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Today's Daf Yomi

April 20, 2021 | 讞壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by the Hadran Women of Long Island group in memory of Irwin Weber a鈥漢, Yitzchak Dov ben Avraham Alter and Rachel, beloved father of our member Debbie Weber Schreiber.

  • This month's learning聽is sponsored by Leah Goldford in loving memory of聽her grandmothers, Tzipporah bat Yechezkiel, Rivka Yoda Bat聽Dovide Tzvi, Bracha Bayla bat Beryl, her father-in-law, Chaim Gershon ben Tzvi Aryeh, her mother, Devorah Rivkah bat Tuvia Hacohen, her cousins, Avrum Baer ben Mordechai, and Sharon bat Yaakov.

Yoma 9

This week’s learning is dedicated by Audrey Mondrow in memory of her precious mother Bessie 鈥漀anny鈥 Mauskopf,聽 Basya Leah bat Meir Yehuda and Tzevia Chaya. “A woman who not only practiced the Torah laws but by her actions and her being, taught us the thread that holds the entire Torah together and that is the manner in which she conducted herself.聽

The gemara quotes a mishna about bakers who buy wheat from people who are considered am haaretz and uses it to show another situation where the parhedrin is used. The gemara again speaks of the bad situation in the Second Temple where high priests were replaced at least once a year (except for a few exceptions). Why was the mishkan destroyed in Shilo? Why were the first Temple and second Temple destroyed? What sins were rampant in those times? Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree on when it was worse – in the first Temple or in the second Temple? Reish Lakish claims that now there is no temple but there is Torah study and Rabbi Yochanan said that the temple is more important. They have another argument 鈥 Why did the divine presence not rest in the second Temple? Was it because not everyone immigrated to Israel in the days of Ezra or because the Persians were also involved in the building of the Temple?

 

诇驻讬 砖砖诇讞 讘讻诇 讙讘讜诇讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜专讗讛 砖讗讬谉 诪驻专讬砖讬谉 讗诇讗 转专讜诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讘诇讘讚


This is because Yo岣nan the High Priest sent emissaries throughout all the areas located within the borders of Eretz Yisrael to assess the situation and saw that the people were separating only teruma gedola and were neglecting to separate tithes. Therefore, he issued a decree that anyone who purchases produce from an am ha鈥檃retz must be concerned about the possibility that it was not tithed and is required to tithe it. Since even an am ha鈥檃retz separates teruma gedola, the bakers who purchased grain from them were not required to do so.


诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 谞诪讬 诇讗 讛诪讜爪讬讗 诪讞讘讬专讜 注诇讬讜 讛专讗讬讛 讗诇讗 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 谞驻专砖讜 讜谞住拽讜 讜谞讬讻诇讜讛讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐


And granted, bakers need not separate first tithe and poor man鈥檚 tithe due to the principle: The burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Neither first tithe, given to Levites, nor poor man鈥檚 tithe, given to the poor, is sacred. It is merely the property of the Levite and the pauper, respectively. Since with regard to doubtfully tithed produce, by definition, there is no certainty that one is actually required to tithe it, if the Levite or the pauper should seek to take possession of the gifts, they must first prove that in fact the produce was not tithed. However, with regard to second tithe, why are the bakers exempt? Let them separate second-tithe from the produce, take it up to Jerusalem, and eat it in Jerusalem, which is the halakha with regard to anyone else who purchases doubtfully tithed produce.


讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖驻专讛讚专讬谉 讛诇诇讜 讞讜讘讟讬谉 讗讜转谉 讻诇 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讛谉 诪讻专讜 讘讝讜诇 诪讻专讜 讘讝讜诇 诇讗 讗讟专讞讜谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 驻专讛讚专讬谉 驻讜专住讬


Ulla said: It is because these parhedrin, government appointees, beat the bakers throughout the entire twelve months of their tenure and tell them: Sell your baked goods cheaply, sell them cheaply. Since the officers insist that the bakers refrain from raising their prices, the Sages did not further burden them with the exertion of separating second tithe from a large quantity of grain and taking it to Jerusalem, as they would be unable to raise their prices to cover the cost of the lost grain and the trip to Jerusalem. Since the presumptive status of the grain is that it was tithed, and the obligation to tithe doubtfully tithed produce is a stringency, the Sages exempted the baker from the obligation to do so. What is the meaning of parhedrin? These are royal appointees [pursei] charged with performance of different tasks.


讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬专讗转 讛壮 转讜住讬祝 讬诪讬诐 讜砖谞讜转 专砖注讬诐 转拽爪专谞讛 讬专讗转 讛壮 转讜住讬祝 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 砖注诪讚 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讜注砖专 砖谞讬诐 讜诇讗 砖诪砖讜 讘讜 讗诇讗 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讻讛谞讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐


搂 Apropos the Second Temple period, when High Priests were frequently replaced, the Gemara cites that Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭he fear of the Lord prolongs days, but the years of the wicked will be shortened鈥 (Proverbs 10:27)? The fear of the Lord prolongs days; that is a reference to the First Temple, which stood for four hundred and ten years and in which only eighteen High Priests served, as is written in the lists of the genealogy of the priests in the Bible.


讜砖谞讜转 专砖注讬诐 转拽爪专谞讛 讝讛 诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 砖注诪讚 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讜注砖专讬诐 砖谞讛 讜砖诪砖讜 讘讜 讬讜转专 诪砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讻讛谞讬诐 爪讗 诪讛诐 讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 砖砖诪砖 砖诪注讜谉 讛爪讚讬拽 讜砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖砖诪砖 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注砖专 砖砖诪砖 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 驻讗讘讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讞转 注砖专讛 砖砖诪砖 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 讞专住讜诐 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 爪讗 讜讞砖讜讘 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诇讗 讛讜爪讬讗 砖谞转讜


But the years of the wicked will be shortened; that is a reference to the Second Temple, which stood for four hundred and twenty years and in which over three hundred High Priests served. In calculating the tenures of the High Priests, deduct from the figure of four hundred and twenty years forty years that Shimon HaTzaddik served, and eighty years that Yo岣nan the High Priest served, ten years that Yishmael ben Pavi served, and some say eleven years that Rabbi Elazar ben 岣rsum served. These men were all righteous and were privileged to serve extended terms. After deducting those one hundred and thirty or one hundred and forty-one years, go out and calculate from this point forward and conclude: Each and every one of the remaining High Priests did not complete his year in office, as the number of remaining High Priests is greater than the number of years remaining.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 转讜专转讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞专讘讛 砖讬诇讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讜 讘讛 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜注诇讬 讝拽谉 诪讗讚 讜砖诪注 讗转 讻诇 讗砖专 讬注砖讜谉 讘谞讬讜 诇讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗转 讗砖专 讬砖讻讘讜谉 讗转 讛谞砖讬诐 讛爪讜讘讗讜转 驻转讞 讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 讜讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 讘谞讬 注诇讬 讞讟讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讟讜注讛 诪转讜讱


搂 Apropos the sins of the High Priests in the Second Temple, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Torta said: Due to what reason was the Tabernacle in Shiloh destroyed in the time of the prophet Samuel? It was destroyed due to the fact that there were two matters that existed in the Tabernacle: Forbidden sexual relations and degradation of consecrated items. There were forbidden sexual relations, as it is written: 鈥淣ow Eli was very old and he heard what his sons were doing to all of Israel, how they lay with the women who did service at the opening of the Tent of Meeting鈥 (I Samuel 2:22). And although Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Anyone who says that the sons of Eli sinned by engaging in forbidden sexual relations is nothing other than mistaken, even according to the alternative interpretation of the verse that it was due to the fact


砖砖讛讜 讗转 拽讬谞讬讛谉 诪讬讛讗 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讛谉 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 砖讻讘讜诐


that they deferred the sacrifice of their bird-offerings by women after childbirth; nevertheless, the verse ascribes to them as if they lay with them. These women came to the Tabernacle to sacrifice doves or pigeons as bird-offerings as part of their purification process, which would permit them to engage in sexual relations with their husbands. Eli鈥檚 sons delayed the sacrifice of these offerings and thereby delayed the return of these women to their husbands and their fulfillment of the mitzva of procreation. Even though, according to this opinion, Eli鈥檚 sons did not actually engage in sexual relations with these women, the verse attributes that degree of severity to their conduct.


讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讘讟专诐 讬拽讟专讜谉 讗转 讛讞诇讘 讜讘讗 谞注专 讛讻讛谉 讜讗诪专 诇讗讬砖 讛讝讜讘讞 转谞讛 讘砖专 诇爪诇讜转 诇讻讛谉 讜诇讗 讬拽讞 诪诪讱 讘砖专 诪讘讜砖诇 讻讬 讗诐 讞讬 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讬讜 讛讗讬砖 拽讟专 讬拽讟讬专讜谉 讻讬讜诐 讛讞诇讘 讜拽讞 诇讱 讻讗砖专 转讗讜讛 谞驻砖讱 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讻讬 注转讛 转转谉 讜讗诐 诇讗 诇拽讞转讬 讘讞讝拽讛 讜转讛讬 讞讟讗转 讛谞注专讬诐 讙讚讜诇讛 诪讗讚 讗转 驻谞讬 讛壮 讻讬 谞讗爪讜 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讗转 诪谞讞转 讛壮


Eli鈥檚 sons also sinned in the degradation of consecrated items, as it is written: 鈥淏efore the fat was made burned, the priest鈥檚 servant came and said to the man who sacrificed: Hand over some flesh to roast for the priest, for he will not take cooked flesh from you, but raw. And if the man said to him: Let the fat be burnt first and then take as much as you want, then he would say: No, hand it over right now, or I will take it by force. The sin of the young men against the Lord was very great, for the men treated the Lord鈥檚 offerings with contempt鈥 (I Samuel 2:15鈥17).


诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞专讘 诪驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讘讜 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 拽爪专 讛诪爪注 诪讛砖转专注


搂 The Tosefta continues with a discussion of the sins of the Jewish people over the generations: Due to what reason was the First Temple destroyed? It was destroyed due to the fact that there were three matters that existed in the First Temple: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. Idol worship, as it is written: 鈥淭he bed is too short for stretching [mehistare鈥檃], and the cover is too narrow for gathering鈥 (Isaiah 28:20).


诪讗讬 拽爪专 讛诪爪注 诪讛砖转专注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 拽爪专 诪爪注 讝讛 诪讛砖转专专 注诇讬讜 砖谞讬 专注讬诐 讻讗讞讚


What is the meaning of: 鈥淭he bed is too short for stretching?鈥 Rabbi Yonatan said: This bed is too short for two counterparts [re鈥檌m] to dominate [mehistarer]. Mehistare鈥檃 is a contraction of mehistarer re鈥檌m. It is inconceivable that there would be in one Temple both service of God and worship of the idol placed there by King Manasseh.


讜讛诪住讻讛 爪专讛 讻讛转讻谞住 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讻讬 诪讟讬 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诇讛讗讬 拽专讗 讘讻讬 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讻讜谞住 讻谞讚 诪讬 讛讬诐 谞注砖讬转 诇讜 诪住讻讛 爪专讛


What is the meaning of: And the cover [vehamasseikha] is too narrow [tzara] for gathering [kehitkannes]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that when Rabbi Yonatan reached this verse, he wept and said: For He about Whom it is written: 鈥淗e gathers [kones] waters of the sea together as a heap鈥 (Psalms 33:7), the idol [masseikha] became a rival [tzara]? In the homiletic interpretation, masseikha is interpreted as idol and tzara is interpreted as rival, as in the term used to describe the relationship between two women married to the same husband, isha tzara.


讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讬注谉 讻讬 讙讘讛讜 讘谞讜转 爪讬讜谉 讜转诇讻谞讛 谞讟讜讬讜转 讙专讜谉 讜诪砖拽专讜转 注讬谞讬诐 讛诇讜讱 讜讟驻讜祝 转诇讻谞讛 讜讘专讙诇讬讛谉 转注讻住谞讛 讬注谉 讻讬 讙讘讛讜 讘谞讜转 爪讬讜谉 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讜转 讗专讜讻讛 讘爪讚 拽爪专讛 讜转诇讻谞讛 谞讟讜讬讜转 讙专讜谉 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讜转 讘拽讜诪讛 讝拽讜驻讛 讜诪砖拽专讜转 注讬谞讬诐 讚讛讜讜 诪诇讬讬谉 讻讜讞诇讗 注讬谞讬讛谉 讛诇讜讱 讜讟驻讜祝 转诇讻谞讛 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讜转 注拽讘 讘爪讚 讙讜讚诇 讜讘专讙诇讬讛谉 转注讻住谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖讛讬讜 诪讘讬讗讜转 诪讜专 讜讗驻专住诪讜谉 讜诪谞讬讞讜转 讘诪谞注诇讬讛谉 讜讻砖诪讙讬注讜转 讗爪诇 讘讞讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讜注讟讜转 讜诪转讬讝讜转 注诇讬讛谉 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讘讛谉 讬爪专 讛专注 讻讗专住 讘讻注讜住


With regard to forbidden sexual relations, it is written: 鈥淭he Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet鈥 (Isaiah 3:16).
Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, indicates a tall woman walking alongside a short one so that the tall woman would stand out.
And walk with outstretched necks, indicates that they would walk with upright stature and carry themselves in an immodest way.
And wanton eyes, indicates that they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadow in order to draw attention to their eyes.
Walking and mincing as they go, indicates that they would walk in small steps, heel to toe, so onlookers would notice them.
Making a tinkling [te鈥檃kasna] with their feet, Rabbi Yitz岣k said: This teaches that they would bring myrrh and balsam and place them in their shoes and would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. And once they approached a place where young Jewish men were congregated, they would stamp their feet on the ground and splash the perfume toward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ke鈥檈res bikhos].


砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讙诐 讚诐 谞拽讬 砖驻讱 诪谞砖讛 [讛专讘讛 诪讗讚] 注讚 讗砖专 诪诇讗 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 驻讛 诇驻讛


With regard to bloodshed it is written: 鈥淢oreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another鈥 (II Kings 21:16).


讗讘诇 诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 砖讛讬讜 注讜住拽讬谉 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜转 讜讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞专讘 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬转讛 讘讜 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 诇诇诪讚讱 砖砖拽讜诇讛 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 讻谞讙讚 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐


However, considering that the people during the Second Temple period were engaged in Torah study, observance of mitzvot, and acts of kindness, and that they did not perform the sinful acts that were performed in the First Temple, why was the Second Temple destroyed? It was destroyed due to the fact that there was wanton hatred during that period. This comes to teach you that the sin of wanton hatred is equivalent to the three severe transgressions: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations and bloodshed.


专砖注讬诐 讛讬讜 讗诇讗 砖转诇讜 讘讟讞讜谞诐 讘讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗转讗谉 诇诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讬讛 讘砖讜讞讚 讬砖驻讜讟讜 讜讻讛谞讬讛 讘诪讞讬专 讬讜专讜 讜谞讘讬讗讬讛 讘讻住祝 讬拽住讜诪讜 讜注诇 讛壮 讬砖注谞讜 诇讗诪专 讛诇讗 讛壮 讘拽专讘谞讜 诇讗 转讘讜讗 注诇讬谞讜 专注讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讛讘讬讗 注诇讬讛谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖诇砖 讙讝专讜转 讻谞讙讚 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 砖讘讬讚诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇讻谉 讘讙诇诇讻诐 爪讬讜谉 砖讚讛 转讞专砖 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 注讬讬谉 转讛讬讛 讜讛专 讛讘讬转 诇讘诪讜转 讬注专


The Gemara continues: They were wicked; however, they put their faith in the Holy One, Blessed be He. With that statement we have come to the First Temple era, about which it is written: 鈥淗er chiefs judge for bribes, her priests give rulings for a fee, and her prophets divine for pay; yet they rely on the Lord, saying: The Lord is in our midst, no tragedy will overtake us鈥 (Micah 3:11). At least the final portion of the verse was to their credit. Therefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought upon them three decrees corresponding to their three wicked sins, as it is stated: 鈥淭herefore, due to you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become heaps of ruins, and the Temple Mount will be a like a shrine in the woods鈥 (Micah 3:12).


讜讘诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 诇讗 讛讜讛 讘讬讛 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 讜讛讻转讬讘 诪讙讜专讬 讗诇 讞专讘 讛讬讜 讗转 注诪讬 诇讻谉 住驻讜拽 讗诇 讬专讱 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 (讗诇讬注讝专) 讗诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讜讚讜拽专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讘讞专讘讜转 砖讘诇砖讜谞诐


The Gemara asks: And in the First Temple era was there really no baseless hatred? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淐ry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people, this will befall all the princes of Israel: They will be cast before the sword together with my people, therefore strike the thigh鈥 (Ezekiel 21:17)? Rabbi Eliezer interpreted this verse and said: These are people who eat and drink with each other, and stab each other with verbal barbs. Apparently, even those who were close were filled with hatred toward one another.


讛讛讬讗 讘谞砖讬讗讬 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝注拽 讜讛讬诇诇 讘谉 讗讚诐 讻讬 讛讬讗 讛讬转讛 讘注诪讬 讜转谞讬讗 讝注拽 讜讛讬诇诇 讘谉 讗讚诐 讬讻讜诇 诇讻诇 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讬讗 讘讻诇 谞砖讬讗讬 讬砖专讗诇


The Gemara answers: That behavior was found only among the princes of Israel, as it is written: 鈥淐ry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people鈥; and it was taught in a baraita: 鈥淐ry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people鈥; one might have thought that this unsavory trait was common to all. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淭his will befall all the princes of Israel.鈥 It was only the leaders of the nation who harbored baseless hatred for each other; the people of the nation as a whole did not hate one another.


专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讜讬讬讛讜 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 砖谞转讙诇讛 注讜谞诐 谞转讙诇讛 拽爪诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 砖诇讗 谞转讙诇讛 注讜谞诐 诇讗 谞转讙诇讛 拽爪诐


搂 It was Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Elazar who both said: In the case of the former, the people in the First Temple era, whose sin was exposed and no attempt was made to disguise their conduct, the end of their punishment was exposed, and the prophet informed them that they would return to their land in seventy years. In the case of the latter, the people in the Second Temple era, whose sin was not exposed; rather, they attempted to disguise their conduct, the end of their punishment was not exposed.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讟讜讘讛 爪驻讜专谞谉 砖诇 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪讻专讬住讜 砖诇 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗讚专讘讛 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 注讚讬驻讬 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬讻讗 砖注讘讜讚 诪诇讻讬讜转 拽讗 注住拽讬 讘转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讬专讛 转讜讻讬讞 砖讞讝专讛 诇专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讞讝专讛 诇讗讞专讜谞讬诐


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The fingernails of the former are preferable to the belly of the latter. Reish Lakish said to him: On the contrary, the latter were superior; even though there is subjugation by the kingdoms, they are engaged in Torah study. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to Reish Lakish: The Temple will prove that the former were superior, as it was restored to the former. The Second Temple was constructed after the destruction of the first. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple, it was not restored to the latter. Apparently, the former were superior to the latter.


砖讗诇讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讗讜 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 转谞讜 注讬谞讬讻诐 讘讘讬专讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 诇讛诐 注讬讚讬讻诐 讘讬专讛


Similarly, the Sages asked Rabbi Elazar: Are the former greater or are the latter greater? He said to them: Look to the Temple and see if it has been restored, as it was to our predecessors. Some say the exchange was slightly different: He said to them: The Temple is your witness. The restoration of the Temple after the destruction of the First Temple, attests to the fact that the former generation was greater.


专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讛讜讬 住讞讬 讘讬专讚谞讗 讗转讗 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讬讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诇讛讗 住谞讬谞讗 诇讻讜 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 讞讜诪讛 讛讬讗 谞讘谞讛 注诇讬讛 讟讬专转 讻住祝 讜讗诐 讚诇转 讛讬讗 谞爪讜专 注诇讬讛 诇讜讞 讗专讝 讗诐 注砖讬转诐 注爪诪讻诐 讻讞讜诪讛 讜注诇讬转诐 讻讜诇讻诐 讘讬诪讬 注讝专讗 谞诪砖诇转诐 讻讻住祝 砖讗讬谉 专拽讘 砖讜诇讟 讘讜 注讻砖讬讜 砖注诇讬转诐 讻讚诇转讜转 谞诪砖诇转诐 讻讗专讝 砖讛专拽讘 砖讜诇讟 讘讜


Reish Lakish was swimming in the Jordan River when Rabba bar bar 岣na came and gave him a hand to help him out. Reish Lakish said to him: My God! I hate you Babylonians, as it is written: 鈥淚f she be a wall we will build a silver turret upon her, if she be a door we will cover her with boards of cedar鈥 (Song of Songs 8:9). This is the meaning of the verse as it applies to the Jewish people: Had you rendered yourselves a solid bloc like a wall and all ascended to Eretz Yisrael in the days of Ezra, you would have been likened to silver, which rot does not infest, in the sense that you would have merited experiencing the Divine Presence in all its glory. Now that you ascended like doors, and only some of you came to Eretz Yisrael, you are likened to cedar, which rot infests, and you merit experiencing only partial revelation of the Divine Presence.


诪讗讬 讗专讝 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 住住诪讙讜专 诪讗讬 住住诪讙讜专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘转 拽讜诇 讻讚转谞讬讗 诪砖诪转讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讞讙讬 讝讻专讬讛 讜诪诇讗讻讬 谞住转诇拽讛 专讜讞 讛拽讚砖 诪讬砖专讗诇 讜注讚讬讬谉 讛讬讜 诪砖转诪砖讬谉 讘讘转 拽讜诇


The Gemara asks: What rot infests cedar? Ulla said: It is sasmagor, a type of worm. The Gemara asks: What does sasmagor have to do with the Divine Presence during the Second Temple era? Rabbi Abba said: Just as little remains from a cedar tree infested by this worm, similarly, all that remained from the Divine Presence during the Second Temple period was a Divine Voice, as it was taught in a baraita: After the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died, the Divine Spirit of prophetic revelation departed from the Jewish people, and they were still utilizing a Divine Voice, which they heard as an echo of prophecy.


讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讬 诪砖转注讬 讘讛讚讬 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜诪讛 专讘讬 (讗诇讬注讝专) 讚诪专讗 讚讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讛 诪砖转注讬 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘讛讚讬讛 讚诪讗谉 讚诪砖转注讬 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘讛讚讬讛 讘砖讜拽 讬讛讘讜 诇讬讛 注讬住拽讗 讘诇讗 住讛讚讬 讘讛讚讬 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 诪砖转注讬


The Gemara asks: And would Reish Lakish speak with Rabba bar bar 岣na in public? Just as Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisrael in wisdom and character, and nevertheless, Reish Lakish would not speak with him in public, as Reish Lakish was sparing in his speech and extended friendship to only a select few prominent, righteous people, to the extent that a person to whom Reish Lakish was seen speaking in the marketplace, one would give him a loan and do business with him without witnesses; would he have spoken with Rabba bar bar 岣na?


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讚讬 讙讘专讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讜 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讛讜讛 讜讝注讬专讬 讗讜 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讛讜讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讗讬 谞诪讬 住诇讬拽讜 讻讜诇讛讜 讘讬诪讬 注讝专讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 砖专讬讗 砖讻讬谞讛 讘诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬驻转 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讬驻转 讜讬砖讻谉 讘讗讛诇讬 砖诐


Rav Pappa said: Cast a man between them, and say that the incident did not involve Reish Lakish and Rabba bar bar 岣na. It was either Reish Lakish bathing in the river and Ze鈥檌ri, the prominent Babylonian Sage, who extended him a hand, or it was Rabba bar bar 岣na who was in the river and Rabbi Elazar extended a hand to him. In any event, when the Sage who heard what Reish Lakish said came before Rabbi Yo岣nan and related it, Rabbi Yo岣nan said to him: That is not the reason; even had they all ascended in the days of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested in the Second Temple, as it is written: 鈥淕od will enlarge Japheth, and dwell in the tents of Shem鈥 (Genesis 9:27).

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by the Hadran Women of Long Island group in memory of Irwin Weber a鈥漢, Yitzchak Dov ben Avraham Alter and Rachel, beloved father of our member Debbie Weber Schreiber.

  • This month's learning聽is sponsored by Leah Goldford in loving memory of聽her grandmothers, Tzipporah bat Yechezkiel, Rivka Yoda Bat聽Dovide Tzvi, Bracha Bayla bat Beryl, her father-in-law, Chaim Gershon ben Tzvi Aryeh, her mother, Devorah Rivkah bat Tuvia Hacohen, her cousins, Avrum Baer ben Mordechai, and Sharon bat Yaakov.

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Yoma 9

诇驻讬 砖砖诇讞 讘讻诇 讙讘讜诇讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜专讗讛 砖讗讬谉 诪驻专讬砖讬谉 讗诇讗 转专讜诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讘诇讘讚


This is because Yo岣nan the High Priest sent emissaries throughout all the areas located within the borders of Eretz Yisrael to assess the situation and saw that the people were separating only teruma gedola and were neglecting to separate tithes. Therefore, he issued a decree that anyone who purchases produce from an am ha鈥檃retz must be concerned about the possibility that it was not tithed and is required to tithe it. Since even an am ha鈥檃retz separates teruma gedola, the bakers who purchased grain from them were not required to do so.


诪注砖专 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 谞诪讬 诇讗 讛诪讜爪讬讗 诪讞讘讬专讜 注诇讬讜 讛专讗讬讛 讗诇讗 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 谞驻专砖讜 讜谞住拽讜 讜谞讬讻诇讜讛讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐


And granted, bakers need not separate first tithe and poor man鈥檚 tithe due to the principle: The burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Neither first tithe, given to Levites, nor poor man鈥檚 tithe, given to the poor, is sacred. It is merely the property of the Levite and the pauper, respectively. Since with regard to doubtfully tithed produce, by definition, there is no certainty that one is actually required to tithe it, if the Levite or the pauper should seek to take possession of the gifts, they must first prove that in fact the produce was not tithed. However, with regard to second tithe, why are the bakers exempt? Let them separate second-tithe from the produce, take it up to Jerusalem, and eat it in Jerusalem, which is the halakha with regard to anyone else who purchases doubtfully tithed produce.


讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖驻专讛讚专讬谉 讛诇诇讜 讞讜讘讟讬谉 讗讜转谉 讻诇 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讛谉 诪讻专讜 讘讝讜诇 诪讻专讜 讘讝讜诇 诇讗 讗讟专讞讜谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 驻专讛讚专讬谉 驻讜专住讬


Ulla said: It is because these parhedrin, government appointees, beat the bakers throughout the entire twelve months of their tenure and tell them: Sell your baked goods cheaply, sell them cheaply. Since the officers insist that the bakers refrain from raising their prices, the Sages did not further burden them with the exertion of separating second tithe from a large quantity of grain and taking it to Jerusalem, as they would be unable to raise their prices to cover the cost of the lost grain and the trip to Jerusalem. Since the presumptive status of the grain is that it was tithed, and the obligation to tithe doubtfully tithed produce is a stringency, the Sages exempted the baker from the obligation to do so. What is the meaning of parhedrin? These are royal appointees [pursei] charged with performance of different tasks.


讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬专讗转 讛壮 转讜住讬祝 讬诪讬诐 讜砖谞讜转 专砖注讬诐 转拽爪专谞讛 讬专讗转 讛壮 转讜住讬祝 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 砖注诪讚 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讜注砖专 砖谞讬诐 讜诇讗 砖诪砖讜 讘讜 讗诇讗 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讻讛谞讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐


搂 Apropos the Second Temple period, when High Priests were frequently replaced, the Gemara cites that Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭he fear of the Lord prolongs days, but the years of the wicked will be shortened鈥 (Proverbs 10:27)? The fear of the Lord prolongs days; that is a reference to the First Temple, which stood for four hundred and ten years and in which only eighteen High Priests served, as is written in the lists of the genealogy of the priests in the Bible.


讜砖谞讜转 专砖注讬诐 转拽爪专谞讛 讝讛 诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 砖注诪讚 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讜注砖专讬诐 砖谞讛 讜砖诪砖讜 讘讜 讬讜转专 诪砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讻讛谞讬诐 爪讗 诪讛诐 讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 砖砖诪砖 砖诪注讜谉 讛爪讚讬拽 讜砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖砖诪砖 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注砖专 砖砖诪砖 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 驻讗讘讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讞转 注砖专讛 砖砖诪砖 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 讞专住讜诐 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 爪讗 讜讞砖讜讘 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诇讗 讛讜爪讬讗 砖谞转讜


But the years of the wicked will be shortened; that is a reference to the Second Temple, which stood for four hundred and twenty years and in which over three hundred High Priests served. In calculating the tenures of the High Priests, deduct from the figure of four hundred and twenty years forty years that Shimon HaTzaddik served, and eighty years that Yo岣nan the High Priest served, ten years that Yishmael ben Pavi served, and some say eleven years that Rabbi Elazar ben 岣rsum served. These men were all righteous and were privileged to serve extended terms. After deducting those one hundred and thirty or one hundred and forty-one years, go out and calculate from this point forward and conclude: Each and every one of the remaining High Priests did not complete his year in office, as the number of remaining High Priests is greater than the number of years remaining.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 转讜专转讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞专讘讛 砖讬诇讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讜 讘讛 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜注诇讬 讝拽谉 诪讗讚 讜砖诪注 讗转 讻诇 讗砖专 讬注砖讜谉 讘谞讬讜 诇讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗转 讗砖专 讬砖讻讘讜谉 讗转 讛谞砖讬诐 讛爪讜讘讗讜转 驻转讞 讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 讜讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 讘谞讬 注诇讬 讞讟讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讟讜注讛 诪转讜讱


搂 Apropos the sins of the High Priests in the Second Temple, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Torta said: Due to what reason was the Tabernacle in Shiloh destroyed in the time of the prophet Samuel? It was destroyed due to the fact that there were two matters that existed in the Tabernacle: Forbidden sexual relations and degradation of consecrated items. There were forbidden sexual relations, as it is written: 鈥淣ow Eli was very old and he heard what his sons were doing to all of Israel, how they lay with the women who did service at the opening of the Tent of Meeting鈥 (I Samuel 2:22). And although Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Anyone who says that the sons of Eli sinned by engaging in forbidden sexual relations is nothing other than mistaken, even according to the alternative interpretation of the verse that it was due to the fact


砖砖讛讜 讗转 拽讬谞讬讛谉 诪讬讛讗 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讛谉 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 砖讻讘讜诐


that they deferred the sacrifice of their bird-offerings by women after childbirth; nevertheless, the verse ascribes to them as if they lay with them. These women came to the Tabernacle to sacrifice doves or pigeons as bird-offerings as part of their purification process, which would permit them to engage in sexual relations with their husbands. Eli鈥檚 sons delayed the sacrifice of these offerings and thereby delayed the return of these women to their husbands and their fulfillment of the mitzva of procreation. Even though, according to this opinion, Eli鈥檚 sons did not actually engage in sexual relations with these women, the verse attributes that degree of severity to their conduct.


讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讘讟专诐 讬拽讟专讜谉 讗转 讛讞诇讘 讜讘讗 谞注专 讛讻讛谉 讜讗诪专 诇讗讬砖 讛讝讜讘讞 转谞讛 讘砖专 诇爪诇讜转 诇讻讛谉 讜诇讗 讬拽讞 诪诪讱 讘砖专 诪讘讜砖诇 讻讬 讗诐 讞讬 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讬讜 讛讗讬砖 拽讟专 讬拽讟讬专讜谉 讻讬讜诐 讛讞诇讘 讜拽讞 诇讱 讻讗砖专 转讗讜讛 谞驻砖讱 讜讗诪专 诇讜 讻讬 注转讛 转转谉 讜讗诐 诇讗 诇拽讞转讬 讘讞讝拽讛 讜转讛讬 讞讟讗转 讛谞注专讬诐 讙讚讜诇讛 诪讗讚 讗转 驻谞讬 讛壮 讻讬 谞讗爪讜 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讗转 诪谞讞转 讛壮


Eli鈥檚 sons also sinned in the degradation of consecrated items, as it is written: 鈥淏efore the fat was made burned, the priest鈥檚 servant came and said to the man who sacrificed: Hand over some flesh to roast for the priest, for he will not take cooked flesh from you, but raw. And if the man said to him: Let the fat be burnt first and then take as much as you want, then he would say: No, hand it over right now, or I will take it by force. The sin of the young men against the Lord was very great, for the men treated the Lord鈥檚 offerings with contempt鈥 (I Samuel 2:15鈥17).


诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞专讘 诪驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讘讜 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 拽爪专 讛诪爪注 诪讛砖转专注


搂 The Tosefta continues with a discussion of the sins of the Jewish people over the generations: Due to what reason was the First Temple destroyed? It was destroyed due to the fact that there were three matters that existed in the First Temple: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. Idol worship, as it is written: 鈥淭he bed is too short for stretching [mehistare鈥檃], and the cover is too narrow for gathering鈥 (Isaiah 28:20).


诪讗讬 拽爪专 讛诪爪注 诪讛砖转专注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 拽爪专 诪爪注 讝讛 诪讛砖转专专 注诇讬讜 砖谞讬 专注讬诐 讻讗讞讚


What is the meaning of: 鈥淭he bed is too short for stretching?鈥 Rabbi Yonatan said: This bed is too short for two counterparts [re鈥檌m] to dominate [mehistarer]. Mehistare鈥檃 is a contraction of mehistarer re鈥檌m. It is inconceivable that there would be in one Temple both service of God and worship of the idol placed there by King Manasseh.


讜讛诪住讻讛 爪专讛 讻讛转讻谞住 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讻讬 诪讟讬 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诇讛讗讬 拽专讗 讘讻讬 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讻讜谞住 讻谞讚 诪讬 讛讬诐 谞注砖讬转 诇讜 诪住讻讛 爪专讛


What is the meaning of: And the cover [vehamasseikha] is too narrow [tzara] for gathering [kehitkannes]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that when Rabbi Yonatan reached this verse, he wept and said: For He about Whom it is written: 鈥淗e gathers [kones] waters of the sea together as a heap鈥 (Psalms 33:7), the idol [masseikha] became a rival [tzara]? In the homiletic interpretation, masseikha is interpreted as idol and tzara is interpreted as rival, as in the term used to describe the relationship between two women married to the same husband, isha tzara.


讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讬注谉 讻讬 讙讘讛讜 讘谞讜转 爪讬讜谉 讜转诇讻谞讛 谞讟讜讬讜转 讙专讜谉 讜诪砖拽专讜转 注讬谞讬诐 讛诇讜讱 讜讟驻讜祝 转诇讻谞讛 讜讘专讙诇讬讛谉 转注讻住谞讛 讬注谉 讻讬 讙讘讛讜 讘谞讜转 爪讬讜谉 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讜转 讗专讜讻讛 讘爪讚 拽爪专讛 讜转诇讻谞讛 谞讟讜讬讜转 讙专讜谉 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讜转 讘拽讜诪讛 讝拽讜驻讛 讜诪砖拽专讜转 注讬谞讬诐 讚讛讜讜 诪诇讬讬谉 讻讜讞诇讗 注讬谞讬讛谉 讛诇讜讱 讜讟驻讜祝 转诇讻谞讛 砖讛讬讜 诪讛诇讻讜转 注拽讘 讘爪讚 讙讜讚诇 讜讘专讙诇讬讛谉 转注讻住谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖讛讬讜 诪讘讬讗讜转 诪讜专 讜讗驻专住诪讜谉 讜诪谞讬讞讜转 讘诪谞注诇讬讛谉 讜讻砖诪讙讬注讜转 讗爪诇 讘讞讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讜注讟讜转 讜诪转讬讝讜转 注诇讬讛谉 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讘讛谉 讬爪专 讛专注 讻讗专住 讘讻注讜住


With regard to forbidden sexual relations, it is written: 鈥淭he Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet鈥 (Isaiah 3:16).
Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, indicates a tall woman walking alongside a short one so that the tall woman would stand out.
And walk with outstretched necks, indicates that they would walk with upright stature and carry themselves in an immodest way.
And wanton eyes, indicates that they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadow in order to draw attention to their eyes.
Walking and mincing as they go, indicates that they would walk in small steps, heel to toe, so onlookers would notice them.
Making a tinkling [te鈥檃kasna] with their feet, Rabbi Yitz岣k said: This teaches that they would bring myrrh and balsam and place them in their shoes and would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. And once they approached a place where young Jewish men were congregated, they would stamp their feet on the ground and splash the perfume toward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ke鈥檈res bikhos].


砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讙诐 讚诐 谞拽讬 砖驻讱 诪谞砖讛 [讛专讘讛 诪讗讚] 注讚 讗砖专 诪诇讗 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 驻讛 诇驻讛


With regard to bloodshed it is written: 鈥淢oreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another鈥 (II Kings 21:16).


讗讘诇 诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 砖讛讬讜 注讜住拽讬谉 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜转 讜讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞专讘 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬转讛 讘讜 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 诇诇诪讚讱 砖砖拽讜诇讛 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 讻谞讙讚 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐


However, considering that the people during the Second Temple period were engaged in Torah study, observance of mitzvot, and acts of kindness, and that they did not perform the sinful acts that were performed in the First Temple, why was the Second Temple destroyed? It was destroyed due to the fact that there was wanton hatred during that period. This comes to teach you that the sin of wanton hatred is equivalent to the three severe transgressions: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations and bloodshed.


专砖注讬诐 讛讬讜 讗诇讗 砖转诇讜 讘讟讞讜谞诐 讘讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗转讗谉 诇诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讬讛 讘砖讜讞讚 讬砖驻讜讟讜 讜讻讛谞讬讛 讘诪讞讬专 讬讜专讜 讜谞讘讬讗讬讛 讘讻住祝 讬拽住讜诪讜 讜注诇 讛壮 讬砖注谞讜 诇讗诪专 讛诇讗 讛壮 讘拽专讘谞讜 诇讗 转讘讜讗 注诇讬谞讜 专注讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讛讘讬讗 注诇讬讛谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖诇砖 讙讝专讜转 讻谞讙讚 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 砖讘讬讚诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇讻谉 讘讙诇诇讻诐 爪讬讜谉 砖讚讛 转讞专砖 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 注讬讬谉 转讛讬讛 讜讛专 讛讘讬转 诇讘诪讜转 讬注专


The Gemara continues: They were wicked; however, they put their faith in the Holy One, Blessed be He. With that statement we have come to the First Temple era, about which it is written: 鈥淗er chiefs judge for bribes, her priests give rulings for a fee, and her prophets divine for pay; yet they rely on the Lord, saying: The Lord is in our midst, no tragedy will overtake us鈥 (Micah 3:11). At least the final portion of the verse was to their credit. Therefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought upon them three decrees corresponding to their three wicked sins, as it is stated: 鈥淭herefore, due to you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become heaps of ruins, and the Temple Mount will be a like a shrine in the woods鈥 (Micah 3:12).


讜讘诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 诇讗 讛讜讛 讘讬讛 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 讜讛讻转讬讘 诪讙讜专讬 讗诇 讞专讘 讛讬讜 讗转 注诪讬 诇讻谉 住驻讜拽 讗诇 讬专讱 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 (讗诇讬注讝专) 讗诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讜讚讜拽专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讘讞专讘讜转 砖讘诇砖讜谞诐


The Gemara asks: And in the First Temple era was there really no baseless hatred? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淐ry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people, this will befall all the princes of Israel: They will be cast before the sword together with my people, therefore strike the thigh鈥 (Ezekiel 21:17)? Rabbi Eliezer interpreted this verse and said: These are people who eat and drink with each other, and stab each other with verbal barbs. Apparently, even those who were close were filled with hatred toward one another.


讛讛讬讗 讘谞砖讬讗讬 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝注拽 讜讛讬诇诇 讘谉 讗讚诐 讻讬 讛讬讗 讛讬转讛 讘注诪讬 讜转谞讬讗 讝注拽 讜讛讬诇诇 讘谉 讗讚诐 讬讻讜诇 诇讻诇 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讬讗 讘讻诇 谞砖讬讗讬 讬砖专讗诇


The Gemara answers: That behavior was found only among the princes of Israel, as it is written: 鈥淐ry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people鈥; and it was taught in a baraita: 鈥淐ry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people鈥; one might have thought that this unsavory trait was common to all. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淭his will befall all the princes of Israel.鈥 It was only the leaders of the nation who harbored baseless hatred for each other; the people of the nation as a whole did not hate one another.


专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讜讬讬讛讜 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 砖谞转讙诇讛 注讜谞诐 谞转讙诇讛 拽爪诐 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 砖诇讗 谞转讙诇讛 注讜谞诐 诇讗 谞转讙诇讛 拽爪诐


搂 It was Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Elazar who both said: In the case of the former, the people in the First Temple era, whose sin was exposed and no attempt was made to disguise their conduct, the end of their punishment was exposed, and the prophet informed them that they would return to their land in seventy years. In the case of the latter, the people in the Second Temple era, whose sin was not exposed; rather, they attempted to disguise their conduct, the end of their punishment was not exposed.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讟讜讘讛 爪驻讜专谞谉 砖诇 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 诪讻专讬住讜 砖诇 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗讚专讘讛 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 注讚讬驻讬 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬讻讗 砖注讘讜讚 诪诇讻讬讜转 拽讗 注住拽讬 讘转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讬专讛 转讜讻讬讞 砖讞讝专讛 诇专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讞讝专讛 诇讗讞专讜谞讬诐


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The fingernails of the former are preferable to the belly of the latter. Reish Lakish said to him: On the contrary, the latter were superior; even though there is subjugation by the kingdoms, they are engaged in Torah study. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to Reish Lakish: The Temple will prove that the former were superior, as it was restored to the former. The Second Temple was constructed after the destruction of the first. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple, it was not restored to the latter. Apparently, the former were superior to the latter.


砖讗诇讜 讗转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讗讜 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 转谞讜 注讬谞讬讻诐 讘讘讬专讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 诇讛诐 注讬讚讬讻诐 讘讬专讛


Similarly, the Sages asked Rabbi Elazar: Are the former greater or are the latter greater? He said to them: Look to the Temple and see if it has been restored, as it was to our predecessors. Some say the exchange was slightly different: He said to them: The Temple is your witness. The restoration of the Temple after the destruction of the First Temple, attests to the fact that the former generation was greater.


专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讛讜讬 住讞讬 讘讬专讚谞讗 讗转讗 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讬讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诇讛讗 住谞讬谞讗 诇讻讜 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 讞讜诪讛 讛讬讗 谞讘谞讛 注诇讬讛 讟讬专转 讻住祝 讜讗诐 讚诇转 讛讬讗 谞爪讜专 注诇讬讛 诇讜讞 讗专讝 讗诐 注砖讬转诐 注爪诪讻诐 讻讞讜诪讛 讜注诇讬转诐 讻讜诇讻诐 讘讬诪讬 注讝专讗 谞诪砖诇转诐 讻讻住祝 砖讗讬谉 专拽讘 砖讜诇讟 讘讜 注讻砖讬讜 砖注诇讬转诐 讻讚诇转讜转 谞诪砖诇转诐 讻讗专讝 砖讛专拽讘 砖讜诇讟 讘讜


Reish Lakish was swimming in the Jordan River when Rabba bar bar 岣na came and gave him a hand to help him out. Reish Lakish said to him: My God! I hate you Babylonians, as it is written: 鈥淚f she be a wall we will build a silver turret upon her, if she be a door we will cover her with boards of cedar鈥 (Song of Songs 8:9). This is the meaning of the verse as it applies to the Jewish people: Had you rendered yourselves a solid bloc like a wall and all ascended to Eretz Yisrael in the days of Ezra, you would have been likened to silver, which rot does not infest, in the sense that you would have merited experiencing the Divine Presence in all its glory. Now that you ascended like doors, and only some of you came to Eretz Yisrael, you are likened to cedar, which rot infests, and you merit experiencing only partial revelation of the Divine Presence.


诪讗讬 讗专讝 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 住住诪讙讜专 诪讗讬 住住诪讙讜专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘转 拽讜诇 讻讚转谞讬讗 诪砖诪转讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讞讙讬 讝讻专讬讛 讜诪诇讗讻讬 谞住转诇拽讛 专讜讞 讛拽讚砖 诪讬砖专讗诇 讜注讚讬讬谉 讛讬讜 诪砖转诪砖讬谉 讘讘转 拽讜诇


The Gemara asks: What rot infests cedar? Ulla said: It is sasmagor, a type of worm. The Gemara asks: What does sasmagor have to do with the Divine Presence during the Second Temple era? Rabbi Abba said: Just as little remains from a cedar tree infested by this worm, similarly, all that remained from the Divine Presence during the Second Temple period was a Divine Voice, as it was taught in a baraita: After the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died, the Divine Spirit of prophetic revelation departed from the Jewish people, and they were still utilizing a Divine Voice, which they heard as an echo of prophecy.


讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讬 诪砖转注讬 讘讛讚讬 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜诪讛 专讘讬 (讗诇讬注讝专) 讚诪专讗 讚讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讛 诪砖转注讬 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘讛讚讬讛 讚诪讗谉 讚诪砖转注讬 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘讛讚讬讛 讘砖讜拽 讬讛讘讜 诇讬讛 注讬住拽讗 讘诇讗 住讛讚讬 讘讛讚讬 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 诪砖转注讬


The Gemara asks: And would Reish Lakish speak with Rabba bar bar 岣na in public? Just as Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisrael in wisdom and character, and nevertheless, Reish Lakish would not speak with him in public, as Reish Lakish was sparing in his speech and extended friendship to only a select few prominent, righteous people, to the extent that a person to whom Reish Lakish was seen speaking in the marketplace, one would give him a loan and do business with him without witnesses; would he have spoken with Rabba bar bar 岣na?


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讚讬 讙讘专讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讜 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讛讜讛 讜讝注讬专讬 讗讜 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讛讜讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讗讬 谞诪讬 住诇讬拽讜 讻讜诇讛讜 讘讬诪讬 注讝专讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 砖专讬讗 砖讻讬谞讛 讘诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬驻转 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讬驻转 讜讬砖讻谉 讘讗讛诇讬 砖诐


Rav Pappa said: Cast a man between them, and say that the incident did not involve Reish Lakish and Rabba bar bar 岣na. It was either Reish Lakish bathing in the river and Ze鈥檌ri, the prominent Babylonian Sage, who extended him a hand, or it was Rabba bar bar 岣na who was in the river and Rabbi Elazar extended a hand to him. In any event, when the Sage who heard what Reish Lakish said came before Rabbi Yo岣nan and related it, Rabbi Yo岣nan said to him: That is not the reason; even had they all ascended in the days of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested in the Second Temple, as it is written: 鈥淕od will enlarge Japheth, and dwell in the tents of Shem鈥 (Genesis 9:27).

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