诪住专讬谉 诇诪诇讻讜转 注诇 诪砖讛讬 砖讟专讜转 驻专讜注讬诐 讜注诇 诪诇讜讬 讘专讘讬转

And on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchy as punishment: On account of those keepers of paid promissory notes, who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; and on account of lenders with interest;

讜注诇 砖讛讬讛 住驻拽 讘讬讚诐 诇诪讞讜转 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讜注诇 砖驻讜住拽讬诐 爪讚拽讛 讘专讘讬诐 讜讗讬谞谉 谞讜转谞讬谉

and on account of those who had the ability to reprimand sinners and did not reprimand them; and on account of those who issued a commitment to give charity in public and ultimately do not give the charity to which they committed.

讗诪专 专讘 讘砖讘讬诇 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讻住讬 讘注诇讬 讘转讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诇讟诪讬讜谉 注诇 讻讜讘砖讬 砖讻专 砖讻讬专 讜注诇 注讜砖拽讬 砖讻专 砖讻讬专 讜注诇 砖驻讜专拽讬谉 注讜诇 诪注诇 爪讜讗专讬讛谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 注诇 讞讘专讬讛谉 讜注诇 讙住讜转 讛专讜讞 讜讙住讜转 讛专讜讞 讻谞讙讚 讻讜诇谉 讗讘诇 讘注谞讜讬诐 讻转讬讘 讜注谞讜讬诐 讬讬专砖讜 讗专抓 讜讛转注谞讙讜 注诇 专讘 砖诇讜诐

Rav said: On account of four matters the property of homeowners is confiscated by the state treasury [timyon]: On account of those who delay payment of the salary of hired laborers (see Leviticus 19:13; Deuteronomy 24:15); on account of those who withhold the salary of hired laborers and do not pay at all; and on account of those who throw off the yoke of communal responsibility from their own necks and place that yoke on the necks of their friends; and on account of the arrogance of those who, due to their wealth, exercise power over the community. And the punishment for arrogance is equal to them all. However, with regard to the humble it is written: 鈥淭he humble will inherit the land and delight themselves in the abundance of peace鈥 (Psalms 37:11).

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛讬砖谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 诇讜诇讘 讛讙讝讜诇 讜讛讬讘砖 驻住讜诇 砖诇 讗砖讬专讛 讜砖诇 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 驻住讜诇 谞拽讟诐 专讗砖讜 谞驻专爪讜 注诇讬讜 驻住讜诇 谞驻专讚讜 注诇讬讜 讻砖专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讬讗讙讚谞讜 诪诇诪注诇讛 爪讬谞讬 讛专 讛讘专讝诇 讻砖讬专讜转 诇讜诇讘 砖讬砖 讘讜 砖诇砖讛 讟驻讞讬诐 讻讚讬 诇谞注谞注 讘讜 讻砖专

MISHNA: A lulav that was stolen or that is completely dry is unfit for use in fulfilling the mitzva of the four species. The lulav of a tree worshipped as idolatry [asheira] and a lulav from a city whose residents were incited to idolatry, which must be burned along with all the city鈥檚 property, are unfit. If the top of the lulav was severed or if the palm leaves were severed from the spine of the lulav, it is unfit. If its leaves, although still attached, were spread and are no longer completely joined to the spine, it is fit. Rabbi Yehuda says: In that case, one should bind the lulav from the top, to join the leaves that spread to the spine. A lulav from the palms of the Iron Mountain are fit for use, although it differs from one taken from a standard palm tree, in that its leaves are shorter and do not cover the entire spine. A lulav that has three handbreadths in length, sufficient to enable one to wave with it, is fit for use in fulfilling the mitzva.

讙诪壮 拽讗 驻住讬拽 讜转谞讬 诇讗 砖谞讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖谞讬

GEMARA: The ruling in the mishna is that a stolen lulav is unfit. The Gemara posits: The mishna teaches this halakha unequivocally, indicating that there is no difference whether the stolen lulav is used on the first day of the festival of Sukkot, when taking the four species is a mitzva by Torah law, and there is no difference whether the stolen lulav is used beginning on the second day of the festival of Sukkot, when it is a mitzva by rabbinic law.

讘砖诇诪讗 讬讘砖 讛讚专 讘注讬谞谉 讜诇讬讻讗 讗诇讗 讙讝讜诇 讘砖诇诪讗 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 诇讻诐 诪砖诇讻诐 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖谞讬 讗诪讗讬 诇讗

The Gemara asks: Granted, a dry lulav is unfit both on the first day and subsequently. It is unfit for use because the term hadar is used with regard to the four species, from which it is derived that we require beauty. And since in a dry lulav there is not beauty, it is unfit. However, with regard to a stolen lulav, granted, on the first day of the Festival it is unfit, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall take for yourselves on the first day鈥 (Leviticus 23:40), indicating that the four species must be taken from your own property. However, beginning on the second day of the Festival, why does one not fulfill his obligation with a stolen lulav?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i:

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