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Today's Daf Yomi

February 15, 2018 | 诇壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Avodah Zarah 31

If one gives items to non-Jews to watch do they need to be concerned that the non-Jew switched it with their own items? Can one buy wine from Samaritans? Is there a concern that non-Jews came in聽contact with the wine? Why is beer of non-Jews forbidden?

住转诐 讬讬谞诐 讗住讜专 讘讛谞讗讛 讜诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 讛诪驻拽讬讚 讬讬谞讜 讗爪诇 讙讜讬 讗住讜专 讘砖转讬讛 讜诪讜转专 讘讛谞讗讛

It is prohibited to derive benefit from nondescript wine of a gentile, and the wine imparts the ritual impurity of liquids when it has the volume of one-quarter of a log. With regard to the wine of one who deposits his wine with a gentile, one is prohibited from drinking it, but one is permitted to derive benefit from it.

讜讛转谞谉 讛诪驻拽讬讚 驻讬专讜转讬讜 讗爪诇 讙讜讬 讛专讬 讛谉 讻驻讬专讜转讬讜 砖诇 讙讜讬 诇砖讘讬注讬转 讜诇诪注砖专 讻讙讜谉 砖讬讬讞讚 诇讜 拽专谉 讝讜讬转

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Bekhorot 11b): With regard to one who deposits his produce with a gentile, it has the status of the produce of a gentile with regard to the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year and with regard to tithe, as the gentile might have exchanged the Jew鈥檚 produce with untithed produce or produce of the Sabbatical Year. According to this logic, wine deposited with a gentile should be entirely prohibited, due to the concern that the gentile exchanged it with his own. The Gemara answers: It is permitted for one to derive benefit from the wine in a case where the gentile designated a corner for the Jew鈥檚 wine, i.e., if the wine was locked away in a specific place to which only a Jew has access.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讘砖转讬讛 谞诪讬 诇讬砖转专讬 讚讛讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗拽诇注 诇驻专讜讚 讗诪专 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诪砖谞转 讘专 拽驻专讗 转谞讗 诇讬讛 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讚诪谉 驻专讜讚 讛诪驻拽讬讚 讬讬谞讜 讗爪诇 讙讜讬 诪讜转专 讘砖转讬讛

The Gemara questions this: If that is so, drinking from the wine should also be permitted. As Rabbi Yo岣nan once happened to come to Parod, where the deceased tanna bar Kappara had lived. When he arrived, he said: Is there any Mishna of bar Kappara here? In response, Rabbi Tan岣m of Parod taught him the following baraita, citing bar Kappara: With regard to one who deposits his wine with a gentile, drinking from the wine is permitted.

拽专讬 注诇讬讛 诪拽讜诐 砖讬驻讜诇 讛注抓 砖诐 讬讛讜 砖诐 讬讛讜 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 砖诐 讬讛讜 驻讬专讜转讬讜

Upon hearing this, Rabbi Yo岣nan read the following verse about him: 鈥淲here the tree falls, there it shall be鈥 (Ecclesiastes 11:3). Does it enter your mind that this means that the tree itself will be there? It is obvious that a fallen tree lands where it falls. Rather, the verse is saying: There its fruits shall be. The verse is a metaphor for a Sage, and its fruits represent his disciples. Rabbi Yo岣nan was intimating that although bar Kappara may have died, Rabbi Tan岣m, his disciple, perpetuates his wisdom.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讗 专讘谞谉

In any event, it is apparent from the baraita quoted by Rabbi Tan岣m that there is a case in which it is permitted to drink wine deposited with a gentile. This contradicts the statement of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. Rabbi Zeira said that it is not difficult. This baraita, which permits drinking wine deposited with a gentile, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, whereas that statement of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

讚转谞讬讗 讗讞讚 讛诇讜拽讞 讜讗讞讚 讛砖讜讻专 讘讬转 讘讞爪讬专讜 砖诇 讙讜讬 讜诪诇讗讜讛讜 讬讬谉 讜诪驻转讞 讗讜 讞讜转诐 讘讬讚 讬砖专讗诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪转讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜住专讬谉

Rabbi Zeira elaborates: As it is taught in a baraita: With regard to both one who purchases or one who rents a house located in a gentile鈥檚 courtyard, and they filled the house with containers of wine, and the key to the house or a seal is in the possession of a Jew, so that the gentile cannot access the wine, in which case it is even more secure than when a corner is designated for the Jew鈥檚 wine, Rabbi Eliezer permits the wine, and the Rabbis prohibit it.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讝注讬专讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讞诪讗 讛讻讬 讗诪专 讝注讬专讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

Rabbi 岣yya, son of Rabbi 岣yya bar Na岣ani, says that Rav 岣sda says that Rav says, and some say that Rav 岣sda says that Ze鈥檈iri says, and some say that Rav 岣sda says: Abba bar 岣ma said to me that this is what Ze鈥檈iri said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讻诇 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讗 讻专讘谞谉

Rabbi Elazar says: All substances are sufficiently secured by one seal, except wine, which is not sufficiently secured by one seal. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Even wine is secured by one seal. And they do not disagree in their reasoning. Rather, this opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, and that opinion of Rabbi Elazar is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讻诇 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜转专讜讬讬讛讜 讻专讘谞谉 诪专 住讘专 讻讬 驻诇讬讙讬 专讘谞谉 注诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讗讘诇 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 砖专讜 讜诪专 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讗住专讬

There are those who say that Rabbi Elazar says: All substances are secured by a seal within a seal, i.e., two seals, except wine, which is not secured by a seal within a seal. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Even wine is secured by a seal within a seal. And both hold in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis: One Sage, Rabbi Yo岣nan, holds that when the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Eliezer, it is with regard to one seal, but in the case of a seal within a seal, they concede that there is no concern that the gentile might have opened it, and therefore they permit the wine. And one Sage, Rabbi Elazar, holds that they prohibited even wine that was secured by a seal within a seal.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗讙谞讗 讚驻讜诪讗 讚讞讘讬转讗 砖专讬拽讗 讜讞转讬诪讗 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 讚讬拽讜诇讗 讜诪讬讛讚拽 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 诇讗 诪讬讛讚拽 诇讗 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 谞讜讚 讘讚讬住拽讬讗 讞转讬诪转 驻讬讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 驻讬讜 诇诪注诇讛 诇讗 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜讻讬 讻讬讬祝 驻讜诪讬讛 诇讙讬讜 讜爪讬讬专 讜讞转讬诐 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐

The Gemara asks: What is a seal within a seal like? Rava says: A basin placed over the mouth of a barrel that is smeared with clay and stamped with a seal is considered a seal within a seal. And if not, it is not considered a seal within a seal. If a basket is placed over a barrel and is fastened to it, this is a seal within a seal; if it is not fastened to the barrel, it is not a seal within a seal. With regard to a wineskin that is placed in a sack [disakaya], if the wineskin鈥檚 stopper is facing downward, this is a seal within a seal; if its stopper is facing upward, this is not a seal within a seal. And if he bends the wineskin鈥檚 bottleneck inward and ties the sack and seals it, this is also considered a seal within a seal.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬讬谉 砖诇 注讬谉 讻讜砖讬 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 讘讬专转 住专讬拽讗 讜砖诇 讘专拽转讗 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 讻驻专 驻专砖讗讬 讜砖诇 讝讙讚讜专 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 讻驻专 砖诇讬诐 讞讝专讜 诇讜诪专 讞讘讬讜转 驻转讜讞讜转 讗住讜专讜转 住转讜诪讜转 诪讜转专讜转

The Sages taught: At first, the Sages would say that wine from the Samaritan city of Ein Kushi is prohibited, due to the concern that it might have come into contact with the idolatrous inhabitants of Birat Serika, and similarly the wine of Barkata is prohibited due to the idolatrous inhabitants of the village of Parshai, and the wine of Zagdor is prohibited due to the village of Shaleim. Subsequently, they retracted and began saying: Open barrels are prohibited but sealed barrels are permitted.

诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗讬 住讘讜专 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讗讬 住讘讜专 诪注讬拽专讗 住讘讜专 讗讬谉 讻讜转讬 诪拽驻讬讚 注诇 诪讙注 讙讜讬 诇讗 砖谞讗 驻转讜讞讜转 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 住转讜诪讜转 讜诇讘住讜祝 住讘讜专 讻讬 诇讗 拽驻讬讚 讗驻转讜讞讜转 讗住转讜诪讜转 诪拽驻讬讚 拽驻讬讚

The Gemara asks: What did they reason initially, and what did they reason ultimately? The Gemara answers: Initially they reasoned: A Samaritan is not particular about the touch of an idolatrous gentile, and there is no difference in this regard between open barrels and sealed barrels. And ultimately they reasoned: When Samaritans are not particular about agentile鈥檚 touch, this is only with regard to open barrels, but with regard to sealed barrels, they are particular. Since Samaritans ensure that gentiles do not handle sealed barrels of wine, this wine is permitted.

讜住转讜诪讜转 诪讜转专讜转 讜专诪讬谞讛讬

The Gemara asks: But are sealed barrels permitted? And the Gemara raises a contradiction against this notion

讛砖讜诇讞 讞讘讬转 砖诇 讬讬谉 讘讬讚 讻讜转讬 讜砖诇 爪讬专 讜砖诇 诪讜专讬讬住 讘讬讚 讙讜讬 讗诐 诪讻讬专 讞讜转诪讜 讜住转诪讜 诪讜转专 讗诐 诇讗讜 讗住讜专

from the following baraita: With regard to one who sends a barrel of wine in the hands of a Samaritan, or a barrel of fish brine or a barrel of fish stew in the hands of a gentile, if he recognizes his seal and his manner of closing the barrel, it is permitted; if he does not recognize them, it is prohibited. Apparently, a sealed barrel is permitted only when it is recognizable.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘注讬专 讻讗谉 讘讚专讱

Rabbi Zeira said that this is not difficult. Here, the first baraita is referring to barrels located in a city; there, the second baraita is referring to barrels that the Samaritan carries on the road. Sealed barrels are permitted in a city because the Samaritan is careful to ensure that gentiles do not touch them in front of anyone, so that he does not forfeit the business of Jews. While traveling he is not concerned, as he assumes that no one will discover that the gentile came into contact with the wine.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讛谞讱 讚注讬专 诇讗 讘讚专讱 讗转讜 讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 砖谞讬谞讜 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗驻讻讬 诪讬专转转 讗诪专 讛砖转讗 讗讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 诪驻住讚讜 诇讬

Rabbi Yirmeya objects to this: Didn鈥檛 these barrels located in the city come by the road as well? Rather, Rabbi Yirmeya says: We learned the baraita that permits sealed barrels only in reference to those that are located between the winepresses. Since everyone is found there, the Samaritan is apprehensive, as he says to himself: Now, if someone sees me allowing a gentile to handle the wine they will cause me to lose my profit, as Jews will not purchase it.

讗转诪专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗住专讜 砖讻专 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 专诪讬 讘专 讞诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪砖讜诐 讞转谞讜转 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬

It was stated: For what reason did the Sages prohibit the beer of gentiles? Rami bar 岣ma says that Rabbi Yitz岣k says: It is due to the concern that Jews will befriend gentiles while drinking with them, which might lead to marriage with gentiles. Rav Na岣an said: It is due to the concern of exposure.

讗讙讬诇讜讬 讚诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讙讬诇讜讬 讚谞讝讬讬转讗 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 诪讙诇讬谞谉 讜讗诇讗 讚讞讘讬转讗 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 诪讙诇讬谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讘讗转专讗 讚诪爪诇讜 诪讬讗

The Gemara asks: With regard to what form of exposure is there a concern? If we say that the concern is with regard to exposure of the vat, we too expose the vat, and there is no reason to prohibit gentiles鈥 beer more than that of Jews. And if you say: Rather, the concern is for exposure of the barrel, we also expose barrels. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to prohibit the beer in a place where the water used to brew it is allowed to settle.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讬砖谉 转砖转专讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖谉 诪讜转专 讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讜 诇讬讬砖谉 讛讞诪讬抓 诪讜转专 讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讜 诇讛讞诪讬抓 讙讝讬专讛 讬砖谉 讗讟讜 讞讚砖

The Gemara asks: If that is so, aged beer should be permitted, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: A substance that might contain exposed water but has aged is permitted, since the poison does not allow it to age, as it goes bad before it grows old. Similarly, if it soured it is permitted, because the poison impairs the taste but does not allow it to sour. Why, then, is all beer prohibited? The Gemara answers: The Sages issued a rabbinic decree with regard to aged beer due to the concern with regard to new beer.

专讘 驻驻讗 诪驻讬拽讬谉 诇讬讛 诇讗讘讘讗 讚讞谞讜转讗 讜砖转讬 专讘 讗讞讗讬 诪讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 诇讘讬转讬讛 讜砖转讬 讜转专讜讬讬讛讜 诪砖讜诐 讞转谞讜转 专讘 讗讞讗讬 注讘讬讚 讛专讞拽讛 讬转讬专转讗

搂 The Gemara cites the opinions of various Sages with regard to beer. Rav Pappa had them bring out the beer belonging to gentiles from the store to the entrance of the store, and he would drink it outside the store. Rav A岣i had them bring the beer to his house, and he would drink it there. And both of them drank the beer away from the presence of gentiles due to concern about marriage with gentiles. The Gemara notes that Rav A岣i established an extreme preventive measure for himself beyond what is required by halakha.

专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讘讬住谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇诪专讙讜讗谉 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 讞诪专讗 讜诇讗 讗砖转讬 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 砖讬讻专讗 讜诇讗 讗砖转讬 讘砖诇诪讗 讞诪专讗 诪砖讜诐 砖讬诪爪讗 砖讬讻专讗 诪砖讜诐 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 砖讬诪爪讗 讚砖讬诪爪讗

The Gemara relates that Rav Shmuel bar Bisna happened to come to Marguan, and they brought him wine but he did not drink it. Next they brought him beer but he did not drink it. The Gemara asks: Granted, he did not drink the wine due to the trace [shimtza] of libations, but due to what reason did he refrain from drinking beer? It was due to concern for the trace of a trace, i.e., he did not drink beer due to concern about drinking wine.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讗讬 砖讬讻专讗 讚讗专诪讗讛 砖专讬 讜讞讬讬讗 讘专讬 诇讗 谞讬砖转讬 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讛 谞驻砖讱 讗讬 砖专讬 诇讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 砖专讬 讗讬 讗住讬专 诇讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讬专

Rav says: This Aramean beer is permitted, but my son 岣yya does not drink from it. The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at this matter, Rav鈥檚 statement is difficult: If the beer is permitted, then it is permitted to everyone, and there is no reason for his son to refrain from drinking it. And if it is prohibited, it is prohibited to everyone, and why would Rav say it is permitted?

讗诇讗 专讘 住讘专 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬讗 讜讗讝讬诇 诪专讜专讗 讚讻砖讜转讗 讜拽诇讬 诇讬讛 讝讬讛专讬讛 讜讚诇拽讬 诪诇拽讬 诇讬讛 讟驻讬 讜讞讬讬讗 讘专讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诇拽讬 诇讗 谞讬砖转讬 诪讬谞讬讛

The Gemara explains: Rather, Rav holds that the prohibition is due to exposure, but the bitterness of the hops in the beer goes and impairs the snake鈥檚 venom, so that it is safe for an average person to drink. But a person of weak constitution is weakened further by the impaired venom, and Rav was saying: In the case of my son 岣yya, since he is weak, he does not drink from it.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 讛砖专爪讬诐 讬砖 诇讛谉 讗专住 砖诇 谞讞砖 诪诪讬转 砖诇 砖专爪讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪诪讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 讘专 讗专讬讗 转讗 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讱 诪讬诇转讗 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讚讛讜讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘讜讱 讛讻讬 讗诪专 讗讘讜讱 讛谞讬 讗专诪讗讬 讝讜拽讗谞讬 讚讛讜讜 砖转讜 讙讬诇讜讬讗 讜诇讗 诪转讜 讗讬讬讚讬 讚讗讻诇讬 砖拽爪讬诐 讜专诪砖讬诐 讞讘讬诇 讙讜驻讬讬讛讜

Shmuel says: All creeping animals possess venom; that of a snake kills, whereas the venom of other creeping animals does not kill. Shmuel said to 岣yya bar Rav: Son of a lion! Come and I will say to you a superior matter that your father, Rav, said. This is what your father said: These Arameans are swollen [zukanei] because they drink exposed liquids, but they did not die from doing so since they eat repugnant creatures and creeping animals, which heat their bodies and thereby render them less susceptible to the venom.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝

Rav Yosef says:

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Avodah Zarah 31

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 31

住转诐 讬讬谞诐 讗住讜专 讘讛谞讗讛 讜诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗转 诪砖拽讬谉 讘专讘讬注讬转 讛诪驻拽讬讚 讬讬谞讜 讗爪诇 讙讜讬 讗住讜专 讘砖转讬讛 讜诪讜转专 讘讛谞讗讛

It is prohibited to derive benefit from nondescript wine of a gentile, and the wine imparts the ritual impurity of liquids when it has the volume of one-quarter of a log. With regard to the wine of one who deposits his wine with a gentile, one is prohibited from drinking it, but one is permitted to derive benefit from it.

讜讛转谞谉 讛诪驻拽讬讚 驻讬专讜转讬讜 讗爪诇 讙讜讬 讛专讬 讛谉 讻驻讬专讜转讬讜 砖诇 讙讜讬 诇砖讘讬注讬转 讜诇诪注砖专 讻讙讜谉 砖讬讬讞讚 诇讜 拽专谉 讝讜讬转

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Bekhorot 11b): With regard to one who deposits his produce with a gentile, it has the status of the produce of a gentile with regard to the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year and with regard to tithe, as the gentile might have exchanged the Jew鈥檚 produce with untithed produce or produce of the Sabbatical Year. According to this logic, wine deposited with a gentile should be entirely prohibited, due to the concern that the gentile exchanged it with his own. The Gemara answers: It is permitted for one to derive benefit from the wine in a case where the gentile designated a corner for the Jew鈥檚 wine, i.e., if the wine was locked away in a specific place to which only a Jew has access.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讘砖转讬讛 谞诪讬 诇讬砖转专讬 讚讛讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗拽诇注 诇驻专讜讚 讗诪专 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诪砖谞转 讘专 拽驻专讗 转谞讗 诇讬讛 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讚诪谉 驻专讜讚 讛诪驻拽讬讚 讬讬谞讜 讗爪诇 讙讜讬 诪讜转专 讘砖转讬讛

The Gemara questions this: If that is so, drinking from the wine should also be permitted. As Rabbi Yo岣nan once happened to come to Parod, where the deceased tanna bar Kappara had lived. When he arrived, he said: Is there any Mishna of bar Kappara here? In response, Rabbi Tan岣m of Parod taught him the following baraita, citing bar Kappara: With regard to one who deposits his wine with a gentile, drinking from the wine is permitted.

拽专讬 注诇讬讛 诪拽讜诐 砖讬驻讜诇 讛注抓 砖诐 讬讛讜 砖诐 讬讛讜 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 砖诐 讬讛讜 驻讬专讜转讬讜

Upon hearing this, Rabbi Yo岣nan read the following verse about him: 鈥淲here the tree falls, there it shall be鈥 (Ecclesiastes 11:3). Does it enter your mind that this means that the tree itself will be there? It is obvious that a fallen tree lands where it falls. Rather, the verse is saying: There its fruits shall be. The verse is a metaphor for a Sage, and its fruits represent his disciples. Rabbi Yo岣nan was intimating that although bar Kappara may have died, Rabbi Tan岣m, his disciple, perpetuates his wisdom.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讗 专讘谞谉

In any event, it is apparent from the baraita quoted by Rabbi Tan岣m that there is a case in which it is permitted to drink wine deposited with a gentile. This contradicts the statement of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. Rabbi Zeira said that it is not difficult. This baraita, which permits drinking wine deposited with a gentile, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, whereas that statement of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

讚转谞讬讗 讗讞讚 讛诇讜拽讞 讜讗讞讚 讛砖讜讻专 讘讬转 讘讞爪讬专讜 砖诇 讙讜讬 讜诪诇讗讜讛讜 讬讬谉 讜诪驻转讞 讗讜 讞讜转诐 讘讬讚 讬砖专讗诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪转讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜住专讬谉

Rabbi Zeira elaborates: As it is taught in a baraita: With regard to both one who purchases or one who rents a house located in a gentile鈥檚 courtyard, and they filled the house with containers of wine, and the key to the house or a seal is in the possession of a Jew, so that the gentile cannot access the wine, in which case it is even more secure than when a corner is designated for the Jew鈥檚 wine, Rabbi Eliezer permits the wine, and the Rabbis prohibit it.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讝注讬专讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讞诪讗 讛讻讬 讗诪专 讝注讬专讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

Rabbi 岣yya, son of Rabbi 岣yya bar Na岣ani, says that Rav 岣sda says that Rav says, and some say that Rav 岣sda says that Ze鈥檈iri says, and some say that Rav 岣sda says: Abba bar 岣ma said to me that this is what Ze鈥檈iri said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讻诇 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讗 讻专讘谞谉

Rabbi Elazar says: All substances are sufficiently secured by one seal, except wine, which is not sufficiently secured by one seal. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Even wine is secured by one seal. And they do not disagree in their reasoning. Rather, this opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, and that opinion of Rabbi Elazar is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讻诇 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜转专讜讬讬讛讜 讻专讘谞谉 诪专 住讘专 讻讬 驻诇讬讙讬 专讘谞谉 注诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 讗讘诇 讘讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 砖专讜 讜诪专 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讗住专讬

There are those who say that Rabbi Elazar says: All substances are secured by a seal within a seal, i.e., two seals, except wine, which is not secured by a seal within a seal. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Even wine is secured by a seal within a seal. And both hold in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis: One Sage, Rabbi Yo岣nan, holds that when the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Eliezer, it is with regard to one seal, but in the case of a seal within a seal, they concede that there is no concern that the gentile might have opened it, and therefore they permit the wine. And one Sage, Rabbi Elazar, holds that they prohibited even wine that was secured by a seal within a seal.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗讙谞讗 讚驻讜诪讗 讚讞讘讬转讗 砖专讬拽讗 讜讞转讬诪讗 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 讚讬拽讜诇讗 讜诪讬讛讚拽 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 诇讗 诪讬讛讚拽 诇讗 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 谞讜讚 讘讚讬住拽讬讗 讞转讬诪转 驻讬讜 诇诪讟讛 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 驻讬讜 诇诪注诇讛 诇讗 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐 讜讻讬 讻讬讬祝 驻讜诪讬讛 诇讙讬讜 讜爪讬讬专 讜讞转讬诐 讛讜讬 讞讜转诐 讘转讜讱 讞讜转诐

The Gemara asks: What is a seal within a seal like? Rava says: A basin placed over the mouth of a barrel that is smeared with clay and stamped with a seal is considered a seal within a seal. And if not, it is not considered a seal within a seal. If a basket is placed over a barrel and is fastened to it, this is a seal within a seal; if it is not fastened to the barrel, it is not a seal within a seal. With regard to a wineskin that is placed in a sack [disakaya], if the wineskin鈥檚 stopper is facing downward, this is a seal within a seal; if its stopper is facing upward, this is not a seal within a seal. And if he bends the wineskin鈥檚 bottleneck inward and ties the sack and seals it, this is also considered a seal within a seal.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬讬谉 砖诇 注讬谉 讻讜砖讬 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 讘讬专转 住专讬拽讗 讜砖诇 讘专拽转讗 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 讻驻专 驻专砖讗讬 讜砖诇 讝讙讚讜专 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 讻驻专 砖诇讬诐 讞讝专讜 诇讜诪专 讞讘讬讜转 驻转讜讞讜转 讗住讜专讜转 住转讜诪讜转 诪讜转专讜转

The Sages taught: At first, the Sages would say that wine from the Samaritan city of Ein Kushi is prohibited, due to the concern that it might have come into contact with the idolatrous inhabitants of Birat Serika, and similarly the wine of Barkata is prohibited due to the idolatrous inhabitants of the village of Parshai, and the wine of Zagdor is prohibited due to the village of Shaleim. Subsequently, they retracted and began saying: Open barrels are prohibited but sealed barrels are permitted.

诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗讬 住讘讜专 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讗讬 住讘讜专 诪注讬拽专讗 住讘讜专 讗讬谉 讻讜转讬 诪拽驻讬讚 注诇 诪讙注 讙讜讬 诇讗 砖谞讗 驻转讜讞讜转 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 住转讜诪讜转 讜诇讘住讜祝 住讘讜专 讻讬 诇讗 拽驻讬讚 讗驻转讜讞讜转 讗住转讜诪讜转 诪拽驻讬讚 拽驻讬讚

The Gemara asks: What did they reason initially, and what did they reason ultimately? The Gemara answers: Initially they reasoned: A Samaritan is not particular about the touch of an idolatrous gentile, and there is no difference in this regard between open barrels and sealed barrels. And ultimately they reasoned: When Samaritans are not particular about agentile鈥檚 touch, this is only with regard to open barrels, but with regard to sealed barrels, they are particular. Since Samaritans ensure that gentiles do not handle sealed barrels of wine, this wine is permitted.

讜住转讜诪讜转 诪讜转专讜转 讜专诪讬谞讛讬

The Gemara asks: But are sealed barrels permitted? And the Gemara raises a contradiction against this notion

讛砖讜诇讞 讞讘讬转 砖诇 讬讬谉 讘讬讚 讻讜转讬 讜砖诇 爪讬专 讜砖诇 诪讜专讬讬住 讘讬讚 讙讜讬 讗诐 诪讻讬专 讞讜转诪讜 讜住转诪讜 诪讜转专 讗诐 诇讗讜 讗住讜专

from the following baraita: With regard to one who sends a barrel of wine in the hands of a Samaritan, or a barrel of fish brine or a barrel of fish stew in the hands of a gentile, if he recognizes his seal and his manner of closing the barrel, it is permitted; if he does not recognize them, it is prohibited. Apparently, a sealed barrel is permitted only when it is recognizable.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘注讬专 讻讗谉 讘讚专讱

Rabbi Zeira said that this is not difficult. Here, the first baraita is referring to barrels located in a city; there, the second baraita is referring to barrels that the Samaritan carries on the road. Sealed barrels are permitted in a city because the Samaritan is careful to ensure that gentiles do not touch them in front of anyone, so that he does not forfeit the business of Jews. While traveling he is not concerned, as he assumes that no one will discover that the gentile came into contact with the wine.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讛谞讱 讚注讬专 诇讗 讘讚专讱 讗转讜 讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 砖谞讬谞讜 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗驻讻讬 诪讬专转转 讗诪专 讛砖转讗 讗讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 诪驻住讚讜 诇讬

Rabbi Yirmeya objects to this: Didn鈥檛 these barrels located in the city come by the road as well? Rather, Rabbi Yirmeya says: We learned the baraita that permits sealed barrels only in reference to those that are located between the winepresses. Since everyone is found there, the Samaritan is apprehensive, as he says to himself: Now, if someone sees me allowing a gentile to handle the wine they will cause me to lose my profit, as Jews will not purchase it.

讗转诪专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗住专讜 砖讻专 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 专诪讬 讘专 讞诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪砖讜诐 讞转谞讜转 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬

It was stated: For what reason did the Sages prohibit the beer of gentiles? Rami bar 岣ma says that Rabbi Yitz岣k says: It is due to the concern that Jews will befriend gentiles while drinking with them, which might lead to marriage with gentiles. Rav Na岣an said: It is due to the concern of exposure.

讗讙讬诇讜讬 讚诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讙讬诇讜讬 讚谞讝讬讬转讗 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 诪讙诇讬谞谉 讜讗诇讗 讚讞讘讬转讗 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 诪讙诇讬谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讘讗转专讗 讚诪爪诇讜 诪讬讗

The Gemara asks: With regard to what form of exposure is there a concern? If we say that the concern is with regard to exposure of the vat, we too expose the vat, and there is no reason to prohibit gentiles鈥 beer more than that of Jews. And if you say: Rather, the concern is for exposure of the barrel, we also expose barrels. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to prohibit the beer in a place where the water used to brew it is allowed to settle.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讬砖谉 转砖转专讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖谉 诪讜转专 讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讜 诇讬讬砖谉 讛讞诪讬抓 诪讜转专 讗讬谉 诪谞讬讞讜 诇讛讞诪讬抓 讙讝讬专讛 讬砖谉 讗讟讜 讞讚砖

The Gemara asks: If that is so, aged beer should be permitted, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: A substance that might contain exposed water but has aged is permitted, since the poison does not allow it to age, as it goes bad before it grows old. Similarly, if it soured it is permitted, because the poison impairs the taste but does not allow it to sour. Why, then, is all beer prohibited? The Gemara answers: The Sages issued a rabbinic decree with regard to aged beer due to the concern with regard to new beer.

专讘 驻驻讗 诪驻讬拽讬谉 诇讬讛 诇讗讘讘讗 讚讞谞讜转讗 讜砖转讬 专讘 讗讞讗讬 诪讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 诇讘讬转讬讛 讜砖转讬 讜转专讜讬讬讛讜 诪砖讜诐 讞转谞讜转 专讘 讗讞讗讬 注讘讬讚 讛专讞拽讛 讬转讬专转讗

搂 The Gemara cites the opinions of various Sages with regard to beer. Rav Pappa had them bring out the beer belonging to gentiles from the store to the entrance of the store, and he would drink it outside the store. Rav A岣i had them bring the beer to his house, and he would drink it there. And both of them drank the beer away from the presence of gentiles due to concern about marriage with gentiles. The Gemara notes that Rav A岣i established an extreme preventive measure for himself beyond what is required by halakha.

专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讘讬住谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇诪专讙讜讗谉 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 讞诪专讗 讜诇讗 讗砖转讬 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 砖讬讻专讗 讜诇讗 讗砖转讬 讘砖诇诪讗 讞诪专讗 诪砖讜诐 砖讬诪爪讗 砖讬讻专讗 诪砖讜诐 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 砖讬诪爪讗 讚砖讬诪爪讗

The Gemara relates that Rav Shmuel bar Bisna happened to come to Marguan, and they brought him wine but he did not drink it. Next they brought him beer but he did not drink it. The Gemara asks: Granted, he did not drink the wine due to the trace [shimtza] of libations, but due to what reason did he refrain from drinking beer? It was due to concern for the trace of a trace, i.e., he did not drink beer due to concern about drinking wine.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讗讬 砖讬讻专讗 讚讗专诪讗讛 砖专讬 讜讞讬讬讗 讘专讬 诇讗 谞讬砖转讬 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讛 谞驻砖讱 讗讬 砖专讬 诇讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 砖专讬 讗讬 讗住讬专 诇讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讗住讬专

Rav says: This Aramean beer is permitted, but my son 岣yya does not drink from it. The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at this matter, Rav鈥檚 statement is difficult: If the beer is permitted, then it is permitted to everyone, and there is no reason for his son to refrain from drinking it. And if it is prohibited, it is prohibited to everyone, and why would Rav say it is permitted?

讗诇讗 专讘 住讘专 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬讗 讜讗讝讬诇 诪专讜专讗 讚讻砖讜转讗 讜拽诇讬 诇讬讛 讝讬讛专讬讛 讜讚诇拽讬 诪诇拽讬 诇讬讛 讟驻讬 讜讞讬讬讗 讘专讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诇拽讬 诇讗 谞讬砖转讬 诪讬谞讬讛

The Gemara explains: Rather, Rav holds that the prohibition is due to exposure, but the bitterness of the hops in the beer goes and impairs the snake鈥檚 venom, so that it is safe for an average person to drink. But a person of weak constitution is weakened further by the impaired venom, and Rav was saying: In the case of my son 岣yya, since he is weak, he does not drink from it.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 讛砖专爪讬诐 讬砖 诇讛谉 讗专住 砖诇 谞讞砖 诪诪讬转 砖诇 砖专爪讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪诪讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 讘专 讗专讬讗 转讗 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讱 诪讬诇转讗 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讚讛讜讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘讜讱 讛讻讬 讗诪专 讗讘讜讱 讛谞讬 讗专诪讗讬 讝讜拽讗谞讬 讚讛讜讜 砖转讜 讙讬诇讜讬讗 讜诇讗 诪转讜 讗讬讬讚讬 讚讗讻诇讬 砖拽爪讬诐 讜专诪砖讬诐 讞讘讬诇 讙讜驻讬讬讛讜

Shmuel says: All creeping animals possess venom; that of a snake kills, whereas the venom of other creeping animals does not kill. Shmuel said to 岣yya bar Rav: Son of a lion! Come and I will say to you a superior matter that your father, Rav, said. This is what your father said: These Arameans are swollen [zukanei] because they drink exposed liquids, but they did not die from doing so since they eat repugnant creatures and creeping animals, which heat their bodies and thereby render them less susceptible to the venom.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝

Rav Yosef says:

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