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Today's Daf Yomi

December 1, 2021 | 讻状讝 讘讻住诇讜 转砖驻状讘

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of Monica Howell z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Taanit 19

If a calamity befalls a city or rain doesn’t fall, does the nearby city also need to fast and blow the shofar? On what does it depend? When is something considered a plague on account of which fasting is needed – how many deaths in how many days? For what types of calamities can the community cry out in prayer even on Shabbat? One can pray for all sorts of things except if too many rains come and they want to ask for the rains to stop as in the story of Honi HaMaagel. The Mishna describes the whole story about Honi when he prayed for rain and how many stages he had to go through until the rains came in the way he wanted. When the rains were too great and the people asked him to pray for it to stop, he refused as one does not pray for rains to stop. Shimon ben Shetach was surprised by Honi brazen manner in which he demanded rain from God, but conceded that God in fact listened to Honi and therefore it is hard to say anything against him. If one’s prayers are answered during the day in which one is fasting, does one continue to fast until the end of the day or is there no need? What is the difference between a famine and a drought? What are different types of rains that some can be good for crops but bad for trees or good for trees but bad for reservoirs, etc? On what issues does one not fast for during the shmita year? Once the Temple was destroyed, the amount of rain decreased and some years there is less rain than needed or the rains do not come in their proper time. A story is told of Nakdimon ben Gurion who borrowed water from a rich gentile for the Jews to have when they came to the Temple for the holiday. He committed to pay a lot of money in the event that he didn’t return the water in time. The day the loan was due came and there was still no rain. The gentile began to mock Nakdimon, but Nakdimon claimed that he still had until the end of the day to pay back the loan. The story continues on the next daf…

讗讜转讛 讛注讬专 诪转注谞讛 讜诪转专注转 讜讻诇 住讘讬讘讜转讬讛 诪转注谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪转专讬注讜转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪转专讬注讜转 讜诇讗 诪转注谞讜转 讜讻谉 注讬专 砖讬砖 讘讛 讚讘专 讗讜 诪驻讜诇转 讗讜转讛 讛注讬专 诪转注谞讛 讜诪转专注转 讜讻诇 住讘讬讘讜转讬讛 诪转注谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪转专讬注讜转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪转专讬注讜转 讜诇讗 诪转注谞讜转

In a case of this kind, that city fasts and cries out by blowing the shofar, and all of its surrounding areas join them in their fast, but they do not cry out. Rabbi Akiva disagrees and says: They cry out but they do not fast. The mishna continues: And likewise, if a city is afflicted by pestilence or collapsing buildings, that city fasts and cries out, and all of its surrounding areas fast but they do not cry out. Rabbi Akiva says: They cry out but they do not fast.

讗讬讝讛讜 讚讘专 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讜讬爪讗讜 诪诪谞讛 砖诇砖讛 诪转讬诐 讘砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讘专 驻讞讜转 诪讻讗谉 讗讬谉 讝讛 讚讘专

The mishna inquires: What is considered a plague of pestilence? When is a series of deaths treated as a plague? The mishna answers: If a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, i.e., it has a population of five hundred able-bodied men, and three dead are taken out of it on three consecutive days, this is a plague of pestilence, which requires fasting and crying out. If the death rate is lower than that, this is not pestilence.

注诇 讗诇讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 注诇 讛砖讚驻讜谉 讜注诇 讛讬专拽讜谉 讜注诇 讛讗专讘讛 讜注诇 讛讞住讬诇 讜注诇 讛讞讬讛 专注讛 讜注诇 讛讞专讘 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 诪讻讛 诪讛诇讻转

For the following calamities they cry out in every place: For blight; for mildew; for locusts; for caterpillars, a type of locust that comes in large swarms and descends upon a certain place; for dangerous beasts that have entered a town; and for the sword, i.e., legions of an invading army. The reason that they cry out about these misfortunes in every place is because these are calamities that spread.

诪注砖讛 砖讬专讚讜 讝拽谞讬诐 诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇注专讬讛诐 讜讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 注诇 砖谞专讗讛 讻诪诇讗 驻讬 转谞讜专 砖讚驻讜谉 讘讗砖拽诇讜谉 讜注讜讚 讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 注诇 砖讗讻诇讜 讝讗讘讬诐 砖谞讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 注诇 砖讗讻诇讜 讗诇讗 注诇 砖谞专讗讜

An incident occurred in which Elders descended from Jerusalem to their cities throughout Eretz Yisrael and decreed a fast throughout the land because there was seen in the city of Ashkelon a small amount of blight, enough to fill the mouth of an oven. This fast was observed throughout Eretz Yisrael, as blight spreads quickly. And furthermore, they decreed a fast because wolves had eaten two children in Transjordan. Rabbi Yosei says: This fast was decreed not because they ate the children, but because these wolves were merely seen in an inhabited area.

注诇 讗诇讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 讘砖讘转 注诇 注讬专 砖讛拽讬驻讜讛 谞讻专讬诐 讗讜 谞讛专 讜注诇 讛住驻讬谞讛 讛诪讬讟专驻转 讘讬诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇注讝专讛 讜诇讗 诇爪注拽讛 砖诪注讜谉 讛转讬诪谞讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讚讘专 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐

For the following calamities they cry out even on Shabbat: For a city that is surrounded by gentile troops, or for a place in danger of being flooded by a river that has swelled its banks, or for a ship tossed about at sea. Rabbi Yosei said: One may cry out on Shabbat to summon help, but it may not be sounded for crying out to God. Shimon the Timnite says: One may cry out on Shabbat even for pestilence, but the Rabbis did not agree with him.

注诇 讻诇 爪专讛 砖诇讗 转讘讜讗 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讞讜抓 诪专讜讘 讙砖诪讬诐 诪注砖讛 砖讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇讞讜谞讬 讛诪注讙诇 讛转驻诇诇 砖讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 爪讗讜 讜讛讻谞讬住讜 转谞讜专讬 驻住讞讬诐 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诇讗 讬诪讜拽讜 讛转驻诇诇 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐

搂 The mishna adds: In general, they cry out on account of any trouble that should not befall the community, a euphemism for trouble that may befall the community, except for an overabundance of rain. Although too much rain may be disastrous, one does not cry out over it, because rain is a sign of a blessing. The mishna relates: An incident occurred in which the people said to 岣ni HaMe鈥檃ggel: Pray that rain should fall. He said to them: Go out and bring in the clay ovens used to roast the Paschal lambs, so that they will not dissolve in the water, as torrential rains are certain to fall. He prayed, and no rain fell at all.

诪讛 注砖讛 注讙 注讜讙讛 讜注诪讚 讘转讜讻讛 讜讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讘谞讬讱 砖诪讜 驻谞讬讛诐 注诇讬 砖讗谞讬 讻讘谉 讘讬转 诇驻谞讬讱 谞砖讘注 讗谞讬 讘砖诪讱 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讗讬谞讬 讝讝 诪讻讗谉 注讚 砖转专讞诐 注诇 讘谞讬讱 讛转讞讬诇讜 讙砖诪讬诐 诪谞讟驻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讗 讻讱 砖讗诇转讬 讗诇讗 讙砖诪讬 讘讜专讜转 砖讬讞讬谉 讜诪注专讜转 讛转讞讬诇讜 诇讬专讚 讘讝注祝 讗诪专 诇讗 讻讱 砖讗诇转讬 讗诇讗 讙砖诪讬 专爪讜谉 讘专讻讛 讜谞讚讘讛

What did he do? He drew a circle on the ground and stood inside it and said before God: Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. Therefore, I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children and answer their prayers for rain. Rain began to trickle down, but only in small droplets. He said: I did not ask for this, but for rain to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves with enough water to last the entire year. Rain began to fall furiously. He said: I did not ask for this damaging rain either, but for rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity.

讬专讚讜 讻转拽谞谉 注讚 砖讬爪讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 诪驻谞讬 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讘讗讜 讜讗诪专讜 诇讜 讻砖诐 砖讛转驻诇诇转 注诇讬讛诐 砖讬专讚讜 讻讱 讛转驻诇诇 砖讬诇讻讜 诇讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 爪讗讜 讜专讗讜 讗诐 谞诪讞讬转 讗讘谉 讛讟讜注讬谉

Subsequently, the rains fell in their standard manner but continued unabated, filling the city with water until all of the Jews exited the residential areas of Jerusalem and went to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They came and said to him: Just as you prayed over the rains that they should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: Go out and see if the Claimants鈥 Stone, a large stone located in the city, upon which proclamations would be posted with regard to lost and found articles, has been washed away. In other words, if the water has not obliterated the Claimants鈥 Stone, it is not yet appropriate to pray for the rain to cease.

砖诇讞 诇讜 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 砖讟讞 讗诇诪诇讗 讞讜谞讬 讗转讛 讙讜讝专谞讬 注诇讬讱 谞讬讚讜讬 讗讘诇 诪讛 讗注砖讛 诇讱 砖讗转讛 诪转讞讟讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诪拽讜诐 讜注讜砖讛 诇讱 专爪讜谞讱 讻讘谉 砖讛讜讗 诪转讞讟讗 注诇 讗讘讬讜 讜注讜砖讛 诇讜 专爪讜谞讜 讜注诇讬讱 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讬砖诪讞 讗讘讬讱 讜讗诪讱 讜转讙诇 讬讜诇讚转讱

Shimon ben Sheta岣, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at the time, relayed to 岣ni HaMe鈥檃ggel: Were you not 岣ni, I would have decreed that you be ostracized, but what can I do to you? You nag [mit岣tei] God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and his father does his bidding without reprimand. After all, rain fell as you requested. About you, the verse states: 鈥淟et your father and your mother be glad, and let her who bore you rejoice鈥 (Proverbs 23:25).

讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讜讬专讚讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 拽讜讚诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 讬砖诇讬诪讜 诇讗讞专 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讬砖诇讬诪讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 诇讗 讬砖诇讬诪讜 诇讗讞专 讞爪讜转 讬砖诇讬诪讜

The mishna teaches another halakha with regard to fast days: If they were fasting for rain, and rain fell for them before sunrise, they need not complete their fast until the evening. However, if it fell after sunrise, they must complete their fast. Rabbi Eliezer says: If rain fell before midday, they need not complete their fast; but if it rains after midday, they must complete their fast.

诪注砖讛 砖讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 讘诇讜讚 讜讬专讚讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 爪讗讜 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜注砖讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讬爪讗讜 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜注砖讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讘讗讜 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 讜拽专讗讜 讛诇诇 讛讙讚讜诇

The mishna relates: An incident occurred in which the court decreed a fast in Lod due to a lack of rain, and rain fell for them before midday. Rabbi Tarfon said to the people: Go out, and eat, and drink, and treat this day as a Festival. And they went out, and ate, and drank, and treated the day as a Festival, and in the afternoon they came to the synagogue and recited the great hallel, to thank God for answering their prayers.

讙诪壮 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讛讗诇讜 讛讗诪讜专 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 诇砖讗讜诇 砖诇讬砖讬转 诇讛转注谞讜转

GEMARA: The mishna taught: The order of these fasts is stated only when the fast concerns the first rainfall. And the Gemara raises a contradiction between this statement and the following baraita: If the periods of the first and second rainfall pass without rain, this is the time to ask and pray for rain; if the third passes without rain, this is the time to fast.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讛讗诪讜专 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讬爪讗讛 专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜砖诇讬砖讬转 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讗讘诇 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讝专注讜 讜诇讗 爪诪讞讜 讗讬 谞诪讬 爪诪讞讜 讜讞讝专讜 讜谞砖转谞讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 诪讬讚

Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: When does the order of these fasts that is stated apply? When the periods of the first, second, and third rainfall have passed and rain has not fallen. However, if rain fell in the time of the first rainfall, and the people sowed but the plants did not sprout, or, alternatively, if they sprouted a little, but their appearance changed back for the worse, as no rain fell after the first rainfall, they cry out about it immediately.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讚讜拽讗 谞砖转谞讜 讗讘诇 讬讘砖讜 诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 谞砖转谞讜 转谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讚讗拽讜谉 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讗拽谞转讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rav Na岣an said: This applies specifically if their appearance changed. However, if they dried out entirely, they do not cry out, as this condition cannot be improved. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case, because in the mishna we learned the word changed. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for Rav Na岣an to issue his statement with regard to a case where they produced stalks after they dried out. Lest you say that producing stalks is a matter of significance, as it is a sign of strengthening, and the crops might be saved through prayer, Rav Na岣an therefore teaches us that this is not the case.

讜讻谉 砖驻住拽讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘讬谉 讙砖诐 诇讙砖诐 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 诪讻转 讘爪讜专转 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讻讛 讛诪讘讬讗讛 诇讬讚讬 讘爪讜专转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 谞讛专讗 讗谞讛专讗

The mishna further taught: And likewise, if rain ceased for a period of forty days between one rainfall and another, they cry out about this, because it is a plague of drought. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: A plague of drought? Isn鈥檛 this simply a drought? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The mishna means that a period of forty days between one rainfall and the next is a plague that may cause a drought. In this regard, Rav Na岣an said: When crops do not grow in one place due to lack of rain and must be imported by means of one river to another river,

讘爪讜专转讗 诪讚讬谞转讗 讗诪讚讬谞转讗 讻驻谞讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 住讗讛 讘住诇注 讜砖讻讬讞讗 讘爪讜专转讗 讗专讘注讛 讜诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讻驻谞讗

this is considered a drought. If produce must be brought from one province to another province, this is considered a famine. And Rabbi 岣nina said: If a se鈥檃 of grain is sold for a sela, but it is available, this is considered a drought. Although prices have risen, there is still grain for those who can afford it. However, if four se鈥檃 of grain is sold for a sela, and it is not available, this is considered a famine.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讛诪注讜转 讘讝讜诇 讜驻讬专讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讗讘诇 诪注讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讜驻讬专讜转 讘讝讜诇 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 诪讬讚 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讗专讘注讛 住讗讬谉 讘住诇注 讜讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖讬 谞驻讬讞讬 讻驻谉 讘讟讘专讬讗 诪讚诇讬转 讗讬住专

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: They taught this only with regard to a time when money is cheap and everyone has it, and produce is expensive. However, when money is expensive, i.e., unavailable, and produce is cheap, they cry out about it immediately, as this is considered a famine. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when four se鈥檃 of produce were sold for one sela, and yet there were many swollen by famine in Tiberias, as they did not have even one issar with which to purchase food.

讬专讚讜 诇爪诪讞讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讗讬诇谉 讘砖诇诪讗 诇爪诪讞讬诐 讜诇讗 诇讗讬诇谉 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讚讗转讗 谞讬讞讗 讜诇讗 讗转讬讗 专讝讬讗 诇讗讬诇谉 讜诇讗 诇爪诪讞讬谉 讚讗转讬讗 专讝讬讗 讜诇讗 讗转讬讗 谞讬讞讗

搂 The mishna taught: If sufficient rain fell for the vegetation but not enough fell for the trees; if it was enough for the trees but not for the vegetation; or if sufficient rain fell for both this and that, i.e., vegetation and trees, but not enough to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves with water to last the summer, they cry out about it immediately. The Gemara comments: Granted, with regard to rain that fell in sufficient quantities for the vegetation but not for the trees, this case can be found, e.g., if gentle rain fell but heavy rain did not fall, this is insufficient for the trees. Furthermore, it is possible for enough rain to fall for the trees but it is not effective for the vegetation, if heavy rain fell but gentle rain did not fall.

诇讝讛 讜诇讝讛 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讘讜专讜转 讜诇讗 诇砖讬讞讬谉 讜诪注专讜转 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讚讗转讬讗 专讝讬讗 讜谞讬讞讗 诪讬讛讜 讟讜讘讗 诇讗 讗转讬讗 讗诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讬专讚讜 诇讘讜专讜转 诇砖讬讞讬谉 讜诇诪注专讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讝讛 讜诇讝讛 讛讬讻讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讚讗转讬讗 讘砖驻讬讻讜转讗

Likewise, in the case of rain that benefits both this and that, trees and vegetation, but not cisterns, ditches, and caves, you can find this too, if both heavy and gentle rain fell, however, they did not fall in abundance, and therefore the water in the cisterns will not last through the summer. However, that which is taught in a baraita: If sufficient rain fell for cisterns, ditches, and caves, but not for either this or that, i.e., trees or plants, how can you find these circumstances? If the rain is enough to fill cisterns, how could it not be enough for plants and trees? The Gemara answers: Where rain comes in a single downpour, it will fill the cisterns but will provide no benefit to plants and trees.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘驻专讜住 讛驻住讞 注诇 讛讘讜专讜转 讜砖讬讞讬谉 讜诪注专讜转 讘驻专讜住 讛讞讙 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讛谉 诪讬诐 诇砖转讜转 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 诪讬讚

The Sages taught: They cry out about trees that have not received enough rain, until near Passover, as beyond that time any rain will no longer benefit trees. However, they sound the alarm over cisterns, ditches and caves that have not been filled until before the festival of Sukkot. And at any time, if they have no water to drink, they sound the alarm over them immediately.

讜讗讬讝讛讜 诪讬讚 砖诇讛谉 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 讜注诇 讻讜诇谉 讗讬谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讗诇讗 讘讗驻专讻讬讗 砖诇讛谉

And what exactly is the meaning of their use of: Immediately, in these cases? Monday, Thursday, and Monday of the week in which the court became aware of the crisis, but not necessarily on the very day that it became evident. And in all of these cases of interrupted rainfall, they sound the alarm over them only in their district [iparkheya], but not in other areas where rain is falling normally.

讜讗住讻专讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 讘讛 诪讬转讛 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诪讬转讛 讗讬谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 讜诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讙讜讘讗讬 讘讻诇 砖讛讜讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讞讙讘

And with regard to a plague of diphtheria, when it has the potential to cause death they sound the alarm over it, but when it does not have the potential to cause death they do not sound the alarm over it. And they sound the alarm over the arrival of locusts, for any amount, as it is likely that more locusts are on the way. However, they do not sound the alarm over the arrival of grasshoppers. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: They sound the alarm even over grasshoppers, as they too can cause a great deal of damage if they swarm in large numbers.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注 注诇 讛讘讜专讜转 讜注诇 讛砖讬讞讬谉 讜注诇 讛诪注专讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬注讬转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖 讘讛谉 驻专谞住讛 诇注谞讬讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: They sound the alarm over trees during the other six years of the seven-year Sabbatical cycle, when the earth is tilled, but not during the Sabbatical Year, when one must refrain from working the land. However, for cisterns, ditches, and caves, they sound the alarm even in the Sabbatical Year. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even for trees they sound the alarm in the Sabbatical Year, because they serve as sustenance for the poor. Since the poor rely on these trees for their food in the Sabbatical Year, they will lose their means of subsistence if it does not rain.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注 注诇 讛讘讜专讜转 注诇 讛砖讬讞讬谉 讜注诇 讛诪注专讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬注讬转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛住驻讬讞讬谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖 讘讛谉 驻专谞住讛 诇注谞讬讬诐

It is taught in another baraita: They sound the alarm over trees during the other years of the Sabbatical cycle, and for cisterns, ditches and caves they sound the alarm even in the Sabbatical Year. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even for trees. Furthermore, they sound the alarm for aftergrowths of crops that have grown of their own accord in the Sabbatical Year, because they serve as sustenance for the poor, as it is permitted to eat aftergrowths.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 驻专讟讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞注砖讜 讙砖诪讬诐 爪讬诪讜拽讬谉 诇注讜诇诐 讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 讜讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪讜注讟讬谉 讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 讜讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar ben Perata said: Since the day that the Temple was destroyed, rain has been meager, i.e., overall, not enough has fallen in the world. There are years whose rains are abundant, and there are years whose rains are scare. There are years whose rains fall in their proper time, and there are years whose rains do not fall in their proper time.

砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 谞讗驻讬转 讻转讬拽谞讛 讜谞讗讻诇转 讻转讬拽谞讛 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 谞讗驻讬转 砖诇讗 讻转讬拽谞讛 讜谞讗讻诇转 砖诇讗 讻转讬拽谞讛

With regard to a year whose rains fall in their proper time, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his weekly portion on Sunday. It is thereby found that his dough is baked properly throughout the week, and it is eaten properly, as he has a sufficient amount. Conversely, with regard to a year whose rains do not fall in their proper time, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his portion on Shabbat eve, when there is insufficient time to prepare it fully. It is thereby found that his dough is baked improperly, and it is eaten improperly.

砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 讘讘转 讗讞转 谞诪爪讗讜 专讬讞讬诐 讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 诪讛 砖讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛拽讘 讜谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 讗讜讻诇转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 讻诪讜 讗讜讻诇转 诪谉 讛拽讘

With regard to a year whose rains are abundant, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his portion for a long period of time all at once. He performs all of his milling at one time, and it is therefore found that the mill grinds and produces waste from a kor of produce in the same amount as it grinds and produces waste from the much smaller kav of produce. During each milling process, the same amount of flour goes to waste. Consequently, milling a large amount of flour in a single milling process preserves flour. And similarly, it is found that dough is diminished from a kor, as it diminishes from a kav.

砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪讜注讟讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 诪注讟 诪注讟 谞诪爪讗讜 专讬讞讬讬诐 诪讛 砖讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛拽讘 谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 讻诪讛 砖谞讗讻诇转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 讗讜讻诇转 诪谉 讛拽讘

In contrast, with regard to a year whose rains are scarce, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his portion little by little. It is thereby found that the amount that the mill would have ground from a kor of produce is that which in practice it grinds and produces from each kav. It is likewise found that the dough that would have been diminished from a kor is the same amount that is diminished from a kav. In sum, one retains less dough when given his sustenance little by little.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讘讝诪谉 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖诪讙讘诇 讗转 讛讟讬讟 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 诪讬诐 讗讬谞谉 讻诇讬谉 讜讛讟讬讟 诪讙讜讘诇 讬驻讛 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 诪讬诐 讻诇讬诐 讜讛讟讬讟 讗讬谞讜 诪转讙讘诇 讬驻讛

Alternatively, when its rains are abundant, to what may this year be compared? To a person who kneads clay. If he has a lot of water, his water is not used up and the clay will be well kneaded. If he has only a little water, the water will be used up and the clay will not be well kneaded.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 注诇讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讙诇 诇讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讛诐 诪讬诐 诇砖转讜转 讛诇讱 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讗爪诇 讛讙诪讜谉 讗讞讚 讗诪专 诇讜 讛诇讜讬谞讬 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 诪注讬讬谞讜转 诪讬诐 诇注讜诇讬 专讙诇讬诐 讜讗谞讬 讗转谉 诇讱 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 注讬谞讜转 诪讬诐 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讬 谞讜转谉 诇讱 讛专讬谞讬 谞讜转谉 诇讱 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 讻讻专 讻住祝 讜拽讘注 诇讜 讝诪谉

The Sages taught: Once all the Jewish people ascended for the pilgrimage Festival to Jerusalem and there was not enough water for them to drink. Nakdimon ben Guryon, one of the wealthy citizens of Jerusalem, went to a certain gentile officer [hegemon] and said to him: Lend me twelve wells of water for the pilgrims, and I will give back to you twelve wells of water. And if I do not give them to you, I will give you twelve talents of silver. And the officer set him a time limit for returning the water.

讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讛讝诪谉 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘砖讞专讬转 砖诇讞 诇讜 砖讙专 诇讬 讗讜 诪讬诐 讗讜 诪注讜转 砖讬砖 诇讬 讘讬讚讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 注讚讬讬谉 讬砖 诇讬 讝诪谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜 砖诇讬 讛讜讗 讘爪讛专讬讬诐 砖诇讞 诇讜 砖讙专 诇讬 讗讜 诪讬诐 讗讜 诪注讜转 砖讬砖 诇讬 讘讬讚讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 注讚讬讬谉 讬砖 诇讬 砖讛讜转 讘讬讜诐 讘诪谞讞讛 砖诇讞 诇讜 砖讙专 诇讬 诪讬诐 讗讜 诪注讜转 砖讬砖 诇讬 讘讬讚讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 注讚讬讬谉 讬砖 诇讬 砖讛讜转 讘讬讜诐 诇讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 讛讙诪讜谉 讗诪专 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讻讜诇讛 诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐

When the set time arrived and no rain had fallen, in the morning the official sent a message to Nakdimon: Send me either the water or the coins that you owe me. Nakdimon sent a message to him: I still have time, as the entire day is mine. At noontime the official again sent a message to him: Send me either the water or the coins that you owe me. Nakdimon sent a message to him: I still have time left in the day. In the afternoon he sent a message to him: Send me either the water or the coins that you owe me. Nakdimon sent a message to him: I still have time left in the day. That officer ridiculed him, saying: Throughout the entire year rain has not fallen,

This month's shiurim are dedicated by聽the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of Monica Howell z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

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Taanit 19

讗讜转讛 讛注讬专 诪转注谞讛 讜诪转专注转 讜讻诇 住讘讬讘讜转讬讛 诪转注谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪转专讬注讜转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪转专讬注讜转 讜诇讗 诪转注谞讜转 讜讻谉 注讬专 砖讬砖 讘讛 讚讘专 讗讜 诪驻讜诇转 讗讜转讛 讛注讬专 诪转注谞讛 讜诪转专注转 讜讻诇 住讘讬讘讜转讬讛 诪转注谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪转专讬注讜转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪转专讬注讜转 讜诇讗 诪转注谞讜转

In a case of this kind, that city fasts and cries out by blowing the shofar, and all of its surrounding areas join them in their fast, but they do not cry out. Rabbi Akiva disagrees and says: They cry out but they do not fast. The mishna continues: And likewise, if a city is afflicted by pestilence or collapsing buildings, that city fasts and cries out, and all of its surrounding areas fast but they do not cry out. Rabbi Akiva says: They cry out but they do not fast.

讗讬讝讛讜 讚讘专 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讜讬爪讗讜 诪诪谞讛 砖诇砖讛 诪转讬诐 讘砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讘专 驻讞讜转 诪讻讗谉 讗讬谉 讝讛 讚讘专

The mishna inquires: What is considered a plague of pestilence? When is a series of deaths treated as a plague? The mishna answers: If a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, i.e., it has a population of five hundred able-bodied men, and three dead are taken out of it on three consecutive days, this is a plague of pestilence, which requires fasting and crying out. If the death rate is lower than that, this is not pestilence.

注诇 讗诇讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 注诇 讛砖讚驻讜谉 讜注诇 讛讬专拽讜谉 讜注诇 讛讗专讘讛 讜注诇 讛讞住讬诇 讜注诇 讛讞讬讛 专注讛 讜注诇 讛讞专讘 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 诪讻讛 诪讛诇讻转

For the following calamities they cry out in every place: For blight; for mildew; for locusts; for caterpillars, a type of locust that comes in large swarms and descends upon a certain place; for dangerous beasts that have entered a town; and for the sword, i.e., legions of an invading army. The reason that they cry out about these misfortunes in every place is because these are calamities that spread.

诪注砖讛 砖讬专讚讜 讝拽谞讬诐 诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇注专讬讛诐 讜讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 注诇 砖谞专讗讛 讻诪诇讗 驻讬 转谞讜专 砖讚驻讜谉 讘讗砖拽诇讜谉 讜注讜讚 讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 注诇 砖讗讻诇讜 讝讗讘讬诐 砖谞讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 注诇 砖讗讻诇讜 讗诇讗 注诇 砖谞专讗讜

An incident occurred in which Elders descended from Jerusalem to their cities throughout Eretz Yisrael and decreed a fast throughout the land because there was seen in the city of Ashkelon a small amount of blight, enough to fill the mouth of an oven. This fast was observed throughout Eretz Yisrael, as blight spreads quickly. And furthermore, they decreed a fast because wolves had eaten two children in Transjordan. Rabbi Yosei says: This fast was decreed not because they ate the children, but because these wolves were merely seen in an inhabited area.

注诇 讗诇讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 讘砖讘转 注诇 注讬专 砖讛拽讬驻讜讛 谞讻专讬诐 讗讜 谞讛专 讜注诇 讛住驻讬谞讛 讛诪讬讟专驻转 讘讬诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇注讝专讛 讜诇讗 诇爪注拽讛 砖诪注讜谉 讛转讬诪谞讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讚讘专 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐

For the following calamities they cry out even on Shabbat: For a city that is surrounded by gentile troops, or for a place in danger of being flooded by a river that has swelled its banks, or for a ship tossed about at sea. Rabbi Yosei said: One may cry out on Shabbat to summon help, but it may not be sounded for crying out to God. Shimon the Timnite says: One may cry out on Shabbat even for pestilence, but the Rabbis did not agree with him.

注诇 讻诇 爪专讛 砖诇讗 转讘讜讗 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讞讜抓 诪专讜讘 讙砖诪讬诐 诪注砖讛 砖讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇讞讜谞讬 讛诪注讙诇 讛转驻诇诇 砖讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 爪讗讜 讜讛讻谞讬住讜 转谞讜专讬 驻住讞讬诐 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诇讗 讬诪讜拽讜 讛转驻诇诇 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐

搂 The mishna adds: In general, they cry out on account of any trouble that should not befall the community, a euphemism for trouble that may befall the community, except for an overabundance of rain. Although too much rain may be disastrous, one does not cry out over it, because rain is a sign of a blessing. The mishna relates: An incident occurred in which the people said to 岣ni HaMe鈥檃ggel: Pray that rain should fall. He said to them: Go out and bring in the clay ovens used to roast the Paschal lambs, so that they will not dissolve in the water, as torrential rains are certain to fall. He prayed, and no rain fell at all.

诪讛 注砖讛 注讙 注讜讙讛 讜注诪讚 讘转讜讻讛 讜讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讘谞讬讱 砖诪讜 驻谞讬讛诐 注诇讬 砖讗谞讬 讻讘谉 讘讬转 诇驻谞讬讱 谞砖讘注 讗谞讬 讘砖诪讱 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讗讬谞讬 讝讝 诪讻讗谉 注讚 砖转专讞诐 注诇 讘谞讬讱 讛转讞讬诇讜 讙砖诪讬诐 诪谞讟驻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讗 讻讱 砖讗诇转讬 讗诇讗 讙砖诪讬 讘讜专讜转 砖讬讞讬谉 讜诪注专讜转 讛转讞讬诇讜 诇讬专讚 讘讝注祝 讗诪专 诇讗 讻讱 砖讗诇转讬 讗诇讗 讙砖诪讬 专爪讜谉 讘专讻讛 讜谞讚讘讛

What did he do? He drew a circle on the ground and stood inside it and said before God: Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. Therefore, I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children and answer their prayers for rain. Rain began to trickle down, but only in small droplets. He said: I did not ask for this, but for rain to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves with enough water to last the entire year. Rain began to fall furiously. He said: I did not ask for this damaging rain either, but for rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity.

讬专讚讜 讻转拽谞谉 注讚 砖讬爪讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 诪驻谞讬 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讘讗讜 讜讗诪专讜 诇讜 讻砖诐 砖讛转驻诇诇转 注诇讬讛诐 砖讬专讚讜 讻讱 讛转驻诇诇 砖讬诇讻讜 诇讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 爪讗讜 讜专讗讜 讗诐 谞诪讞讬转 讗讘谉 讛讟讜注讬谉

Subsequently, the rains fell in their standard manner but continued unabated, filling the city with water until all of the Jews exited the residential areas of Jerusalem and went to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They came and said to him: Just as you prayed over the rains that they should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: Go out and see if the Claimants鈥 Stone, a large stone located in the city, upon which proclamations would be posted with regard to lost and found articles, has been washed away. In other words, if the water has not obliterated the Claimants鈥 Stone, it is not yet appropriate to pray for the rain to cease.

砖诇讞 诇讜 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 砖讟讞 讗诇诪诇讗 讞讜谞讬 讗转讛 讙讜讝专谞讬 注诇讬讱 谞讬讚讜讬 讗讘诇 诪讛 讗注砖讛 诇讱 砖讗转讛 诪转讞讟讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诪拽讜诐 讜注讜砖讛 诇讱 专爪讜谞讱 讻讘谉 砖讛讜讗 诪转讞讟讗 注诇 讗讘讬讜 讜注讜砖讛 诇讜 专爪讜谞讜 讜注诇讬讱 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讬砖诪讞 讗讘讬讱 讜讗诪讱 讜转讙诇 讬讜诇讚转讱

Shimon ben Sheta岣, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at the time, relayed to 岣ni HaMe鈥檃ggel: Were you not 岣ni, I would have decreed that you be ostracized, but what can I do to you? You nag [mit岣tei] God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and his father does his bidding without reprimand. After all, rain fell as you requested. About you, the verse states: 鈥淟et your father and your mother be glad, and let her who bore you rejoice鈥 (Proverbs 23:25).

讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讜讬专讚讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 拽讜讚诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 讬砖诇讬诪讜 诇讗讞专 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讬砖诇讬诪讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 诇讗 讬砖诇讬诪讜 诇讗讞专 讞爪讜转 讬砖诇讬诪讜

The mishna teaches another halakha with regard to fast days: If they were fasting for rain, and rain fell for them before sunrise, they need not complete their fast until the evening. However, if it fell after sunrise, they must complete their fast. Rabbi Eliezer says: If rain fell before midday, they need not complete their fast; but if it rains after midday, they must complete their fast.

诪注砖讛 砖讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 讘诇讜讚 讜讬专讚讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 爪讗讜 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜注砖讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讬爪讗讜 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜注砖讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讘讗讜 讘讬谉 讛注专讘讬诐 讜拽专讗讜 讛诇诇 讛讙讚讜诇

The mishna relates: An incident occurred in which the court decreed a fast in Lod due to a lack of rain, and rain fell for them before midday. Rabbi Tarfon said to the people: Go out, and eat, and drink, and treat this day as a Festival. And they went out, and ate, and drank, and treated the day as a Festival, and in the afternoon they came to the synagogue and recited the great hallel, to thank God for answering their prayers.

讙诪壮 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讛讗诇讜 讛讗诪讜专 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 诇砖讗讜诇 砖诇讬砖讬转 诇讛转注谞讜转

GEMARA: The mishna taught: The order of these fasts is stated only when the fast concerns the first rainfall. And the Gemara raises a contradiction between this statement and the following baraita: If the periods of the first and second rainfall pass without rain, this is the time to ask and pray for rain; if the third passes without rain, this is the time to fast.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讛讗诪讜专 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讬爪讗讛 专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜砖诇讬砖讬转 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讗讘诇 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讝专注讜 讜诇讗 爪诪讞讜 讗讬 谞诪讬 爪诪讞讜 讜讞讝专讜 讜谞砖转谞讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 诪讬讚

Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: When does the order of these fasts that is stated apply? When the periods of the first, second, and third rainfall have passed and rain has not fallen. However, if rain fell in the time of the first rainfall, and the people sowed but the plants did not sprout, or, alternatively, if they sprouted a little, but their appearance changed back for the worse, as no rain fell after the first rainfall, they cry out about it immediately.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讚讜拽讗 谞砖转谞讜 讗讘诇 讬讘砖讜 诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 谞砖转谞讜 转谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讚讗拽讜谉 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讗拽谞转讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rav Na岣an said: This applies specifically if their appearance changed. However, if they dried out entirely, they do not cry out, as this condition cannot be improved. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case, because in the mishna we learned the word changed. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for Rav Na岣an to issue his statement with regard to a case where they produced stalks after they dried out. Lest you say that producing stalks is a matter of significance, as it is a sign of strengthening, and the crops might be saved through prayer, Rav Na岣an therefore teaches us that this is not the case.

讜讻谉 砖驻住拽讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘讬谉 讙砖诐 诇讙砖诐 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 诪讻转 讘爪讜专转 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讻讛 讛诪讘讬讗讛 诇讬讚讬 讘爪讜专转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 谞讛专讗 讗谞讛专讗

The mishna further taught: And likewise, if rain ceased for a period of forty days between one rainfall and another, they cry out about this, because it is a plague of drought. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: A plague of drought? Isn鈥檛 this simply a drought? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The mishna means that a period of forty days between one rainfall and the next is a plague that may cause a drought. In this regard, Rav Na岣an said: When crops do not grow in one place due to lack of rain and must be imported by means of one river to another river,

讘爪讜专转讗 诪讚讬谞转讗 讗诪讚讬谞转讗 讻驻谞讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 住讗讛 讘住诇注 讜砖讻讬讞讗 讘爪讜专转讗 讗专讘注讛 讜诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讻驻谞讗

this is considered a drought. If produce must be brought from one province to another province, this is considered a famine. And Rabbi 岣nina said: If a se鈥檃 of grain is sold for a sela, but it is available, this is considered a drought. Although prices have risen, there is still grain for those who can afford it. However, if four se鈥檃 of grain is sold for a sela, and it is not available, this is considered a famine.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讛诪注讜转 讘讝讜诇 讜驻讬专讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讗讘诇 诪注讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讜驻讬专讜转 讘讝讜诇 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 诪讬讚 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬 讗专讘注讛 住讗讬谉 讘住诇注 讜讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖讬 谞驻讬讞讬 讻驻谉 讘讟讘专讬讗 诪讚诇讬转 讗讬住专

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: They taught this only with regard to a time when money is cheap and everyone has it, and produce is expensive. However, when money is expensive, i.e., unavailable, and produce is cheap, they cry out about it immediately, as this is considered a famine. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when four se鈥檃 of produce were sold for one sela, and yet there were many swollen by famine in Tiberias, as they did not have even one issar with which to purchase food.

讬专讚讜 诇爪诪讞讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讗讬诇谉 讘砖诇诪讗 诇爪诪讞讬诐 讜诇讗 诇讗讬诇谉 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讚讗转讗 谞讬讞讗 讜诇讗 讗转讬讗 专讝讬讗 诇讗讬诇谉 讜诇讗 诇爪诪讞讬谉 讚讗转讬讗 专讝讬讗 讜诇讗 讗转讬讗 谞讬讞讗

搂 The mishna taught: If sufficient rain fell for the vegetation but not enough fell for the trees; if it was enough for the trees but not for the vegetation; or if sufficient rain fell for both this and that, i.e., vegetation and trees, but not enough to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves with water to last the summer, they cry out about it immediately. The Gemara comments: Granted, with regard to rain that fell in sufficient quantities for the vegetation but not for the trees, this case can be found, e.g., if gentle rain fell but heavy rain did not fall, this is insufficient for the trees. Furthermore, it is possible for enough rain to fall for the trees but it is not effective for the vegetation, if heavy rain fell but gentle rain did not fall.

诇讝讛 讜诇讝讛 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讘讜专讜转 讜诇讗 诇砖讬讞讬谉 讜诪注专讜转 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讚讗转讬讗 专讝讬讗 讜谞讬讞讗 诪讬讛讜 讟讜讘讗 诇讗 讗转讬讗 讗诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讬专讚讜 诇讘讜专讜转 诇砖讬讞讬谉 讜诇诪注专讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讝讛 讜诇讝讛 讛讬讻讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讚讗转讬讗 讘砖驻讬讻讜转讗

Likewise, in the case of rain that benefits both this and that, trees and vegetation, but not cisterns, ditches, and caves, you can find this too, if both heavy and gentle rain fell, however, they did not fall in abundance, and therefore the water in the cisterns will not last through the summer. However, that which is taught in a baraita: If sufficient rain fell for cisterns, ditches, and caves, but not for either this or that, i.e., trees or plants, how can you find these circumstances? If the rain is enough to fill cisterns, how could it not be enough for plants and trees? The Gemara answers: Where rain comes in a single downpour, it will fill the cisterns but will provide no benefit to plants and trees.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘驻专讜住 讛驻住讞 注诇 讛讘讜专讜转 讜砖讬讞讬谉 讜诪注专讜转 讘驻专讜住 讛讞讙 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讛谉 诪讬诐 诇砖转讜转 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 诪讬讚

The Sages taught: They cry out about trees that have not received enough rain, until near Passover, as beyond that time any rain will no longer benefit trees. However, they sound the alarm over cisterns, ditches and caves that have not been filled until before the festival of Sukkot. And at any time, if they have no water to drink, they sound the alarm over them immediately.

讜讗讬讝讛讜 诪讬讚 砖诇讛谉 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 讜注诇 讻讜诇谉 讗讬谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讗诇讗 讘讗驻专讻讬讗 砖诇讛谉

And what exactly is the meaning of their use of: Immediately, in these cases? Monday, Thursday, and Monday of the week in which the court became aware of the crisis, but not necessarily on the very day that it became evident. And in all of these cases of interrupted rainfall, they sound the alarm over them only in their district [iparkheya], but not in other areas where rain is falling normally.

讜讗住讻专讗 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 讘讛 诪讬转讛 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诪讬转讛 讗讬谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇讬讛 讜诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讙讜讘讗讬 讘讻诇 砖讛讜讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讞讙讘

And with regard to a plague of diphtheria, when it has the potential to cause death they sound the alarm over it, but when it does not have the potential to cause death they do not sound the alarm over it. And they sound the alarm over the arrival of locusts, for any amount, as it is likely that more locusts are on the way. However, they do not sound the alarm over the arrival of grasshoppers. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: They sound the alarm even over grasshoppers, as they too can cause a great deal of damage if they swarm in large numbers.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注 注诇 讛讘讜专讜转 讜注诇 讛砖讬讞讬谉 讜注诇 讛诪注专讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬注讬转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖 讘讛谉 驻专谞住讛 诇注谞讬讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: They sound the alarm over trees during the other six years of the seven-year Sabbatical cycle, when the earth is tilled, but not during the Sabbatical Year, when one must refrain from working the land. However, for cisterns, ditches, and caves, they sound the alarm even in the Sabbatical Year. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even for trees they sound the alarm in the Sabbatical Year, because they serve as sustenance for the poor. Since the poor rely on these trees for their food in the Sabbatical Year, they will lose their means of subsistence if it does not rain.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注 注诇 讛讘讜专讜转 注诇 讛砖讬讞讬谉 讜注诇 讛诪注专讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬注讬转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 讛讗讬诇谞讜转 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 讛住驻讬讞讬谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖 讘讛谉 驻专谞住讛 诇注谞讬讬诐

It is taught in another baraita: They sound the alarm over trees during the other years of the Sabbatical cycle, and for cisterns, ditches and caves they sound the alarm even in the Sabbatical Year. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even for trees. Furthermore, they sound the alarm for aftergrowths of crops that have grown of their own accord in the Sabbatical Year, because they serve as sustenance for the poor, as it is permitted to eat aftergrowths.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 驻专讟讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞注砖讜 讙砖诪讬诐 爪讬诪讜拽讬谉 诇注讜诇诐 讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 讜讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪讜注讟讬谉 讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 讜讬砖 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar ben Perata said: Since the day that the Temple was destroyed, rain has been meager, i.e., overall, not enough has fallen in the world. There are years whose rains are abundant, and there are years whose rains are scare. There are years whose rains fall in their proper time, and there are years whose rains do not fall in their proper time.

砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 谞讗驻讬转 讻转讬拽谞讛 讜谞讗讻诇转 讻转讬拽谞讛 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 讙砖诪讬讛 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 谞讗驻讬转 砖诇讗 讻转讬拽谞讛 讜谞讗讻诇转 砖诇讗 讻转讬拽谞讛

With regard to a year whose rains fall in their proper time, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his weekly portion on Sunday. It is thereby found that his dough is baked properly throughout the week, and it is eaten properly, as he has a sufficient amount. Conversely, with regard to a year whose rains do not fall in their proper time, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his portion on Shabbat eve, when there is insufficient time to prepare it fully. It is thereby found that his dough is baked improperly, and it is eaten improperly.

砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 讘讘转 讗讞转 谞诪爪讗讜 专讬讞讬诐 讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 诪讛 砖讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛拽讘 讜谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 讗讜讻诇转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 讻诪讜 讗讜讻诇转 诪谉 讛拽讘

With regard to a year whose rains are abundant, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his portion for a long period of time all at once. He performs all of his milling at one time, and it is therefore found that the mill grinds and produces waste from a kor of produce in the same amount as it grinds and produces waste from the much smaller kav of produce. During each milling process, the same amount of flour goes to waste. Consequently, milling a large amount of flour in a single milling process preserves flour. And similarly, it is found that dough is diminished from a kor, as it diminishes from a kav.

砖谞讛 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪讜注讟讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇注讘讚 砖谞转谉 诇讜 专讘讜 驻专谞住转讜 诪注讟 诪注讟 谞诪爪讗讜 专讬讞讬讬诐 诪讛 砖讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 讟讜讞谞讜转 诪谉 讛拽讘 谞诪爪讗转 注讬住讛 讻诪讛 砖谞讗讻诇转 诪谉 讛讻讜专 讗讜讻诇转 诪谉 讛拽讘

In contrast, with regard to a year whose rains are scarce, to what may it be compared? To a servant whose master gave him his portion little by little. It is thereby found that the amount that the mill would have ground from a kor of produce is that which in practice it grinds and produces from each kav. It is likewise found that the dough that would have been diminished from a kor is the same amount that is diminished from a kav. In sum, one retains less dough when given his sustenance little by little.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讘讝诪谉 砖讙砖诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诇诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖诪讙讘诇 讗转 讛讟讬讟 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 诪讬诐 讗讬谞谉 讻诇讬谉 讜讛讟讬讟 诪讙讜讘诇 讬驻讛 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 诪讬诐 讻诇讬诐 讜讛讟讬讟 讗讬谞讜 诪转讙讘诇 讬驻讛

Alternatively, when its rains are abundant, to what may this year be compared? To a person who kneads clay. If he has a lot of water, his water is not used up and the clay will be well kneaded. If he has only a little water, the water will be used up and the clay will not be well kneaded.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 注诇讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讙诇 诇讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讛诐 诪讬诐 诇砖转讜转 讛诇讱 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讗爪诇 讛讙诪讜谉 讗讞讚 讗诪专 诇讜 讛诇讜讬谞讬 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 诪注讬讬谞讜转 诪讬诐 诇注讜诇讬 专讙诇讬诐 讜讗谞讬 讗转谉 诇讱 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 注讬谞讜转 诪讬诐 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讬 谞讜转谉 诇讱 讛专讬谞讬 谞讜转谉 诇讱 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 讻讻专 讻住祝 讜拽讘注 诇讜 讝诪谉

The Sages taught: Once all the Jewish people ascended for the pilgrimage Festival to Jerusalem and there was not enough water for them to drink. Nakdimon ben Guryon, one of the wealthy citizens of Jerusalem, went to a certain gentile officer [hegemon] and said to him: Lend me twelve wells of water for the pilgrims, and I will give back to you twelve wells of water. And if I do not give them to you, I will give you twelve talents of silver. And the officer set him a time limit for returning the water.

讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讛讝诪谉 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘砖讞专讬转 砖诇讞 诇讜 砖讙专 诇讬 讗讜 诪讬诐 讗讜 诪注讜转 砖讬砖 诇讬 讘讬讚讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 注讚讬讬谉 讬砖 诇讬 讝诪谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜 砖诇讬 讛讜讗 讘爪讛专讬讬诐 砖诇讞 诇讜 砖讙专 诇讬 讗讜 诪讬诐 讗讜 诪注讜转 砖讬砖 诇讬 讘讬讚讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 注讚讬讬谉 讬砖 诇讬 砖讛讜转 讘讬讜诐 讘诪谞讞讛 砖诇讞 诇讜 砖讙专 诇讬 诪讬诐 讗讜 诪注讜转 砖讬砖 诇讬 讘讬讚讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 注讚讬讬谉 讬砖 诇讬 砖讛讜转 讘讬讜诐 诇讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 讛讙诪讜谉 讗诪专 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讻讜诇讛 诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐

When the set time arrived and no rain had fallen, in the morning the official sent a message to Nakdimon: Send me either the water or the coins that you owe me. Nakdimon sent a message to him: I still have time, as the entire day is mine. At noontime the official again sent a message to him: Send me either the water or the coins that you owe me. Nakdimon sent a message to him: I still have time left in the day. In the afternoon he sent a message to him: Send me either the water or the coins that you owe me. Nakdimon sent a message to him: I still have time left in the day. That officer ridiculed him, saying: Throughout the entire year rain has not fallen,

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