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Today's Daf Yomi

May 23, 2017 | 讻状讝 讘讗讬讬专 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Bava Batra 121

From where does Beit Shammai learn that hatarat nedarim can be done with 3 regular people (since he doesn’t hold by the gzeira shava of “ze hadavar”)? 聽What are the five reasons given for the celebration of Tu B’av? 聽There are seven people who together span all the generations? 聽From Adam to Eliyahu Hanavi, who, based on masoret, never died.


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诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 砖讘转 讘专讗砖讬转 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 讛驻专转 谞讚专讬诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛

The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but Shabbat, which commemorates Creation, was not stated. Ben Azzai says: The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but the dissolution of vows was not stated. This concludes the baraita.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 谞转谉 讙诪讬专 诇讛 诇讛讗 诪转谞讬转讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 诇讬讛 诇驻专讜砖讛 讗讝诇 讘转专讬讛 讚专讘 砖砖转 诇谞讛专讚注讗 讜诇讗 讗砖讻讞讬讛 讗讝诇 讘转专讬讛 诇诪讞讜讝讗 讗砖讻讞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 砖讘转 讘专讗砖讬转 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛

The Gemara recounts: Rabbi Yosei bar Natan learned this baraita and did not know how to explain it. He followed Rav Sheshet to Neharde鈥檃 in order to ask him about it, but he did not find him there. He followed him to Me岣za and found him, and he said to him: What is meant by Rabbi Yosei HaGelili鈥檚 statement: The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but Shabbat, which commemorates Creation, was not stated? What does he mean, as Shabbat of Creation is explicitly mentioned in that section of the Torah (Leviticus 23:3)?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 爪专讬讻讬谉 拽讬讚讜砖 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘转 讘专讗砖讬转 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 拽讬讚讜砖 讘讬转 讚讬谉 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讻转讬讘讬 讙讘讬 诪讜注讚讜转 转讬讘注讬 拽讬讚讜砖 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讻诪讜注讚讜转 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rav Sheshet said to him: The Festivals of the Lord require sanctification by the court. This means that the start of the month, which is dependent upon the appearance of the New Moon, which determines the Festivals, can be established only by a court composed of experts. Shabbat, which commemorates Creation, does not require sanctification by the court. Shabbat is sanctified every week independent of any court action. It may enter your mind to say: Since Shabbat is written adjacent to the Festivals, it should require sanctification by the court as do the Festivals. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili teaches us that Shabbat does not require this.

诪讗讬 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 讛驻专转 谞讚专讬诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 爪专讬讻讬谉 诪讜诪讞讬谉 讛驻专转 谞讚专讬诐 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诪讜诪讞讬谉

Rabbi Yosei bar Natan asked: What is meant by ben Azzai鈥檚 statement: The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but the dissolution of vows was not stated? After all, the Torah writes explicitly about the dissolution of vows. Rav Sheshet answered him: The Festivals of the Lord require experts to determine when the months begin and when the Festivals will be observed, but the dissolution of vows does not require experts.

讜讛讗 专讗砖讬 讛诪讟讜转 讻转讬讘 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬讞讬讚 诪讜诪讞讛

The Gemara questions this explanation. But it is written: 鈥淭he heads of the tribes鈥 (Numbers 30:2), in the portion discussing the halakhot of vows. How, then, can it be said that vows can be dissolved by laymen? Rav 岣sda says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The phrase teaches that vows can be dissolved by a single expert authority. In any event, the Gemara has established that Beit Shammai can derive that dissolution of vows can be performed by laymen in the manner stated by ben Azzai, as explained by Rav Sheshet.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讻讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 讜讻讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘讛谉 讘谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讘讻诇讬 诇讘谉 砖讗讜诇讬谉 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讘砖诇诪讗 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讬讜诐 住诇讬讞讛 讜诪讞讬诇讛 讬讜诐 砖谞转谞讜 讘讜 诇讜讞讜转 讗讞专讜谞讜转 讗诇讗 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 诪讗讬 讛讬讗

搂 The Gemara discusses a mishna that addresses the issue of inter-tribal marriages. We learned in a mishna there (Ta鈥檃nit 26b): Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There were no days as joyous for the Jewish people as the fifteenth of Av and as Yom Kippur, as on these days the daughters of Jerusalem would emerge in white garments, which each woman borrowed from another. Why did they borrow garments? They did this so as not to embarrass one who did not have her own white garments. The Gemara analyzes the mishna: Granted that Yom Kippur is a day of joy, because it is a day of pardon and forgiveness, and moreover, it is the day on which the last Tablets of the Covenant were given. But what is the special joy of the fifteenth of Av?

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讜诐 砖讛讜转专讜 砖讘讟讬诐 诇讘讗 讝讛 讘讝讛 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讝讛 讛讚讘专 讚讘专 讝讛 诇讗 讬讛讗 谞讜讛讙 讗诇讗 讘讚讜专 讝讛

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: This was the day when the members of different tribes were permitted to marry into one another鈥檚 tribe. Such marriages were restricted for the first generation to enter Eretz Yisrael, as discussed above (120a). What verse did the sages of that time interpret in support of their conclusion that this halakha was no longer in effect? The verse states: 鈥淭his is the matter鈥 (Numbers 36:6), meaning, this matter shall be practiced only in this generation, in which Eretz Yisrael is being divided among the tribes.

专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讬讜诐 砖讛讜转专 砖讘讟 讘谞讬诪谉 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讬砖 讬砖专讗诇 谞砖讘注 讘诪爪驻讛 诇讗诪专 讗讬砖 诪诪谞讜 诇讗 讬转谉 讘转讜 诇讘谞讬诪谉 诇讗砖讛 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 诪诪谞讜 讜诇讗 诪讘谞讬谞讜

Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan offered another explanation: The fifteenth of Av was the day when the tribe of Benjamin was permitted to enter into the congregation of the other tribes of Israel through marriage, after the other tribes found a way to dissolve the vow that had prohibited them from marrying a member of the tribe of Benjamin in the aftermath of the episode of the concubine in Gibeah (Judges, chapters 19鈥20). As it is written: 鈥淎nd the men of Israel had taken an oath in Mizpah, saying: None of us shall give his daughter to Benjamin as a wife鈥 (Judges 21:1). The Gemara asks: What verse did the sages of that time interpret that enabled them to dissolve this vow? The verse states: 鈥淣one of us,鈥 and not: None of our children; therefore, the oath applied only to the generation that had taken the oath.

专讘 讚讬诪讬 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讬讜诐 砖讻诇讜 讘讜 诪转讬 诪讚讘专 讚讗诪专 诪专 注讚 砖诇讗 讻诇讜 诪转讬 诪讚讘专

Rav Dimi bar Yosef says that Rav Na岣an says: The fifteenth of Av was the day on which those designated to perish in the wilderness stopped dying, as the entire generation that had left Egypt had died due to the sin of the spies (Numbers 14:29鈥30). As the Master says: As long as those designated to perish in the wilderness had not stopped dying,

诇讗 讛讬讛 讚讬讘讜专 注诐 诪砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讻讗砖专 转诪讜 讻诇 讗谞砖讬 讛诪诇讞诪讛 诇诪讜转 诪拽专讘 讛注诐 讜住诪讬讱 诇讬讛 讜讬讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇讬 诇讗诪专 讗诇讬 讛讬讛 讛讚讬讘讜专

God did not speak with Moses, as it is stated: 鈥淪o it came to pass, when all the men of war were consumed and dead from among the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:16), and juxtaposed to that verse it is written: 鈥淭hat the Lord spoke to me, saying鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:17). Moses indicates: Only after the last of that generation had died, was the speech of God directed to me. When the Jewish people realized that the decree had been lifted, the day was established as a permanent day of rejoicing.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖讘讬讟诇 讘讜 讛讜砖注 讘谉 讗诇讛 驻专讚住讗讜转 砖讛讜砖讬讘 讬专讘注诐 注诇 讛讚专讻讬诐 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讙诇

The Gemara continues to cite explanations for the significance of the fifteenth of Av. Ulla says: The fifteenth of Av was the day when King Hoshea, son of Ela, removed the guards [pardesaot] that Jeroboam, son of Nevat, placed on the roads so that Israel would not ascend to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival. By doing so, King Hoshea renewed the access to Jerusalem for pilgrims.

专讘 诪转谞讛 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖谞转谞讜 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 诇拽讘讜专讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖谞转谞讜 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 诇拽讘讜专讛 转拽谞讜 讘讬讘谞讛 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讛讟讜讘 砖诇讗 讛住专讬讞讜 讜讛诪讟讬讘 砖谞转谞讜 诇拽讘讜专讛

Rav Mattana says: The fifteenth of Av was the day when the slain victims of Beitar were afforded burial, several years after they were killed and the Roman emperor Hadrian decreed that they were not to be buried (see Gittin 57a). As Rav Mattana says: On the day that the slain of Beitar were afforded burial, the Sages in Yavne instituted the blessing: Blessed is He Who is good and Who does good. The term: Who is good, is to give thanks that the corpses did not decompose despite the long delay; and the term: And Who does good, is to give thanks that the slain ones were ultimately afforded burial.

专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讬讜诐 砖驻讜住拽讬谉 讘讜 诪诇讻专讜转 注爪讬诐 诇诪注专讻讛 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 转砖砖 讻讞讛 砖诇 讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讻讜专转讬谉 注爪讬诐 诇诪注专讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪谞砖讛 讜拽专讜 诇讬讛 讬讜诐 转讘专 诪讙诇

Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: The fifteenth of Av is the day when they stop cutting wood for the arrangement of wood on the altar. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: Once the fifteenth of Av came, the force of the sun would weaken, and from this date they would not cut additional wood for the arrangement, because wood cut from then on would not dry properly and would be unfit for use in the Temple. Rav Menashe said: And the people called the fifteenth of Av: The day of the breaking of the sickle [maggal ], as they did not need the lumbering tools until the following year.

诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讚诪讜住讬祝 讬讜住讬祝 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讜住讬祝 讬住讬祝 诪讗讬 讬住讬祝 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 转拽讘专讬讛 讗诪讬讛

The Gemara adds: From this point forward, when the nights lengthen, one who adds [demosif ] to his nightly Torah study will add [yosif ] to his life, and he who does not add, that person is yesif. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term yesif ? Rav Yosef teaches: It means that his mother will bury him, as he will die during his mother鈥檚 lifetime.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖讘注讛 拽驻诇讜 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪转讜砖诇讞 专讗讛 讗讚诐 砖诐 专讗讛 诪转讜砖诇讞 讬注拽讘 专讗讛 讗转 砖诐 注诪专诐 专讗讛 讗转 讬注拽讘 讗讞讬讛 讛砖讬诇讜谞讬 专讗讛 讗转 注诪专诐 讗诇讬讛讜 专讗讛 讗转 讗讞讬讛 讛砖讬诇讜谞讬 讜注讚讬讬谉 拽讬讬诐

搂 After discussing the generation of those who died in the wilderness, the Gemara mentions a tradition that relates to that generation. The Sages taught: Seven people spanned in their lifetimes the whole world in its entirety, i.e., their lives have spanned all of human history. Methuselah saw Adam in his lifetime; Shem saw Methuselah; Jacob saw Shem; Amram saw Jacob; Ahijah the Shilonite saw Amram; Elijah saw Ahijah the Shilonite; and Elijah is still alive.

讜讗讞讬讛 讛砖讬诇讜谞讬 专讗讛 讗转 注诪专诐 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 谞讜转专 诪讛诐 讗讬砖 讻讬 讗诐 讻诇讘 讘谉 讬驻谞讛 讜讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉

The Gemara asks: And is it true that Ahijah the Shilonite saw Amram? But it is written: 鈥淎nd no man among them remained, save Caleb, son of Jephunneh, and Joshua, son of Nun鈥 (Numbers 26:65). Since Amram died well before the Jewish people left Egypt, in order to have lived at the time of Amram, Ahijah would have had to be an adult at the time of the Exodus. How, then, could he have lived through the generation of those who died in the wilderness?

讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诇讗 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝专讛 注诇 砖讘讟讜 砖诇 诇讜讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘诪讚讘专 讛讝讛 讬驻诇讜 驻讙专讬讻诐 讜讻诇 驻拽讚讬讻诐 诇讻诇 诪住驻专讻诐 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 砖谞讛 讜诪注诇讛 诪讬 砖驻拽讜讚讬讜 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讬爪讗 砖讘讟讜 砖诇 诇讜讬 砖驻拽讜讚讬讜 诪讘谉 砖诇砖讬诐

Rav Hamnuna says: The decree of death pronounced for the generation of the spies was not decreed upon the tribe of Levi, as it is written: 鈥淵our carcasses shall fall in this wilderness, and all those who were counted among you, according to your whole number, from twenty years old and upward鈥 (Numbers 14:29). The verse is interpreted: The decree applies to one whose count in the census is from the age of twenty and up, excluding the tribe of Levi, whose count is from the age of thirty and up. Ahijah was a Levite, and he was not subject to the decree.

讜诪砖讗专 砖讘讟讬诐 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬讗讬专 讘谉 诪谞砖讛 讜诪讻讬专 讘谉 诪谞砖讛 谞讜诇讚讜 讘讬诪讬 讬注拽讘 讜诇讗 诪转讜 注讚 砖谞讻谞住讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗专抓 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讻讜 诪讛诐 讗谞砖讬 讛注讬 讻砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讗讬砖 讜转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 诪诪砖 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

The Gemara asks: And is it true that no one from the other tribes entered Eretz Yisrael? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Yair, son of Manasseh, and Machir, son of Manasseh, were born in the days of Jacob, and they did not die until the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the men of Ai killed of them about thirty-six men鈥 (Joshua 7:5). And concerning this verse, it is taught: Literally thirty-six people were killed, this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讜讻讬 谞讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讻砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讬讗讬专 讘谉 诪谞砖讛 砖砖拽讜诇 讻专讜讘讛 砖诇 住谞讛讚专讬谉

Rabbi Ne岣mya said to him: But is it stated that thirty-six were killed? Isn鈥檛 it stated nothing other than: 鈥淎bout thirty-six鈥 were killed? Rather, this unusual term is referring to Yair, son of Manasseh, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, whose maximum number of judges is seventy-one, of which thirty-six is a slight majority. Evidently, then, Yair, son of Manasseh also survived the time in the wilderness.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 诇讗 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝讬专讛 诇讗 注诇 驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讜诇讗 注诇 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 诇讗 注诇 驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 砖谞讛 讜诪注诇讛 讜诇讗 注诇 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 讙诪专 讜诪注诇讛 讜诪注诇讛 诪注专讻讬谉 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 讻驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 讻驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐

Rather, Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: The decree of death was not decreed either upon those less than twenty years old or upon those more than sixty years old at the time of the sin of the spies. The Gemara explains: Not upon those less than twenty years old, as it is written: 鈥淔rom twenty years old and upward鈥 (Numbers 14:29). And not upon those more than sixty years old, because he learns that there is a verbal analogy between 鈥渁nd upward鈥 in the verse cited, and 鈥渁nd upward鈥 from the halakhot of valuations, in the phrase: 鈥淔rom sixty years old and upward鈥 (Leviticus 27:7). Just as there, concerning valuations, more than sixty years old is comparable to less than twenty years old, as there is a distinct category of those between the ages of twenty and sixty, so too here, more than sixty years old is comparable to less than twenty years old insofar as those older were not subject to the sentence. Yair, son of Manasseh, who was already older, did not die in the wilderness.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诇砖讘讟讬诐 讗讬驻诇讜讙 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇拽专拽祝 讙讘专讬 讗讬驻诇讜讙

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Was Eretz Yisrael divided according to the tribes, meaning that each of the twelve tribes received an equal portion, and the members of each tribe divided these tribal portions according to their numbers; or perhaps Eretz Yisrael was divided according to men鈥檚 skulls, meaning that a certain area of land was given to each individual, and the size of the tribal allotments was a function of the tribe鈥檚 population?

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Bava Batra 121

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Batra 121

诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 砖讘转 讘专讗砖讬转 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 讛驻专转 谞讚专讬诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛

The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but Shabbat, which commemorates Creation, was not stated. Ben Azzai says: The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but the dissolution of vows was not stated. This concludes the baraita.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 谞转谉 讙诪讬专 诇讛 诇讛讗 诪转谞讬转讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 诇讬讛 诇驻专讜砖讛 讗讝诇 讘转专讬讛 讚专讘 砖砖转 诇谞讛专讚注讗 讜诇讗 讗砖讻讞讬讛 讗讝诇 讘转专讬讛 诇诪讞讜讝讗 讗砖讻讞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 砖讘转 讘专讗砖讬转 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛

The Gemara recounts: Rabbi Yosei bar Natan learned this baraita and did not know how to explain it. He followed Rav Sheshet to Neharde鈥檃 in order to ask him about it, but he did not find him there. He followed him to Me岣za and found him, and he said to him: What is meant by Rabbi Yosei HaGelili鈥檚 statement: The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but Shabbat, which commemorates Creation, was not stated? What does he mean, as Shabbat of Creation is explicitly mentioned in that section of the Torah (Leviticus 23:3)?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 爪专讬讻讬谉 拽讬讚讜砖 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘转 讘专讗砖讬转 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 拽讬讚讜砖 讘讬转 讚讬谉 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讻转讬讘讬 讙讘讬 诪讜注讚讜转 转讬讘注讬 拽讬讚讜砖 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讻诪讜注讚讜转 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rav Sheshet said to him: The Festivals of the Lord require sanctification by the court. This means that the start of the month, which is dependent upon the appearance of the New Moon, which determines the Festivals, can be established only by a court composed of experts. Shabbat, which commemorates Creation, does not require sanctification by the court. Shabbat is sanctified every week independent of any court action. It may enter your mind to say: Since Shabbat is written adjacent to the Festivals, it should require sanctification by the court as do the Festivals. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili teaches us that Shabbat does not require this.

诪讗讬 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 谞讗诪专讜 讛驻专转 谞讚专讬诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 爪专讬讻讬谉 诪讜诪讞讬谉 讛驻专转 谞讚专讬诐 讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诪讜诪讞讬谉

Rabbi Yosei bar Natan asked: What is meant by ben Azzai鈥檚 statement: The Festivals of the Lord were stated, but the dissolution of vows was not stated? After all, the Torah writes explicitly about the dissolution of vows. Rav Sheshet answered him: The Festivals of the Lord require experts to determine when the months begin and when the Festivals will be observed, but the dissolution of vows does not require experts.

讜讛讗 专讗砖讬 讛诪讟讜转 讻转讬讘 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬讞讬讚 诪讜诪讞讛

The Gemara questions this explanation. But it is written: 鈥淭he heads of the tribes鈥 (Numbers 30:2), in the portion discussing the halakhot of vows. How, then, can it be said that vows can be dissolved by laymen? Rav 岣sda says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The phrase teaches that vows can be dissolved by a single expert authority. In any event, the Gemara has established that Beit Shammai can derive that dissolution of vows can be performed by laymen in the manner stated by ben Azzai, as explained by Rav Sheshet.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讻讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 讜讻讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘讛谉 讘谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讘讻诇讬 诇讘谉 砖讗讜诇讬谉 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讘砖诇诪讗 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讬讜诐 住诇讬讞讛 讜诪讞讬诇讛 讬讜诐 砖谞转谞讜 讘讜 诇讜讞讜转 讗讞专讜谞讜转 讗诇讗 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 诪讗讬 讛讬讗

搂 The Gemara discusses a mishna that addresses the issue of inter-tribal marriages. We learned in a mishna there (Ta鈥檃nit 26b): Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There were no days as joyous for the Jewish people as the fifteenth of Av and as Yom Kippur, as on these days the daughters of Jerusalem would emerge in white garments, which each woman borrowed from another. Why did they borrow garments? They did this so as not to embarrass one who did not have her own white garments. The Gemara analyzes the mishna: Granted that Yom Kippur is a day of joy, because it is a day of pardon and forgiveness, and moreover, it is the day on which the last Tablets of the Covenant were given. But what is the special joy of the fifteenth of Av?

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讜诐 砖讛讜转专讜 砖讘讟讬诐 诇讘讗 讝讛 讘讝讛 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讝讛 讛讚讘专 讚讘专 讝讛 诇讗 讬讛讗 谞讜讛讙 讗诇讗 讘讚讜专 讝讛

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: This was the day when the members of different tribes were permitted to marry into one another鈥檚 tribe. Such marriages were restricted for the first generation to enter Eretz Yisrael, as discussed above (120a). What verse did the sages of that time interpret in support of their conclusion that this halakha was no longer in effect? The verse states: 鈥淭his is the matter鈥 (Numbers 36:6), meaning, this matter shall be practiced only in this generation, in which Eretz Yisrael is being divided among the tribes.

专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讬讜诐 砖讛讜转专 砖讘讟 讘谞讬诪谉 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讬砖 讬砖专讗诇 谞砖讘注 讘诪爪驻讛 诇讗诪专 讗讬砖 诪诪谞讜 诇讗 讬转谉 讘转讜 诇讘谞讬诪谉 诇讗砖讛 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 诪诪谞讜 讜诇讗 诪讘谞讬谞讜

Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan offered another explanation: The fifteenth of Av was the day when the tribe of Benjamin was permitted to enter into the congregation of the other tribes of Israel through marriage, after the other tribes found a way to dissolve the vow that had prohibited them from marrying a member of the tribe of Benjamin in the aftermath of the episode of the concubine in Gibeah (Judges, chapters 19鈥20). As it is written: 鈥淎nd the men of Israel had taken an oath in Mizpah, saying: None of us shall give his daughter to Benjamin as a wife鈥 (Judges 21:1). The Gemara asks: What verse did the sages of that time interpret that enabled them to dissolve this vow? The verse states: 鈥淣one of us,鈥 and not: None of our children; therefore, the oath applied only to the generation that had taken the oath.

专讘 讚讬诪讬 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讬讜诐 砖讻诇讜 讘讜 诪转讬 诪讚讘专 讚讗诪专 诪专 注讚 砖诇讗 讻诇讜 诪转讬 诪讚讘专

Rav Dimi bar Yosef says that Rav Na岣an says: The fifteenth of Av was the day on which those designated to perish in the wilderness stopped dying, as the entire generation that had left Egypt had died due to the sin of the spies (Numbers 14:29鈥30). As the Master says: As long as those designated to perish in the wilderness had not stopped dying,

诇讗 讛讬讛 讚讬讘讜专 注诐 诪砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讻讗砖专 转诪讜 讻诇 讗谞砖讬 讛诪诇讞诪讛 诇诪讜转 诪拽专讘 讛注诐 讜住诪讬讱 诇讬讛 讜讬讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇讬 诇讗诪专 讗诇讬 讛讬讛 讛讚讬讘讜专

God did not speak with Moses, as it is stated: 鈥淪o it came to pass, when all the men of war were consumed and dead from among the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:16), and juxtaposed to that verse it is written: 鈥淭hat the Lord spoke to me, saying鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:17). Moses indicates: Only after the last of that generation had died, was the speech of God directed to me. When the Jewish people realized that the decree had been lifted, the day was established as a permanent day of rejoicing.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖讘讬讟诇 讘讜 讛讜砖注 讘谉 讗诇讛 驻专讚住讗讜转 砖讛讜砖讬讘 讬专讘注诐 注诇 讛讚专讻讬诐 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讙诇

The Gemara continues to cite explanations for the significance of the fifteenth of Av. Ulla says: The fifteenth of Av was the day when King Hoshea, son of Ela, removed the guards [pardesaot] that Jeroboam, son of Nevat, placed on the roads so that Israel would not ascend to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival. By doing so, King Hoshea renewed the access to Jerusalem for pilgrims.

专讘 诪转谞讛 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖谞转谞讜 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 诇拽讘讜专讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖谞转谞讜 讛专讜讙讬 讘讬转专 诇拽讘讜专讛 转拽谞讜 讘讬讘谞讛 讛讟讜讘 讜讛诪讟讬讘 讛讟讜讘 砖诇讗 讛住专讬讞讜 讜讛诪讟讬讘 砖谞转谞讜 诇拽讘讜专讛

Rav Mattana says: The fifteenth of Av was the day when the slain victims of Beitar were afforded burial, several years after they were killed and the Roman emperor Hadrian decreed that they were not to be buried (see Gittin 57a). As Rav Mattana says: On the day that the slain of Beitar were afforded burial, the Sages in Yavne instituted the blessing: Blessed is He Who is good and Who does good. The term: Who is good, is to give thanks that the corpses did not decompose despite the long delay; and the term: And Who does good, is to give thanks that the slain ones were ultimately afforded burial.

专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讬讜诐 砖驻讜住拽讬谉 讘讜 诪诇讻专讜转 注爪讬诐 诇诪注专讻讛 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 转砖砖 讻讞讛 砖诇 讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讻讜专转讬谉 注爪讬诐 诇诪注专讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪谞砖讛 讜拽专讜 诇讬讛 讬讜诐 转讘专 诪讙诇

Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: The fifteenth of Av is the day when they stop cutting wood for the arrangement of wood on the altar. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: Once the fifteenth of Av came, the force of the sun would weaken, and from this date they would not cut additional wood for the arrangement, because wood cut from then on would not dry properly and would be unfit for use in the Temple. Rav Menashe said: And the people called the fifteenth of Av: The day of the breaking of the sickle [maggal ], as they did not need the lumbering tools until the following year.

诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讚诪讜住讬祝 讬讜住讬祝 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讜住讬祝 讬住讬祝 诪讗讬 讬住讬祝 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 转拽讘专讬讛 讗诪讬讛

The Gemara adds: From this point forward, when the nights lengthen, one who adds [demosif ] to his nightly Torah study will add [yosif ] to his life, and he who does not add, that person is yesif. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term yesif ? Rav Yosef teaches: It means that his mother will bury him, as he will die during his mother鈥檚 lifetime.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖讘注讛 拽驻诇讜 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪转讜砖诇讞 专讗讛 讗讚诐 砖诐 专讗讛 诪转讜砖诇讞 讬注拽讘 专讗讛 讗转 砖诐 注诪专诐 专讗讛 讗转 讬注拽讘 讗讞讬讛 讛砖讬诇讜谞讬 专讗讛 讗转 注诪专诐 讗诇讬讛讜 专讗讛 讗转 讗讞讬讛 讛砖讬诇讜谞讬 讜注讚讬讬谉 拽讬讬诐

搂 After discussing the generation of those who died in the wilderness, the Gemara mentions a tradition that relates to that generation. The Sages taught: Seven people spanned in their lifetimes the whole world in its entirety, i.e., their lives have spanned all of human history. Methuselah saw Adam in his lifetime; Shem saw Methuselah; Jacob saw Shem; Amram saw Jacob; Ahijah the Shilonite saw Amram; Elijah saw Ahijah the Shilonite; and Elijah is still alive.

讜讗讞讬讛 讛砖讬诇讜谞讬 专讗讛 讗转 注诪专诐 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 谞讜转专 诪讛诐 讗讬砖 讻讬 讗诐 讻诇讘 讘谉 讬驻谞讛 讜讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉

The Gemara asks: And is it true that Ahijah the Shilonite saw Amram? But it is written: 鈥淎nd no man among them remained, save Caleb, son of Jephunneh, and Joshua, son of Nun鈥 (Numbers 26:65). Since Amram died well before the Jewish people left Egypt, in order to have lived at the time of Amram, Ahijah would have had to be an adult at the time of the Exodus. How, then, could he have lived through the generation of those who died in the wilderness?

讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诇讗 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝专讛 注诇 砖讘讟讜 砖诇 诇讜讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘诪讚讘专 讛讝讛 讬驻诇讜 驻讙专讬讻诐 讜讻诇 驻拽讚讬讻诐 诇讻诇 诪住驻专讻诐 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 砖谞讛 讜诪注诇讛 诪讬 砖驻拽讜讚讬讜 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讬爪讗 砖讘讟讜 砖诇 诇讜讬 砖驻拽讜讚讬讜 诪讘谉 砖诇砖讬诐

Rav Hamnuna says: The decree of death pronounced for the generation of the spies was not decreed upon the tribe of Levi, as it is written: 鈥淵our carcasses shall fall in this wilderness, and all those who were counted among you, according to your whole number, from twenty years old and upward鈥 (Numbers 14:29). The verse is interpreted: The decree applies to one whose count in the census is from the age of twenty and up, excluding the tribe of Levi, whose count is from the age of thirty and up. Ahijah was a Levite, and he was not subject to the decree.

讜诪砖讗专 砖讘讟讬诐 诇讗 注讬讬诇 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬讗讬专 讘谉 诪谞砖讛 讜诪讻讬专 讘谉 诪谞砖讛 谞讜诇讚讜 讘讬诪讬 讬注拽讘 讜诇讗 诪转讜 注讚 砖谞讻谞住讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗专抓 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讻讜 诪讛诐 讗谞砖讬 讛注讬 讻砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讗讬砖 讜转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 诪诪砖 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

The Gemara asks: And is it true that no one from the other tribes entered Eretz Yisrael? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Yair, son of Manasseh, and Machir, son of Manasseh, were born in the days of Jacob, and they did not die until the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the men of Ai killed of them about thirty-six men鈥 (Joshua 7:5). And concerning this verse, it is taught: Literally thirty-six people were killed, this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讜讻讬 谞讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讻砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讬讗讬专 讘谉 诪谞砖讛 砖砖拽讜诇 讻专讜讘讛 砖诇 住谞讛讚专讬谉

Rabbi Ne岣mya said to him: But is it stated that thirty-six were killed? Isn鈥檛 it stated nothing other than: 鈥淎bout thirty-six鈥 were killed? Rather, this unusual term is referring to Yair, son of Manasseh, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, whose maximum number of judges is seventy-one, of which thirty-six is a slight majority. Evidently, then, Yair, son of Manasseh also survived the time in the wilderness.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 诇讗 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝讬专讛 诇讗 注诇 驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讜诇讗 注诇 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 诇讗 注诇 驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 砖谞讛 讜诪注诇讛 讜诇讗 注诇 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 讙诪专 讜诪注诇讛 讜诪注诇讛 诪注专讻讬谉 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 讻驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 讬转专 诪讘谉 砖砖讬诐 讻驻讞讜转 诪讘谉 注砖专讬诐

Rather, Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: The decree of death was not decreed either upon those less than twenty years old or upon those more than sixty years old at the time of the sin of the spies. The Gemara explains: Not upon those less than twenty years old, as it is written: 鈥淔rom twenty years old and upward鈥 (Numbers 14:29). And not upon those more than sixty years old, because he learns that there is a verbal analogy between 鈥渁nd upward鈥 in the verse cited, and 鈥渁nd upward鈥 from the halakhot of valuations, in the phrase: 鈥淔rom sixty years old and upward鈥 (Leviticus 27:7). Just as there, concerning valuations, more than sixty years old is comparable to less than twenty years old, as there is a distinct category of those between the ages of twenty and sixty, so too here, more than sixty years old is comparable to less than twenty years old insofar as those older were not subject to the sentence. Yair, son of Manasseh, who was already older, did not die in the wilderness.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诇砖讘讟讬诐 讗讬驻诇讜讙 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇拽专拽祝 讙讘专讬 讗讬驻诇讜讙

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Was Eretz Yisrael divided according to the tribes, meaning that each of the twelve tribes received an equal portion, and the members of each tribe divided these tribal portions according to their numbers; or perhaps Eretz Yisrael was divided according to men鈥檚 skulls, meaning that a certain area of land was given to each individual, and the size of the tribal allotments was a function of the tribe鈥檚 population?

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