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Today's Daf Yomi

June 20, 2022 | כ״א בסיון תשפ״ב

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Yevamot 105

This week’s learning is sponsored by Judy and Zev Berman for the refuah shleima of our sister-in-law, Phyllis Hecht. Please say tehilim for גיטל פע׊א בת מאשה רחל. May she have a complete recovery and may we all share b’sorot tovot.

The statement made to Shmuel’s father that a woman who spits at her yabam only, forbids all the brothers from performing yibum, can be understood also according to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion. How? If Rabbi Akiva doesn’t think spitting is an essential part of the ceremony, why does he distinguish then between reading and spitting regarding disqualifying the brothers from yibum? A different version is brought regarding the halacha that was sent to Shmuel’s father – that if a yevama spit but didn’t do chalitza, she should do chalitza and does not need to spit again. A situation like that happened and she did not spit a second time. What is the harm done in spitting a second time? Levi was asked three questions by people in the villages but he did not know the answers and went to the beit midrash to find out the answers. Two were about chalitza and one was about “writings of truth” mentioned in a verse in Daniel 10:21. From the writings of truth, the Gemara gets into a discussion regarding teshuva and what kind of decrees can be undone and which ones cannot. Even though Eli’s family (in Samuel 1) were punished and God swore that they will not be atoned for with sacrifices, they can atone by learning Torah or doing acts of chessed. What is the difference between the power of the individual and the power of the community regarding prayers that can overturn a decree? What is the unique nature of the ten days of teshuva between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur? Another halacha sent to Shmuel’s father was also relating to the question they asked Levi, if a yevama spat blood, it is effective as blood is mixed with saliva. A source is brought to contradict but it is resolved as there are different ways in which someone bleeds in one’s mouth. There is a debate regarding the validity of a chalitza with a woman who is a minor. From where does each derive his opinion? In order to show that the tana kama’s opinion is that of Rabbi Yosi, a story is brought which includes some tension between Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosi, and Avdan. The story ends with a number of punishments to Avdan for insulting Rabbi Yishmael. Why was it necessary to state both that the halacha is not like the pair of rabbis who said that chalitza can be performed in front of two people and that chalitza needs to be performed in front of three people? Some questions are asked regarding the case the Mishna had quoted of the chalitza in the jail. Is it possible no one witnessed it – don’t we need testimony to confirm that it in fact took place? Was Rabbi Akiva in the prison or the couple themselves?

 

רקקה ולא קראה חליצתה כשירה רקקה ולא חלצה ולא קראה חליצתה פסולה קראה ולא רקקה ולא חלצה אין כאן בית מיחוש

spit and did not recite the verses, her Ḽalitza is valid. If she spat but did not remove the shoe and did not recite the text, her Ḽalitza is disqualified. If she recited the verses but did not spit or did not remove the shoe, there is no doubt that she has done nothing, and her action has no halakhic significance.

מני אילימא רבי אליעזר חלצה ולא רקקה ולא קראה חליצתה כשירה והא אמר רבי אליעזר ככה יעשה דבר שהוא מעשה מעכב אלא פשיטא רבי עקיבא וקתני רקקה ולא חלצה ולא קראה חליצתה פסולה למאן

The Gemara clarifies: Who is the author of the baraita? If we say it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, could it be that he would hold that if she removed the shoe but did not spit or did not recite the verses, her ḥalitza is valid, as stated in the baraita? But didn’t Rabbi Eliezer say: The phrase “so shall it be done” (Deuteronomy 25:9) indicates that any element of the ḥalitza process that constitutes an action is indispensable; therefore spitting is necessary. Rather, it is obvious that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, and he teaches at the end of the baraita that if she spat but did not remove the shoe or did not recite the text, her ḥalitza is disqualified. The Gemara clarifies: To whom is the yevama disqualified from marrying after such a ḥalitza?

אילימא לעלמא פשיטא מי הויא חליצה דאישתריא לעלמא אלא לאו לאחין שמע מינה

If we say that Rabbi Akiva means to teach us that she is disqualified from marriage to everyone in the world, this is unnecessary, as it is clear that spitting alone will not permit her to marry any stranger. It is obvious that her Ḽalitza is invalid, as did any Ḽalitza take place in order for her to be permitted to a stranger? Rather, is it not clear that Rabbi Akiva is ruling that she is disqualified from marriage to the brothers? Learn from here that Rabbi Akiva also thinks that spitting alone disqualifies her from marriage to the brothers, which is not in accordance with the previous assumption with regard to his opinion.

ולרבי עקיבא מאי שנא רקיקה ומאי שנא קרייה

The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Akiva’s understanding that only an action performed on the body of the yavam is indispensable for ḥalitza, what is different about spitting and what is different about recitation? Both are not indispensable, so why is it that if she spat but did not remove the shoe she is disqualified from marriage to the brothers, yet if she recited the text but did not remove the shoe her action has no halakhic significance?

קרייה דאיתא בין בתחלה בין בסוף לא מיחלפא ליה רקיקה דבתחלה ליתא ולבסוף איתא מיחלפא ליה ואתו למישרי חלוצה לאחין

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva finds a reason to rabbinically prohibit the woman after spitting, yet holds that the reason is not valid after the recitation alone. The recitation of the verses, which takes place both at the beginning of the process, before the removal of the shoe, and at the end, will not cause him to be confused about a proper ḥalitza, as one who witnesses her recitation knows that she may have only recited the text but has not yet removed the shoe, and therefore it will cause no harm to invalidate her ḥalitza and permit her in levirate marriage to the yevamin. But with regard to spitting, which does not take place at the beginning but takes place at the end, after the removal of the shoe, one who witnesses her spitting might assume that she had already removed the shoe, and he might confuse this woman with a woman who removed the shoe, and if we would allow her to perform levirate marriage after the spitting, they will come to permit a yevama who performed ḥalitza to marry the brothers of the yavam after the ḥalitza. Therefore, Rabbi Akiva finds reason to rabbinically prohibit a woman after spitting, although he doesn’t do so if they merely recited the verses of ḥalitza.

ואיכא דאמרי הכי שלחו ליה יבמה שרקקה תחלוץ ואינה צריכה לרוק פעם אחרת כי ההיא דאתיא לקמיה דרבי אמי הוה יתיב רבי אבא בר ממל קמיה רקקה מקמי דתחלוץ אמר ליה רבי אמי חלוץ לה ושרי לה תיגרא

And there are those who say that this is what they sent to Shmuel’s father: A yevama who spat before removing the shoe shall remove the shoe, and she is not required to spit another time. This is like the incident where a certain woman came before Rabbi Ami for ḥalitza, and Rabbi Abba bar Memel sat before him at the time. She spat before she removed the shoe. Rabbi Ami said to him: Rabbi Abba, tell her to remove the shoe of the yavam, so one may dismiss her case from the court, as she does not require another act of spitting.

אמר ליה רבי אבא והא בעינן מירק הא רקקה לה ותירוק ומה בכך נפיק מיניה חורבא דאי אמרת תיהדר ותירוק אמרי רקיקה קמייתא לית בה מששא ואתי למישרי חלוצה לאחין

Rabbi Abba said to him: But for Ḽalitza we need her to spit. He answered: She already spat. Rabbi Abba said to him: That spitting was done before the removal, so let her spit again, and what would be the problem with that? He answered him: A disaster could be brought out from it, as, if you say she should spit again there will be others who say: The first spitting has no halakhic significance and she is still permitted to the brothers if no spitting was performed subsequently, and they will come to permit a bona fide Ḽalutza, i.e., a yevama who has performed Ḽalitza, to the brothers, because when they see her spitting the first time they will say that she certainly already removed the shoe beforehand.

והא בעינן כסדרן כסדרן לא מעכבא הוא סבר דחויי קא מדחי ליה נפק דק ואשכח דתניא בין שהקדים חליצה לרקיקה בין שהקדים רקיקה לחליצה מה שעשה עשוי

He challenged again: But we require that Ḽalitza be performed in the proper order, as recorded in the Torah. He answered him: Their proper order is not indispensable. Rabbi Abba bar Memel thought: He is merely pushing off my legitimate questions with far-fetched attempts to justify his statements that are not well founded. Afterward, he went out from the house of study and examined the matter and discovered that it was as Rabbi Ami said. As it is taught in a baraita: Whether the removal of the shoe preceded the spitting, as the proper order requires, or whether the spitting preceded the removal of the shoe, what he did is done, i.e., is effective, as the woman is therefore permitted to remarry.

לוי נפק לקרייתא בעו מינה גידמת מהו שתחלוץ יבמה שרקקה דם מהו אבל אגיד לך את הרשום בכתב אמת מכלל דאיכא כתב שאינו אמת

Apropos adherence to instructions given in the Torah, the Gemara relates a story. Levi went out to the villages to teach people Torah. They asked him several questions: Firstly, what is the halakha for an armless woman, may she perform ḥalitza with her teeth? Secondly, what is the halakha if a yevama spat blood instead of saliva, is the ḥalitza valid? Furthermore, they asked with regard to the verse: “But I will declare to you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth” (Daniel 10:21), if by inference, there is writing in Heaven that is not truth.

לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא אמרו ליה מי כתיב וחלצה ביד ומי כתיב וירקה רוק

He did not have an answer at hand to these questions, so he came and asked at the house of study. They said to him in response to the first question: Does it say in the Torah: And she shall remove the shoe by hand? Clearly, she may remove the shoe in any manner and there is no reason to disqualify an armless woman. With regard to the second question, they said: And does it say in the verse: And she shall spit saliva? It merely states: “And she shall spit,” indicating that even if she spits blood the ḥalitza is valid.

אבל אגיד לך הרשום בכתב אמת וכי יש כתב שאינו אמת

With regard to the verse cited in the third question: “But I will declare to you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth,” about which you ask: But is there writing in Heaven that is not truth?

לא קשיא כאן בגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה כאן בגזר דין שאין עמו שבועה

This is not difficult. Here, i.e., a writing of truth, refers to a sentence of judgment accompanied by an oath; this is called “writing of truth” as it cannot ever be canceled. There, i.e., the inferred untruthful writing, refers to a sentence of judgment that is not accompanied by an oath, as it could be canceled if conditions change.

כדרב שמואל בר אמי דאמר רב שמואל בר אמי אמר רבי יונתן מנין לגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה שאינו מתקרע שנאמר לכן נשבעתי לבית עלי אם יתכפר עון בית עלי בזבח ובמנחה עד עולם

This is in accordance with the words of Rav Shmuel bar Ami, as Rav Shmuel bar Ami said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a sentence of judgment accompanied by an oath cannot be torn up? It is as it is stated: “Therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be atoned for with sacrifice nor offering forever” (I Samuel 3:14), which indicates that due to the accompanying oath, the sentence of judgment cannot ever be rescinded, even if offerings of atonement are brought.

אמר רבה בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר הוא בדברי תורה אביי אמר בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר בגמילות חסדים רבה ואביי מדבית עלי קאתו רבה דעסק בתורה חיה ארבעין שנין אביי דעסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים חיה שיתין שנין

Apropos this verse, the Gemara mentions what Rabba said with regard to it: With sacrifice and offering, one from the house of Eli will not be atoned for, but he may gain atonement through words of Torah study. Abaye said: Through sacrifice and offering he may not achieve atonement, but he may gain atonement through acts of kindness. The Gemara relates that Rabba and Abaye themselves descended from the house of Eli. Rabba, who immersed himself primarily in Torah study, lived forty years, while Abaye, who immersed himself both in Torah and acts of kindness, lived sixty years. They both lived longer lives than usual for descendants of the house of Eli, due to their actions.

תנו רבנן משפחה אחת היתה בירושלים שהיו מתים כבן שמנה עשרה שנה באו והודיעו את רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שמא ממשפחת עלי אתם שנאמר וכל מרבית ביתך ימותו אנשים לכו ועסקו בתורה ותחיו הלכו ועסקו בתורה וחיו והיו קורין אותן משפחת יוחנן על שמו

The Gemara relates a similar story from a baraita: The Sages taught: There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose children were dying at around age eighteen. The members of the family came and told Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai about these tragic deaths. He said to them: Perhaps you are from the house of Eli, as it is stated: “All the increase of your house shall die young men” (I Samuel 2:33), which teaches that as soon as they reach full maturity, old enough to be called “men,” they die. Therefore, you must go out and immerse yourselves in Torah, and you will live. They went and immersed themselves in Torah and lived longer lives, and people would call them: The family of Yoḥanan, after his name, as the advice he gave them enabled them to live.

אמר רב שמואל בר אוניא אמר רב מנין לגזר דין של צבור שאינו נחתם אינו נחתם והא כתיב כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני

With regard to a decree of judgment that cannot be torn up, Rav Shmuel bar Unya said that Rav said: From where is it derived that a sentence of judgment upon a community is never sealed? The Gemara expresses surprise: Is it truly not sealed? But isn’t it written: “For although you wash yourself with niter, and take much soap for yourself, yet your iniquity is marked before Me” (Jeremiah 2:22), indicating that there is no longer any atonement for iniquity of a community.

אלא מנין שאפילו נחתם מתקרע שנאמר מי כה׳ אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו והכתיב דרשו ה׳ בהמצאו לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בציבור יחיד

Rather, one must say as follows: From where is it derived that even when a community’s sentence is sealed, it may be torn up as a result of repentance, as it is stated: “For what great nation is there, that has God so close unto them, as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7). The Gemara objects: But isn’t it written in another verse: “Seek the Lord while He may be found, call upon Him when He is near” (Isaiah 55:6), implying that God is not always near and may not always answer whenever we call upon Him? The Gemara answers: This contradiction is not difficult. This verse is concerning an individual who must seek God where He is found, as He is not always equally accessible to answer those who call out to Him. That first verse is concerning a community, for whom He is accessible “whenever we call upon Him.”

אימת אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו עשרה ימים שבין ראש השנה ליום הכפורים

The Gemara asks: For an individual, when is the time that God is close to him? Rav NaḼman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur.

שלחו ליה לאבוה דשמואל יבמה שרקקה דם תחלוץ לפי שאי אפשר לדם בלא צחצוח רוק

The Gemara returns to the questions the villagers asked Levi: The Sages in Eretz Yisrael sent this halakha to Shmuel’s father: A yevama who spat blood shall remove the shoe, because it is not possible that blood came out of her mouth without any trace of saliva, and she fulfills her obligation through this saliva.

מיתיבי יכול יהא דם היוצא מפיו ומפי האמה טמא תלמוד לומר זובו טמא ואין דם היוצא מפיו ומפי האמה טמא אלא טהור

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita that states with regard to a zav: One might have thought that blood that issues from his mouth or from the opening of his genital organ should be ritually impure, like any of the secretions that issue from a zav e.g., saliva and urine; therefore, the verse states: “His discharge is impure” (Leviticus 15:2), to teach: Only his white, pus-like discharge and other secretions similar to it are ritually impure, but blood that issues from his mouth or from his genital organ is not impure, but it is pure. And from here one may learn that blood can issue from the mouth without saliva, for if it was as they said, that all spittle necessarily contains saliva, the blood in the spittle would be ritually impure due to the saliva.

לא קשיא כאן במוצצת כאן בשותת

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here, where it said that blood cannot issue from the mouth without saliva, it is referring to a woman who sucks up the blood in her mouth before spitting it out, in which case there will certainly be some saliva in the mouth. There, it is referring to blood that was flowing by itself from an oral wound of the zav, in which case the spittle of blood might contain no saliva in it at all.

חרש שנחלץ וכו׳

It was taught in the mishna: if a deaf-mute man underwent Ḽalitza or a deaf-mute woman performed Ḽalitza, or if an adult woman performs Ḽalitza with a male minor, her Ḽalitza is invalid.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר אבל חכמים אומרים אין חליצת קטן כלום

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: This teaching of the mishna with regard to a minor is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that such a ḥalitza has significance in that it disqualifies a subsequent levirate marriage, but it is insufficient to permit the woman to marry a stranger. But the Rabbis say: The ḥalitza of a male minor isn’t significant of anything, as she is permitted to one of the brothers in levirate marriage as one who no ḥalitza was performed at all.

קטנה שחלצה וכו׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר דאמר איש כתוב בפרשה ומקשינן אשה לאיש

§ It was taught in the mishna: If a female minor performed ḥalitza, she must perform ḥalitza a second time once she becomes an adult, and if she does not, her first ḥalitza is invalid. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who said: “Man” is written in the Torah portion about ḥalitza: “And if the man does not wish” (Deuteronomy 25:7), implying an adult must perform ḥalitza, and we juxtapose and compare a woman with a man, indicating that the woman must also be an adult at the time of ḥalitza.

אבל חכמים אומרים איש כתיב בפרשה אשה בין גדולה בין קטנה

But the Rabbis say: “Man” is written in this Torah portion, which indicates that an adult male must perform ḥalitza, but with respect to the woman who removes the shoe, since the term woman is not used to describe her, but rather the more general term yevama is written, as the continuation of the above-mentioned verse says: “To take his yevama” (Deuteronomy 25:9), she may be either an adult or a female minor.

מאן חכמים רבי יוסי היא דרבי חייא ורבי שמעון בר רבי הוו יתבי פתח חד מינייהו ואמר המתפלל צריך שיתן עיניו למטה שנאמר והיו עיני ולבי שם כל הימים

The Gemara asks: Who are these Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Meir? The Gemara answers: It is Rabbi Yosei, as it seems from this incident: As, Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi were sitting outside the house of study, immersed in Torah learning. One of them began and said: One who prays must direct his gaze downward while praying, as it is stated by God with regard to the Holy Temple: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually” (I Kings 9:3), meaning: The Divine Presence rests in the Eretz Yisrael, and one must direct his gaze to the sacred land when praying.

וחד אמר עיניו למעלה שנאמר נשא לבבנו אל כפים אדהכי אתא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לגבייהו אמר להו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה בתפלה אמר להו כך אמר אבא המתפלל צריך שיתן עיניו למטה ולבו למעלה כדי שיתקיימו שני מקראות הללו

And one of them said he must direct his eyes upward, because it is stated: “Let us lift our hearts with our hands toward God in Heaven” (Lamentations 3:41). In the meantime, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, came beside them. He said to them: What are you dealing with? They said to him: With prayer, as we are debating the proper posture for prayer. He said to them: My father, Rabbi Yosei, said as follows: One who prays must direct his eyes downward and his heart upward, in order to fulfill both of these verses.

אדהכי אתא רבי למתיבתא אינהו דהוו קלילי יתיבו בדוכתייהו רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי אגב יוקריה הוה מפסע ואזיל

In the meantime, while they were talking, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the house of study and everyone quickly went to sit in their assigned places. Those who were light-footed hurried and sat in their places. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, due to his being very heavy, was stepping and walking slowly, as everyone was already sitting in his place on the ground, requiring him to pass over their heads in order to get to his place.

אמר ליה אבדן מי הוא זה שמפסע על ראשי עם קדוש אמר ליה אני ישמעאל ברבי יוסי שבאתי ללמוד תורה מרבי אמר ליה וכי אתה הגון ללמוד תורה מרבי

Abdon, the shortened form of the name of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s student and attendant, Abba Yudan, said to him: Who is that individual stepping over the heads of a sacred people, for it appeared to him as an act of disrespect to those sitting that Rabbi Yishmael stepped over their heads. He said to him: I am Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who came to learn Torah from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Abdon said to him: But are you fit to learn Torah from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, for it seems that you are showing disrespect to others in order to accomplish it?

אמר ליה וכי משה היה הגון ללמוד תורה מפי הגבורה אמר ליה וכי משה אתה אמר ליה וכי רבך אלהים הוא אמר רב יוסף שקליה רבי למטרפסיה דקאמר ליה רבך ולא רבי

He said to him: Was Moses fit to learn Torah from the mouth of the Almighty? Rather, it is not necessary that the student be as dignified as his teacher. He said to him: And are you Moses? Rabbi Yishmael said to him: And is your teacher God? Rav Yosef said about this part of the story: Here Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi received his retribution [mittarpesei] for remaining silent during this discussion and not reprimanding his student for humiliating Rabbi Yishmael. And what is his retribution? When Rabbi Yishmael spoke to Abdon, he said your teacher, and not my teacher, implying that he did not accept Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s authority upon himself.

אדהכי אתיא יבמה לקמיה דרבי אמר ליה רבי לאבדן פוק בדקה לבתר דנפק אמר ליה רבי ישמעאל כך אמר אבא איש כתוב בפרשה אבל אשה בין גדולה בין קטנה

In the meantime, a yevama came before Rabbi, and she was a minor close to the age of maturity who had performed ḥalitza, but it was not clear whether she had already reached the age of maturity necessary to validate her ḥalitza. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Abdon: Go and check to see if she has already reached maturity. After Abdon left, Rabbi Yishmael said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: My father, Rabbi Yosei, said as follows: “Man” is written in the Torah portion of ḥalitza, but the woman may be either an adult woman or a female minor.

אמר ליה תא לא צריכת כבר הורה זקן קמפסע אבדן ואתי אמר ליה רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי מי שצריך לו עם קדוש יפסע על ראשי עם קדוש מי שאין צריך לו עם קדוש היאך יפסע על ראשי עם קדוש

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Abdon: Come back. You do not need to check, as the Elder, Rabbi Yosei, has already ruled that a minor can perform Ḽalitza, and therefore no further examination is required. Abdon was stepping and coming over the heads of the others in order to return to his place. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to him: One upon whom a holy people depends may step over the heads of a holy people. But one upon whom a holy people does not depend, as there is no longer a need for Abdon to examination the woman, how can he step over the heads of a holy people?

אמר ליה רבי לאבדן קום בדוכתיך תאנא באותה שעה נצטרע אבדן וטבעו שני בניו ומאנו שתי כלותיו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק בריך רחמנא דכספיה לאבדן בהאי עלמא

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Abdon: Stand in your place and do not go any further. It was taught: At that moment Abdon was afflicted with leprosy as a punishment for insulting Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and two of his sons who were recently married drowned, and his two daughters-in-law, who were minors married to those sons, made declarations of refusal and annulled their marriages. Rav NaḼman bar YitzḼak said: Blessed is the Merciful One, Who shames Abdon in this world, for this prevents him from being punished further in the World-to-Come, as all his iniquities have been forgiven through this suffering.

אמר רבי אמי מדבריו של ברבי נלמוד קטנה חולצת בפעוטות רבא אמר עד שתגיע לעונת נדרים והלכתא עד שתביא שתי שערות

Rabbi Ami said: From the words of the great man, Rabbi Yosei, let us learn: A female minor performs Ḽalitza even as a young child, at age six or seven. Rava said: She may not perform Ḽalitza until she reaches the age of vows as an eleven-year-old, when she has enough intellectual capacity to understand the meaning of a vow. However, the Gemara concludes: And the halakha is: She may not perform Ḽalitza until she has two pubic hairs.

חלצה בשנים וכו׳ אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג והא אמר רב נחמן חדא זימנא דאמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן חליצה בשלשה

It was taught in the mishna: If she performed ḥalitza before two or three people, and one of them is found to be disqualified to serve as a judge, Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yoḥanan the Cobbler validate it. Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: The halakha does not follow this pair who validate such a case. The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rav Naḥman already say this same ruling one time before? As Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: Ḥalitza must be conducted before three people, indicating that there must be no fewer than three valid judges.

צריכי דאי איתמר הך קמייתא הוה אמינא הני מילי לכתחילה אבל דיעבד אפילו תרי קא משמע לן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג ואי אשמועינן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג אלא כתנא קמא הוה אמינא דיעבד אבל לכתחילה ליבעי חמשה צריכא

The Gemara answers: Both are necessary, for if only the first one, stating that ḥalitza must be before three judges, were stated, I would say: This applies ab initio, but after the fact even two is acceptable. Therefore, he teaches us that the halakha does not follow this pair of Sages, and her ḥalitza before two people is invalid even after the fact. And vice versa: If he would have told us only that the halakha does not follow this pair, but rather the first tanna, I would say that it is valid if performed before three people only after the fact, but they must require five people ab initio, in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion. Therefore it is necessary to say both of these statements.

מעשה שחלצו כו׳ בינו לבינה מי ידענא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ועדים רואין אותו מבחוץ

§ A story is told in the mishna about an incident in which a couple once performed Ḽalitza between themselves in private while alone in prison, and the case later came before Rabbi Akiva and he validated it. The Gemara asks: How can we know what happened between him and her? There was no testimony to confirm it, and how can we be certain that the Ḽalitza was done properly to validate it? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: And the Ḽalitza was validated because there were witnesses who saw them from outside the prison, who testified that the Ḽalitza was performed properly.

איבעיא להו מעשה שחלצו בינו לבינה אבראי ובא מעשה לפני רבי עקיבא בבית האסורין או דלמא מעשה שחלצו בינו לבינה בבית האסורין אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בבית האסורין היה מעשה ולבית האסורין בא מעשה

A dilemma was raised before the students in the house of study with regard to the incident recorded in the mishna in which a private Ḽalitza performed in a prison was validated: Did the incident in which they performed Ḽalitza between him and her privately actually take place outside in a different locale, and the reference to prison is that the case came before Rabbi Akiva when he was confined in prison? Or, perhaps the incident when they performed Ḽalitza between him and her took place in prison, and then this case came before Rabbi Akiva? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The Ḽalitza incident took place in prison, and also the case came to Rabbi Akiva when he was in prison.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Yevamot 105

רקקה ולא קראה חליצתה כשירה רקקה ולא חלצה ולא קראה חליצתה פסולה קראה ולא רקקה ולא חלצה אין כאן בית מיחוש

spit and did not recite the verses, her Ḽalitza is valid. If she spat but did not remove the shoe and did not recite the text, her Ḽalitza is disqualified. If she recited the verses but did not spit or did not remove the shoe, there is no doubt that she has done nothing, and her action has no halakhic significance.

מני אילימא רבי אליעזר חלצה ולא רקקה ולא קראה חליצתה כשירה והא אמר רבי אליעזר ככה יעשה דבר שהוא מעשה מעכב אלא פשיטא רבי עקיבא וקתני רקקה ולא חלצה ולא קראה חליצתה פסולה למאן

The Gemara clarifies: Who is the author of the baraita? If we say it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, could it be that he would hold that if she removed the shoe but did not spit or did not recite the verses, her ḥalitza is valid, as stated in the baraita? But didn’t Rabbi Eliezer say: The phrase “so shall it be done” (Deuteronomy 25:9) indicates that any element of the ḥalitza process that constitutes an action is indispensable; therefore spitting is necessary. Rather, it is obvious that the baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, and he teaches at the end of the baraita that if she spat but did not remove the shoe or did not recite the text, her ḥalitza is disqualified. The Gemara clarifies: To whom is the yevama disqualified from marrying after such a ḥalitza?

אילימא לעלמא פשיטא מי הויא חליצה דאישתריא לעלמא אלא לאו לאחין שמע מינה

If we say that Rabbi Akiva means to teach us that she is disqualified from marriage to everyone in the world, this is unnecessary, as it is clear that spitting alone will not permit her to marry any stranger. It is obvious that her Ḽalitza is invalid, as did any Ḽalitza take place in order for her to be permitted to a stranger? Rather, is it not clear that Rabbi Akiva is ruling that she is disqualified from marriage to the brothers? Learn from here that Rabbi Akiva also thinks that spitting alone disqualifies her from marriage to the brothers, which is not in accordance with the previous assumption with regard to his opinion.

ולרבי עקיבא מאי שנא רקיקה ומאי שנא קרייה

The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Akiva’s understanding that only an action performed on the body of the yavam is indispensable for ḥalitza, what is different about spitting and what is different about recitation? Both are not indispensable, so why is it that if she spat but did not remove the shoe she is disqualified from marriage to the brothers, yet if she recited the text but did not remove the shoe her action has no halakhic significance?

קרייה דאיתא בין בתחלה בין בסוף לא מיחלפא ליה רקיקה דבתחלה ליתא ולבסוף איתא מיחלפא ליה ואתו למישרי חלוצה לאחין

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva finds a reason to rabbinically prohibit the woman after spitting, yet holds that the reason is not valid after the recitation alone. The recitation of the verses, which takes place both at the beginning of the process, before the removal of the shoe, and at the end, will not cause him to be confused about a proper ḥalitza, as one who witnesses her recitation knows that she may have only recited the text but has not yet removed the shoe, and therefore it will cause no harm to invalidate her ḥalitza and permit her in levirate marriage to the yevamin. But with regard to spitting, which does not take place at the beginning but takes place at the end, after the removal of the shoe, one who witnesses her spitting might assume that she had already removed the shoe, and he might confuse this woman with a woman who removed the shoe, and if we would allow her to perform levirate marriage after the spitting, they will come to permit a yevama who performed ḥalitza to marry the brothers of the yavam after the ḥalitza. Therefore, Rabbi Akiva finds reason to rabbinically prohibit a woman after spitting, although he doesn’t do so if they merely recited the verses of ḥalitza.

ואיכא דאמרי הכי שלחו ליה יבמה שרקקה תחלוץ ואינה צריכה לרוק פעם אחרת כי ההיא דאתיא לקמיה דרבי אמי הוה יתיב רבי אבא בר ממל קמיה רקקה מקמי דתחלוץ אמר ליה רבי אמי חלוץ לה ושרי לה תיגרא

And there are those who say that this is what they sent to Shmuel’s father: A yevama who spat before removing the shoe shall remove the shoe, and she is not required to spit another time. This is like the incident where a certain woman came before Rabbi Ami for ḥalitza, and Rabbi Abba bar Memel sat before him at the time. She spat before she removed the shoe. Rabbi Ami said to him: Rabbi Abba, tell her to remove the shoe of the yavam, so one may dismiss her case from the court, as she does not require another act of spitting.

אמר ליה רבי אבא והא בעינן מירק הא רקקה לה ותירוק ומה בכך נפיק מיניה חורבא דאי אמרת תיהדר ותירוק אמרי רקיקה קמייתא לית בה מששא ואתי למישרי חלוצה לאחין

Rabbi Abba said to him: But for Ḽalitza we need her to spit. He answered: She already spat. Rabbi Abba said to him: That spitting was done before the removal, so let her spit again, and what would be the problem with that? He answered him: A disaster could be brought out from it, as, if you say she should spit again there will be others who say: The first spitting has no halakhic significance and she is still permitted to the brothers if no spitting was performed subsequently, and they will come to permit a bona fide Ḽalutza, i.e., a yevama who has performed Ḽalitza, to the brothers, because when they see her spitting the first time they will say that she certainly already removed the shoe beforehand.

והא בעינן כסדרן כסדרן לא מעכבא הוא סבר דחויי קא מדחי ליה נפק דק ואשכח דתניא בין שהקדים חליצה לרקיקה בין שהקדים רקיקה לחליצה מה שעשה עשוי

He challenged again: But we require that Ḽalitza be performed in the proper order, as recorded in the Torah. He answered him: Their proper order is not indispensable. Rabbi Abba bar Memel thought: He is merely pushing off my legitimate questions with far-fetched attempts to justify his statements that are not well founded. Afterward, he went out from the house of study and examined the matter and discovered that it was as Rabbi Ami said. As it is taught in a baraita: Whether the removal of the shoe preceded the spitting, as the proper order requires, or whether the spitting preceded the removal of the shoe, what he did is done, i.e., is effective, as the woman is therefore permitted to remarry.

לוי נפק לקרייתא בעו מינה גידמת מהו שתחלוץ יבמה שרקקה דם מהו אבל אגיד לך את הרשום בכתב אמת מכלל דאיכא כתב שאינו אמת

Apropos adherence to instructions given in the Torah, the Gemara relates a story. Levi went out to the villages to teach people Torah. They asked him several questions: Firstly, what is the halakha for an armless woman, may she perform ḥalitza with her teeth? Secondly, what is the halakha if a yevama spat blood instead of saliva, is the ḥalitza valid? Furthermore, they asked with regard to the verse: “But I will declare to you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth” (Daniel 10:21), if by inference, there is writing in Heaven that is not truth.

לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא אמרו ליה מי כתיב וחלצה ביד ומי כתיב וירקה רוק

He did not have an answer at hand to these questions, so he came and asked at the house of study. They said to him in response to the first question: Does it say in the Torah: And she shall remove the shoe by hand? Clearly, she may remove the shoe in any manner and there is no reason to disqualify an armless woman. With regard to the second question, they said: And does it say in the verse: And she shall spit saliva? It merely states: “And she shall spit,” indicating that even if she spits blood the ḥalitza is valid.

אבל אגיד לך הרשום בכתב אמת וכי יש כתב שאינו אמת

With regard to the verse cited in the third question: “But I will declare to you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth,” about which you ask: But is there writing in Heaven that is not truth?

לא קשיא כאן בגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה כאן בגזר דין שאין עמו שבועה

This is not difficult. Here, i.e., a writing of truth, refers to a sentence of judgment accompanied by an oath; this is called “writing of truth” as it cannot ever be canceled. There, i.e., the inferred untruthful writing, refers to a sentence of judgment that is not accompanied by an oath, as it could be canceled if conditions change.

כדרב שמואל בר אמי דאמר רב שמואל בר אמי אמר רבי יונתן מנין לגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה שאינו מתקרע שנאמר לכן נשבעתי לבית עלי אם יתכפר עון בית עלי בזבח ובמנחה עד עולם

This is in accordance with the words of Rav Shmuel bar Ami, as Rav Shmuel bar Ami said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a sentence of judgment accompanied by an oath cannot be torn up? It is as it is stated: “Therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be atoned for with sacrifice nor offering forever” (I Samuel 3:14), which indicates that due to the accompanying oath, the sentence of judgment cannot ever be rescinded, even if offerings of atonement are brought.

אמר רבה בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר הוא בדברי תורה אביי אמר בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר בגמילות חסדים רבה ואביי מדבית עלי קאתו רבה דעסק בתורה חיה ארבעין שנין אביי דעסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים חיה שיתין שנין

Apropos this verse, the Gemara mentions what Rabba said with regard to it: With sacrifice and offering, one from the house of Eli will not be atoned for, but he may gain atonement through words of Torah study. Abaye said: Through sacrifice and offering he may not achieve atonement, but he may gain atonement through acts of kindness. The Gemara relates that Rabba and Abaye themselves descended from the house of Eli. Rabba, who immersed himself primarily in Torah study, lived forty years, while Abaye, who immersed himself both in Torah and acts of kindness, lived sixty years. They both lived longer lives than usual for descendants of the house of Eli, due to their actions.

תנו רבנן משפחה אחת היתה בירושלים שהיו מתים כבן שמנה עשרה שנה באו והודיעו את רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שמא ממשפחת עלי אתם שנאמר וכל מרבית ביתך ימותו אנשים לכו ועסקו בתורה ותחיו הלכו ועסקו בתורה וחיו והיו קורין אותן משפחת יוחנן על שמו

The Gemara relates a similar story from a baraita: The Sages taught: There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose children were dying at around age eighteen. The members of the family came and told Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai about these tragic deaths. He said to them: Perhaps you are from the house of Eli, as it is stated: “All the increase of your house shall die young men” (I Samuel 2:33), which teaches that as soon as they reach full maturity, old enough to be called “men,” they die. Therefore, you must go out and immerse yourselves in Torah, and you will live. They went and immersed themselves in Torah and lived longer lives, and people would call them: The family of Yoḥanan, after his name, as the advice he gave them enabled them to live.

אמר רב שמואל בר אוניא אמר רב מנין לגזר דין של צבור שאינו נחתם אינו נחתם והא כתיב כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני

With regard to a decree of judgment that cannot be torn up, Rav Shmuel bar Unya said that Rav said: From where is it derived that a sentence of judgment upon a community is never sealed? The Gemara expresses surprise: Is it truly not sealed? But isn’t it written: “For although you wash yourself with niter, and take much soap for yourself, yet your iniquity is marked before Me” (Jeremiah 2:22), indicating that there is no longer any atonement for iniquity of a community.

אלא מנין שאפילו נחתם מתקרע שנאמר מי כה׳ אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו והכתיב דרשו ה׳ בהמצאו לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בציבור יחיד

Rather, one must say as follows: From where is it derived that even when a community’s sentence is sealed, it may be torn up as a result of repentance, as it is stated: “For what great nation is there, that has God so close unto them, as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7). The Gemara objects: But isn’t it written in another verse: “Seek the Lord while He may be found, call upon Him when He is near” (Isaiah 55:6), implying that God is not always near and may not always answer whenever we call upon Him? The Gemara answers: This contradiction is not difficult. This verse is concerning an individual who must seek God where He is found, as He is not always equally accessible to answer those who call out to Him. That first verse is concerning a community, for whom He is accessible “whenever we call upon Him.”

אימת אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו עשרה ימים שבין ראש השנה ליום הכפורים

The Gemara asks: For an individual, when is the time that God is close to him? Rav NaḼman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur.

שלחו ליה לאבוה דשמואל יבמה שרקקה דם תחלוץ לפי שאי אפשר לדם בלא צחצוח רוק

The Gemara returns to the questions the villagers asked Levi: The Sages in Eretz Yisrael sent this halakha to Shmuel’s father: A yevama who spat blood shall remove the shoe, because it is not possible that blood came out of her mouth without any trace of saliva, and she fulfills her obligation through this saliva.

מיתיבי יכול יהא דם היוצא מפיו ומפי האמה טמא תלמוד לומר זובו טמא ואין דם היוצא מפיו ומפי האמה טמא אלא טהור

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita that states with regard to a zav: One might have thought that blood that issues from his mouth or from the opening of his genital organ should be ritually impure, like any of the secretions that issue from a zav e.g., saliva and urine; therefore, the verse states: “His discharge is impure” (Leviticus 15:2), to teach: Only his white, pus-like discharge and other secretions similar to it are ritually impure, but blood that issues from his mouth or from his genital organ is not impure, but it is pure. And from here one may learn that blood can issue from the mouth without saliva, for if it was as they said, that all spittle necessarily contains saliva, the blood in the spittle would be ritually impure due to the saliva.

לא קשיא כאן במוצצת כאן בשותת

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here, where it said that blood cannot issue from the mouth without saliva, it is referring to a woman who sucks up the blood in her mouth before spitting it out, in which case there will certainly be some saliva in the mouth. There, it is referring to blood that was flowing by itself from an oral wound of the zav, in which case the spittle of blood might contain no saliva in it at all.

חרש שנחלץ וכו׳

It was taught in the mishna: if a deaf-mute man underwent Ḽalitza or a deaf-mute woman performed Ḽalitza, or if an adult woman performs Ḽalitza with a male minor, her Ḽalitza is invalid.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר אבל חכמים אומרים אין חליצת קטן כלום

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: This teaching of the mishna with regard to a minor is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that such a ḥalitza has significance in that it disqualifies a subsequent levirate marriage, but it is insufficient to permit the woman to marry a stranger. But the Rabbis say: The ḥalitza of a male minor isn’t significant of anything, as she is permitted to one of the brothers in levirate marriage as one who no ḥalitza was performed at all.

קטנה שחלצה וכו׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר דאמר איש כתוב בפרשה ומקשינן אשה לאיש

§ It was taught in the mishna: If a female minor performed ḥalitza, she must perform ḥalitza a second time once she becomes an adult, and if she does not, her first ḥalitza is invalid. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who said: “Man” is written in the Torah portion about ḥalitza: “And if the man does not wish” (Deuteronomy 25:7), implying an adult must perform ḥalitza, and we juxtapose and compare a woman with a man, indicating that the woman must also be an adult at the time of ḥalitza.

אבל חכמים אומרים איש כתיב בפרשה אשה בין גדולה בין קטנה

But the Rabbis say: “Man” is written in this Torah portion, which indicates that an adult male must perform ḥalitza, but with respect to the woman who removes the shoe, since the term woman is not used to describe her, but rather the more general term yevama is written, as the continuation of the above-mentioned verse says: “To take his yevama” (Deuteronomy 25:9), she may be either an adult or a female minor.

מאן חכמים רבי יוסי היא דרבי חייא ורבי שמעון בר רבי הוו יתבי פתח חד מינייהו ואמר המתפלל צריך שיתן עיניו למטה שנאמר והיו עיני ולבי שם כל הימים

The Gemara asks: Who are these Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Meir? The Gemara answers: It is Rabbi Yosei, as it seems from this incident: As, Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi were sitting outside the house of study, immersed in Torah learning. One of them began and said: One who prays must direct his gaze downward while praying, as it is stated by God with regard to the Holy Temple: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually” (I Kings 9:3), meaning: The Divine Presence rests in the Eretz Yisrael, and one must direct his gaze to the sacred land when praying.

וחד אמר עיניו למעלה שנאמר נשא לבבנו אל כפים אדהכי אתא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לגבייהו אמר להו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה בתפלה אמר להו כך אמר אבא המתפלל צריך שיתן עיניו למטה ולבו למעלה כדי שיתקיימו שני מקראות הללו

And one of them said he must direct his eyes upward, because it is stated: “Let us lift our hearts with our hands toward God in Heaven” (Lamentations 3:41). In the meantime, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, came beside them. He said to them: What are you dealing with? They said to him: With prayer, as we are debating the proper posture for prayer. He said to them: My father, Rabbi Yosei, said as follows: One who prays must direct his eyes downward and his heart upward, in order to fulfill both of these verses.

אדהכי אתא רבי למתיבתא אינהו דהוו קלילי יתיבו בדוכתייהו רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי אגב יוקריה הוה מפסע ואזיל

In the meantime, while they were talking, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the house of study and everyone quickly went to sit in their assigned places. Those who were light-footed hurried and sat in their places. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, due to his being very heavy, was stepping and walking slowly, as everyone was already sitting in his place on the ground, requiring him to pass over their heads in order to get to his place.

אמר ליה אבדן מי הוא זה שמפסע על ראשי עם קדוש אמר ליה אני ישמעאל ברבי יוסי שבאתי ללמוד תורה מרבי אמר ליה וכי אתה הגון ללמוד תורה מרבי

Abdon, the shortened form of the name of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s student and attendant, Abba Yudan, said to him: Who is that individual stepping over the heads of a sacred people, for it appeared to him as an act of disrespect to those sitting that Rabbi Yishmael stepped over their heads. He said to him: I am Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who came to learn Torah from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Abdon said to him: But are you fit to learn Torah from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, for it seems that you are showing disrespect to others in order to accomplish it?

אמר ליה וכי משה היה הגון ללמוד תורה מפי הגבורה אמר ליה וכי משה אתה אמר ליה וכי רבך אלהים הוא אמר רב יוסף שקליה רבי למטרפסיה דקאמר ליה רבך ולא רבי

He said to him: Was Moses fit to learn Torah from the mouth of the Almighty? Rather, it is not necessary that the student be as dignified as his teacher. He said to him: And are you Moses? Rabbi Yishmael said to him: And is your teacher God? Rav Yosef said about this part of the story: Here Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi received his retribution [mittarpesei] for remaining silent during this discussion and not reprimanding his student for humiliating Rabbi Yishmael. And what is his retribution? When Rabbi Yishmael spoke to Abdon, he said your teacher, and not my teacher, implying that he did not accept Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s authority upon himself.

אדהכי אתיא יבמה לקמיה דרבי אמר ליה רבי לאבדן פוק בדקה לבתר דנפק אמר ליה רבי ישמעאל כך אמר אבא איש כתוב בפרשה אבל אשה בין גדולה בין קטנה

In the meantime, a yevama came before Rabbi, and she was a minor close to the age of maturity who had performed ḥalitza, but it was not clear whether she had already reached the age of maturity necessary to validate her ḥalitza. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Abdon: Go and check to see if she has already reached maturity. After Abdon left, Rabbi Yishmael said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: My father, Rabbi Yosei, said as follows: “Man” is written in the Torah portion of ḥalitza, but the woman may be either an adult woman or a female minor.

אמר ליה תא לא צריכת כבר הורה זקן קמפסע אבדן ואתי אמר ליה רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי מי שצריך לו עם קדוש יפסע על ראשי עם קדוש מי שאין צריך לו עם קדוש היאך יפסע על ראשי עם קדוש

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Abdon: Come back. You do not need to check, as the Elder, Rabbi Yosei, has already ruled that a minor can perform Ḽalitza, and therefore no further examination is required. Abdon was stepping and coming over the heads of the others in order to return to his place. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to him: One upon whom a holy people depends may step over the heads of a holy people. But one upon whom a holy people does not depend, as there is no longer a need for Abdon to examination the woman, how can he step over the heads of a holy people?

אמר ליה רבי לאבדן קום בדוכתיך תאנא באותה שעה נצטרע אבדן וטבעו שני בניו ומאנו שתי כלותיו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק בריך רחמנא דכספיה לאבדן בהאי עלמא

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Abdon: Stand in your place and do not go any further. It was taught: At that moment Abdon was afflicted with leprosy as a punishment for insulting Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and two of his sons who were recently married drowned, and his two daughters-in-law, who were minors married to those sons, made declarations of refusal and annulled their marriages. Rav NaḼman bar YitzḼak said: Blessed is the Merciful One, Who shames Abdon in this world, for this prevents him from being punished further in the World-to-Come, as all his iniquities have been forgiven through this suffering.

אמר רבי אמי מדבריו של ברבי נלמוד קטנה חולצת בפעוטות רבא אמר עד שתגיע לעונת נדרים והלכתא עד שתביא שתי שערות

Rabbi Ami said: From the words of the great man, Rabbi Yosei, let us learn: A female minor performs Ḽalitza even as a young child, at age six or seven. Rava said: She may not perform Ḽalitza until she reaches the age of vows as an eleven-year-old, when she has enough intellectual capacity to understand the meaning of a vow. However, the Gemara concludes: And the halakha is: She may not perform Ḽalitza until she has two pubic hairs.

חלצה בשנים וכו׳ אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג והא אמר רב נחמן חדא זימנא דאמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן חליצה בשלשה

It was taught in the mishna: If she performed ḥalitza before two or three people, and one of them is found to be disqualified to serve as a judge, Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yoḥanan the Cobbler validate it. Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: The halakha does not follow this pair who validate such a case. The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rav Naḥman already say this same ruling one time before? As Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: Ḥalitza must be conducted before three people, indicating that there must be no fewer than three valid judges.

צריכי דאי איתמר הך קמייתא הוה אמינא הני מילי לכתחילה אבל דיעבד אפילו תרי קא משמע לן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג ואי אשמועינן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג אלא כתנא קמא הוה אמינא דיעבד אבל לכתחילה ליבעי חמשה צריכא

The Gemara answers: Both are necessary, for if only the first one, stating that ḥalitza must be before three judges, were stated, I would say: This applies ab initio, but after the fact even two is acceptable. Therefore, he teaches us that the halakha does not follow this pair of Sages, and her ḥalitza before two people is invalid even after the fact. And vice versa: If he would have told us only that the halakha does not follow this pair, but rather the first tanna, I would say that it is valid if performed before three people only after the fact, but they must require five people ab initio, in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion. Therefore it is necessary to say both of these statements.

מעשה שחלצו כו׳ בינו לבינה מי ידענא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ועדים רואין אותו מבחוץ

§ A story is told in the mishna about an incident in which a couple once performed Ḽalitza between themselves in private while alone in prison, and the case later came before Rabbi Akiva and he validated it. The Gemara asks: How can we know what happened between him and her? There was no testimony to confirm it, and how can we be certain that the Ḽalitza was done properly to validate it? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: And the Ḽalitza was validated because there were witnesses who saw them from outside the prison, who testified that the Ḽalitza was performed properly.

איבעיא להו מעשה שחלצו בינו לבינה אבראי ובא מעשה לפני רבי עקיבא בבית האסורין או דלמא מעשה שחלצו בינו לבינה בבית האסורין אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בבית האסורין היה מעשה ולבית האסורין בא מעשה

A dilemma was raised before the students in the house of study with regard to the incident recorded in the mishna in which a private Ḽalitza performed in a prison was validated: Did the incident in which they performed Ḽalitza between him and her privately actually take place outside in a different locale, and the reference to prison is that the case came before Rabbi Akiva when he was confined in prison? Or, perhaps the incident when they performed Ḽalitza between him and her took place in prison, and then this case came before Rabbi Akiva? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The Ḽalitza incident took place in prison, and also the case came to Rabbi Akiva when he was in prison.

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