Skip to content

July 29, 2021 | כ׳ באב תשפ״א | TODAY'S DAF: Sukkah 22

Today's Daf Yomi

June 25, 2021 | ט״ו בתמוז תשפ״א

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in memory of her beloved father, Mitchell Cohen, Michael ben Shraga Faivel haLevi, whose 27th yahrzeit falls on 16 Tammuz. He was kind, sweet and funny, and had a big open heart for klal Yisrael v'chol yoshvei tevel.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

Yoma 75

Today’s daf is sponsored by Becki Goldstein “following a family Shabbat Chukat of inspiring divrai torah and uplifting zmirot, celebrating my son Oryahel’s 40th birthday, a siyum masechet by his 11 year old son and the graduation from yeshiva of 2 grandsons. זוכה לראות בנים ובני בנים עוסקים בתורה. Thank you to Rabbanit Michelle who enriches our daf yomi by making it relevant to our daily lives and encouraging a deepening chibur, connection, with Torah and Hashem.” And by Julie Mendelsohn for a refuah shleima to Yosef Azriel ben Chaya Michal. Yosef, a teenager, was critically injured at Har Meron on Lag B’omer, and has not yet regained consciousness. The power of this group is very strong so let’s all pray for his complete recovery.     

The Gemara brings up a number of disagreements between Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi regarding a number of verses (as a continuation of the disagreement between them in the verses regarding the manna). The last of them deals with the punishments given to the serpent and the woman by God. Rav and Shmuel disagree on the verse “We remembered the daga“, the complaint of the children of Israel in the wilderness about the manna and how much better it was in Egypt – are these really fish or forbidden relations? The gemara brings several drashot regarding the manna – its nature, special qualities (miraculous nature), and place of descent. Several drashot are brought regarding the quail that was brought after the Jews complained about not having meat. How was this a punishment? In many of the drashot, there is a reference to the differences between the righteous, the mediocre, and the wicked and how they each received different treatment from God.

עינו בכוסו עריות כולן דומות עליו כמישור וחד אמר כל הנותן עינו בכוסו כל העולם כולו דומה עליו כמישור

his eye on his cup, i.e., is habitually drunk, all the prohibitions of those with whom relations are forbidden seem to him like level [mishor] ground. He is unaware of the pitfalls of sin and continues walking along a twisted and dangerous path. And one said: Whoever casts his eye on his cup, the whole world seems to him like level [mishor] ground. Not only is such a person unconcerned by forbidden sexual relations, but all other prohibitions, e.g., monetary prohibitions, also seem permitted in his eyes.

דאגה בלב איש ישחנה רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר ישחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים

§ The Gemara explains another verse in Proverbs: “If there is care in a man’s heart, let him quash it [yashḥena]” (Proverbs 12:25). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi dispute the verse’s meaning. One said: He should forcefully push it [yasḥena] out of his mind. One who worries should banish his concerns from his thoughts. And one said: It means he should tell [yesiḥena] others his concerns, which will lower his anxiety.

ונחש עפר לחמו רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר אפילו אוכל כל מעדני עולם טועם בהם טעם עפר וחד אמר אפילו אוכל כל מעדני עולם אין דעתו מיושבת עליו עד שיאכל עפר

§ Another verse states: “And dust shall be the serpent’s food” (Isaiah 65:25). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi dispute the verse’s meaning. One said: Even if the serpent eats all the delicacies in the world, they will still taste like dust. And one said: Even if it eats all the delicacies in the world, its mind is unsettled until it also eats some dust.

תניא אמר רבי יוסי בוא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מקניט את חבירו יורד עמו לחייו אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא אינו כן קלל את הנחש עולה לגג מזונותיו עמו יורד למטה מזונותיו עמו

With regard to the same topic, it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei said: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is different than the attribute of flesh and blood. The attribute of flesh and blood is that one who seeks to provoke another harasses him in all aspects of his life, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act in this way. He cursed the serpent and what happened? When the serpent goes up to the roof its food is with it, and when it comes down its food is with it. Consequently, the curse that it suffers does not ruin its life but rather benefits it.

קלל את כנען אוכל מה שרבו אוכל ושותה מה שרבו שותה קלל את האשה הכל רצין אחריה קלל את האדמה הכל ניזונין הימנה

Similarly, He cursed Canaan that he should be the servant of servants, but he benefits somewhat from this. He eats what his master eats, and drinks what his master drinks, and does not worry like a free man does. He cursed the woman and everyone pursues her to marry her. He cursed the land after the sin of Adam and Eve, yet everyone is sustained from it. Even when God is angry, He does not punish His creations severely.

זכרנו את הדגה אשר נאכל במצרים חנם רב ושמואל חד אמר דגים וחד אמר עריות מאן דאמר דגים דכתיב נאכל ומאן דאמר עריות דכתיב חנם

The Gemara cites more verses that pertain to the same issue. Rav and Shmuel disagree with regard to the following verse: “We remember the fish which we ate in Egypt for nothing” (Numbers 11:5). One said: The verse is referring literally to fish. And one said: The verse is referring to incestuous relations that the Torah had not yet forbidden. The people cried once the Torah prohibited certain relatives to them. The Gemara explains: The one who said that the verse is referring to fish bases him explanation on the verse, as it is written “which we ate.” This means what they actually ate. And the one who said that the verse is referring to forbidden sexual relations also bases his explanation on the verse, as it is written “for nothing.” Certainly, the people did not actually eat fish for free.

ולמאן דאמר עריות הא כתיב נאכל לישנא מעליא נקט דכתיב אכלה ומחתה פיה ואמרה לא פעלתי און ולמאן דאמר דגים מאי חנם דהוו מייתין להו מהפקירא דאמר מר כשהיו ישראל שואבין מים הקדוש ברוך הוא מזמין להם בתוך המים דגים קטנים בכדיהן

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who said that it is referring to forbidden relations, but isn’t it written “which we ate”? The Gemara answers: The Torah employed a euphemistic expression. Eating is used as a euphemism for sexual relations, as it is written: “So is the way of an adulterous woman; she eats, and wipes her mouth, and says I have done no wickedness” (Proverbs 30:20). And according to the one who said it is referring to fish, what is the meaning of the phrase “for nothing”? The people brought the fish from the river, which was ownerless property, since the Egyptians obviously would not have given them free food. The Master said: When the Jews drew water from the river, the Holy One, Blessed be He, prepared little fish for them in the water. They swam into their jugs.

בשלמא למאן דאמר דגים אבל עריות לא פריצי בהו היינו דכתב גן נעול אחותי כלה [גו׳] אלא למאן דאמר עריות מאי מעין חתום מהנך דאסירין לא פריצי בהו

The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the one who said that they cried over actual fish but were not promiscuous in having forbidden relations in Egypt, this is what is written to praise the Jewish people: “A garden enclosed is my sister the bride; a locked fountain, a sealed spring” (Song of Songs 4:12). This figurative language teaches that Jewish women are chaste. However, according to the one who said the Jewish people cried over forbidden sexual relations, what does the phrase “a sealed spring” mean? The Gemara answers: It means that they were not promiscuous with those relatives who were already forbidden to them. In Egypt, the Jewish people observed the laws of forbidden sexual relations that are included in the seven Noahide commandments. In the desert, they cried over the additional prohibitions imposed when the Torah was given.

בשלמא למאן דאמר עריות היינו דכתיב וישמע משה את העם בוכה למשפחותיו על עסקי משפחותיו שנאסרו להם לשכב אצלם אלא למאן דאמר דגים מאי בוכה למשפחותיו הא והא הואי

The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the one who said that they cried over the new prohibitions of forbidden sexual relations, this is as it is written: “And Moses heard the people weeping for their families” (Numbers 11:10). They cried with regard to the issue of their families, because now it became prohibited for them to cohabit with them. But according to the one who says that they cried over fish what does “weeping for their families” mean? The Gemara answers: Both this and that happened. They cried about the laws of forbidden sexual relations, and they also cried because they no longer had the fish of Egypt.

את הקשואים ואת האבטיחים רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר טעם כל המינין טעמו במן טעם חמשת המינין הללו לא טעמו בו וחד אמר טעם כל המינין טעמו טעמן וממשן והללו טעמן ולא ממשן

The Gemara returns to the same verse: It states: “We remember…the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic” (Numbers 11:5). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi debate the verse’s meaning. One said: They tasted the flavor of all types of food in the manna, but they cried because they could not taste the tastes of these five foods that they mentioned. And one said: They tasted the flavor of all types of food, as well as their textures. The sensation was so strong that it seemed to them like they were eating those very foods. However, with the foods they listed, the people tasted only their flavor but not their texture.

(והמן) כזרע גד לבן (וטעמו) אמר רבי אסי עגול כגידא ולבן כמרגלית (תניא נמי הכי) גד שדומה לזרע פשתן בגבעולין

With regard to the manna, the Torah further states: “And it was white [lavan] like coriander seed; and its flavor was like wafers made of honey” (Exodus 16:31). The Gemara questions this, since coriander is brown, not white. Rabbi Asi said: The manna was round like coriander seed but white like a pearl. This was also taught in a baraita: Coriander [gad] is so named because it is similar to flax seeds on their stalks, which are bound [agud] in a bundle.

אחרים אומרים גד שדומה להגדה שמושכת לבו של אדם כמים תניא אידך גד שמגיד להם לישראל אי בן תשעה לראשון ואי בן שבעה לאחרון

Others say: It was called coriander [gad] because it is similar to a tale [haggada], which draws a person’s heart toward it, just like water, which is essential for life, draws one. It was taught in another baraita: Why is it called gad? Because it told [maggid] the Jewish people the answer to issues of uncertainty, such as the paternity of a baby. If a woman remarries within two months after her divorce or the death of her husband and gives birth seven months after her remarriage, it is unclear if the baby gestated for seven months and is the son of the second husband or for nine months and is the son of the first husband. The manna would tell them if the baby was born after nine months and belongs to the first husband, or if the baby was born after seven months and belongs to the second husband. Since the manna was collected by each family based on the number of its biological members, the manna established the baby’s paternity.

לבן שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל

The manna was called white because it whitened Israel’s sins. The people feared that if they sinned the manna would not continue to fall. Consequently, they devoted themselves to introspection and repentance.

תניא רבי יוסי אומר כשם שהנביא היה מגיד להם לישראל מה שבחורין ומה שבסדקין כך המן מגיד להם לישראל מה שבחורין ומה שבסדקין כיצד שנים שבאו לפני משה לדין זה אומר עבדי גנבת וזה אומר אתה מכרתו לי אמר להם משה לבוקר משפט למחר אם נמצא עומרו בבית רבו ראשון בידוע שזה גנבו אם נמצא עומרו בבית רבו שני בידוע שזה מכרו לו

Similarly, it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Just like the prophet would tell the Jewish people what was in the holes and what was in the cracks of their souls, highlighting the sins of the people, so too, the manna clarified for Israel what was in the holes and what was in the cracks. How so? If two people came before Moses for a judgment, one saying: You stole my slave, and the other one saying: I did not steal him, rather you sold him to me, Moses would say to them: In the morning there will be a judgment. How was the matter resolved? If on the following day the slave found his omer of manna in his first master’s house, it would be clear that he was stolen, because the manna still came to the first owner. And if on the following day he found his omer of manna in his second master’s house, it would be clear that he had been sold.

וכן איש ואשה שבאו לפני משה לדין זה אומר היא סרחה עלי והיא אומרת הוא סרח עלי אמר להם משה לבקר משפט למחר אם נמצא עומרה בבית בעלה בידוע שהיא סרחה עליו נמצא עומרה בבית אביה בידוע שהוא סרח עליה

Similarly, if a man and a woman came to Moses for a judgment, he saying: She sinned against me, and therefore I may divorce her and am not obligated to pay her divorce settlement, and she saying: He sinned against me and therefore I am entitled to the full settlement from the marriage contract, Moses would say to them: In the morning there will be a judgment. The following day, if her omer of manna was found in her husband’s house, it would be clear that she sinned against him. The fact that her nourishment was given to his household signifies the fact that he has respected her appropriately and is worthy of nourishing her. If her omer of manna was found in her father’s house, it would be clear that he sinned against her. Her nourishment has not been given to his household, signifying that he has been disrespectful to her and is not worthy of nourishing her.

כתיב וברדת הטל על המחנה לילה [ירד המן עליו] וכתיב ויצא העם ולקטו וכתיב שטו העם ולקטו הא כיצד צדיקים ירד על פתח בתיהם בינונים יצאו ולקטו רשעים שטו ולקטו

§ The Gemara continues to discuss the manna: It is written: “And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9). And it is written: “And the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day” (Exodus 16:4). And it is written: “The people went about and gathered it” (Numbers 11:8). How can these texts be reconciled? For the righteous, the manna fell at the opening of their homes. They expended no effort at all. The average people went out of the camp and gathered what fell there. The wicked had to go about farther to gather.

כתיב לחם וכתיב עוגות וכתיב וטחנו הא כיצד צדיקים לחם בינונים עוגות רשעים טחנו בריחים

With regard to the manna, it is written “bread” (Exodus 16:4); and it is written “cakes” (Numbers 11:8); and it is also written “and ground it in mills,” (Numbers 11:8), implying that it was neither bread nor a cake. How can these texts be reconciled? For the righteous, it fell as baked bread; for average people, it fell as unbaked cakes; for the wicked it came in an unprocessed form and consequently they ground it in a mill.

או דכו במדוכה אמר רבי יהודה אמר רב ואיתימא רבי חמא ברבי חנינא מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן תכשיטי נשים דבר שנידוך במדוכה ובשלו בפרור אמר רבי חמא מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן ציקי קדירה

The verse states: “Or beat it in a mortar” (Numbers 11:8). Rabbi Yehuda said that Rav said, and some say it was Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: This teaches that women’s perfumes fell for the Jewish people with the manna because they are an item that is beaten in a mortar. The verse continues: “And cooked it in a pot” (Numbers 11:8). Rabbi Ḥama said: This teaches that cooking spices fell for the Jewish people with the manna.

והם הביאו אליו עוד נדבה בבקר בבקר מאי בבקר בבקר אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מדבר שירד להם בבקר בבקר מלמד שירדו להם לישראל אבנים טובות ומרגליות עם המןוהנשיאים הביאו את אבני השהם תנא נשיאים ממש וכן הוא אומר נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין

§ With regard to donations for the Tabernacle, the verse states: “And they brought yet to him free-will offerings every morning” (Exodus 36:3). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of “every morning”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: They brought donations from that which fell every morning with the manna. This teaches that pearls and precious stones fell for the Israelites with the manna. It states: “And the rulers [nesi’im] brought the onyx [shoham] stones” (Exodus 35:27). A tanna taught that the word nesi’im means actual clouds brought them. As it states: “As clouds [nesi’im] and wind without rain so is he that boasts himself of a false gift” (Proverbs 25:14). We learn from this that the precious stones fell from the clouds with the manna.

והיה טעמו כטעם לשד השמן אמר רבי אבהו מה שד זה תינוק טועם בה כמה טעמים אף המן כל זמן שישראל אוכלין אותו מוצאין בו כמה טעמים איכא דאמרי לשד ממש מה שד זה מתהפך לכמה גוונין אף המן מתהפך לכמה טעמים

It was also said with regard to the manna: “And its taste was as the taste of a cake [shad] baked with oil [hashamen]” (Numbers 11:8). Rabbi Abbahu said: Shad means breast. Just as a baby tastes different flavors from the breast, since the taste of the milk changes somewhat depending on what foods his mother eats, so too with the manna, every time that the Jewish people ate the manna, they found in it many different flavors, based on their preferences. There are those who say that the word is written as shed and means literally a demon. How so? Just as a demon changes into different forms and colors, so too, the manna changed into different flavors.

ויאמר משה בתת ה׳ לכם בערב בשר לאכול ולחם בבקר לשבוע תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה בשר ששאלו שלא כהוגן ניתן להם שלא כהוגן

The verse states: “And Moses said: This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat, and in the morning bread to the full” (Exodus 16:8). A tanna taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: The meat that the Jewish people asked for inappropriately, since they had the manna and did not need meat, was given to them inappropriately, in a way that was unpleasant; they were punished afterward (Rabbeinu Elyakim).

לחם ששאלו כהוגן ניתן להם כהוגן מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בלילה והאמר אביי האי מאן דאית ליה סעודתא לא לאכליה אלא ביממא כעין יממא קא אמרינן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב בתחלה היו ישראל דומין כתרנגולים שמנקרין באשפה עד שבא משה וקבע להם זמן סעודה

However, bread, which is essential, they asked for appropriately. Therefore, it was given to them appropriately, in the morning, when there was time to prepare it. The Gemara comments: From here, the Torah teaches etiquette, that it is proper to eat meat only at night, as Moses said to the children of Israel: “This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat” (Exodus 16:8). The Gemara asks: But didn’t Abaye say that someone who has a meal should eat it only in the day? The Gemara answers: We mean to say: Like day. It is not necessary to eat the food in the daytime, as long as one can see what he eats. Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: At the beginning, the Jewish people were like chickens pecking at the garbage; any time there was food they grabbed it and ate it, until Moses came and set specific times to eat, as the verse implies. He set mealtimes for them in the morning and in the evening.

הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם וכתיב עד חדש ימים הא כיצד בינונים לאלתר מתו רשעים מצטערין והולכין עד חדש ימים

It was stated with regard to the quail: “While the meat was yet between their teeth, before it was chewed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people” (Numbers 11:33), which means that they died immediately. However, it also states: “You shall not eat it for only one day…but for an entire month until it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you” (Numbers 11:19–20). How can these texts be reconciled? The average people died immediately, but the wicked continued to suffer in pain for a month and then died.

וישטחו אמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי וישטחו אלא וישחטו מלמד שנתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שחיטה שטוח תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה אל תיקרי שטוח אלא שחוט מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן דבר שטעון שחיטה אמר רבי וכי מכאן אתה למד והלא כבר נאמר וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול (הים) עוף כנף

The verse states: “And they spread them [vayishteḥu] out for themselves round about the camp” (Numbers 11:32). Reish Lakish said: Do not read it as vayishteḥu. Rather, read it as vayishḥatu. This teaches that the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, were liable to receive the punishment of slaughter due to their demand. The verse states: “Spread out [shato’aḥ]” (Numbers 11:32). A tanna taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Do not read it as shato’aḥ but as shaḥot. This teaches that other food fell for the Jewish people along with the manna. The food was something that requires ritual slaughtering [sheḥita], referring to birds. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: And do you learn this from here? Do we need to alter the word for this purpose? Isn’t it already stated explicitly: “And he rained meat upon them like dust, and winged birds like the sand of the seas” (Psalms 78:27)?

ותניא רבי אומר וזבחת כאשר צויתיך מלמד שנצטוה משה על הושט ועל הקנה על רוב אחד בעוף ועל רוב שנים בבהמה אלא מה תלמוד לומר שטוח מלמד שירד להם משטיחין משטיחין

And it was taught in a related baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The verse states: “Then you shall slaughter of your herd and of your flock which the Lord has given you, as I have commanded you” (Deuteronomy 12:21). This teaches that Moses was commanded in the laws of ritual slaughter to cut the gullet and the windpipe in the neck. And with a bird one must cut through the majority of one pipe, and with an animal one must cut through the majority of both pipes. Moses was commanded these laws along with the other details of slaughtering. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the word shatoaḥ does not teach us about ritual slaughter. Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states: Shatoaḥ? It teaches that the manna fell in layers [mashtiḥin] in a straight row.

כתיב לחם וכתיב שמן וכתיב דבש אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא לנערים לחם לזקנים שמן לתינוקות דבש

With regard to the manna, it is written “bread” (Exodus 16:4), and it is written “oil” (Numbers 11:8), and it is written “honey” (Exodus 16:31). How can we reconcile these verses? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: For the youth it was like bread, for the elderly it was like oil, and for the children it was like honey. Each received what was appropriate.

כתיב שליו וקרינן סליו אמר רבי חנינא צדיקים אוכלין אותו בשלוה רשעים אוכלין אותו ודומה להן כסילוין

The Gemara comments further: The word quail is written shlav, with the letter shin, but we read it as slav, with the letter samekh. What does this teach us? Rabbi Ḥanina said: The righteous eat it in peace [shalva], based on the written form of the word; whereas the wicked eat it, and it seems to them like thorns [silvin], based on the way the word is read.

אמר רב חנן בר רבא ארבעה מיני סליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיבלי ופסיוני ושליו מעליא דכולהו שיכלי גריעא דכולהו שליו והוי כציפורתא ומותבינן לה בתנורא ותפח והוה מלי תנורא ומסקינן ליה אתליסר ריפי ואחרונה אינה נאכלת אלא על ידי תערובת

Furthermore, with regard to the quail: Rav Ḥanan bar Rava said: There are four types of quail and these are they: Sikhli, and kivli, and pasyoni, and slav. The best tasting of all is the sikhli. The worst of all is the slav. The Gemara relates how tasty even the quail was that the Jews ate in the desert: It was as small as a sparrow, and they would place it in the oven to roast, and it expanded until it filled the entire oven. They would place it upon thirteen loaves of bread, and even the last loaf on the bottom could be eaten only when mixed with other food, due to all the fat it had absorbed from the quail.

רב יהודה משתכח ליה בי דני רב חסדא משתכח ליה בי ציבי רבא מייתי ליה אריסיה כל יומא יומא חד לא אייתי אמר מאי האי סליק לאיגרא שמעיה לינוקא דקאמר שמעתי ותרגז בטני אמר שמע מניה נח נפשיה דרב חסדא ובדיל רבה אכיל תלמידא

It is told that Rav Yehuda found quail among his barrels of wine, and Rav Ḥisda found quail among logs of wood in his storeroom. Every day Rava’s sharecropper brought him a quail that he found in his fields. One day, he did not bring him one because he failed to find any. Rava said to himself: What is this, why is today different? He went up to the roof to think about it. He heard a child say the verse: “When I heard, my innards trembled, my lips quivered at the voice, rottenness enters into my bones, and I tremble where I stand; that I should wait for the day of trouble when he comes up against the people that he invades” (Habakkuk 3:16). Rava said: Learn from this that Rav Ḥisda has died. I am therefore not worthy to receive the quail anymore, since it is on account of the teacher that the student eats. When Rav Ḥisda was alive, Rava received the quail due to Rav Ḥisda’s merit; now that he had died, Rava was not worthy to receive the quail.

כתיב ותעל שכבת הטל וכתיב וברדת הטל אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא טל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה ודומה כמו שמונח בקופסא

§ Furthermore, with regard to the manna it is written: “And when the layer of dew lifted, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a fine flaky substance, as fine as frost on the ground” (Exodus 16:14), indicating that the dew covered the manna. And it is written:And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9), meaning that the manna fell on top of the dew. How can these verses be reconciled? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: There was dew above and dew below, with the manna in between, and the manna appeared as if it were placed in a box [kufsa] of dew.

דק מחוספס אמר ריש לקיש דבר שנימוח על פיסת היד רבי יוחנן אמר דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים מחוספס טובא הוי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מחספס כתיב

The verse describes the manna as “a fine flaky [meḥuspas] substance” (Exodus 16:14). Reish Lakish said: Meḥuspas means it was a substance that dissolved [maḥ] on the palm [pas] of the hand. Since it was so fine, it dissolved upon contact. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It was a substance that was absorbed in all 248 limbs, the numerical equivalent of the word meḥuspas. The Gemara expresses surprise at this: If one calculates the value of the letters in the word meḥuspas, it is more, totaling 254. Rabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Meḥuspas is written in the Torah without the letter vav. Therefore, the total is exactly 248.

תנו רבנן לחם אבירים אכל איש לחם שמלאכי השרת אוכלין אותו דברי רבי עקיבא וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם צאו ואמרו לו לעקיבא עקיבא טעית וכי מלאכי השרת אוכלין לחם והלא כבר נאמר לחם לא אכלתי ומים לא שתיתי אלא מה אני מקיים אבירים לחם שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים

The Sages taught: The Torah states: “And He caused manna to rain upon them for food, and He gave them of the grain of heaven. Man did eat the bread of the mighty [abirim]” (Psalms 78:24–25). “Bread of the mighty” is bread that the ministering angels eat; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them to go and tell Akiva: Akiva you have erred. Do the ministering angels eat bread? It is already stated about Moses, when he ascended on high: “Bread I did not eat and water I did not drink” (Deuteronomy 9:9). If even a man who ascends on high does not need to eat, certainly the ministering angels do not need to eat. Rather, how do I establish the meaning of the word abirim? It can be explained as bread that was absorbed into all 248 limbs [eivarim], so that there was no waste.

אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך (ויצאת שמה חוץ) דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין אותן להם

The Gemara asks: But if so, how do I establish the verses: “And you shall have a spade among your weapons, and it shall be that when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement” (Deuteronomy 23:14) and “You shall have a place also outside the camp where you can relieve yourself ” (Deuteronomy 23:13). From here we learn that there was waste in their bowels, as they had to leave the camp to relieve themselves. The Gemara explains: This waste was not a byproduct of the manna; it was from food items that the gentile merchants sold them.

רבי אלעזר בן פרטא אומר אף דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין להן מן מפיגן אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך לאחר שסרחו אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא אני אמרתי יהיו כמלאכי השרת עכשיו אני מטריח אותם שלש פרסאות

Rabbi Elazar ben Perata disagrees and says: The manna caused even items that the gentile merchants sold them to be completely digested, so that even other food that they ate produced no waste. But then how do I establish the verse: “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? After they sinned, the manna was not as effective. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I initially said that they would be like ministering angels who do not produce waste; now I will trouble them to walk three parasangs to leave the camp in order to relieve themselves.

דכתיב ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות עד אבל השטים ואמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא תלתא פרסי ותנא כשנפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהן ולא לצדדיהן אלא לאחוריהן

How do we know that the Israelite camp was three parasangs? As it is written: “And they camped by the Jordan from Beth-Jeshimoth to Abel-shittim” (Numbers 33:49), and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw that site and it was three parasangs in length. And a baraita taught: When the Jews relieved themselves in the desert, they did not relieve themselves ahead of themselves, i.e., in the direction of their travel, nor to the side of the camp, but behind the camp, in a place that they had already traveled. Consequently, those near the front of the camp had to walk a distance of three parasangs from their homes to leave the camp.

ועתה נפשנו יבשה אין כל אמרו עתיד מן זה שתיפח במעיהם כלום יש ילוד אשה שמכניס ואינו מוציא

Furthermore, with regard to the manna, the verse states Israel’s complaint: “But now our soul is dry, there is nothing at all; we have nothing beside this manna to look to” (Numbers 11:6). They said: This manna will eventually swell in our stomachs and kill us; is there anyone born of a woman who ingests food but does not expel waste? This supports the Gemara’s claim that the manna did not create waste.

וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם אל תקרי אבירים אלא איברים דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה איברים אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך בדברים שבאין להם ממדינת הים

When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them: Do not read it as abirim. Rather, read it as eivarim, limbs. The manna was something that was absorbed by 248 limbs. But, how do I establish “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? From the food items that came to them from overseas lands. Rabbi Yishmael disagrees with Rabbi Elazar ben Perata with regard to the effect the manna had on the digestion of other foods.

דבר אחר לחם אבירים אכל איש

Alternatively, “Man [ish] did eat the bread of the mighty” (Psalms 78:25);

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in memory of her beloved father, Mitchell Cohen, Michael ben Shraga Faivel haLevi, whose 27th yahrzeit falls on 16 Tammuz. He was kind, sweet and funny, and had a big open heart for klal Yisrael v'chol yoshvei tevel.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

zoom banner E

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

talking talmud_square

Yoma 75: The Manna and How It Did More Than Sate Hunger

A two-pronged talmudic plan to ease anxiety. In the context of the Israelites waiting for the manna in the wilderness....

Yoma 75

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Yoma 75

עינו בכוסו עריות כולן דומות עליו כמישור וחד אמר כל הנותן עינו בכוסו כל העולם כולו דומה עליו כמישור

his eye on his cup, i.e., is habitually drunk, all the prohibitions of those with whom relations are forbidden seem to him like level [mishor] ground. He is unaware of the pitfalls of sin and continues walking along a twisted and dangerous path. And one said: Whoever casts his eye on his cup, the whole world seems to him like level [mishor] ground. Not only is such a person unconcerned by forbidden sexual relations, but all other prohibitions, e.g., monetary prohibitions, also seem permitted in his eyes.

דאגה בלב איש ישחנה רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר ישחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים

§ The Gemara explains another verse in Proverbs: “If there is care in a man’s heart, let him quash it [yashḥena]” (Proverbs 12:25). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi dispute the verse’s meaning. One said: He should forcefully push it [yasḥena] out of his mind. One who worries should banish his concerns from his thoughts. And one said: It means he should tell [yesiḥena] others his concerns, which will lower his anxiety.

ונחש עפר לחמו רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר אפילו אוכל כל מעדני עולם טועם בהם טעם עפר וחד אמר אפילו אוכל כל מעדני עולם אין דעתו מיושבת עליו עד שיאכל עפר

§ Another verse states: “And dust shall be the serpent’s food” (Isaiah 65:25). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi dispute the verse’s meaning. One said: Even if the serpent eats all the delicacies in the world, they will still taste like dust. And one said: Even if it eats all the delicacies in the world, its mind is unsettled until it also eats some dust.

תניא אמר רבי יוסי בוא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מקניט את חבירו יורד עמו לחייו אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא אינו כן קלל את הנחש עולה לגג מזונותיו עמו יורד למטה מזונותיו עמו

With regard to the same topic, it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei said: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is different than the attribute of flesh and blood. The attribute of flesh and blood is that one who seeks to provoke another harasses him in all aspects of his life, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act in this way. He cursed the serpent and what happened? When the serpent goes up to the roof its food is with it, and when it comes down its food is with it. Consequently, the curse that it suffers does not ruin its life but rather benefits it.

קלל את כנען אוכל מה שרבו אוכל ושותה מה שרבו שותה קלל את האשה הכל רצין אחריה קלל את האדמה הכל ניזונין הימנה

Similarly, He cursed Canaan that he should be the servant of servants, but he benefits somewhat from this. He eats what his master eats, and drinks what his master drinks, and does not worry like a free man does. He cursed the woman and everyone pursues her to marry her. He cursed the land after the sin of Adam and Eve, yet everyone is sustained from it. Even when God is angry, He does not punish His creations severely.

זכרנו את הדגה אשר נאכל במצרים חנם רב ושמואל חד אמר דגים וחד אמר עריות מאן דאמר דגים דכתיב נאכל ומאן דאמר עריות דכתיב חנם

The Gemara cites more verses that pertain to the same issue. Rav and Shmuel disagree with regard to the following verse: “We remember the fish which we ate in Egypt for nothing” (Numbers 11:5). One said: The verse is referring literally to fish. And one said: The verse is referring to incestuous relations that the Torah had not yet forbidden. The people cried once the Torah prohibited certain relatives to them. The Gemara explains: The one who said that the verse is referring to fish bases him explanation on the verse, as it is written “which we ate.” This means what they actually ate. And the one who said that the verse is referring to forbidden sexual relations also bases his explanation on the verse, as it is written “for nothing.” Certainly, the people did not actually eat fish for free.

ולמאן דאמר עריות הא כתיב נאכל לישנא מעליא נקט דכתיב אכלה ומחתה פיה ואמרה לא פעלתי און ולמאן דאמר דגים מאי חנם דהוו מייתין להו מהפקירא דאמר מר כשהיו ישראל שואבין מים הקדוש ברוך הוא מזמין להם בתוך המים דגים קטנים בכדיהן

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who said that it is referring to forbidden relations, but isn’t it written “which we ate”? The Gemara answers: The Torah employed a euphemistic expression. Eating is used as a euphemism for sexual relations, as it is written: “So is the way of an adulterous woman; she eats, and wipes her mouth, and says I have done no wickedness” (Proverbs 30:20). And according to the one who said it is referring to fish, what is the meaning of the phrase “for nothing”? The people brought the fish from the river, which was ownerless property, since the Egyptians obviously would not have given them free food. The Master said: When the Jews drew water from the river, the Holy One, Blessed be He, prepared little fish for them in the water. They swam into their jugs.

בשלמא למאן דאמר דגים אבל עריות לא פריצי בהו היינו דכתב גן נעול אחותי כלה [גו׳] אלא למאן דאמר עריות מאי מעין חתום מהנך דאסירין לא פריצי בהו

The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the one who said that they cried over actual fish but were not promiscuous in having forbidden relations in Egypt, this is what is written to praise the Jewish people: “A garden enclosed is my sister the bride; a locked fountain, a sealed spring” (Song of Songs 4:12). This figurative language teaches that Jewish women are chaste. However, according to the one who said the Jewish people cried over forbidden sexual relations, what does the phrase “a sealed spring” mean? The Gemara answers: It means that they were not promiscuous with those relatives who were already forbidden to them. In Egypt, the Jewish people observed the laws of forbidden sexual relations that are included in the seven Noahide commandments. In the desert, they cried over the additional prohibitions imposed when the Torah was given.

בשלמא למאן דאמר עריות היינו דכתיב וישמע משה את העם בוכה למשפחותיו על עסקי משפחותיו שנאסרו להם לשכב אצלם אלא למאן דאמר דגים מאי בוכה למשפחותיו הא והא הואי

The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the one who said that they cried over the new prohibitions of forbidden sexual relations, this is as it is written: “And Moses heard the people weeping for their families” (Numbers 11:10). They cried with regard to the issue of their families, because now it became prohibited for them to cohabit with them. But according to the one who says that they cried over fish what does “weeping for their families” mean? The Gemara answers: Both this and that happened. They cried about the laws of forbidden sexual relations, and they also cried because they no longer had the fish of Egypt.

את הקשואים ואת האבטיחים רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר טעם כל המינין טעמו במן טעם חמשת המינין הללו לא טעמו בו וחד אמר טעם כל המינין טעמו טעמן וממשן והללו טעמן ולא ממשן

The Gemara returns to the same verse: It states: “We remember…the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic” (Numbers 11:5). Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi debate the verse’s meaning. One said: They tasted the flavor of all types of food in the manna, but they cried because they could not taste the tastes of these five foods that they mentioned. And one said: They tasted the flavor of all types of food, as well as their textures. The sensation was so strong that it seemed to them like they were eating those very foods. However, with the foods they listed, the people tasted only their flavor but not their texture.

(והמן) כזרע גד לבן (וטעמו) אמר רבי אסי עגול כגידא ולבן כמרגלית (תניא נמי הכי) גד שדומה לזרע פשתן בגבעולין

With regard to the manna, the Torah further states: “And it was white [lavan] like coriander seed; and its flavor was like wafers made of honey” (Exodus 16:31). The Gemara questions this, since coriander is brown, not white. Rabbi Asi said: The manna was round like coriander seed but white like a pearl. This was also taught in a baraita: Coriander [gad] is so named because it is similar to flax seeds on their stalks, which are bound [agud] in a bundle.

אחרים אומרים גד שדומה להגדה שמושכת לבו של אדם כמים תניא אידך גד שמגיד להם לישראל אי בן תשעה לראשון ואי בן שבעה לאחרון

Others say: It was called coriander [gad] because it is similar to a tale [haggada], which draws a person’s heart toward it, just like water, which is essential for life, draws one. It was taught in another baraita: Why is it called gad? Because it told [maggid] the Jewish people the answer to issues of uncertainty, such as the paternity of a baby. If a woman remarries within two months after her divorce or the death of her husband and gives birth seven months after her remarriage, it is unclear if the baby gestated for seven months and is the son of the second husband or for nine months and is the son of the first husband. The manna would tell them if the baby was born after nine months and belongs to the first husband, or if the baby was born after seven months and belongs to the second husband. Since the manna was collected by each family based on the number of its biological members, the manna established the baby’s paternity.

לבן שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל

The manna was called white because it whitened Israel’s sins. The people feared that if they sinned the manna would not continue to fall. Consequently, they devoted themselves to introspection and repentance.

תניא רבי יוסי אומר כשם שהנביא היה מגיד להם לישראל מה שבחורין ומה שבסדקין כך המן מגיד להם לישראל מה שבחורין ומה שבסדקין כיצד שנים שבאו לפני משה לדין זה אומר עבדי גנבת וזה אומר אתה מכרתו לי אמר להם משה לבוקר משפט למחר אם נמצא עומרו בבית רבו ראשון בידוע שזה גנבו אם נמצא עומרו בבית רבו שני בידוע שזה מכרו לו

Similarly, it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Just like the prophet would tell the Jewish people what was in the holes and what was in the cracks of their souls, highlighting the sins of the people, so too, the manna clarified for Israel what was in the holes and what was in the cracks. How so? If two people came before Moses for a judgment, one saying: You stole my slave, and the other one saying: I did not steal him, rather you sold him to me, Moses would say to them: In the morning there will be a judgment. How was the matter resolved? If on the following day the slave found his omer of manna in his first master’s house, it would be clear that he was stolen, because the manna still came to the first owner. And if on the following day he found his omer of manna in his second master’s house, it would be clear that he had been sold.

וכן איש ואשה שבאו לפני משה לדין זה אומר היא סרחה עלי והיא אומרת הוא סרח עלי אמר להם משה לבקר משפט למחר אם נמצא עומרה בבית בעלה בידוע שהיא סרחה עליו נמצא עומרה בבית אביה בידוע שהוא סרח עליה

Similarly, if a man and a woman came to Moses for a judgment, he saying: She sinned against me, and therefore I may divorce her and am not obligated to pay her divorce settlement, and she saying: He sinned against me and therefore I am entitled to the full settlement from the marriage contract, Moses would say to them: In the morning there will be a judgment. The following day, if her omer of manna was found in her husband’s house, it would be clear that she sinned against him. The fact that her nourishment was given to his household signifies the fact that he has respected her appropriately and is worthy of nourishing her. If her omer of manna was found in her father’s house, it would be clear that he sinned against her. Her nourishment has not been given to his household, signifying that he has been disrespectful to her and is not worthy of nourishing her.

כתיב וברדת הטל על המחנה לילה [ירד המן עליו] וכתיב ויצא העם ולקטו וכתיב שטו העם ולקטו הא כיצד צדיקים ירד על פתח בתיהם בינונים יצאו ולקטו רשעים שטו ולקטו

§ The Gemara continues to discuss the manna: It is written: “And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9). And it is written: “And the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day” (Exodus 16:4). And it is written: “The people went about and gathered it” (Numbers 11:8). How can these texts be reconciled? For the righteous, the manna fell at the opening of their homes. They expended no effort at all. The average people went out of the camp and gathered what fell there. The wicked had to go about farther to gather.

כתיב לחם וכתיב עוגות וכתיב וטחנו הא כיצד צדיקים לחם בינונים עוגות רשעים טחנו בריחים

With regard to the manna, it is written “bread” (Exodus 16:4); and it is written “cakes” (Numbers 11:8); and it is also written “and ground it in mills,” (Numbers 11:8), implying that it was neither bread nor a cake. How can these texts be reconciled? For the righteous, it fell as baked bread; for average people, it fell as unbaked cakes; for the wicked it came in an unprocessed form and consequently they ground it in a mill.

או דכו במדוכה אמר רבי יהודה אמר רב ואיתימא רבי חמא ברבי חנינא מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן תכשיטי נשים דבר שנידוך במדוכה ובשלו בפרור אמר רבי חמא מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן ציקי קדירה

The verse states: “Or beat it in a mortar” (Numbers 11:8). Rabbi Yehuda said that Rav said, and some say it was Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: This teaches that women’s perfumes fell for the Jewish people with the manna because they are an item that is beaten in a mortar. The verse continues: “And cooked it in a pot” (Numbers 11:8). Rabbi Ḥama said: This teaches that cooking spices fell for the Jewish people with the manna.

והם הביאו אליו עוד נדבה בבקר בבקר מאי בבקר בבקר אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מדבר שירד להם בבקר בבקר מלמד שירדו להם לישראל אבנים טובות ומרגליות עם המןוהנשיאים הביאו את אבני השהם תנא נשיאים ממש וכן הוא אומר נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין

§ With regard to donations for the Tabernacle, the verse states: “And they brought yet to him free-will offerings every morning” (Exodus 36:3). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of “every morning”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: They brought donations from that which fell every morning with the manna. This teaches that pearls and precious stones fell for the Israelites with the manna. It states: “And the rulers [nesi’im] brought the onyx [shoham] stones” (Exodus 35:27). A tanna taught that the word nesi’im means actual clouds brought them. As it states: “As clouds [nesi’im] and wind without rain so is he that boasts himself of a false gift” (Proverbs 25:14). We learn from this that the precious stones fell from the clouds with the manna.

והיה טעמו כטעם לשד השמן אמר רבי אבהו מה שד זה תינוק טועם בה כמה טעמים אף המן כל זמן שישראל אוכלין אותו מוצאין בו כמה טעמים איכא דאמרי לשד ממש מה שד זה מתהפך לכמה גוונין אף המן מתהפך לכמה טעמים

It was also said with regard to the manna: “And its taste was as the taste of a cake [shad] baked with oil [hashamen]” (Numbers 11:8). Rabbi Abbahu said: Shad means breast. Just as a baby tastes different flavors from the breast, since the taste of the milk changes somewhat depending on what foods his mother eats, so too with the manna, every time that the Jewish people ate the manna, they found in it many different flavors, based on their preferences. There are those who say that the word is written as shed and means literally a demon. How so? Just as a demon changes into different forms and colors, so too, the manna changed into different flavors.

ויאמר משה בתת ה׳ לכם בערב בשר לאכול ולחם בבקר לשבוע תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה בשר ששאלו שלא כהוגן ניתן להם שלא כהוגן

The verse states: “And Moses said: This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat, and in the morning bread to the full” (Exodus 16:8). A tanna taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: The meat that the Jewish people asked for inappropriately, since they had the manna and did not need meat, was given to them inappropriately, in a way that was unpleasant; they were punished afterward (Rabbeinu Elyakim).

לחם ששאלו כהוגן ניתן להם כהוגן מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בלילה והאמר אביי האי מאן דאית ליה סעודתא לא לאכליה אלא ביממא כעין יממא קא אמרינן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב בתחלה היו ישראל דומין כתרנגולים שמנקרין באשפה עד שבא משה וקבע להם זמן סעודה

However, bread, which is essential, they asked for appropriately. Therefore, it was given to them appropriately, in the morning, when there was time to prepare it. The Gemara comments: From here, the Torah teaches etiquette, that it is proper to eat meat only at night, as Moses said to the children of Israel: “This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat” (Exodus 16:8). The Gemara asks: But didn’t Abaye say that someone who has a meal should eat it only in the day? The Gemara answers: We mean to say: Like day. It is not necessary to eat the food in the daytime, as long as one can see what he eats. Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: At the beginning, the Jewish people were like chickens pecking at the garbage; any time there was food they grabbed it and ate it, until Moses came and set specific times to eat, as the verse implies. He set mealtimes for them in the morning and in the evening.

הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם וכתיב עד חדש ימים הא כיצד בינונים לאלתר מתו רשעים מצטערין והולכין עד חדש ימים

It was stated with regard to the quail: “While the meat was yet between their teeth, before it was chewed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people” (Numbers 11:33), which means that they died immediately. However, it also states: “You shall not eat it for only one day…but for an entire month until it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you” (Numbers 11:19–20). How can these texts be reconciled? The average people died immediately, but the wicked continued to suffer in pain for a month and then died.

וישטחו אמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי וישטחו אלא וישחטו מלמד שנתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שחיטה שטוח תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה אל תיקרי שטוח אלא שחוט מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן דבר שטעון שחיטה אמר רבי וכי מכאן אתה למד והלא כבר נאמר וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול (הים) עוף כנף

The verse states: “And they spread them [vayishteḥu] out for themselves round about the camp” (Numbers 11:32). Reish Lakish said: Do not read it as vayishteḥu. Rather, read it as vayishḥatu. This teaches that the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, were liable to receive the punishment of slaughter due to their demand. The verse states: “Spread out [shato’aḥ]” (Numbers 11:32). A tanna taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Do not read it as shato’aḥ but as shaḥot. This teaches that other food fell for the Jewish people along with the manna. The food was something that requires ritual slaughtering [sheḥita], referring to birds. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: And do you learn this from here? Do we need to alter the word for this purpose? Isn’t it already stated explicitly: “And he rained meat upon them like dust, and winged birds like the sand of the seas” (Psalms 78:27)?

ותניא רבי אומר וזבחת כאשר צויתיך מלמד שנצטוה משה על הושט ועל הקנה על רוב אחד בעוף ועל רוב שנים בבהמה אלא מה תלמוד לומר שטוח מלמד שירד להם משטיחין משטיחין

And it was taught in a related baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The verse states: “Then you shall slaughter of your herd and of your flock which the Lord has given you, as I have commanded you” (Deuteronomy 12:21). This teaches that Moses was commanded in the laws of ritual slaughter to cut the gullet and the windpipe in the neck. And with a bird one must cut through the majority of one pipe, and with an animal one must cut through the majority of both pipes. Moses was commanded these laws along with the other details of slaughtering. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the word shatoaḥ does not teach us about ritual slaughter. Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states: Shatoaḥ? It teaches that the manna fell in layers [mashtiḥin] in a straight row.

כתיב לחם וכתיב שמן וכתיב דבש אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא לנערים לחם לזקנים שמן לתינוקות דבש

With regard to the manna, it is written “bread” (Exodus 16:4), and it is written “oil” (Numbers 11:8), and it is written “honey” (Exodus 16:31). How can we reconcile these verses? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: For the youth it was like bread, for the elderly it was like oil, and for the children it was like honey. Each received what was appropriate.

כתיב שליו וקרינן סליו אמר רבי חנינא צדיקים אוכלין אותו בשלוה רשעים אוכלין אותו ודומה להן כסילוין

The Gemara comments further: The word quail is written shlav, with the letter shin, but we read it as slav, with the letter samekh. What does this teach us? Rabbi Ḥanina said: The righteous eat it in peace [shalva], based on the written form of the word; whereas the wicked eat it, and it seems to them like thorns [silvin], based on the way the word is read.

אמר רב חנן בר רבא ארבעה מיני סליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיבלי ופסיוני ושליו מעליא דכולהו שיכלי גריעא דכולהו שליו והוי כציפורתא ומותבינן לה בתנורא ותפח והוה מלי תנורא ומסקינן ליה אתליסר ריפי ואחרונה אינה נאכלת אלא על ידי תערובת

Furthermore, with regard to the quail: Rav Ḥanan bar Rava said: There are four types of quail and these are they: Sikhli, and kivli, and pasyoni, and slav. The best tasting of all is the sikhli. The worst of all is the slav. The Gemara relates how tasty even the quail was that the Jews ate in the desert: It was as small as a sparrow, and they would place it in the oven to roast, and it expanded until it filled the entire oven. They would place it upon thirteen loaves of bread, and even the last loaf on the bottom could be eaten only when mixed with other food, due to all the fat it had absorbed from the quail.

רב יהודה משתכח ליה בי דני רב חסדא משתכח ליה בי ציבי רבא מייתי ליה אריסיה כל יומא יומא חד לא אייתי אמר מאי האי סליק לאיגרא שמעיה לינוקא דקאמר שמעתי ותרגז בטני אמר שמע מניה נח נפשיה דרב חסדא ובדיל רבה אכיל תלמידא

It is told that Rav Yehuda found quail among his barrels of wine, and Rav Ḥisda found quail among logs of wood in his storeroom. Every day Rava’s sharecropper brought him a quail that he found in his fields. One day, he did not bring him one because he failed to find any. Rava said to himself: What is this, why is today different? He went up to the roof to think about it. He heard a child say the verse: “When I heard, my innards trembled, my lips quivered at the voice, rottenness enters into my bones, and I tremble where I stand; that I should wait for the day of trouble when he comes up against the people that he invades” (Habakkuk 3:16). Rava said: Learn from this that Rav Ḥisda has died. I am therefore not worthy to receive the quail anymore, since it is on account of the teacher that the student eats. When Rav Ḥisda was alive, Rava received the quail due to Rav Ḥisda’s merit; now that he had died, Rava was not worthy to receive the quail.

כתיב ותעל שכבת הטל וכתיב וברדת הטל אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא טל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה ודומה כמו שמונח בקופסא

§ Furthermore, with regard to the manna it is written: “And when the layer of dew lifted, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a fine flaky substance, as fine as frost on the ground” (Exodus 16:14), indicating that the dew covered the manna. And it is written:And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9), meaning that the manna fell on top of the dew. How can these verses be reconciled? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: There was dew above and dew below, with the manna in between, and the manna appeared as if it were placed in a box [kufsa] of dew.

דק מחוספס אמר ריש לקיש דבר שנימוח על פיסת היד רבי יוחנן אמר דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים מחוספס טובא הוי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מחספס כתיב

The verse describes the manna as “a fine flaky [meḥuspas] substance” (Exodus 16:14). Reish Lakish said: Meḥuspas means it was a substance that dissolved [maḥ] on the palm [pas] of the hand. Since it was so fine, it dissolved upon contact. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It was a substance that was absorbed in all 248 limbs, the numerical equivalent of the word meḥuspas. The Gemara expresses surprise at this: If one calculates the value of the letters in the word meḥuspas, it is more, totaling 254. Rabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Meḥuspas is written in the Torah without the letter vav. Therefore, the total is exactly 248.

תנו רבנן לחם אבירים אכל איש לחם שמלאכי השרת אוכלין אותו דברי רבי עקיבא וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם צאו ואמרו לו לעקיבא עקיבא טעית וכי מלאכי השרת אוכלין לחם והלא כבר נאמר לחם לא אכלתי ומים לא שתיתי אלא מה אני מקיים אבירים לחם שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים

The Sages taught: The Torah states: “And He caused manna to rain upon them for food, and He gave them of the grain of heaven. Man did eat the bread of the mighty [abirim]” (Psalms 78:24–25). “Bread of the mighty” is bread that the ministering angels eat; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them to go and tell Akiva: Akiva you have erred. Do the ministering angels eat bread? It is already stated about Moses, when he ascended on high: “Bread I did not eat and water I did not drink” (Deuteronomy 9:9). If even a man who ascends on high does not need to eat, certainly the ministering angels do not need to eat. Rather, how do I establish the meaning of the word abirim? It can be explained as bread that was absorbed into all 248 limbs [eivarim], so that there was no waste.

אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך (ויצאת שמה חוץ) דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין אותן להם

The Gemara asks: But if so, how do I establish the verses: “And you shall have a spade among your weapons, and it shall be that when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement” (Deuteronomy 23:14) and “You shall have a place also outside the camp where you can relieve yourself ” (Deuteronomy 23:13). From here we learn that there was waste in their bowels, as they had to leave the camp to relieve themselves. The Gemara explains: This waste was not a byproduct of the manna; it was from food items that the gentile merchants sold them.

רבי אלעזר בן פרטא אומר אף דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין להן מן מפיגן אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך לאחר שסרחו אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא אני אמרתי יהיו כמלאכי השרת עכשיו אני מטריח אותם שלש פרסאות

Rabbi Elazar ben Perata disagrees and says: The manna caused even items that the gentile merchants sold them to be completely digested, so that even other food that they ate produced no waste. But then how do I establish the verse: “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? After they sinned, the manna was not as effective. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I initially said that they would be like ministering angels who do not produce waste; now I will trouble them to walk three parasangs to leave the camp in order to relieve themselves.

דכתיב ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות עד אבל השטים ואמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא תלתא פרסי ותנא כשנפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהן ולא לצדדיהן אלא לאחוריהן

How do we know that the Israelite camp was three parasangs? As it is written: “And they camped by the Jordan from Beth-Jeshimoth to Abel-shittim” (Numbers 33:49), and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw that site and it was three parasangs in length. And a baraita taught: When the Jews relieved themselves in the desert, they did not relieve themselves ahead of themselves, i.e., in the direction of their travel, nor to the side of the camp, but behind the camp, in a place that they had already traveled. Consequently, those near the front of the camp had to walk a distance of three parasangs from their homes to leave the camp.

ועתה נפשנו יבשה אין כל אמרו עתיד מן זה שתיפח במעיהם כלום יש ילוד אשה שמכניס ואינו מוציא

Furthermore, with regard to the manna, the verse states Israel’s complaint: “But now our soul is dry, there is nothing at all; we have nothing beside this manna to look to” (Numbers 11:6). They said: This manna will eventually swell in our stomachs and kill us; is there anyone born of a woman who ingests food but does not expel waste? This supports the Gemara’s claim that the manna did not create waste.

וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם אל תקרי אבירים אלא איברים דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה איברים אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך בדברים שבאין להם ממדינת הים

When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them: Do not read it as abirim. Rather, read it as eivarim, limbs. The manna was something that was absorbed by 248 limbs. But, how do I establish “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? From the food items that came to them from overseas lands. Rabbi Yishmael disagrees with Rabbi Elazar ben Perata with regard to the effect the manna had on the digestion of other foods.

דבר אחר לחם אבירים אכל איש

Alternatively, “Man [ish] did eat the bread of the mighty” (Psalms 78:25);

Scroll To Top
×

דף יומי לנשים

עם הרבנית מישל פרבר

ראשון עד שישי ב6:20 בזום