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Today's Daf Yomi

June 6, 2018 | ื›ืดื’ ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah Shlema of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Zevachim 54

What area in the temple was part of Benjamin’s territory and what part was Judah’s? How does this affect the way the altar was built? Was there a base on the southern and eastern side, but it could not be used for spilling the blood or was there no base at all?

ื—ืคืฃ ืขืœื™ื• ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื–ื›ื” ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ื ืขืฉื” ืื•ืฉืคื™ื–ื›ืŸ ืœื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื›ืŸ

โ€œHe covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shouldersโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12). The term โ€œcovers itโ€ is understood to mean that Benjamin is continually focused upon that site. Therefore, Benjamin the righteous was privileged and became the host of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the Holy of Holies was built in his portion. As it is stated: โ€œAnd He dwells between his shoulders.โ€

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ืขื•ืฃ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื™ืชื” ื ืขืฉื™ืช ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืœืง ืืช ืจืืฉื” ืžืžื•ืœ ืขื•ืจืคื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื•ืžืžืฆื” ื“ืžื” ืขืœ ืงื™ืจ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื—

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: How was the rite of a bird burnt offering performed? The priest ascended the ramp and turned to the surrounding ledge. When he arrived at the southeast corner, the priest would pinch the birdโ€™s head by pinching at its nape with his thumbnail and sever the birdโ€™s head from its body, and would squeeze out its blood on the wall of the altar.

ื•ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื‘ืื•ื™ืจื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื™ืžืจ ื›ืš ื”ืชื ื• ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืงืจืงืข ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The Gemara states its objection: And if you say that the southeast corner of the altar had no base, is he merely performing the rite in the air, i.e., not within the domain of the altar? Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: Say that when Eretz Yisrael was apportioned, they made this condition: The airspace of what would become the southeast part of the altar is in the portion of the tribe of Benjamin, so the pinching of the bird offering was performed within the domain of the altar. But the land was in the portion of the tribe of Judah.

ืžืื™ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืืžืจ ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ืจื‘ ืžืชืจื’ื ื‘ืื—ืกื ืชื™ื” ื™ืชื‘ื ื™ ืžื“ื‘ื—ื ืœื•ื™ ืžืชืจื’ื ื‘ืื—ืกื ืชื™ื” ื™ืชื‘ื ื™ ืžืงื“ืฉื ืžืงื•ื ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื“ืžื™ื

ยง The Gemara asks: What does the baraita mean when it states that the southeast corner of the altar had no base? Rav says: It is with regard to the fact that it had no base built on those sides. Levi says: It is with regard to the fact that no blood was sprinkled on that side, as the blood was not permitted to be presented there, even though there was a physical base. Based on this dispute, each of them disagreed as to the correct Aramaic translation of the verse: โ€œBenjamin is a wolf that tears apart; in the morning he devours the prey, and in the evening he divides the spoilโ€ (Genesis 49:27). Rav translates this as: In his portion will the altar be built. Levi translates this as: In his portion will the Sanctuary be built, which means: A place sanctified for blood.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืืžื” ืื—ืช ื•ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืืžื” ืื—ืช ืžืื™ ืื•ื›ืœ ื ืžื™ ื‘ื“ืžื™ื

The Gemara brings proof for each opinion: Come and hear a proof for the explanation of Rav from a mishna (Middot 35b): The base of the altar would extend along all of the northern side and along all of the western side. It consumed one cubit on the southern side and one cubit on the eastern side. This indicates that there was no base on most of the southern or eastern sides of the altar. The Gemara comments: Levi would explain: What is the meaning of the term: Consume? The baraita, as well, is stated with regard to consuming blood of the offerings.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื”ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื“

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof for the explanation of Levi from that same mishna: The altar was thirty-two cubits by thirty-two cubits. This indicates that there was a base on all four sides, in accordance with the opinion of Levi. Rav could answer: Here we are dealing with the measurement from the side. In other words, only the northern and western sides were thirty-two cubits in length.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื ืžืฆื ืคื•ืจื— ืืžื” ืขืœ ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ืืžื” ืขืœ ืกื•ื‘ื‘ ืื™ืžื ื›ื ื’ื“ ืืžื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ืขืœ ืืžื” ืกื•ื‘ื‘

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof for the explanation of Levi from a baraita: It turns out the top of the ramp of the altar would overhang one cubit in the air over the base of the altar and one cubit over the surrounding ledge. This indicates that it had a base on all four sides, as the ramp was on the southern side. Rav could answer: Say that the baraita means it would overhang toward the place where the base of a cubit would have been, and one cubit over the surrounding ledge.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ืืžื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืžืคื•ืœืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืกื™ื“ ื•ืงื•ื ื™ื ื•ื–ืคืช ื•ืžืžื—ื” ื•ืฉื•ืคืš ื•ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ื™ืกื•ื“

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof, as Levi teaches in a baraita: How does one build the altar? He brings a square wooden frame, which is thirty-two cubits by thirty-two cubits, and its height is one cubit. And he brings pieces of damp [mefulamot] stone, both large and small, which are the main components of the altar, which is described as: โ€œAn altar of stoneโ€ (Exodus 20:22). And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the gaps between the stones. And this is the place of the base of the altar.

ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืืžื” ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืืžื” ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ื—ืžืฉ ืืžื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื›ื•ืณ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืืžื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ืฉืœืฉ ืืžื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ื›ื•ืณ ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžืขืจื›ื”

And then he brings a square wooden frame, which is thirty cubits by thirty cubits, and its height is five cubits. And he brings pieces of damp stone, both large and small. And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the gaps between the stones. And then he brings a square wooden frame, which is twenty-eight cubits by twenty-eight cubits, and its height is three cubits. And he brings pieces of damp stone, both large and small. And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the gaps between the stones. And this is the place of the arrangement of wood on the altar.

ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืืžื” ืขืœ ืืžื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืžืคื•ืœืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื–ืคืช ื•ืงื•ื ื™ื ื•ืžืžื—ื” ื•ืฉื•ืคืš ื•ื–ื”ื• ืงืจืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืงืจืŸ ื•ืงืจืŸ

And then he brings a square wooden frame, which is one cubit by one cubit. And he brings pieces of damp stone, both large and small. And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the frame. And this is the corner of the altar. And so he does this for each and every corner. This baraita indicates that the altar had a base around all four sides.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื

The Gemara comments: And if you would say

ื“ื’ื™ื™ื– ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ื›ืชื™ื‘

that he cuts the base on the southern and western sides after he has poured the mixture for the altar and it has dried, it is written concerning the altar: โ€œYou shall build the altar of the Lord your God of unhewn stones; and you shall offer burnt offerings on it to the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:6), so it cannot be cut.

ื“ืžื—ื™ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืชื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืงืจื ื•ืช ื—ืœื•ืœื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืœืื• ื›ืžื–ืจืง ื›ื–ื•ื™ืช ืžื–ื‘ื— ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืืœื ื“ืžื—ื™ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืชื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื“ืžื—ื™ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืชื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื”

Rav could answer: This means that he places something under the frame, in the place where there is to be no base, and after the poured mixture has dried he removes it, leaving the space empty. As if you do not say so, how will you explain that which Rav Kahana says: The stone interiors of the corners were hollow, i.e., there were gaps between the stones, as it is written: โ€œAnd they shall be filled like the basins, like the corners of the altarโ€ (Zechariah 9:15)? The verse compares the corners to hollow basins. Here too, doesnโ€™t the Merciful One state that the altar must be made of โ€œunhewn stonesโ€? If so, how could the corners be hollow? Rather, it must be that he places something, e.g., sticks and twigs, under the frame and pours the mixture for the corners over it, and when it has hardened, removes the sticks and twigs, leaving the corners somewhat hollow. Here too, he places something under the frame and later removes it.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืœืš ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื™ืช ื‘ืจืžื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืขื ื™ืŸ ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืืฆืœ ืจืžื” ืืœื ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืžื” ื•ืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื•ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื

ยง Apropos the altar and the Temple, the Gemara relates that Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written concerning David: โ€œAnd he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth. And it was told Saul, saying: Behold, David is at Naioth [beNayot] in Ramahโ€ (Iย Samuel 19:18โ€“19)? But what does Naioth have to do with Ramah? They are in two distinct places. Rather, this means that they were sitting in Ramah and were involved in discussing the beauty [benoyo] of the world, i.e., the Temple.

ืืžืจื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงืžืช ื•ืขืœื™ืช ืืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื™ื“ืขื™ ื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื

David and Samuel said: It is written: โ€œThen you shall arise, and get you up unto the place which the Lord your God shall chooseโ€ (Deuteronomy 17:8). This teaches that the Temple is higher than all places in Eretz Yisrael. And Eretz Yisrael is higher than all countries. They did not know where the highest place in Eretz Yisrael was.

ืื™ื™ืชื• ืกืคืจ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืจื“ ื•ืขืœื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ืชืืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืขืœื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืจื“ ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžืจื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ื›ื ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ืžื•

They brought the book of Joshua. With regard to all of the borders of the tribes it is written: โ€œAnd went downโ€ (see Joshua 15:10, 16:3, 17:9), and it is written: โ€œAnd the border went up to Beth Hoglah.โ€ (Joshua 15:6), and: โ€œAnd the border was drawn from the top of the mountain to the fountain of the waters of Nephtoahโ€ (Joshua 15:9). The verse uses different terms to describe the borders of the portion of each tribe. And with regard to the borders of the tribe of Benjamin it is written only: โ€œAnd went upโ€ (Joshua 18:11), but it is not written: โ€œAnd went down.โ€ They said: Conclude from the verses that the Templeโ€™s place is here, in the portion of Benjamin.

ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืœืžื‘ื ื™ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ื˜ื ื“ืžื“ืœื™ ืืžืจื™ ื ื™ืชืชื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงืœื™ืœ ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื›ืŸ

They thought to build it at Ein Eitam, which is higher than any other place in the portion of Benjamin. They said: Let us lower it a bit, as it is written: โ€œHe covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shouldersโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12). This indicates that the Temple is situated slightly lower, between two peaks.

ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื“ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื“ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืžื“ืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืžืชืคืœื™ื’ ื˜ื•ื‘ื ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื“ื ื™ืชืชื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืคื•ืจืชื ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื›ืŸ

And if you wish, say instead that it is learned as a tradition that the Sanhedrin is to be located in the portion of Judah, and the place of the Divine Presence is to be located in the portion of Benjamin. They said: And if we raise it and place it near Ein Eitam it will be too distant from the portion of Judah. They said: It is preferable that we lower it a bit, as it is written: โ€œHe covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shouldersโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12).

ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ืชืงื ื ื“ื•ืื’ ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ ื‘ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืงื ืืช ื‘ื™ืชืš ืื›ืœืชื ื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ืณ ืœื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ืขื ื•ืชื• ืืฉืจ ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืื ืื‘ื ื‘ืื”ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืื ืืชืŸ ืฉื ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ ืœืขืคืขืคื™ ืชื ื•ืžื” ืขื“ ืืžืฆื ืžืงื•ื ืœื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

And with regard to this matter, that David and Samuel discovered the location of the Temple, Doeg the Edomite was jealous of David, as it is written: โ€œBecause jealousy for Your House has eaten me upโ€ (Psalms 69:10), and it is written: โ€œLord, remember for David all his affliction; how he swore to the Lord, and vowed unto the Mighty One of Jacob: I will not come into the tent of my house, nor go up into the bed that is spread for me; if I will give sleep to my eyes, or slumber to my eyelids; until I find a place for the Lord, a dwelling place for the Mighty One of Jacobโ€ (Psalms 132:1โ€“5).

ื”ื ื” ืฉืžืขื ื•ื” ื‘ืืคืจืชื” ืžืฆืื ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื™ืขืจ ื‘ืืคืจืชื” ื–ื” ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืงืืชื™ ืžืืคืจื™ื ืžืฆืื ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื™ืขืจ ื–ื” ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื–ืื‘ ื™ื˜ืจืฃ

The verse following those verses states: โ€œWe heard of it as being in Ephrath; we found it in the field of the woodโ€ (Psalms 132:6). Rava explains the meaning of these words: โ€œIn Ephrathโ€; this is a reference to Joshua, who came from the tribe of Ephraim. This alludes to the fact that David and Samuel were able to locate the highest place in Eretz Yisrael based on the book of Joshua. โ€œWe found it in the field of the woodโ€; this is a reference to Benjamin, as it is written concerning him: โ€œBenjamin is a wolf that tears apart; in the morning he devours the prey, and in the evening he divides the spoilโ€ (Genesis 49:27). A wolf is a wild animal living in the field, and David and Samuel found the location of the Temple in the portion of Benjamin.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืืฉืžื•ืช ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืืฉืžื•ืช ืืฉื ื’ื–ื™ืœื•ืช ืืฉื ืžืขื™ืœื•ืช ืืฉื ืฉืคื—ื” ื—ืจื•ืคื” ืืฉื ื ื–ื™ืจ ืืฉื ืžืฆื•ืจืข ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™

MISHNA: These are the halakhot of communal peace offerings and guilt offerings. These are guilt offerings: The guilt offering for robbery, brought by one from whom another demanded payment of a debt and he denied it and took a false oath (see Leviticus 5:20โ€“26); the guilt offering for unwitting misuse of consecrated property (see Leviticus 5:14โ€“16); the guilt offering of an espoused maidservant, brought by one who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Canaanite maidservant betrothed to a Hebrew slave (see Leviticus 19:20โ€“22); the guilt offering of a nazirite who became impure via contact with a corpse (see Numbers 6:12); the guilt offering of a leper, brought for his purification (see Leviticus 14:12); and the provisional guilt offering, brought by one who is uncertain as to whether he committed a sin that requires a sin offering (see Leviticus 5:17โ€“18).

ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืชืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืฉืจืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื“ืžืŸ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžืชื ื•ืช ืฉื”ืŸ ืืจื‘ืข ื•ื ืื›ืœื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงืœืขื™ื ืœื–ื›ืจื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืœื›ืœ ืžืื›ืœ ืœื™ื•ื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ืขื“ ื—ืฆื•ืช

Concerning all of these, their slaughter is in the north of the Temple courtyard and collection of their blood in a service vessel is in the north, and their blood requires two placements that are four. And the meat portions of the offering are eaten within the curtains, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, by male priests. And they are eaten prepared in any manner of food preparation, on the day the offering was sacrificed and during the night that follows, until midnight.

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Zevachim 54

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Zevachim 54

ื—ืคืฃ ืขืœื™ื• ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื–ื›ื” ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ื ืขืฉื” ืื•ืฉืคื™ื–ื›ืŸ ืœื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื›ืŸ

โ€œHe covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shouldersโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12). The term โ€œcovers itโ€ is understood to mean that Benjamin is continually focused upon that site. Therefore, Benjamin the righteous was privileged and became the host of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the Holy of Holies was built in his portion. As it is stated: โ€œAnd He dwells between his shoulders.โ€

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ืขื•ืฃ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื™ืชื” ื ืขืฉื™ืช ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืœืง ืืช ืจืืฉื” ืžืžื•ืœ ืขื•ืจืคื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื•ืžืžืฆื” ื“ืžื” ืขืœ ืงื™ืจ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื—

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: How was the rite of a bird burnt offering performed? The priest ascended the ramp and turned to the surrounding ledge. When he arrived at the southeast corner, the priest would pinch the birdโ€™s head by pinching at its nape with his thumbnail and sever the birdโ€™s head from its body, and would squeeze out its blood on the wall of the altar.

ื•ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื‘ืื•ื™ืจื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื™ืžืจ ื›ืš ื”ืชื ื• ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืงืจืงืข ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The Gemara states its objection: And if you say that the southeast corner of the altar had no base, is he merely performing the rite in the air, i.e., not within the domain of the altar? Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: Say that when Eretz Yisrael was apportioned, they made this condition: The airspace of what would become the southeast part of the altar is in the portion of the tribe of Benjamin, so the pinching of the bird offering was performed within the domain of the altar. But the land was in the portion of the tribe of Judah.

ืžืื™ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืืžืจ ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ืจื‘ ืžืชืจื’ื ื‘ืื—ืกื ืชื™ื” ื™ืชื‘ื ื™ ืžื“ื‘ื—ื ืœื•ื™ ืžืชืจื’ื ื‘ืื—ืกื ืชื™ื” ื™ืชื‘ื ื™ ืžืงื“ืฉื ืžืงื•ื ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื“ืžื™ื

ยง The Gemara asks: What does the baraita mean when it states that the southeast corner of the altar had no base? Rav says: It is with regard to the fact that it had no base built on those sides. Levi says: It is with regard to the fact that no blood was sprinkled on that side, as the blood was not permitted to be presented there, even though there was a physical base. Based on this dispute, each of them disagreed as to the correct Aramaic translation of the verse: โ€œBenjamin is a wolf that tears apart; in the morning he devours the prey, and in the evening he divides the spoilโ€ (Genesis 49:27). Rav translates this as: In his portion will the altar be built. Levi translates this as: In his portion will the Sanctuary be built, which means: A place sanctified for blood.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืืžื” ืื—ืช ื•ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืืžื” ืื—ืช ืžืื™ ืื•ื›ืœ ื ืžื™ ื‘ื“ืžื™ื

The Gemara brings proof for each opinion: Come and hear a proof for the explanation of Rav from a mishna (Middot 35b): The base of the altar would extend along all of the northern side and along all of the western side. It consumed one cubit on the southern side and one cubit on the eastern side. This indicates that there was no base on most of the southern or eastern sides of the altar. The Gemara comments: Levi would explain: What is the meaning of the term: Consume? The baraita, as well, is stated with regard to consuming blood of the offerings.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื”ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื“

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof for the explanation of Levi from that same mishna: The altar was thirty-two cubits by thirty-two cubits. This indicates that there was a base on all four sides, in accordance with the opinion of Levi. Rav could answer: Here we are dealing with the measurement from the side. In other words, only the northern and western sides were thirty-two cubits in length.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื ืžืฆื ืคื•ืจื— ืืžื” ืขืœ ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ืืžื” ืขืœ ืกื•ื‘ื‘ ืื™ืžื ื›ื ื’ื“ ืืžื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ืขืœ ืืžื” ืกื•ื‘ื‘

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof for the explanation of Levi from a baraita: It turns out the top of the ramp of the altar would overhang one cubit in the air over the base of the altar and one cubit over the surrounding ledge. This indicates that it had a base on all four sides, as the ramp was on the southern side. Rav could answer: Say that the baraita means it would overhang toward the place where the base of a cubit would have been, and one cubit over the surrounding ledge.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ืืžื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืžืคื•ืœืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืกื™ื“ ื•ืงื•ื ื™ื ื•ื–ืคืช ื•ืžืžื—ื” ื•ืฉื•ืคืš ื•ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ื™ืกื•ื“

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof, as Levi teaches in a baraita: How does one build the altar? He brings a square wooden frame, which is thirty-two cubits by thirty-two cubits, and its height is one cubit. And he brings pieces of damp [mefulamot] stone, both large and small, which are the main components of the altar, which is described as: โ€œAn altar of stoneโ€ (Exodus 20:22). And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the gaps between the stones. And this is the place of the base of the altar.

ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืืžื” ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืืžื” ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ื—ืžืฉ ืืžื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื›ื•ืณ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืืžื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื• ืฉืœืฉ ืืžื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ื›ื•ืณ ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžืขืจื›ื”

And then he brings a square wooden frame, which is thirty cubits by thirty cubits, and its height is five cubits. And he brings pieces of damp stone, both large and small. And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the gaps between the stones. And then he brings a square wooden frame, which is twenty-eight cubits by twenty-eight cubits, and its height is three cubits. And he brings pieces of damp stone, both large and small. And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the gaps between the stones. And this is the place of the arrangement of wood on the altar.

ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืœื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืืžื” ืขืœ ืืžื” ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืžืคื•ืœืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ื–ืคืช ื•ืงื•ื ื™ื ื•ืžืžื—ื” ื•ืฉื•ืคืš ื•ื–ื”ื• ืงืจืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืงืจืŸ ื•ืงืจืŸ

And then he brings a square wooden frame, which is one cubit by one cubit. And he brings pieces of damp stone, both large and small. And he brings plaster and molten lead and tar, and melts them and pours the mixture into the frame. And this is the corner of the altar. And so he does this for each and every corner. This baraita indicates that the altar had a base around all four sides.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื

The Gemara comments: And if you would say

ื“ื’ื™ื™ื– ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ื›ืชื™ื‘

that he cuts the base on the southern and western sides after he has poured the mixture for the altar and it has dried, it is written concerning the altar: โ€œYou shall build the altar of the Lord your God of unhewn stones; and you shall offer burnt offerings on it to the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:6), so it cannot be cut.

ื“ืžื—ื™ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืชื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืงืจื ื•ืช ื—ืœื•ืœื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืœืื• ื›ืžื–ืจืง ื›ื–ื•ื™ืช ืžื–ื‘ื— ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืืœื ื“ืžื—ื™ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืชื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื“ืžื—ื™ืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืชื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื”

Rav could answer: This means that he places something under the frame, in the place where there is to be no base, and after the poured mixture has dried he removes it, leaving the space empty. As if you do not say so, how will you explain that which Rav Kahana says: The stone interiors of the corners were hollow, i.e., there were gaps between the stones, as it is written: โ€œAnd they shall be filled like the basins, like the corners of the altarโ€ (Zechariah 9:15)? The verse compares the corners to hollow basins. Here too, doesnโ€™t the Merciful One state that the altar must be made of โ€œunhewn stonesโ€? If so, how could the corners be hollow? Rather, it must be that he places something, e.g., sticks and twigs, under the frame and pours the mixture for the corners over it, and when it has hardened, removes the sticks and twigs, leaving the corners somewhat hollow. Here too, he places something under the frame and later removes it.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืœืš ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื™ืช ื‘ืจืžื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืขื ื™ืŸ ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืืฆืœ ืจืžื” ืืœื ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืžื” ื•ืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื•ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื

ยง Apropos the altar and the Temple, the Gemara relates that Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written concerning David: โ€œAnd he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth. And it was told Saul, saying: Behold, David is at Naioth [beNayot] in Ramahโ€ (Iย Samuel 19:18โ€“19)? But what does Naioth have to do with Ramah? They are in two distinct places. Rather, this means that they were sitting in Ramah and were involved in discussing the beauty [benoyo] of the world, i.e., the Temple.

ืืžืจื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงืžืช ื•ืขืœื™ืช ืืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื™ื“ืขื™ ื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื

David and Samuel said: It is written: โ€œThen you shall arise, and get you up unto the place which the Lord your God shall chooseโ€ (Deuteronomy 17:8). This teaches that the Temple is higher than all places in Eretz Yisrael. And Eretz Yisrael is higher than all countries. They did not know where the highest place in Eretz Yisrael was.

ืื™ื™ืชื• ืกืคืจ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืจื“ ื•ืขืœื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ืชืืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืขืœื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืจื“ ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžืจื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ื›ื ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ืžื•

They brought the book of Joshua. With regard to all of the borders of the tribes it is written: โ€œAnd went downโ€ (see Joshua 15:10, 16:3, 17:9), and it is written: โ€œAnd the border went up to Beth Hoglah.โ€ (Joshua 15:6), and: โ€œAnd the border was drawn from the top of the mountain to the fountain of the waters of Nephtoahโ€ (Joshua 15:9). The verse uses different terms to describe the borders of the portion of each tribe. And with regard to the borders of the tribe of Benjamin it is written only: โ€œAnd went upโ€ (Joshua 18:11), but it is not written: โ€œAnd went down.โ€ They said: Conclude from the verses that the Templeโ€™s place is here, in the portion of Benjamin.

ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืœืžื‘ื ื™ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ื˜ื ื“ืžื“ืœื™ ืืžืจื™ ื ื™ืชืชื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงืœื™ืœ ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื›ืŸ

They thought to build it at Ein Eitam, which is higher than any other place in the portion of Benjamin. They said: Let us lower it a bit, as it is written: โ€œHe covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shouldersโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12). This indicates that the Temple is situated slightly lower, between two peaks.

ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื“ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื“ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ ืžื“ืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืžืชืคืœื™ื’ ื˜ื•ื‘ื ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื“ื ื™ืชืชื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืคื•ืจืชื ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื›ืŸ

And if you wish, say instead that it is learned as a tradition that the Sanhedrin is to be located in the portion of Judah, and the place of the Divine Presence is to be located in the portion of Benjamin. They said: And if we raise it and place it near Ein Eitam it will be too distant from the portion of Judah. They said: It is preferable that we lower it a bit, as it is written: โ€œHe covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shouldersโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12).

ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื ืชืงื ื ื“ื•ืื’ ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ ื‘ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืงื ืืช ื‘ื™ืชืš ืื›ืœืชื ื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ืณ ืœื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ืขื ื•ืชื• ืืฉืจ ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืื ืื‘ื ื‘ืื”ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืื ืืชืŸ ืฉื ืช ืœืขื™ื ื™ ืœืขืคืขืคื™ ืชื ื•ืžื” ืขื“ ืืžืฆื ืžืงื•ื ืœื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

And with regard to this matter, that David and Samuel discovered the location of the Temple, Doeg the Edomite was jealous of David, as it is written: โ€œBecause jealousy for Your House has eaten me upโ€ (Psalms 69:10), and it is written: โ€œLord, remember for David all his affliction; how he swore to the Lord, and vowed unto the Mighty One of Jacob: I will not come into the tent of my house, nor go up into the bed that is spread for me; if I will give sleep to my eyes, or slumber to my eyelids; until I find a place for the Lord, a dwelling place for the Mighty One of Jacobโ€ (Psalms 132:1โ€“5).

ื”ื ื” ืฉืžืขื ื•ื” ื‘ืืคืจืชื” ืžืฆืื ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื™ืขืจ ื‘ืืคืจืชื” ื–ื” ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืงืืชื™ ืžืืคืจื™ื ืžืฆืื ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื™ืขืจ ื–ื” ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื–ืื‘ ื™ื˜ืจืฃ

The verse following those verses states: โ€œWe heard of it as being in Ephrath; we found it in the field of the woodโ€ (Psalms 132:6). Rava explains the meaning of these words: โ€œIn Ephrathโ€; this is a reference to Joshua, who came from the tribe of Ephraim. This alludes to the fact that David and Samuel were able to locate the highest place in Eretz Yisrael based on the book of Joshua. โ€œWe found it in the field of the woodโ€; this is a reference to Benjamin, as it is written concerning him: โ€œBenjamin is a wolf that tears apart; in the morning he devours the prey, and in the evening he divides the spoilโ€ (Genesis 49:27). A wolf is a wild animal living in the field, and David and Samuel found the location of the Temple in the portion of Benjamin.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืืฉืžื•ืช ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืืฉืžื•ืช ืืฉื ื’ื–ื™ืœื•ืช ืืฉื ืžืขื™ืœื•ืช ืืฉื ืฉืคื—ื” ื—ืจื•ืคื” ืืฉื ื ื–ื™ืจ ืืฉื ืžืฆื•ืจืข ืืฉื ืชืœื•ื™

MISHNA: These are the halakhot of communal peace offerings and guilt offerings. These are guilt offerings: The guilt offering for robbery, brought by one from whom another demanded payment of a debt and he denied it and took a false oath (see Leviticus 5:20โ€“26); the guilt offering for unwitting misuse of consecrated property (see Leviticus 5:14โ€“16); the guilt offering of an espoused maidservant, brought by one who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Canaanite maidservant betrothed to a Hebrew slave (see Leviticus 19:20โ€“22); the guilt offering of a nazirite who became impure via contact with a corpse (see Numbers 6:12); the guilt offering of a leper, brought for his purification (see Leviticus 14:12); and the provisional guilt offering, brought by one who is uncertain as to whether he committed a sin that requires a sin offering (see Leviticus 5:17โ€“18).

ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืชืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืฉืจืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื“ืžืŸ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืžืชื ื•ืช ืฉื”ืŸ ืืจื‘ืข ื•ื ืื›ืœื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงืœืขื™ื ืœื–ื›ืจื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืœื›ืœ ืžืื›ืœ ืœื™ื•ื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ืขื“ ื—ืฆื•ืช

Concerning all of these, their slaughter is in the north of the Temple courtyard and collection of their blood in a service vessel is in the north, and their blood requires two placements that are four. And the meat portions of the offering are eaten within the curtains, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, by male priests. And they are eaten prepared in any manner of food preparation, on the day the offering was sacrificed and during the night that follows, until midnight.

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