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Today's Daf Yomi

July 2, 2021 | ื›ืดื‘ ื‘ืชืžื•ื– ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in memory of her beloved father, Mitchell Cohen, Michael ben Shraga Faivel haLevi, whose 27th yahrzeit falls on 16 Tammuz. He was kind, sweet and funny, and had a big open heart for klal Yisrael v'chol yoshvei tevel.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Yoma 82

From what age do children need to fast? What are the laws regarding chinuch on this issue? From what age do they fast part of the day? The mishna refers to “one or two years before” regarding fasting for part of the day. Why does it say “one or two”? Rav Chisda says that we distinguish between weaker and stringer children. The gemara (according to Rashi) assumes that the mishna means a year or two before the year before they reach maturity as the year before maturity they need to fast on a rabbinic level. Two approaches are brought by amoraim and the gemara tries to reconcile those opinions with what is stated in the mishna. If a pregnant woman has a craving or a sick person needs to eat on Yom Kippur, what can be done? What if a pregnant woman has a craving for non-kosher food (not on Yom Kippur)? To save a life one can do anything except for three commandments – idol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and murder. From where are these laws derived?

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ืชื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ืจื’ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช

MISHNA: With regard to the children, one does not afflict them by withholding food on Yom Kippur; however, one trains them one year before or two years before they reach majority, by means of a partial fast lasting several hours, so that they will be accustomed to fulfill mitzvot.

ื’ืžืณ ื”ืฉืชื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ืžื‘ืขื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื” ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks about the wording of the mishna: Since it is stated that one trains children two years before their maturity, is it necessary to say that one trains them one year before? This expression in the mishna is superfluous. Rav แธคisda said: This is not difficult. This statement that one trains children one year before their maturity is referring to a feeble child; that statement that one trains children two years before their maturity is referring to a healthy child.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื•ื‘ืŸ ืชืฉืข ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ืชื™ื ื•ืงืช ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ื‘ืŸ ืชืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืฉืœืžื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื™ื›ื ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื

Rav Huna said: One trains a healthy child of eight years and nine years to fast for several hours; at ten years and eleven years, they complete the fast by rabbinic law; at twelve years they complete the fast by Torah law. This applies to girls who reach maturity and become obligated in mitzvot at age twelve. And Rav Naแธฅman said: At nine years and ten years one trains them to fast for several hours; at eleven and twelve years they complete the fast by rabbinic law; at thirteen years they complete the fast by Torah law. This applies to boys. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: There is no obligation with regard to children completing the fast by rabbinic law. Rather, at ten and eleven years, one trains them to fast for several hours; and at twelve years girls are obligated to complete their fast by Torah law.

ืชื ืŸ ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ืŸ

ยง We learned in the mishna: With regard to the children, one does not afflict them by withholding food on Yom Kippur; however, one trains them for one year before or two years before they reach maturity. Granted, this makes sense according to the opinion of Rav Huna and Rav Naแธฅman, who hold that for one or two years before reaching maturity there is a rabbinic law requiring children to complete the fast. The mishna that states one year before or two years before should be understood as follows: A feeble child is obligated to complete the fast on Yom Kippur in the year before reaching maturity by rabbinic law, and a healthy child is obligated to complete the fast on Yom Kippur in the two years before reaching maturity by rabbinic law (Vilna Gaon).

ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืœืš ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื” ืื• ืฉืชื™ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœืคื™ืจืงืŸ

But according to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who holds that there is no rabbinic law to complete the fast, this is difficult. In his opinion, what is the difference between one year before and two years before? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan could have said to you: What is the meaning of one year or two years? One year is referring not to the year before the year preceding their maturity, i.e. the two years preceding it, but actually to the year preceding their maturity. The phrase: One or two years, indicates that there is a difference between those who are required for one year and those who required for two, which depends on their health: The healthy child is required to fast two years, but one year is sufficient for a feeble child.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉื ื” ืื• ืฉืชื™ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœืคื™ืจืงืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจื™ ืœืš ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื ืžื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ื”ืฉืœืžื”

Come and hear that which Rabba bar Shmuel taught in a baraita: With regard to children, one does not afflict them by withholding food on Yom Kippur; however, one trains them one year for a feeble child or two years for a healthy child preceding their maturity. Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, this works out well; but according to Rav Huna and Rav Naแธฅman, who say that there is an additional year that one is required to complete the fast according to rabbinic law, this is difficult. The Rabbis could say to you: What is this training that is also taught there? It is referring to fasting a complete day, which is required by rabbinic law. By rabbinic law, the time of completing the fast for a healthy child is two years before he reaches maturity.

ื•ืžื™ ืงืจื™ ืœื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื”ืฉืœืžื” ื•ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ืื™ ื–ื” ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื”ื™ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ืฉืขื•ืช ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืฉืœืฉ ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืœื ืชืจื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื•

The Gemara asks: And is training called completion? Doesnโ€™t training mean that the child performs only part of the mitzva? Wasnโ€™t it taught explicitly in a baraita: What is training? If the child was accustomed to eat every day at the second hour of the day, one feeds him at the third hour, so he will begin to understand the concept of affliction. If he was accustomed to eat at the third hour, one feeds him at the fourth hour. Rava bar Ulla said: This is not difficult; these are two different types of training. There is training of small children to wait slightly longer before eating, and training of older children, in which one habituates them to fasting a full day.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ืฉื”ืจื™ื—ื” ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืขื“ ืฉืชืฉื™ื‘ ื ืคืฉื” ื—ื•ืœื” ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ื‘ืงื™ืื™ืŸ ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื ื‘ืงื™ืื™ืŸ ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ืขืฆืžื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืืžืจ ื“ื™

MISHNA: With regard to a pregnant woman who smelled food and was overcome by a craving to eat it, one feeds her until she recovers, as failure to do so could lead to a life-threatening situation. If a person is ill and requires food due to potential danger, one feeds him according to the advice of medical experts who determine that he indeed requires food. And if there are no experts there, one feeds him according to his own instructions, until he says that he has eaten enough and needs no more.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ืฉื”ืจื™ื—ื” ื‘ืฉืจ ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืื• ื‘ืฉืจ ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืชื•ื—ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื›ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืขืœ ืคื™ื” ืื ื ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื“ืขืชื” ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืื ื ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื“ืขืชื” ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืฉื•ืžืŸ ืขืฆืžื• ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืคืงื•ื— ื ืคืฉ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ืขืจื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉืคื™ื›ื•ืช ื“ืžื™ื

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a pregnant woman who smelled consecrated meat or pig meat and craved those specific foods, one inserts a thin reed into the juice of that item and places it on her mouth. If her mind become settled with that, it is well. And if not, one feeds her the gravy itself of that forbidden food. If her mind becomes settled with that, it is well. And if not, one feeds her the fat of the forbidden food itself, as there is no halakha that stands in the way of saving a life except for the prohibitions against idol worship, and forbidden sexual relationships, and bloodshed.

ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืš ืœืžื” ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืื“ืš ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืื“ืš ืœืžื” ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืš

The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the halakha that the prohibition against idol worship takes precedence over saving oneโ€™s life, from where do we derive this? As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soulโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:5), why is it stated in the continuation of the verse: โ€œAnd with all your mightโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:5)? And if it is stated: โ€œWith all your might,โ€ why is it stated: โ€œWith all your soulโ€? One of these statements appears to be superfluous.

ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืื“ื ืฉื’ื•ืคื• ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืžืžื•ื ื• ืœื›ืš ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืš ื•ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืื“ื ืฉืžืžื•ื ื• ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ืžื’ื•ืคื• ืœื›ืš ื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืื“ืš

Rather, it is to teach that if there is a person whose body is more beloved to him than his property, therefore it is stated: โ€œWith all your soul.โ€ The verse teaches that one must be willing to sacrifice his life to sanctify Godโ€™s name. And if there is a person whose property is more beloved to him than his body, therefore it is stated: โ€œWith all your might.โ€ Rabbi Eliezer understands the phrase โ€œwith all your mightโ€ to mean: With all your possessions. Therefore, one must be prepared to forfeit his life rather than be saved through idol worship.

ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ืขืจื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉืคื™ื›ืช ื“ืžื™ื ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืงื•ื ืื™ืฉ ืขืœ ืจืขื”ื• ื•ืจืฆื—ื• ื ืคืฉ ื›ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืขื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืจื•ืฆื— ืœื ืขืจื” ื”ืžืื•ืจืกื”

ยง With regard to the concept that one must surrender his life rather than have forbidden sexual relations or shed blood through murder, from where do we derive this? As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is stated about the rape of a betrothed woman: โ€œFor as when a man rises against his fellow and slays him, even so is this matterโ€ (Deuteronomy 22:26). One might ask: What idea did we learn about a betrothed woman from a murderer? The halakha of a betrothed woman is clear; what new point is learned by comparing it to the halakha of a murderer?

ืืœื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœืœืžื“ ื•ื ืžืฆื ืœืžื“ ืžื” ื ืขืจื” ื”ืžืื•ืจืกื” ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืฆื™ืœื” ื‘ื ืคืฉื• ืืฃ ืจื•ืฆื— (ื›ื•ืณ) ืžื” ืจื•ืฆื— ื™ื”ืจื’ ื•ืืœ ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืฃ ื ืขืจื” ื”ืžืื•ืจืกื” ื™ื”ืจื’ ื•ืืœ ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ

Rather, this halakha about the murderer, which appears to come to teach about the betrothed woman, is found to actually be the subject of teaching. The inference is as follows: Just as with regard to the betrothed woman, permission is given to save her at the cost of the life of her attacker, so too, the murderer may be saved from committing the crime at the cost of his life, i.e., one may save the victim by killing the attacker. Another teaching is derived in the opposite direction, from the case of murder to the case of rape. Just as the murderer is subject to the halakha of let him be killed, and let him not transgress, i.e., one must even allow himself to be killed rather than take the life of another, so too, a man must surrender his life rather than engage in forbidden sexual relations with a betrothed young woman. By inference, the halakha of let him be killed, and let him not transgress, applies to all forbidden sexual relations.

ื•ืจื•ืฆื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžื ื ืœืŸ ืกื‘ืจื ื”ื™ื ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” (ื“ืจื‘ื) ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืžืจื™ ื“ื•ืจืื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ื” ืœืคืœื ื™ื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืงื˜ื™ืœื ื ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืงื˜ืœืš ื•ืœื ืชืงื˜ื•ืœ ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ื“ื“ืžื ื“ื™ื“ืš ืกื•ืžืง ื˜ืคื™ ื“ื™ืœืžื ื“ืžื ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืกื•ืžืง ื˜ืคื™

The Gemara asks: And with regard to the murderer himself, from where do we derive this halakha that he should be killed rather than transgress the prohibition against murder? The Gemara answers: It is derived through reason, as it was told: A certain person came before Rava. He said to Rava: The master of the village where I live said to me: Kill so-and-so, and if you do not do so, I will kill you. What should I do? Rava said to him: Let yourself be killed, and you should not kill. Rava reasoned: What did you see to make you think that your blood is redder and more important than his? Perhaps the blood of that man is redder, and he is more important than you. If so, it is logical that one must not kill another person to save himself.

ื”ื”ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ื“ืืจื—ื ืืชื• ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื–ื™ืœื• ืœื—ื•ืฉื• ืœื” ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื—ื•ืฉื• ืœื” ื•ืื™ืœื—ื™ืฉื ืงืจื™ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื˜ืจื ืืฆืจืš ื‘ื‘ื˜ืŸ ื™ื“ืขืชื™ืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื ืคืง ืžื™ื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ

ยง With respect to a pregnant woman who smells food, it is told: A certain pregnant woman smelled a food and craved it. Those involved came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to ask how to proceed. He said to those who were inquiring: Go and whisper to her that today is Yom Kippur. They whispered to her, and this whispering helped; she stopped craving the food. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi read this verse about the baby she was carrying: โ€œBefore I formed you in the belly I knew you, and before you came forth out of the womb I sanctified youโ€ (Jeremiah 1:5), and indeed, the baby who came out of that woman was Rabbi Yoแธฅanan.

ื”ื”ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ื“ืืจื—ื ืืชื• ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื—ื•ืฉื• ืœื” ื•ืœื ืื™ืœื—ื™ืฉื ืงืจื™ ืขืœื™ื”

The Gemara relates another story: A certain pregnant woman smelled food and had a craving to eat it on Yom Kippur. Those involved came before Rabbi แธคanina to ask how to proceed. He said to them: Whisper to her that today is Yom Kippur. They whispered to her, but she did not accept the whisper and continued to crave the food. Rabbi แธคanina read this verse about the baby:

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in memory of her beloved father, Mitchell Cohen, Michael ben Shraga Faivel haLevi, whose 27th yahrzeit falls on 16 Tammuz. He was kind, sweet and funny, and had a big open heart for klal Yisrael v'chol yoshvei tevel.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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ืžึทืชึฐื ึดื™ืณ ื”ึทืชึผึดื™ื ื•ึนืงื•ึนืช ืึตื™ืŸ ืžึฐืขึทื ึผึดื™ืŸ ืื•ึนืชึธืŸ ื‘ึผึฐื™ื•ึนื ื”ึทื›ึผึดืคึผื•ึผืจึดื™ื, ืึฒื‘ึธืœ ืžึฐื—ึทื ึผึฐื›ึดื™ืŸ ืื•ึนืชึธืŸ ืœึดืคึฐื ึตื™ ืฉืึธื ึธื” ื•ึฐืœึดืคึฐื ึตื™ ืฉืึฐื ึธืชึทื™ึดื™ื, ื‘ึผึดืฉืึฐื‘ึดื™ืœ ืฉืึถื™ึผึดื”ึฐื™ื•ึผ ืจึฐื’ึดื™ืœึดื™ืŸ ื‘ึผึฐืžึดืฆึฐื•ึนืช. MISHNA: With...

Yoma 82

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Yoma 82

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ืชื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ืจื’ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช

MISHNA: With regard to the children, one does not afflict them by withholding food on Yom Kippur; however, one trains them one year before or two years before they reach majority, by means of a partial fast lasting several hours, so that they will be accustomed to fulfill mitzvot.

ื’ืžืณ ื”ืฉืชื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ืžื‘ืขื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื” ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks about the wording of the mishna: Since it is stated that one trains children two years before their maturity, is it necessary to say that one trains them one year before? This expression in the mishna is superfluous. Rav แธคisda said: This is not difficult. This statement that one trains children one year before their maturity is referring to a feeble child; that statement that one trains children two years before their maturity is referring to a healthy child.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื•ื‘ืŸ ืชืฉืข ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ืชื™ื ื•ืงืช ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ื‘ืŸ ืชืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืฉืœืžื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื™ื›ื ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉืจ ื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื

Rav Huna said: One trains a healthy child of eight years and nine years to fast for several hours; at ten years and eleven years, they complete the fast by rabbinic law; at twelve years they complete the fast by Torah law. This applies to girls who reach maturity and become obligated in mitzvot at age twelve. And Rav Naแธฅman said: At nine years and ten years one trains them to fast for several hours; at eleven and twelve years they complete the fast by rabbinic law; at thirteen years they complete the fast by Torah law. This applies to boys. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: There is no obligation with regard to children completing the fast by rabbinic law. Rather, at ten and eleven years, one trains them to fast for several hours; and at twelve years girls are obligated to complete their fast by Torah law.

ืชื ืŸ ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ืŸ

ยง We learned in the mishna: With regard to the children, one does not afflict them by withholding food on Yom Kippur; however, one trains them for one year before or two years before they reach maturity. Granted, this makes sense according to the opinion of Rav Huna and Rav Naแธฅman, who hold that for one or two years before reaching maturity there is a rabbinic law requiring children to complete the fast. The mishna that states one year before or two years before should be understood as follows: A feeble child is obligated to complete the fast on Yom Kippur in the year before reaching maturity by rabbinic law, and a healthy child is obligated to complete the fast on Yom Kippur in the two years before reaching maturity by rabbinic law (Vilna Gaon).

ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืœืš ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื” ืื• ืฉืชื™ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœืคื™ืจืงืŸ

But according to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who holds that there is no rabbinic law to complete the fast, this is difficult. In his opinion, what is the difference between one year before and two years before? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan could have said to you: What is the meaning of one year or two years? One year is referring not to the year before the year preceding their maturity, i.e. the two years preceding it, but actually to the year preceding their maturity. The phrase: One or two years, indicates that there is a difference between those who are required for one year and those who required for two, which depends on their health: The healthy child is required to fast two years, but one year is sufficient for a feeble child.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉื ื” ืื• ืฉืชื™ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœืคื™ืจืงืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจื™ ืœืš ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื ืžื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ื”ืฉืœืžื”

Come and hear that which Rabba bar Shmuel taught in a baraita: With regard to children, one does not afflict them by withholding food on Yom Kippur; however, one trains them one year for a feeble child or two years for a healthy child preceding their maturity. Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, this works out well; but according to Rav Huna and Rav Naแธฅman, who say that there is an additional year that one is required to complete the fast according to rabbinic law, this is difficult. The Rabbis could say to you: What is this training that is also taught there? It is referring to fasting a complete day, which is required by rabbinic law. By rabbinic law, the time of completing the fast for a healthy child is two years before he reaches maturity.

ื•ืžื™ ืงืจื™ ืœื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื”ืฉืœืžื” ื•ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ืื™ ื–ื” ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื”ื™ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ืฉืขื•ืช ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืฉืœืฉ ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืœื ืชืจื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื•

The Gemara asks: And is training called completion? Doesnโ€™t training mean that the child performs only part of the mitzva? Wasnโ€™t it taught explicitly in a baraita: What is training? If the child was accustomed to eat every day at the second hour of the day, one feeds him at the third hour, so he will begin to understand the concept of affliction. If he was accustomed to eat at the third hour, one feeds him at the fourth hour. Rava bar Ulla said: This is not difficult; these are two different types of training. There is training of small children to wait slightly longer before eating, and training of older children, in which one habituates them to fasting a full day.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ืฉื”ืจื™ื—ื” ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืขื“ ืฉืชืฉื™ื‘ ื ืคืฉื” ื—ื•ืœื” ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ื‘ืงื™ืื™ืŸ ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื ื‘ืงื™ืื™ืŸ ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ืขืฆืžื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืืžืจ ื“ื™

MISHNA: With regard to a pregnant woman who smelled food and was overcome by a craving to eat it, one feeds her until she recovers, as failure to do so could lead to a life-threatening situation. If a person is ill and requires food due to potential danger, one feeds him according to the advice of medical experts who determine that he indeed requires food. And if there are no experts there, one feeds him according to his own instructions, until he says that he has eaten enough and needs no more.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ืฉื”ืจื™ื—ื” ื‘ืฉืจ ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืื• ื‘ืฉืจ ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืชื•ื—ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื›ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืขืœ ืคื™ื” ืื ื ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื“ืขืชื” ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืื ื ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื“ืขืชื” ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืžืื›ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืฉื•ืžืŸ ืขืฆืžื• ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืคืงื•ื— ื ืคืฉ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ืขืจื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉืคื™ื›ื•ืช ื“ืžื™ื

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a pregnant woman who smelled consecrated meat or pig meat and craved those specific foods, one inserts a thin reed into the juice of that item and places it on her mouth. If her mind become settled with that, it is well. And if not, one feeds her the gravy itself of that forbidden food. If her mind becomes settled with that, it is well. And if not, one feeds her the fat of the forbidden food itself, as there is no halakha that stands in the way of saving a life except for the prohibitions against idol worship, and forbidden sexual relationships, and bloodshed.

ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืš ืœืžื” ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืื“ืš ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืื“ืš ืœืžื” ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืš

The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the halakha that the prohibition against idol worship takes precedence over saving oneโ€™s life, from where do we derive this? As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soulโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:5), why is it stated in the continuation of the verse: โ€œAnd with all your mightโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:5)? And if it is stated: โ€œWith all your might,โ€ why is it stated: โ€œWith all your soulโ€? One of these statements appears to be superfluous.

ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืื“ื ืฉื’ื•ืคื• ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืžืžื•ื ื• ืœื›ืš ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืš ื•ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืื“ื ืฉืžืžื•ื ื• ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ืžื’ื•ืคื• ืœื›ืš ื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืื“ืš

Rather, it is to teach that if there is a person whose body is more beloved to him than his property, therefore it is stated: โ€œWith all your soul.โ€ The verse teaches that one must be willing to sacrifice his life to sanctify Godโ€™s name. And if there is a person whose property is more beloved to him than his body, therefore it is stated: โ€œWith all your might.โ€ Rabbi Eliezer understands the phrase โ€œwith all your mightโ€ to mean: With all your possessions. Therefore, one must be prepared to forfeit his life rather than be saved through idol worship.

ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ืขืจื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉืคื™ื›ืช ื“ืžื™ื ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืงื•ื ืื™ืฉ ืขืœ ืจืขื”ื• ื•ืจืฆื—ื• ื ืคืฉ ื›ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืขื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืจื•ืฆื— ืœื ืขืจื” ื”ืžืื•ืจืกื”

ยง With regard to the concept that one must surrender his life rather than have forbidden sexual relations or shed blood through murder, from where do we derive this? As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is stated about the rape of a betrothed woman: โ€œFor as when a man rises against his fellow and slays him, even so is this matterโ€ (Deuteronomy 22:26). One might ask: What idea did we learn about a betrothed woman from a murderer? The halakha of a betrothed woman is clear; what new point is learned by comparing it to the halakha of a murderer?

ืืœื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœืœืžื“ ื•ื ืžืฆื ืœืžื“ ืžื” ื ืขืจื” ื”ืžืื•ืจืกื” ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืฆื™ืœื” ื‘ื ืคืฉื• ืืฃ ืจื•ืฆื— (ื›ื•ืณ) ืžื” ืจื•ืฆื— ื™ื”ืจื’ ื•ืืœ ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืฃ ื ืขืจื” ื”ืžืื•ืจืกื” ื™ื”ืจื’ ื•ืืœ ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ

Rather, this halakha about the murderer, which appears to come to teach about the betrothed woman, is found to actually be the subject of teaching. The inference is as follows: Just as with regard to the betrothed woman, permission is given to save her at the cost of the life of her attacker, so too, the murderer may be saved from committing the crime at the cost of his life, i.e., one may save the victim by killing the attacker. Another teaching is derived in the opposite direction, from the case of murder to the case of rape. Just as the murderer is subject to the halakha of let him be killed, and let him not transgress, i.e., one must even allow himself to be killed rather than take the life of another, so too, a man must surrender his life rather than engage in forbidden sexual relations with a betrothed young woman. By inference, the halakha of let him be killed, and let him not transgress, applies to all forbidden sexual relations.

ื•ืจื•ืฆื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžื ื ืœืŸ ืกื‘ืจื ื”ื™ื ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” (ื“ืจื‘ื) ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืžืจื™ ื“ื•ืจืื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ื” ืœืคืœื ื™ื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืงื˜ื™ืœื ื ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืงื˜ืœืš ื•ืœื ืชืงื˜ื•ืœ ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ื“ื“ืžื ื“ื™ื“ืš ืกื•ืžืง ื˜ืคื™ ื“ื™ืœืžื ื“ืžื ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืกื•ืžืง ื˜ืคื™

The Gemara asks: And with regard to the murderer himself, from where do we derive this halakha that he should be killed rather than transgress the prohibition against murder? The Gemara answers: It is derived through reason, as it was told: A certain person came before Rava. He said to Rava: The master of the village where I live said to me: Kill so-and-so, and if you do not do so, I will kill you. What should I do? Rava said to him: Let yourself be killed, and you should not kill. Rava reasoned: What did you see to make you think that your blood is redder and more important than his? Perhaps the blood of that man is redder, and he is more important than you. If so, it is logical that one must not kill another person to save himself.

ื”ื”ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ื“ืืจื—ื ืืชื• ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื–ื™ืœื• ืœื—ื•ืฉื• ืœื” ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื—ื•ืฉื• ืœื” ื•ืื™ืœื—ื™ืฉื ืงืจื™ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื˜ืจื ืืฆืจืš ื‘ื‘ื˜ืŸ ื™ื“ืขืชื™ืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื ืคืง ืžื™ื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ

ยง With respect to a pregnant woman who smells food, it is told: A certain pregnant woman smelled a food and craved it. Those involved came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to ask how to proceed. He said to those who were inquiring: Go and whisper to her that today is Yom Kippur. They whispered to her, and this whispering helped; she stopped craving the food. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi read this verse about the baby she was carrying: โ€œBefore I formed you in the belly I knew you, and before you came forth out of the womb I sanctified youโ€ (Jeremiah 1:5), and indeed, the baby who came out of that woman was Rabbi Yoแธฅanan.

ื”ื”ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื” ื“ืืจื—ื ืืชื• ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื—ื•ืฉื• ืœื” ื•ืœื ืื™ืœื—ื™ืฉื ืงืจื™ ืขืœื™ื”

The Gemara relates another story: A certain pregnant woman smelled food and had a craving to eat it on Yom Kippur. Those involved came before Rabbi แธคanina to ask how to proceed. He said to them: Whisper to her that today is Yom Kippur. They whispered to her, but she did not accept the whisper and continued to crave the food. Rabbi แธคanina read this verse about the baby:

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