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Today's Daf Yomi

February 6, 2017 | י׳ בשבט תשע״ז

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Bava Batra 15

What is the order of the books of Tanach?  This does not match the order that we use today.  Who wrote which book of Tanach?  Some of the authors mentioned die sometime in the book, including Moshe who dies in the last 8 verses of the Torah.  The question is raised in each case – who finished the book?  When did Job live?  Several opinions are brought, including one that he did not ever live and was written as a parable.   What is the significance of trying to figure out when he lived?

Study Guide Bava Batra 15.

ועל ידי שלשה בני קרח

and by the three sons of Korah.

ירמיה כתב ספרו וספר מלכים וקינות חזקיה וסיעתו כתבו (ימשק סימן) ישעיה משלי שיר השירים וקהלת אנשי כנסת הגדולה כתבו (קנדג סימן) יחזקאל ושנים עשר דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא כתב ספרו ויחס של דברי הימים עד לו

Jeremiah wrote his own book, and the book of Kings, and Lamentations. Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote the following, and a mnemonic to remember which books they wrote is yod, mem, shin, kuf: Isaiah [Yeshaya], Proverbs [Mishlei], Song of Songs [Shir HaShirim], and Ecclesiastes [Kohelet]. The members of the Great Assembly wrote the following, and a mnemonic to remember these books is kuf, nun, dalet, gimmel: Ezekiel [Yeḥezkel ], and the Twelve Prophets [Sheneim Asar], Daniel [Daniel ], and the Scroll of Esther [Megillat Ester]. Ezra wrote his own book and the genealogy of the book of Chronicles until his period.

מסייעא ליה לרב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא עלה עזרא מבבל עד שיחס עצמו ועלה ומאן אסקיה נחמיה בן חכליה

The Gemara comments: This supports Rav, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Ezra did not ascend from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael until he established his own genealogy, and after that he ascended. This genealogy is what is written in the book of Chronicles. And who completed the book of Chronicles for the generations following Ezra? Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah.

אמר מר יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה תניא כמאן דאמר שמונה פסוקים שבתורה יהושע כתבן דתניא וימת שם משה עבד ה׳ אפשר משה מת וכתב וימת שם משה אלא עד כאן כתב משה מכאן ואילך כתב יהושע דברי רבי יהודה ואמרי לה רבי נחמיה

The Gemara elaborates on the particulars of this baraita: The Master said above that Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses of the Torah. The Gemara comments: This baraita is taught in accordance with the one who says that it was Joshua who wrote the last eight verses in the Torah. This point is subject to a tannaitic dispute, as it is taught in another baraita: “And Moses the servant of the Lord died there” (Deuteronomy 34:5); is it possible that after Moses died, he himself wrote “And Moses died there”? Rather, Moses wrote the entire Torah until this point, and Joshua wrote from this point forward; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And some say that Rabbi Neḥemya stated this opinion.

אמר לו רבי שמעון אפשר ספר תורה חסר אות אחת וכתיב לקח את ספר התורה הזה אלא עד כאן הקדוש ברוך הוא אומר ומשה אומר וכותב מכאן ואילך הקדוש ברוך הוא אומר ומשה כותב בדמע כמו שנאמר להלן ויאמר להם ברוך מפיו יקרא אלי את כל הדברים האלה ואני כותב על הספר בדיו

Rabbi Shimon said to him: Is it possible that the Torah scroll was missing a single letter? But it is written: “Take this Torah scroll” (Deuteronomy 31:26), indicating that the Torah was complete as is and that nothing further would be added to it. Rather, until this point the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses repeated after Him and wrote the text. From this point forward, with respect to Moses’ death, the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses wrote with tears. The fact that the Torah was written by way of dictation can be seen later, as it is stated concerning the writing of the Prophets: “And Baruch said to them: He dictated all these words to me, and I wrote them with ink in the scroll” (Jeremiah 36:18).

כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי יהושע בר אבא אמר רב גידל אמר רב שמונה פסוקים שבתורה יחיד קורא אותן לימא רבי יהודה היא ודלא כרבי שמעון אפילו תימא רבי שמעון הואיל ואשתנו אשתנו

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yehoshua bar Abba says that Rav Giddel says that Rav says: When the Torah is read publicly in the synagogue, one person reads the last eight verses in the Torah, and that section may not be divided between two readers? Shall we say that this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, as according to Rabbi Shimon these verses are an integral part of the Torah, written by Moses just like the rest? The Gemara answers: Even if you say that this was said in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, since they differ from the rest of the Torah in one way, as Moses wrote them with tears, they differ from the rest of the Torah in this way as well, i.e., they may not be divided between two readers.

יהושע כתב ספרו והכתיב וימת יהושע בן נון עבד ה׳ דאסקיה אלעזר והכתיב ואלעזר בן אהרן מת דאסקיה פנחס

It is stated in the baraita that Joshua wrote his own book. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written toward the end of the book: “And Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died” (Joshua 24:29)? Is it possible that Joshua wrote this? The Gemara answers: Aaron’s son Eleazar completed it. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it also written: “And Eleazar, son of Aaron, died” (Joshua 24:33)? The Gemara answers: Pinehas completed it.

שמואל כתב ספרו והכתיב ושמואל מת דאסקיה גד החוזה ונתן הנביא

It is also stated in the baraita that Samuel wrote his own book. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And Samuel died” (I Samuel 28:3)? The Gemara answers: Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet finished it.

דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים וליחשוב נמי איתן האזרחי אמר רב איתן האזרחי זה הוא אברהם כתיב הכא איתן האזרחי וכתיב התם מי העיר ממזרח צדק [וגו׳]

It is further stated that David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten elders, whom the baraita proceeds to list. The Gemara asks: But then let it also count Ethan the Ezrahite among the contributors to the book of Psalms, as it is he who is credited with Psalms, chapter 89. Rav says: Ethan the Ezrahite is the same person as Abraham. Proof for this is the fact that it is written here: “A Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite” (Psalms 89:1), and it is written there: “Who raised up one from the east [mizraḥ], whom righteousness met wherever he set his foot” (Isaiah 41:2). The latter verse is understood as referring to Abraham, who came from the east, and for that reason he is called Ethan the Ezrahite in the former verse.

קא חשיב משה וקא חשיב הימן והאמר רב הימן זה משה כתיב הכא הימן וכתיב התם בכל ביתי נאמן הוא תרי הימן הוו

The Gemara asks: The baraita counts Moses among the ten elders whose works are included in the book of Psalms, and it also counts Heman. But doesn’t Rav say: The Heman mentioned in the Bible (I Kings 5:11) is the same person as Moses? This is proven by the fact that it is written here: “Heman” (Psalms 88:1), which is Aramaic for trusted, and it is written there about Moses: “For he is the trusted one in all My house” (Numbers 12:7). The Gemara answers: There were two Hemans, one of whom was Moses, and the other a Temple singer from among the descendants of Samuel.

משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב מסייעא ליה לרבי לוי בר לחמא דאמר רבי לוי בר לחמא איוב בימי משה היה כתיב הכא מי יתן אפוא ויכתבון מלי וכתיב התם ובמה יודע אפוא

The baraita further states that Moses wrote his own book, i.e., the Torah, the portion of Balaam, and the book of Job. This supports Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma, as Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma says: Job lived in the time of Moses. It is written here with regard to Job: “Oh, that my words were written now [eifo]” (Job 19:23), and it is written there in Moses’ words to God: “For in what shall it be known here [eifo]” (Exodus 33:16). The unusual use of the word eifo in these two places indicates that Job and Moses lived in the same generation.

ואימא בימי יצחק דכתיב מי אפוא הוא הצד ציד ואימא בימי יעקב דכתיב אם כן אפוא זאת עשו ואימא בימי יוסף דכתיב איפה הם רועים

The Gemara comments: But if that is the proof, say that Job lived in the time of Isaac, as it is written in connection with Isaac: “Who then [eifo] is he that has taken venison” (Genesis 27:33). Or say that he lived in the time of Jacob, as it is written with respect to Jacob: “If it must be so now [eifo], do this” (Genesis 43:11). Or say that he lived in the time of Joseph, as it is written with respect to Joseph: “Tell me, I pray you, where [eifo] are they feeding their flocks?” (Genesis 37:16).

לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב מי יתן בספר ויחקו ומשה הוא דאיקרי מחוקק דכתיב וירא ראשית לו כי שם חלקת מחקק ספון

The Gemara answers: It could not enter your mind to say this, as it is written in the continuation of the previously mentioned verse: “Oh, that my words were inscribed [veyuḥaku] in a book” (Job 19:23), and it is Moses who is called the inscriber, as it is written with regard to him: “And he provided the first part for himself, for there was the inscriber’s [meḥokek] portion reserved” (Deuteronomy 33:21).

רבא אמר איוב בימי מרגלים היה כתיב הכא איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו וכתיב התם היש בה עץ מי דמי הכא עוץ התם עץ הכי קאמר להו משה לישראל ישנו לאותו אדם ששנותיו ארוכות כעץ ומגין על דורו כעץ

Rava says: Job lived at the time of the spies whom Moses sent to scout the land of Canaan. This is proven by the fact that it is written here: “There was a man in the land of Utz, whose name was Job” (Job 1:1), and it is written there in the account of the spies: “Whether there are trees [eitz] in it” (Numbers 13:20). The Gemara asks: Is it comparable? Here the word that is used is Utz, whereas there the word is eitz. The Gemara answers: This is what Moses said to Israel, i.e., to the spies: Is that man named Job still alive, he whose years are as long as the years of a tree and who protects his generation like a tree? This is why the allusion to him here is through the word eitz, rather than Utz.

יתיב ההוא מרבנן קמיה דרבי שמואל בר נחמני ויתיב וקאמר איוב לא היה ולא נברא אלא משל היה אמר ליה עליך אמר קרא איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו

The Gemara relates that one of the Sages sat before Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani and he sat and said: Job never existed and was never created; there was never such a person as Job. Rather, his story was a parable. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said to him: In rebuttal to you, the verse states: “There was a man in the Land of Utz whose name was Job” (Job 1:1), which indicates that such a man did indeed exist.

אלא מעתה ולרש אין כל כי אם כבשה אחת קטנה אשר קנה ויחיה וגו׳ מי הוה אלא משל בעלמא הכא נמי משל בעלמא אם כן שמו ושם עירו למה

The Gemara asks: But if that is so, that the words “there was” prove that Job existed, what shall we say about the parable that Natan the prophet presented to David: “There were two men in one city; the one rich and the other poor. The rich man had very many flocks and herds, but the poor man had nothing except one little lamb, which he had bought and reared” (II Samuel 12:3)? Was there really such a person? Rather, it was merely a parable; here too it is merely a parable. The Gemara answers: If so, that it is a parable, why state his name and the name of his city? Rather, Job was clearly a real person.

רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו איוב מעולי גולה היה ובית מדרשו בטבריא היה מיתיבי ימי שנותיו של איוב משעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד שיצאו

The Gemara cites another opinion with regard to the time when Job lived. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar both say: Job was among those who ascended from the exile to Eretz Yisrael at the start of the Second Temple period, and his house of study was in Tiberias. The Gemara raises an objection from what is taught in a baraita: The days of Job’s life extended from when Israel entered Egypt until they left, indicating that this is the period during which he lived and not, as suggested, in the early days of the Second Temple.

אימא כמשעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד [שעה] שיצאו

The Gemara answers: Say that the baraita means that the duration of Job’s life lasted as long as from when Israel entered Egypt until when they left, but not that he lived during that specific time frame.

מיתיבי שבעה נביאים נתנבאו לאומות העולם ואלו הן בלעם ואביו ואיוב אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ואליהוא בן ברכאל הבוזי אמר ליה וליטעמיך אליהוא בן ברכאל לאו מישראל הוה והא כתיב ממשפחת רם

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita against the notion that Job was a Jew: Seven prophets prophesied to the nations of the world, and they are: Balaam and his father Beor, and Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu ben Barachel the Buzite, which indicates that Job was not Jewish. He said to him: And according to your reasoning that Job could not have been Jewish because he prophesied to the nations of the world, was Elihu ben Barachel not a Jew? Is it not written: “Of the family of Ram” (Job 32:2), meaning Abraham?

אלא אינבוי אינבי לאומות העולם הכי נמי איוב אינבוי אינבי [לאומות העולם] אטו כולהו נביאי מי לא אינבוי לאומות העולם התם עיקר נביאותייהו לישראל הכא עיקר נביאותייהו לאומות העולם

Rather, one must explain that Elihu is included in this list because he prophesied to the nations of the world; and so too it may be maintained that Job is included in this list, even though he is Jewish, because he prophesied to the nations of the world. The Gemara asks: But did not all the other prophets also prophesy to the nations of the world? Why then are only these seven mentioned? The Gemara answers: There, with regard to the other prophets, their main prophecies were directed to Israel, whereas here, with regard to these seven prophets, their main prophecies were directed to the nations of the world.

מיתיבי חסיד היה באומות העולם ואיוב שמו ולא בא לעולם אלא כדי לקבל שכרו הביא הקדוש ברוך הוא עליו יסורין התחיל מחרף ומגדף כפל לו הקדוש ברוך הוא שכרו בעולם הזה [כדי] לטרדו מן העולם הבא

The Gemara raises an objection from what is taught in a different baraita: There was a certain pious man among the nations of the world and his name was Job, and he came into the world only to receive his reward. The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought afflictions upon him, and he began to blaspheme and curse. The Holy One, Blessed be He, doubled his reward in this world in order to expel him from the World-to-Come. This baraita states that Job was not a Jew, but rather a gentile.

תנאי היא דתניא רבי אלעזר אומר איוב בימי שפוט השופטים היה שנאמר הן אתם כלכם חזיתם ולמה זה הבל תהבלו איזה דור שכולו הבל הוי אומר זה דורו של שפוט השופטים

The Gemara responds: The matter of whether or not Job was Jewish is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to the period during which Job lived: Rabbi Elazar says: Job lived in the days of the judging of the Judges, as it is stated in connection with Job: “Behold, all you yourselves have seen it; why then have you become altogether vain?” (Job 27:12). Which generation was completely vain? You must say it was the generation of the judging of the Judges, when the people judged the Judges, as will be explained shortly.

רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר איוב בימי אחשורוש היה שנאמר ולא נמצא נשים יפות כבנות איוב בכל הארץ איזהו דור שנתבקשו בו נשים יפות הוי אומר זה דורו של אחשורוש ואימא בימי דוד דכתיב ויבקשו נערה יפה התם בכל גבול ישראל הכא בכל הארץ

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Job lived in the days of Ahasuerus, as it is stated: “And in all the world were no women found so beautiful as the daughters of Job” (Job 42:15). In which generation were beautiful women sought? You must say it was the generation of Ahasuerus (Esther, chapter 2). The Gemara asks: But why not say it was in the days of David, as it is written: “And they sought a beautiful maiden” (I Kings 1:3)? The Gemara answers: There, in the time of David, they searched “throughout the territory of Israel” (I Kings 1:3), whereas here, in the time of Ahasuerus, they searched throughout the world, as is similarly stated with regard to Job’s daughters.

רבי נתן אומר איוב בימי מלכות שבא היה שנאמר ותפל שבא ותקחם וחכמים אומרים איוב בימי כשדים היה שנאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויש אומרים איוב בימי יעקב היה ודינה בת יעקב נשא כתיב הכא כדבר אחת הנבלות תדברי וכתיב התם כי נבלה עשה בישראל וכולהו תנאי סבירא להו דאיוב מישראל הוה לבר מיש אומרים

Rabbi Natan says: Job lived in the days of the kingdom of Sheba, as it is stated: “And Sheba fell upon them, and took them away” (Job 1:15). And the Rabbis say: Job lived in the days of the kingdom of the Chaldeans in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, as it is stated: “The Chaldeans formed three bands” (Job 1:17). And some say that Job lived in the days of Jacob and that he married Dina, the daughter of Jacob. As it is written here: “You speak as one of the loathsome women speaks” (Job 2:10), and it is written there in the account of the incident involving Dina: “He has done a loathsome act in Israel” (Genesis 34:7). This concludes the text of the baraita. The Gemara comments: And all these tanna’im hold that Job was a Jew except for the opinion introduced with the phrase: And some say, according to which Job lived in the time of Jacob, and he was certainly not one of Jacob’s sons.

דאי סלקא דעתך מאומות העולם הוה בתר דשכיב משה מי שריא שכינה על אומות העולם והא אמר מר בקש משה שלא תשרה שכינה על אומות העולם ונתן לו שנאמר ונפלינו אני ועמך

And what is the proof that all these tanna’im maintain that Job was Jewish? As if it should enter your mind to say that he came from the nations of the world, there is a difficulty: After Moses died, did the Divine Presence rest any longer on the nations of the world? But doesn’t the Master say: Moses requested that the Divine Presence not rest again on the nations of the world, and his request was granted to him, as it is stated: “That we shall be differentiated, I and Your people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16), and it is stated there that God acceded to his request.

אמר רבי יוחנן דורו של איוב שטוף בזמה היה שנאמר הן אתם כולכם חזיתם ולמה זה הבל תהבלו וכתיב שובי שובי השולמית שובי שובי ונחזה בך אימא בנבואה דכתיב חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ אם כן למה זה הבל תהבלו למה לי

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The generation of Job was awash in licentiousness, as it is stated: “Behold, all of you yourselves have seen [ḥazitem] it; why then have you become altogether vain?” (Job 27:12), and it is written: “Return, return, O Shulamite; return, return, that we may look [veneḥeze] upon you” (Song of Songs 7:1), which teaches that the phrase “you have seen it” connotes a licentious gaze. The Gemara asks: But say that the phrase “you yourselves have seen it” signifies prophecy, as it is written: “The vision [ḥazon] of Isaiah ben Amoz” (Isaiah 1:1). The Gemara answers: If so, why do I need the words: “Why then have you become altogether vain”? Rather, the reference must be to inappropriate licentious gazing.

ואמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים דור ששופט את שופטיו אומר לו טול קיסם מבין עיניך אומר לו טול קורה מבין עיניך אמר לו כספך היה לסיגים אמר לו סבאך מהול במים

And further, with regard to Rabbi Elazar’s statement in the baraita that the generation of the judging of the Judges was one of vanity, Rabbi Yoḥanan says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And it happened in the days of the judging of the Judges” (Ruth 1:1)? This indicates a generation that judged its judges. If a judge would say to the defendant standing before him: Remove the splinter from between your eyes, meaning rid yourself of some minor infraction, the defendant would say to him: Remove the beam from between your eyes, meaning you have committed far more severe sins. If the judge would say to him: “Your silver is become dross” (Isaiah 1:22), meaning your coins are counterfeit, the defendant would say to him: “Your wine is mixed with water” (Isaiah 1:22), meaning you yourself dilute your wine with water and sell it. Since nobody behaved in proper manner, the judges were unable to judge.

אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל האומר מלכת שבא אשה היתה אינו אלא טועה מאי מלכת שבא מלכותא דשבא

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who says that the queen of Sheba [malkat Sheva] who came to visit King Solomon (see I Kings, chapter 10) was a woman is nothing other than mistaken. What is the meaning of malkat Sheba? The kingdom [malkhuta] of Sheba, as is mentioned in Job: “And Sheba fell on them and took them away” (Job 1:15).

ויהי היום ויבאו בני האלהים להתיצב על ה׳ ויבא גם השטן בתוכם ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן מאין תבא ויען השטן וגו׳ אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שטתי בכל העולם כולו ולא מצאתי נאמן כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ואפילו הכי בשעה שלא מצא מקום לקבור את שרה [עד שקנה בארבע מאות שקל כסף] לא הרהר אחר מדותיך

§ Having mentioned the book of Job, the Gemara addresses several matters relating to it. It is stated: “Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and the Satan came also among them. And the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking through it” (Job 1:6–7). The Satan said to God: Master of the Universe, I have gone to and fro throughout the entire world and I have not found anyone as faithful as Your servant Abraham, to whom You said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you” (Genesis 13:17). And even so, when he did not find a place to bury Sarah before he purchased a burial site for four hundred silver shekels, he did not find fault with Your ways or complain about the fact that you had failed to fulfill Your promise.

ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמוהו בארץ וגו׳ אמר רבי יוחנן גדול הנאמר באיוב יותר ממה שנאמר באברהם דאילו באברהם כתיב כי עתה ידעתי כי ירא אלהים אתה ובאיוב כתיב איש תם וישר ירא אלהים [וסר מרע]

“And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth, a perfect and upright man, one who fears God and turns away from evil?” (Job 1:8). About this Rabbi Yoḥanan says: That which is stated about Job is greater than that which is stated about Abraham. As with regard to Abraham it is written: “For now I know that you fear God” (Genesis 22:12), with regard to Job it is written: “A perfect and an upright man, one who fears God and turns away from evil” (Job 1:8).

מאי וסר מרע אמר רבי אבא בר שמואל איוב וותרן בממונו היה מנהגו של עולם נותן חצי פרוטה לחנוני איוב ויתרה משלו

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of the aforementioned verse: What is meant by “and turns away from evil”? Rabbi Abba bar Shmuel says: Job was forgiving with his money. It is the way of the world that one pays the storekeeper for even half-peruta of merchandise purchased from him. But if somebody bought an item of such little value from Job, he would forgive him his half-peruta.

ויען השטן את ה׳ ויאמר החנם ירא איוב אלהים הלא אתה סכת בעדו ובעד ביתו וגו׳ מאי מעשה ידיו ברכת אמר רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק כל הנוטל פרוטה מאיוב מתברך

The Gemara continues to clarify the verses concerning Job. “Then the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Does Job fear God for naught? Have You not made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his cattle is increased in the land” (Job 1:9–10). What is meant by: “You have blessed the work of his hands”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak says: Anyone who took a peruta from Job was blessed. Not only was Job’s own handiwork blessed, but anybody who received anything from him was also blessed.

מאי ומקנהו פרץ בארץ אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מקנהו של איוב פרצו גדרו של עולם מנהגו של עולם זאבים הורגים העזים מקנהו של איוב עזים הורגים את הזאבים

The Gemara continues with its explication of these verses. What is meant by: “And his livestock is increased [paratz] in the land” (Job 1:10)? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: Job’s livestock breached [paretzu] the order of the world. It is the way of the world that wolves kill goats, but in the case of Job’s livestock, the goats killed the wolves.

ואולם שלח נא ידך וגע בכל אשר לו אם לא על פניך יברכך ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן הנה כל אשר לו בידך רק אליו אל תשלח ידך וגו׳ ויהי היום ובניו ובנותיו אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור ומלאך בא אל איוב ויאמר הבקר היו חורשות וגו׳ מאי הבקר היו חורשות והאתנות רעות על ידיהם אמר רבי יוחנן מלמד שהטעימו הקדוש ברוך הוא לאיוב

The Gemara continues to relate the Satan’s challenge to God: “But now put forth Your hand, and touch all that he has, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, all that he has is in your power; only upon himself do not put forth your hand. And the Satan went out from the presence of the Lord” (Job 1:11–12). The verses relate what then occurred: “Now there was a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house, and there came a messenger to Job, and said: The oxen were plowing, and the asses were feeding beside them” (Job 1:13–14). The Gemara asks: What is meant by: “The oxen were plowing and the asses were feeding beside them”? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Job a taste

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Bava Batra 15

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Bava Batra 15

ועל ידי שלשה בני קרח

and by the three sons of Korah.

ירמיה כתב ספרו וספר מלכים וקינות חזקיה וסיעתו כתבו (ימשק סימן) ישעיה משלי שיר השירים וקהלת אנשי כנסת הגדולה כתבו (קנדג סימן) יחזקאל ושנים עשר דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא כתב ספרו ויחס של דברי הימים עד לו

Jeremiah wrote his own book, and the book of Kings, and Lamentations. Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote the following, and a mnemonic to remember which books they wrote is yod, mem, shin, kuf: Isaiah [Yeshaya], Proverbs [Mishlei], Song of Songs [Shir HaShirim], and Ecclesiastes [Kohelet]. The members of the Great Assembly wrote the following, and a mnemonic to remember these books is kuf, nun, dalet, gimmel: Ezekiel [Yeḥezkel ], and the Twelve Prophets [Sheneim Asar], Daniel [Daniel ], and the Scroll of Esther [Megillat Ester]. Ezra wrote his own book and the genealogy of the book of Chronicles until his period.

מסייעא ליה לרב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא עלה עזרא מבבל עד שיחס עצמו ועלה ומאן אסקיה נחמיה בן חכליה

The Gemara comments: This supports Rav, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Ezra did not ascend from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael until he established his own genealogy, and after that he ascended. This genealogy is what is written in the book of Chronicles. And who completed the book of Chronicles for the generations following Ezra? Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah.

אמר מר יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה תניא כמאן דאמר שמונה פסוקים שבתורה יהושע כתבן דתניא וימת שם משה עבד ה׳ אפשר משה מת וכתב וימת שם משה אלא עד כאן כתב משה מכאן ואילך כתב יהושע דברי רבי יהודה ואמרי לה רבי נחמיה

The Gemara elaborates on the particulars of this baraita: The Master said above that Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses of the Torah. The Gemara comments: This baraita is taught in accordance with the one who says that it was Joshua who wrote the last eight verses in the Torah. This point is subject to a tannaitic dispute, as it is taught in another baraita: “And Moses the servant of the Lord died there” (Deuteronomy 34:5); is it possible that after Moses died, he himself wrote “And Moses died there”? Rather, Moses wrote the entire Torah until this point, and Joshua wrote from this point forward; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And some say that Rabbi Neḥemya stated this opinion.

אמר לו רבי שמעון אפשר ספר תורה חסר אות אחת וכתיב לקח את ספר התורה הזה אלא עד כאן הקדוש ברוך הוא אומר ומשה אומר וכותב מכאן ואילך הקדוש ברוך הוא אומר ומשה כותב בדמע כמו שנאמר להלן ויאמר להם ברוך מפיו יקרא אלי את כל הדברים האלה ואני כותב על הספר בדיו

Rabbi Shimon said to him: Is it possible that the Torah scroll was missing a single letter? But it is written: “Take this Torah scroll” (Deuteronomy 31:26), indicating that the Torah was complete as is and that nothing further would be added to it. Rather, until this point the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses repeated after Him and wrote the text. From this point forward, with respect to Moses’ death, the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses wrote with tears. The fact that the Torah was written by way of dictation can be seen later, as it is stated concerning the writing of the Prophets: “And Baruch said to them: He dictated all these words to me, and I wrote them with ink in the scroll” (Jeremiah 36:18).

כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי יהושע בר אבא אמר רב גידל אמר רב שמונה פסוקים שבתורה יחיד קורא אותן לימא רבי יהודה היא ודלא כרבי שמעון אפילו תימא רבי שמעון הואיל ואשתנו אשתנו

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yehoshua bar Abba says that Rav Giddel says that Rav says: When the Torah is read publicly in the synagogue, one person reads the last eight verses in the Torah, and that section may not be divided between two readers? Shall we say that this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, as according to Rabbi Shimon these verses are an integral part of the Torah, written by Moses just like the rest? The Gemara answers: Even if you say that this was said in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, since they differ from the rest of the Torah in one way, as Moses wrote them with tears, they differ from the rest of the Torah in this way as well, i.e., they may not be divided between two readers.

יהושע כתב ספרו והכתיב וימת יהושע בן נון עבד ה׳ דאסקיה אלעזר והכתיב ואלעזר בן אהרן מת דאסקיה פנחס

It is stated in the baraita that Joshua wrote his own book. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written toward the end of the book: “And Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died” (Joshua 24:29)? Is it possible that Joshua wrote this? The Gemara answers: Aaron’s son Eleazar completed it. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it also written: “And Eleazar, son of Aaron, died” (Joshua 24:33)? The Gemara answers: Pinehas completed it.

שמואל כתב ספרו והכתיב ושמואל מת דאסקיה גד החוזה ונתן הנביא

It is also stated in the baraita that Samuel wrote his own book. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And Samuel died” (I Samuel 28:3)? The Gemara answers: Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet finished it.

דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים וליחשוב נמי איתן האזרחי אמר רב איתן האזרחי זה הוא אברהם כתיב הכא איתן האזרחי וכתיב התם מי העיר ממזרח צדק [וגו׳]

It is further stated that David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten elders, whom the baraita proceeds to list. The Gemara asks: But then let it also count Ethan the Ezrahite among the contributors to the book of Psalms, as it is he who is credited with Psalms, chapter 89. Rav says: Ethan the Ezrahite is the same person as Abraham. Proof for this is the fact that it is written here: “A Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite” (Psalms 89:1), and it is written there: “Who raised up one from the east [mizraḥ], whom righteousness met wherever he set his foot” (Isaiah 41:2). The latter verse is understood as referring to Abraham, who came from the east, and for that reason he is called Ethan the Ezrahite in the former verse.

קא חשיב משה וקא חשיב הימן והאמר רב הימן זה משה כתיב הכא הימן וכתיב התם בכל ביתי נאמן הוא תרי הימן הוו

The Gemara asks: The baraita counts Moses among the ten elders whose works are included in the book of Psalms, and it also counts Heman. But doesn’t Rav say: The Heman mentioned in the Bible (I Kings 5:11) is the same person as Moses? This is proven by the fact that it is written here: “Heman” (Psalms 88:1), which is Aramaic for trusted, and it is written there about Moses: “For he is the trusted one in all My house” (Numbers 12:7). The Gemara answers: There were two Hemans, one of whom was Moses, and the other a Temple singer from among the descendants of Samuel.

משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב מסייעא ליה לרבי לוי בר לחמא דאמר רבי לוי בר לחמא איוב בימי משה היה כתיב הכא מי יתן אפוא ויכתבון מלי וכתיב התם ובמה יודע אפוא

The baraita further states that Moses wrote his own book, i.e., the Torah, the portion of Balaam, and the book of Job. This supports Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma, as Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma says: Job lived in the time of Moses. It is written here with regard to Job: “Oh, that my words were written now [eifo]” (Job 19:23), and it is written there in Moses’ words to God: “For in what shall it be known here [eifo]” (Exodus 33:16). The unusual use of the word eifo in these two places indicates that Job and Moses lived in the same generation.

ואימא בימי יצחק דכתיב מי אפוא הוא הצד ציד ואימא בימי יעקב דכתיב אם כן אפוא זאת עשו ואימא בימי יוסף דכתיב איפה הם רועים

The Gemara comments: But if that is the proof, say that Job lived in the time of Isaac, as it is written in connection with Isaac: “Who then [eifo] is he that has taken venison” (Genesis 27:33). Or say that he lived in the time of Jacob, as it is written with respect to Jacob: “If it must be so now [eifo], do this” (Genesis 43:11). Or say that he lived in the time of Joseph, as it is written with respect to Joseph: “Tell me, I pray you, where [eifo] are they feeding their flocks?” (Genesis 37:16).

לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב מי יתן בספר ויחקו ומשה הוא דאיקרי מחוקק דכתיב וירא ראשית לו כי שם חלקת מחקק ספון

The Gemara answers: It could not enter your mind to say this, as it is written in the continuation of the previously mentioned verse: “Oh, that my words were inscribed [veyuḥaku] in a book” (Job 19:23), and it is Moses who is called the inscriber, as it is written with regard to him: “And he provided the first part for himself, for there was the inscriber’s [meḥokek] portion reserved” (Deuteronomy 33:21).

רבא אמר איוב בימי מרגלים היה כתיב הכא איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו וכתיב התם היש בה עץ מי דמי הכא עוץ התם עץ הכי קאמר להו משה לישראל ישנו לאותו אדם ששנותיו ארוכות כעץ ומגין על דורו כעץ

Rava says: Job lived at the time of the spies whom Moses sent to scout the land of Canaan. This is proven by the fact that it is written here: “There was a man in the land of Utz, whose name was Job” (Job 1:1), and it is written there in the account of the spies: “Whether there are trees [eitz] in it” (Numbers 13:20). The Gemara asks: Is it comparable? Here the word that is used is Utz, whereas there the word is eitz. The Gemara answers: This is what Moses said to Israel, i.e., to the spies: Is that man named Job still alive, he whose years are as long as the years of a tree and who protects his generation like a tree? This is why the allusion to him here is through the word eitz, rather than Utz.

יתיב ההוא מרבנן קמיה דרבי שמואל בר נחמני ויתיב וקאמר איוב לא היה ולא נברא אלא משל היה אמר ליה עליך אמר קרא איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו

The Gemara relates that one of the Sages sat before Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani and he sat and said: Job never existed and was never created; there was never such a person as Job. Rather, his story was a parable. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said to him: In rebuttal to you, the verse states: “There was a man in the Land of Utz whose name was Job” (Job 1:1), which indicates that such a man did indeed exist.

אלא מעתה ולרש אין כל כי אם כבשה אחת קטנה אשר קנה ויחיה וגו׳ מי הוה אלא משל בעלמא הכא נמי משל בעלמא אם כן שמו ושם עירו למה

The Gemara asks: But if that is so, that the words “there was” prove that Job existed, what shall we say about the parable that Natan the prophet presented to David: “There were two men in one city; the one rich and the other poor. The rich man had very many flocks and herds, but the poor man had nothing except one little lamb, which he had bought and reared” (II Samuel 12:3)? Was there really such a person? Rather, it was merely a parable; here too it is merely a parable. The Gemara answers: If so, that it is a parable, why state his name and the name of his city? Rather, Job was clearly a real person.

רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו איוב מעולי גולה היה ובית מדרשו בטבריא היה מיתיבי ימי שנותיו של איוב משעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד שיצאו

The Gemara cites another opinion with regard to the time when Job lived. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar both say: Job was among those who ascended from the exile to Eretz Yisrael at the start of the Second Temple period, and his house of study was in Tiberias. The Gemara raises an objection from what is taught in a baraita: The days of Job’s life extended from when Israel entered Egypt until they left, indicating that this is the period during which he lived and not, as suggested, in the early days of the Second Temple.

אימא כמשעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד [שעה] שיצאו

The Gemara answers: Say that the baraita means that the duration of Job’s life lasted as long as from when Israel entered Egypt until when they left, but not that he lived during that specific time frame.

מיתיבי שבעה נביאים נתנבאו לאומות העולם ואלו הן בלעם ואביו ואיוב אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ואליהוא בן ברכאל הבוזי אמר ליה וליטעמיך אליהוא בן ברכאל לאו מישראל הוה והא כתיב ממשפחת רם

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita against the notion that Job was a Jew: Seven prophets prophesied to the nations of the world, and they are: Balaam and his father Beor, and Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu ben Barachel the Buzite, which indicates that Job was not Jewish. He said to him: And according to your reasoning that Job could not have been Jewish because he prophesied to the nations of the world, was Elihu ben Barachel not a Jew? Is it not written: “Of the family of Ram” (Job 32:2), meaning Abraham?

אלא אינבוי אינבי לאומות העולם הכי נמי איוב אינבוי אינבי [לאומות העולם] אטו כולהו נביאי מי לא אינבוי לאומות העולם התם עיקר נביאותייהו לישראל הכא עיקר נביאותייהו לאומות העולם

Rather, one must explain that Elihu is included in this list because he prophesied to the nations of the world; and so too it may be maintained that Job is included in this list, even though he is Jewish, because he prophesied to the nations of the world. The Gemara asks: But did not all the other prophets also prophesy to the nations of the world? Why then are only these seven mentioned? The Gemara answers: There, with regard to the other prophets, their main prophecies were directed to Israel, whereas here, with regard to these seven prophets, their main prophecies were directed to the nations of the world.

מיתיבי חסיד היה באומות העולם ואיוב שמו ולא בא לעולם אלא כדי לקבל שכרו הביא הקדוש ברוך הוא עליו יסורין התחיל מחרף ומגדף כפל לו הקדוש ברוך הוא שכרו בעולם הזה [כדי] לטרדו מן העולם הבא

The Gemara raises an objection from what is taught in a different baraita: There was a certain pious man among the nations of the world and his name was Job, and he came into the world only to receive his reward. The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought afflictions upon him, and he began to blaspheme and curse. The Holy One, Blessed be He, doubled his reward in this world in order to expel him from the World-to-Come. This baraita states that Job was not a Jew, but rather a gentile.

תנאי היא דתניא רבי אלעזר אומר איוב בימי שפוט השופטים היה שנאמר הן אתם כלכם חזיתם ולמה זה הבל תהבלו איזה דור שכולו הבל הוי אומר זה דורו של שפוט השופטים

The Gemara responds: The matter of whether or not Job was Jewish is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to the period during which Job lived: Rabbi Elazar says: Job lived in the days of the judging of the Judges, as it is stated in connection with Job: “Behold, all you yourselves have seen it; why then have you become altogether vain?” (Job 27:12). Which generation was completely vain? You must say it was the generation of the judging of the Judges, when the people judged the Judges, as will be explained shortly.

רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר איוב בימי אחשורוש היה שנאמר ולא נמצא נשים יפות כבנות איוב בכל הארץ איזהו דור שנתבקשו בו נשים יפות הוי אומר זה דורו של אחשורוש ואימא בימי דוד דכתיב ויבקשו נערה יפה התם בכל גבול ישראל הכא בכל הארץ

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Job lived in the days of Ahasuerus, as it is stated: “And in all the world were no women found so beautiful as the daughters of Job” (Job 42:15). In which generation were beautiful women sought? You must say it was the generation of Ahasuerus (Esther, chapter 2). The Gemara asks: But why not say it was in the days of David, as it is written: “And they sought a beautiful maiden” (I Kings 1:3)? The Gemara answers: There, in the time of David, they searched “throughout the territory of Israel” (I Kings 1:3), whereas here, in the time of Ahasuerus, they searched throughout the world, as is similarly stated with regard to Job’s daughters.

רבי נתן אומר איוב בימי מלכות שבא היה שנאמר ותפל שבא ותקחם וחכמים אומרים איוב בימי כשדים היה שנאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויש אומרים איוב בימי יעקב היה ודינה בת יעקב נשא כתיב הכא כדבר אחת הנבלות תדברי וכתיב התם כי נבלה עשה בישראל וכולהו תנאי סבירא להו דאיוב מישראל הוה לבר מיש אומרים

Rabbi Natan says: Job lived in the days of the kingdom of Sheba, as it is stated: “And Sheba fell upon them, and took them away” (Job 1:15). And the Rabbis say: Job lived in the days of the kingdom of the Chaldeans in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, as it is stated: “The Chaldeans formed three bands” (Job 1:17). And some say that Job lived in the days of Jacob and that he married Dina, the daughter of Jacob. As it is written here: “You speak as one of the loathsome women speaks” (Job 2:10), and it is written there in the account of the incident involving Dina: “He has done a loathsome act in Israel” (Genesis 34:7). This concludes the text of the baraita. The Gemara comments: And all these tanna’im hold that Job was a Jew except for the opinion introduced with the phrase: And some say, according to which Job lived in the time of Jacob, and he was certainly not one of Jacob’s sons.

דאי סלקא דעתך מאומות העולם הוה בתר דשכיב משה מי שריא שכינה על אומות העולם והא אמר מר בקש משה שלא תשרה שכינה על אומות העולם ונתן לו שנאמר ונפלינו אני ועמך

And what is the proof that all these tanna’im maintain that Job was Jewish? As if it should enter your mind to say that he came from the nations of the world, there is a difficulty: After Moses died, did the Divine Presence rest any longer on the nations of the world? But doesn’t the Master say: Moses requested that the Divine Presence not rest again on the nations of the world, and his request was granted to him, as it is stated: “That we shall be differentiated, I and Your people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16), and it is stated there that God acceded to his request.

אמר רבי יוחנן דורו של איוב שטוף בזמה היה שנאמר הן אתם כולכם חזיתם ולמה זה הבל תהבלו וכתיב שובי שובי השולמית שובי שובי ונחזה בך אימא בנבואה דכתיב חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ אם כן למה זה הבל תהבלו למה לי

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The generation of Job was awash in licentiousness, as it is stated: “Behold, all of you yourselves have seen [ḥazitem] it; why then have you become altogether vain?” (Job 27:12), and it is written: “Return, return, O Shulamite; return, return, that we may look [veneḥeze] upon you” (Song of Songs 7:1), which teaches that the phrase “you have seen it” connotes a licentious gaze. The Gemara asks: But say that the phrase “you yourselves have seen it” signifies prophecy, as it is written: “The vision [ḥazon] of Isaiah ben Amoz” (Isaiah 1:1). The Gemara answers: If so, why do I need the words: “Why then have you become altogether vain”? Rather, the reference must be to inappropriate licentious gazing.

ואמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים דור ששופט את שופטיו אומר לו טול קיסם מבין עיניך אומר לו טול קורה מבין עיניך אמר לו כספך היה לסיגים אמר לו סבאך מהול במים

And further, with regard to Rabbi Elazar’s statement in the baraita that the generation of the judging of the Judges was one of vanity, Rabbi Yoḥanan says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And it happened in the days of the judging of the Judges” (Ruth 1:1)? This indicates a generation that judged its judges. If a judge would say to the defendant standing before him: Remove the splinter from between your eyes, meaning rid yourself of some minor infraction, the defendant would say to him: Remove the beam from between your eyes, meaning you have committed far more severe sins. If the judge would say to him: “Your silver is become dross” (Isaiah 1:22), meaning your coins are counterfeit, the defendant would say to him: “Your wine is mixed with water” (Isaiah 1:22), meaning you yourself dilute your wine with water and sell it. Since nobody behaved in proper manner, the judges were unable to judge.

אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל האומר מלכת שבא אשה היתה אינו אלא טועה מאי מלכת שבא מלכותא דשבא

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who says that the queen of Sheba [malkat Sheva] who came to visit King Solomon (see I Kings, chapter 10) was a woman is nothing other than mistaken. What is the meaning of malkat Sheba? The kingdom [malkhuta] of Sheba, as is mentioned in Job: “And Sheba fell on them and took them away” (Job 1:15).

ויהי היום ויבאו בני האלהים להתיצב על ה׳ ויבא גם השטן בתוכם ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן מאין תבא ויען השטן וגו׳ אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שטתי בכל העולם כולו ולא מצאתי נאמן כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ואפילו הכי בשעה שלא מצא מקום לקבור את שרה [עד שקנה בארבע מאות שקל כסף] לא הרהר אחר מדותיך

§ Having mentioned the book of Job, the Gemara addresses several matters relating to it. It is stated: “Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and the Satan came also among them. And the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking through it” (Job 1:6–7). The Satan said to God: Master of the Universe, I have gone to and fro throughout the entire world and I have not found anyone as faithful as Your servant Abraham, to whom You said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you” (Genesis 13:17). And even so, when he did not find a place to bury Sarah before he purchased a burial site for four hundred silver shekels, he did not find fault with Your ways or complain about the fact that you had failed to fulfill Your promise.

ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמוהו בארץ וגו׳ אמר רבי יוחנן גדול הנאמר באיוב יותר ממה שנאמר באברהם דאילו באברהם כתיב כי עתה ידעתי כי ירא אלהים אתה ובאיוב כתיב איש תם וישר ירא אלהים [וסר מרע]

“And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth, a perfect and upright man, one who fears God and turns away from evil?” (Job 1:8). About this Rabbi Yoḥanan says: That which is stated about Job is greater than that which is stated about Abraham. As with regard to Abraham it is written: “For now I know that you fear God” (Genesis 22:12), with regard to Job it is written: “A perfect and an upright man, one who fears God and turns away from evil” (Job 1:8).

מאי וסר מרע אמר רבי אבא בר שמואל איוב וותרן בממונו היה מנהגו של עולם נותן חצי פרוטה לחנוני איוב ויתרה משלו

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of the aforementioned verse: What is meant by “and turns away from evil”? Rabbi Abba bar Shmuel says: Job was forgiving with his money. It is the way of the world that one pays the storekeeper for even half-peruta of merchandise purchased from him. But if somebody bought an item of such little value from Job, he would forgive him his half-peruta.

ויען השטן את ה׳ ויאמר החנם ירא איוב אלהים הלא אתה סכת בעדו ובעד ביתו וגו׳ מאי מעשה ידיו ברכת אמר רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק כל הנוטל פרוטה מאיוב מתברך

The Gemara continues to clarify the verses concerning Job. “Then the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Does Job fear God for naught? Have You not made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his cattle is increased in the land” (Job 1:9–10). What is meant by: “You have blessed the work of his hands”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak says: Anyone who took a peruta from Job was blessed. Not only was Job’s own handiwork blessed, but anybody who received anything from him was also blessed.

מאי ומקנהו פרץ בארץ אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מקנהו של איוב פרצו גדרו של עולם מנהגו של עולם זאבים הורגים העזים מקנהו של איוב עזים הורגים את הזאבים

The Gemara continues with its explication of these verses. What is meant by: “And his livestock is increased [paratz] in the land” (Job 1:10)? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: Job’s livestock breached [paretzu] the order of the world. It is the way of the world that wolves kill goats, but in the case of Job’s livestock, the goats killed the wolves.

ואולם שלח נא ידך וגע בכל אשר לו אם לא על פניך יברכך ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן הנה כל אשר לו בידך רק אליו אל תשלח ידך וגו׳ ויהי היום ובניו ובנותיו אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור ומלאך בא אל איוב ויאמר הבקר היו חורשות וגו׳ מאי הבקר היו חורשות והאתנות רעות על ידיהם אמר רבי יוחנן מלמד שהטעימו הקדוש ברוך הוא לאיוב

The Gemara continues to relate the Satan’s challenge to God: “But now put forth Your hand, and touch all that he has, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, all that he has is in your power; only upon himself do not put forth your hand. And the Satan went out from the presence of the Lord” (Job 1:11–12). The verses relate what then occurred: “Now there was a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house, and there came a messenger to Job, and said: The oxen were plowing, and the asses were feeding beside them” (Job 1:13–14). The Gemara asks: What is meant by: “The oxen were plowing and the asses were feeding beside them”? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Job a taste

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