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Today's Daf Yomi

February 7, 2017 | י״א בשבט תשע״ז

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Bava Batra 16

The gemara brings the narrative of the Job story and explains it in detail including the Satan’s convincing of God to test Job and Job’s reaction to his situation.  Some explain that he was firm in his belief and others claim he had complaints against God.

מעין העולם הבא

of the World-to-Come, when plowing and harvesting will take place at the same time. Here too, the oxen plowed and the donkeys grazed on the crops that grew from that effort.

עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר אש אלהים וגו׳ עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויפשטו על הגמלים ויקחום וגו׳ עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר בניך ובנותיך אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור והנה רוח גדולה באה מעבר המדבר ויגע בארבע פנות הבית ויפל על הנערים וגו׳ ויקם איוב ויקרע את מעלו ויגז את ראשו וגו׳ ויאמר ערום יצאתי מבטן אמי וערום אשוב שמה ה׳ נתן וה׳ לקח יהי שם ה׳ מבורך בכל זאת לא חטא איוב ולא נתן תפלה לאלהים

The Gemara continues to interpret verses from the book of Job. “While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The fire of God has fallen from heaven, and has burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them…While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The Chaldeans formed three bands, and fell among the camels, and have carried them away, and have slain the servants with the edge of the sword…While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house; and, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead…Then Job arose, and rent his coat, and shaved his head, and fell down on the ground and prostrated himself. And he said: I came naked out of my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord. In all this Job sinned not, nor did he lay reproach on God” (Job 1:16–22).

ויהי היום ויבאו בני האלהים להתיצב וגו׳ ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן אי מזה תבא ויען השטן את ה׳ ויאמר משט בארץ [וגו׳] אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שטתי בכל העולם ולא מצאתי כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ובשעה שבקש לקבור שרה לא מצא מקום לקוברה ולא הרהר אחר מדותיך

“Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and the Satan came also among them to present himself before God. And the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earth and from walking up and down in it” (Job 2:1–2). The Satan said before God: Master of the Universe, I have gone to and fro across the entire world and have not found anyone as faithful as your servant Abraham, to whom you said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you” (Genesis 13:17). And when he wanted to bury Sarah, he could not find a place to bury her, and yet he did not criticize Your ways, or accuse You of having failed to keep Your promise.

ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמהו בארץ וגו׳ ועדנו מחזיק בתמתו ותסיתני בו לבלעו חנם

About this it says: “And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that fears God and turns away from evil? And still he holds fast to his integrity, although you moved Me against him, to destroy him without cause” (Job 2:3).

אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו כאדם שמסיתין אותו וניסת

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Were it not explicitly written in the verse, it would be impossible to say this, as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse states: “You moved Me against him,” like a person whom others persuade and allows himself to be persuaded, as if God had not wanted to do anything, but allowed Himself to be persuaded to bring harm to Job.

במתניתא תנא יורד ומתעה ועולה ומרגיז נוטל רשות ונוטל נשמה

It was taught in a baraita with regard to the methods of the Satan: He descends to this world and misleads a person into sinning. He then ascends to Heaven, levels accusations against that very sinner, and inflames God’s anger against him. He then receives permission to act and takes away the sinner’s soul as punishment.

ויען השטן את ה׳ ויאמר עור בעד עור וכל אשר לאיש יתן בעד נפשו אולם שלח נא ידך וגע אל עצמו ואל בשרו אם לא על פניך יברכך ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן הנו בידך אך את נפשו שמר ויצא השטן מאת פני ה׳ ויך את איוב וגו׳ אמר רבי יצחק קשה צערו של שטן יותר משל איוב משל לעבד שאמר לו רבו שבור חבית ושמור את יינה

The Gemara returns to discuss the text of the book of Job: “And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Skin for skin, for all that a man has he will give for his life. But put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life. So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with vile sores from the sole of his foot to his crown” (Job 2:4–7). Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Satan’s suffering was more difficult than that of Job. This can be explained by means of a parable involving a servant whose master said to him: Break the barrel but save its wine. Here too, God told the Satan that he could do whatever he liked short of taking Job’s life, and that limitation caused Satan to suffer.

אמר ריש לקיש הוא שטן הוא יצר הרע הוא מלאך המות הוא שטן דכתיב ויצא השטן מאת פני ה׳ הוא יצר הרע כתיב התם רק רע כל היום וכתיב הכא (רק את נפשו שמר) [רק אליו אל תשלח ידך] הוא מלאך המות דכתיב (רק) [אך] את נפשו שמר אלמא בדידיה קיימא

Reish Lakish says: Satan, the evil inclination, and the Angel of Death are one, that is, they are three aspects of the same essence. He is the Satan who seduces people and then accuses them, as it is written: “So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with vile sores” (Job 2:7). He is also the evil inclination, as it is written there: “The impulse of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continuously” (Genesis 6:5); and it is written here: “Only upon himself do not put forth your hand” (Job 1:12). The verbal analogy between the various uses of the word “only” teaches that the evil inclination is to be identified with the Satan. He is also the Angel of Death, as it is written: “Only spare his life” (Job 2:6); apparently Job’s life depends upon him, the Satan, and accordingly the Satan must also be the Angel of Death.

אמר רבי לוי שטן ופנינה לשם שמים נתכוונו שטן כיון דחזיא להקדוש ברוך הוא דנטיה דעתיה בתר איוב אמר חס ושלום מינשי ליה לרחמנותיה דאברהם פנינה דכתיב וכעסתה צרתה גם כעס בעבור הרעימה דרשה רב אחא בר יעקב בפפוניא אתא שטן נשקיה לכרעיה

Rabbi Levi says: Both Satan, who brought accusations against Job, and Peninnah, who tormented Hannah, mother of Samuel the prophet, acted with intent that was for the sake of Heaven. As for Satan, when he saw that the Holy One, Blessed be He, inclined to favor Job and praised him, he said: Heaven forbid that He should forget the love of Abraham. With regard to Peninnah, as it is written: “And her rival wife also provoked her sore, to make her fret” (I Samuel 1:6), i.e., Peninnah upset Hannah in order to motivate her to pray. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov taught this in Paphunya, and Satan came and kissed his feet in gratitude for speaking positively about him.

בכל זאת לא חטא איוב בשפתיו אמר רבא בשפתיו לא חטא בלבו חטא מאי קאמר ארץ נתנה ביד רשע פני שפטיה יכסה אם לא איפו מי הוא אמר רבא בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר ליה אביי לא דבר איוב אלא כנגד השטן

The Gemara considers the character of Job. The verse states: “In all this Job did not sin with his lips” (Job 2:10). Rava says: A close reading of the verse indicates that he did not sin with his lips, but he sinned in his heart. What did he say that suggests that he had wicked thoughts? “The earth is given into the hand of the wicked, he covers the faces of its judges; if not he, then who is it?” (Job 9:24). Rava says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down, that is to say, he alluded here to a heretical thought, as he said that the earth is given into the hand of the wicked, indicating that he had God in mind. Abaye said to him: Job was referring here only to the Satan, he being the wicked one into whose hands the land was given.

כתנאי ארץ נתנה ביד רשע רבי אליעזר אומר בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר לו רבי יהושע לא דבר איוב אלא כלפי שטן

The Gemara comments: This is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita: “The earth is given into the hand of the wicked.” Rabbi Eliezer says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down; Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Job was referring here only to the Satan.

על דעתך כי לא ארשע ואין מידך מציל אמר רבא בקש איוב לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בראת שור פרסותיו סדוקות בראת חמור פרסותיו קלוטות בראת גן עדן בראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים בראת רשעים מי מעכב על ידך

The Gemara continues to discuss Job’s statements: “Although You know that I am not wicked, and there is none that can deliver out of Your hand” (Job 10:7). Rava says: Job sought to exempt the whole world from judgment, claiming that all of a person’s actions are directed by God, and therefore one cannot be held culpable for his misdeeds. Job said before God: Master of the Universe, You created the ox with split hooves, making it kosher, and You created the donkey with closed hooves, making it forbidden; You created the Garden of Eden, and You created Gehenna; and similarly, You created righteous people and You created wicked people; who can restrain You? Seeing that You created people as either righteous or wicked, You cannot later complain about their actions.

ומאי אהדרו ליה חבריה [דאיוב] אף אתה תפר יראה ותגרע שיחה לפני אל ברא הקדוש ברוך הוא יצר הרע ברא לו תורה תבלין

And how did Job’s friends answer him? “You do away with fear, and impair devotion before God” (Job 15:4) with such statements. True, the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the evil inclination, but He also created the Torah as an antidote to counter its effects and prevent it from gaining control of a person.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב ברכת אבד עלי תבא ולב אלמנה ארנן ברכת אבד עלי תבא מלמד שהיה גוזל שדה מיתומים ומשביחה ומחזירה להן ולב אלמנה ארנן דכל היכא דהוה איכא אלמנה דלא הוו נסבי לה הוה אזיל שדי שמיה עילווה והוו אתו נסבי לה

Rava interpreted a verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written, Job saying about himself: “The blessing of him that was lost came upon me, and I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy” (Job 29:13). “The blessing of him that was lost came upon me” teaches that Job used to steal a field from orphans, cultivate it, improve it, and then return it to them; consequently, they would bless him for the field they had lost. “I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy” teaches that anywhere that there was a widow whom no one would marry, he would go and cast his name upon her, i.e., he would start a rumor that she was related to him, and then somebody would come forward and marry her.

לו שקול ישקל כעשי והותי במאזנים ישאו יחד אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב חברותא כלפי שמיא לו יש בינינו מוכיח ישת ידו על שנינו אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב כלום יש עבד שמוכיח את רבו ברית כרתי לעיני ומה אתבונן על בתולה אמר רבא עפרא לפומיה דאיוב איהו באחרניתא אברהם אפילו בדידיה לא איסתכל דכתיב הנה נא ידעתי כי אשה יפת מראה את מכלל דמעיקרא לא הוה ידע לה

Job further said: “O that my vexation were thoroughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balances” (Job 6:2). Rav says: Dust should be put in the mouth of Job, meaning, he should not have spoken in such a manner, as if he were weighing his deeds against those of God; may one act as if he is in a friendship with Heaven? And similarly, Job said: “There is no arbiter between us, who may lay his hand upon us both” (Job 9:33). Rav says: Dust should be put in the mouth of Job for saying this; is there a servant who rebukes his master? Job also said: “I have made a covenant with my eyes; why then should I look upon a virgin?” (Job 31:1). Rava says: Dust should be put in the mouth of Job for saying this; he did not look at other women, but Abraham did not even look at his own wife, as it is written: “Now I know that you are a beautiful woman” (Genesis 12:11). One may learn by inference that initially he did not know how beautiful she was because he had not gazed at her.

כלה ענן וילך כן יורד שאול לא יעלה אמר רבא מכאן שכפר איוב בתחיית המתים אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם אמר רבה איוב בסערה חרף ובסערה השיבוהו

Job further said: “As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to the grave shall come up no more” (Job 7:9). Rava says: From here it may be inferred that Job denied the resurrection of the dead, as he said that one who goes down to the grave will not come up and live again, just as a cloud that dissipates will not return. He also stated: “He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause” (Job 9:17). Rabba says: Job blasphemed with mention of a tempest and he was answered with mention of a tempest.

בסערה חרף דכתיב אשר בשערה ישופני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלף לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו דכתיב ויען ה׳ את איוב מן הסערה ויאמר [וגו׳] אזר נא כגבר חלציך אשאלך והודיעני

Rabba explains: He blasphemed with mention of a tempest [bise’ara], as it is written: “He crushes me with a tempest.” Job said before God: Master of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused Iyov, Job, with oyev, enemy. He was answered with mention of a tempest, as it is written: “Then the Lord answered Job out of the tempest, and said: Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now your loins like a man, for I will demand of you and let me know your answer” (Job 38:1–3).

אמר לו הרבה נימין בראתי באדם וכל נימא ונימא בראתי לה גומא בפני עצמה שלא יהו שתים יונקות מגומא אחת שאלמלי שתים יונקות מגומא אחת מחשיכות מאור עיניו של אדם בין גומא לגומא לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

What is the meaning of “out of the tempest”? God said to him: I have created many hairs [nimin] on a person, and for each hair I created its own follicle through which the hair is sustained, so that two hairs should not draw from one follicle. As were two hairs to draw from one follicle, they would impair a man’s vision. Now, if I do not confuse one follicle with another, would I confuse Iyov with oyev? The Hebrew word for tempest, se’ara, is phonetically identical to the Hebrew word for hair.

מי פלג לשטף תעלה [וגו׳] הרבה טיפין בראתי בעבים וכל טיפה וטיפה בראתי לה דפוס בפני עצמה כדי שלא יהו שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד שאלמלי שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד מטשטשות את הארץ ואינה מוציאה פירות בין טיפה לטיפה לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי מאי משמע דהאי תעלה לישנא דדפוס היא אמר רבה בר שילא דכתיב ויעש תעלה כבית סאתים זרע

God further said to Job: “Who has divided a channel [te’ala] for the torrent of rain, or a path for the lightning of thunder”? (Job 38:25). I have created many drops of water in the clouds, and for each drop I created its own channel, so that two drops should not emerge from the same channel. As were two drops to emerge from the same channel they would destroy the earth and it would not yield produce. Now, if I do not confuse one drop with another, would I confuse Iyov with oyev? Incidentally, the Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this term te’ala means a channel? Rabba bar Sheila said: As it is written with regard to Elijah the prophet: “And he fashioned a channel [te’ala] about the altar, as great as would contain two se’a of seed” (I Kings 18:32).

ודרך לחזיז קלות הרבה קולות בראתי בעבים וכל קול וקול בראתי לו שביל בפני עצמו כדי שלא יהו שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד שאלמלי שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד מחריבין את כל העולם בין קול לקול לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

The second half of the aforementioned verse in Job states: “Or a path for the lightning of thunder,” which is interpreted as follows: God said: I have created many thunderclaps in the clouds, and for each and every thunderclap I created its own path, so that two thunderclaps should not issue forth from the same path. As were two thunderclaps to issue from the same path, they would destroy the world. Now, if I do not confuse one thunderclap with another, would I confuse Iyov with oyev?

הידעת עת לדת יעלי סלע חלל אילות תשמר יעלה זו אכזרית על בניה בשעה שכורעת

It is further stated there: “Do you know when the wild goats of the rock give birth? Can you mark when the hinds do calve?” (Job 39:1). This goat is cruel to her young and shows them no pity; when she squats

ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

to give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so that the kid should fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and if the eagle reached her one moment early or was one moment late, the kid would immediately die. Now, if I do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse Iyov with oyev?

חלל אילות תשמר אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

Similarly: “Can you mark when the hinds do calve?” (Job 39:1). The womb of this hind is narrow, which makes for a difficult delivery. When she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [derakon] that bites her at the opening of the womb, which then becomes loose, and she gives birth, and if the snake reached her one moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die. Now, if I do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse Iyov with oyev?

[איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל וכתיב כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו

The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: “Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom” (Job 34:35). But on the other hand, it is written with regard to Job’s friends: “You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job” (Job 42:8). Rava said: From here it may be inferred that a person is not held responsible for what he says when he is in distress. Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.

וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי

The verse states: “And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him” (Job 2:11). What does “they had made an appointment together” mean? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: This phrase teaches that they all entered through one gate at the same time. And a Sage taught in a baraita: There were three hundred parasangs between each and every one of them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.

מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא

The Gemara asks: How did they all know at the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? There are those who say that they each had a crown which displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. And there are those who say they each had trees and when the trees withered they knew that sorrow had visited one of them. Rava said that this closeness between Job and his friends explains the adage that people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death. If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.

ויהי כי החל האדם לרב על פני האדמה ובנות ילדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רבייה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב

The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. “And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [larov] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them” (Genesis 6:1). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Larov means that propagation [reviyya] came to the world through these daughters. Reish Lakish says: Strife [meriva] came to the world. Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: According to you who say that due to the daughters propagation came to the world, for what reason were the number of Job’s daughters not doubled, when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?

אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך

Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: Granted, the numbers of Job’s daughters were not doubled in name, meaning they did not become twice as many, but they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch” (Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty.

ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר כי תקרעי בפוך

Jemimah [Yemima]; in her beauty she was similar to the day [yom]. Keziah; her scent wafted like the cassia [ketzia] tree. Keren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [keren] of a keresh, an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. They laughed at this in the West, Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered a blemish when a person resembles the horn of a keresh. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: She was like garden saffron [kekurkema derishka], which is the best of its kind. Keren refers to a garden, and pukh means ornament, as it is stated: “Though you enlarge your eyes with paint [pukh], you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).

רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי

It is reported that a daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he was upset that he did not have a son. His father said to him: Propagation has come to the world through the birth of a daughter. Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon: Your father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taught in a baraita: The world cannot endure without males and females, as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. But fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females. Similarly, the world cannot endure without either a spice dealer whose wares are sweet-smelling, or a tanner [bursi], who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. Fortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller, and woe to him whose occupation is a tanner.

כתנאי וה׳ ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא

The Gemara comments that this disagreement is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im: The Torah states: “And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [bakkol]” (Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about what bakkol means. Rabbi Meir says: The blessing is that he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says: On the contrary, the blessing was that he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [itztagninut] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his door due to his wisdom. This is the blessing of bakkol, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hung this stone from the sphere of the sun, which from that point on brought healing to the sick. Abaye said: This explains the adage that people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted.

דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו

Alternatively, what is the blessing of bakkol? That Esau did not rebel in Abraham’s lifetime, that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. Alternatively, the blessing of bakkol is that Ishmael repented in Abraham’s lifetime. The Gemara explains: From where do we derive that Esau did not rebel in Abraham’s lifetime? As it is written: “And Jacob was cooking a stew and Esau came in from the field and he was faint” (Genesis 25:29), and a baraita taught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father, as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.

[ומאי שנא של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי

The Gemara explains: And what is different about lentils that they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? They say in the West, Eretz Yisrael, in the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth, i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, so too a mourner has no mouth, that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. Alternatively, just as this lentil is completely round, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between the two explanations? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to whether it is appropriate to console a mourner with eggs, which have no opening but are not completely round.

אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: That wicked Esau committed five transgressions on that day that Abraham died: He engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principle of God’s existence, he denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright.

בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להרגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא למה זה לי וכתיב התם זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב ויבז עשו את הבכורה

The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. He engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, as it is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written there with regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: “For he found her in a field” (Deuteronomy 22:27). He killed a person, as it is written here: “And he was faint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers” (Jeremiah 4:31). And he denied the principle of God’s existence, as it is written here: “What profit is this to me” (Genesis 25:32); and it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him” (Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” And he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death” (Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. And he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright” (Genesis 25:34).

ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא אמר ליה רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן

And from where do we derive that Ishmael repented in Abraham’s lifetime? From the incident involving Ravina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi, who were sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozing while they were talking. Ravina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you say that any death with regard to which the word gevia, expire, is mentioned is the death of the righteous? Rav Ḥama bar Buzi said to him: Yes. For example: “And Isaac expired [vayyigva], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: But with regard to the generation of the flood it states: “And all flesh expired [vayyigva]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi said to him: We say this only when both gevia and asifa, gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.

והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי אמר רבי יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר ויקברו אתו יצחק וישמעאל בניו

Ravina asked: But isn’t there Ishmael, about whom gevia and asifa are written, as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [vayyigva vayyamot]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? Meanwhile Rava, who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully awoke and said to them: Children [dardekei], this is what Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him” (Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.

ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו

The Gemara asks: But perhaps the verse listed them in the order of their wisdom; that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: But if that is so, consider that the verse states: “And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him” (Genesis 35:29). What is the reason that the verse there did not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, since Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him, it is clear that he made Isaac his leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented in Abraham’s lifetime.

תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקדוש ברוך הוא בעולם הזה

Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that the Sages taught: There were three people to whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave already in this world

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Bava Batra 16

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Bava Batra 16

מעין העולם הבא

of the World-to-Come, when plowing and harvesting will take place at the same time. Here too, the oxen plowed and the donkeys grazed on the crops that grew from that effort.

עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר אש אלהים וגו׳ עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויפשטו על הגמלים ויקחום וגו׳ עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר בניך ובנותיך אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור והנה רוח גדולה באה מעבר המדבר ויגע בארבע פנות הבית ויפל על הנערים וגו׳ ויקם איוב ויקרע את מעלו ויגז את ראשו וגו׳ ויאמר ערום יצאתי מבטן אמי וערום אשוב שמה ה׳ נתן וה׳ לקח יהי שם ה׳ מבורך בכל זאת לא חטא איוב ולא נתן תפלה לאלהים

The Gemara continues to interpret verses from the book of Job. “While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The fire of God has fallen from heaven, and has burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them…While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The Chaldeans formed three bands, and fell among the camels, and have carried them away, and have slain the servants with the edge of the sword…While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house; and, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead…Then Job arose, and rent his coat, and shaved his head, and fell down on the ground and prostrated himself. And he said: I came naked out of my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord. In all this Job sinned not, nor did he lay reproach on God” (Job 1:16–22).

ויהי היום ויבאו בני האלהים להתיצב וגו׳ ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן אי מזה תבא ויען השטן את ה׳ ויאמר משט בארץ [וגו׳] אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שטתי בכל העולם ולא מצאתי כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ובשעה שבקש לקבור שרה לא מצא מקום לקוברה ולא הרהר אחר מדותיך

“Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and the Satan came also among them to present himself before God. And the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earth and from walking up and down in it” (Job 2:1–2). The Satan said before God: Master of the Universe, I have gone to and fro across the entire world and have not found anyone as faithful as your servant Abraham, to whom you said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you” (Genesis 13:17). And when he wanted to bury Sarah, he could not find a place to bury her, and yet he did not criticize Your ways, or accuse You of having failed to keep Your promise.

ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמהו בארץ וגו׳ ועדנו מחזיק בתמתו ותסיתני בו לבלעו חנם

About this it says: “And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that fears God and turns away from evil? And still he holds fast to his integrity, although you moved Me against him, to destroy him without cause” (Job 2:3).

אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו כאדם שמסיתין אותו וניסת

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Were it not explicitly written in the verse, it would be impossible to say this, as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse states: “You moved Me against him,” like a person whom others persuade and allows himself to be persuaded, as if God had not wanted to do anything, but allowed Himself to be persuaded to bring harm to Job.

במתניתא תנא יורד ומתעה ועולה ומרגיז נוטל רשות ונוטל נשמה

It was taught in a baraita with regard to the methods of the Satan: He descends to this world and misleads a person into sinning. He then ascends to Heaven, levels accusations against that very sinner, and inflames God’s anger against him. He then receives permission to act and takes away the sinner’s soul as punishment.

ויען השטן את ה׳ ויאמר עור בעד עור וכל אשר לאיש יתן בעד נפשו אולם שלח נא ידך וגע אל עצמו ואל בשרו אם לא על פניך יברכך ויאמר ה׳ אל השטן הנו בידך אך את נפשו שמר ויצא השטן מאת פני ה׳ ויך את איוב וגו׳ אמר רבי יצחק קשה צערו של שטן יותר משל איוב משל לעבד שאמר לו רבו שבור חבית ושמור את יינה

The Gemara returns to discuss the text of the book of Job: “And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Skin for skin, for all that a man has he will give for his life. But put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life. So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with vile sores from the sole of his foot to his crown” (Job 2:4–7). Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Satan’s suffering was more difficult than that of Job. This can be explained by means of a parable involving a servant whose master said to him: Break the barrel but save its wine. Here too, God told the Satan that he could do whatever he liked short of taking Job’s life, and that limitation caused Satan to suffer.

אמר ריש לקיש הוא שטן הוא יצר הרע הוא מלאך המות הוא שטן דכתיב ויצא השטן מאת פני ה׳ הוא יצר הרע כתיב התם רק רע כל היום וכתיב הכא (רק את נפשו שמר) [רק אליו אל תשלח ידך] הוא מלאך המות דכתיב (רק) [אך] את נפשו שמר אלמא בדידיה קיימא

Reish Lakish says: Satan, the evil inclination, and the Angel of Death are one, that is, they are three aspects of the same essence. He is the Satan who seduces people and then accuses them, as it is written: “So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with vile sores” (Job 2:7). He is also the evil inclination, as it is written there: “The impulse of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continuously” (Genesis 6:5); and it is written here: “Only upon himself do not put forth your hand” (Job 1:12). The verbal analogy between the various uses of the word “only” teaches that the evil inclination is to be identified with the Satan. He is also the Angel of Death, as it is written: “Only spare his life” (Job 2:6); apparently Job’s life depends upon him, the Satan, and accordingly the Satan must also be the Angel of Death.

אמר רבי לוי שטן ופנינה לשם שמים נתכוונו שטן כיון דחזיא להקדוש ברוך הוא דנטיה דעתיה בתר איוב אמר חס ושלום מינשי ליה לרחמנותיה דאברהם פנינה דכתיב וכעסתה צרתה גם כעס בעבור הרעימה דרשה רב אחא בר יעקב בפפוניא אתא שטן נשקיה לכרעיה

Rabbi Levi says: Both Satan, who brought accusations against Job, and Peninnah, who tormented Hannah, mother of Samuel the prophet, acted with intent that was for the sake of Heaven. As for Satan, when he saw that the Holy One, Blessed be He, inclined to favor Job and praised him, he said: Heaven forbid that He should forget the love of Abraham. With regard to Peninnah, as it is written: “And her rival wife also provoked her sore, to make her fret” (I Samuel 1:6), i.e., Peninnah upset Hannah in order to motivate her to pray. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov taught this in Paphunya, and Satan came and kissed his feet in gratitude for speaking positively about him.

בכל זאת לא חטא איוב בשפתיו אמר רבא בשפתיו לא חטא בלבו חטא מאי קאמר ארץ נתנה ביד רשע פני שפטיה יכסה אם לא איפו מי הוא אמר רבא בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר ליה אביי לא דבר איוב אלא כנגד השטן

The Gemara considers the character of Job. The verse states: “In all this Job did not sin with his lips” (Job 2:10). Rava says: A close reading of the verse indicates that he did not sin with his lips, but he sinned in his heart. What did he say that suggests that he had wicked thoughts? “The earth is given into the hand of the wicked, he covers the faces of its judges; if not he, then who is it?” (Job 9:24). Rava says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down, that is to say, he alluded here to a heretical thought, as he said that the earth is given into the hand of the wicked, indicating that he had God in mind. Abaye said to him: Job was referring here only to the Satan, he being the wicked one into whose hands the land was given.

כתנאי ארץ נתנה ביד רשע רבי אליעזר אומר בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר לו רבי יהושע לא דבר איוב אלא כלפי שטן

The Gemara comments: This is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita: “The earth is given into the hand of the wicked.” Rabbi Eliezer says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down; Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Job was referring here only to the Satan.

על דעתך כי לא ארשע ואין מידך מציל אמר רבא בקש איוב לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בראת שור פרסותיו סדוקות בראת חמור פרסותיו קלוטות בראת גן עדן בראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים בראת רשעים מי מעכב על ידך

The Gemara continues to discuss Job’s statements: “Although You know that I am not wicked, and there is none that can deliver out of Your hand” (Job 10:7). Rava says: Job sought to exempt the whole world from judgment, claiming that all of a person’s actions are directed by God, and therefore one cannot be held culpable for his misdeeds. Job said before God: Master of the Universe, You created the ox with split hooves, making it kosher, and You created the donkey with closed hooves, making it forbidden; You created the Garden of Eden, and You created Gehenna; and similarly, You created righteous people and You created wicked people; who can restrain You? Seeing that You created people as either righteous or wicked, You cannot later complain about their actions.

ומאי אהדרו ליה חבריה [דאיוב] אף אתה תפר יראה ותגרע שיחה לפני אל ברא הקדוש ברוך הוא יצר הרע ברא לו תורה תבלין

And how did Job’s friends answer him? “You do away with fear, and impair devotion before God” (Job 15:4) with such statements. True, the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the evil inclination, but He also created the Torah as an antidote to counter its effects and prevent it from gaining control of a person.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב ברכת אבד עלי תבא ולב אלמנה ארנן ברכת אבד עלי תבא מלמד שהיה גוזל שדה מיתומים ומשביחה ומחזירה להן ולב אלמנה ארנן דכל היכא דהוה איכא אלמנה דלא הוו נסבי לה הוה אזיל שדי שמיה עילווה והוו אתו נסבי לה

Rava interpreted a verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written, Job saying about himself: “The blessing of him that was lost came upon me, and I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy” (Job 29:13). “The blessing of him that was lost came upon me” teaches that Job used to steal a field from orphans, cultivate it, improve it, and then return it to them; consequently, they would bless him for the field they had lost. “I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy” teaches that anywhere that there was a widow whom no one would marry, he would go and cast his name upon her, i.e., he would start a rumor that she was related to him, and then somebody would come forward and marry her.

לו שקול ישקל כעשי והותי במאזנים ישאו יחד אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב חברותא כלפי שמיא לו יש בינינו מוכיח ישת ידו על שנינו אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב כלום יש עבד שמוכיח את רבו ברית כרתי לעיני ומה אתבונן על בתולה אמר רבא עפרא לפומיה דאיוב איהו באחרניתא אברהם אפילו בדידיה לא איסתכל דכתיב הנה נא ידעתי כי אשה יפת מראה את מכלל דמעיקרא לא הוה ידע לה

Job further said: “O that my vexation were thoroughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balances” (Job 6:2). Rav says: Dust should be put in the mouth of Job, meaning, he should not have spoken in such a manner, as if he were weighing his deeds against those of God; may one act as if he is in a friendship with Heaven? And similarly, Job said: “There is no arbiter between us, who may lay his hand upon us both” (Job 9:33). Rav says: Dust should be put in the mouth of Job for saying this; is there a servant who rebukes his master? Job also said: “I have made a covenant with my eyes; why then should I look upon a virgin?” (Job 31:1). Rava says: Dust should be put in the mouth of Job for saying this; he did not look at other women, but Abraham did not even look at his own wife, as it is written: “Now I know that you are a beautiful woman” (Genesis 12:11). One may learn by inference that initially he did not know how beautiful she was because he had not gazed at her.

כלה ענן וילך כן יורד שאול לא יעלה אמר רבא מכאן שכפר איוב בתחיית המתים אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם אמר רבה איוב בסערה חרף ובסערה השיבוהו

Job further said: “As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to the grave shall come up no more” (Job 7:9). Rava says: From here it may be inferred that Job denied the resurrection of the dead, as he said that one who goes down to the grave will not come up and live again, just as a cloud that dissipates will not return. He also stated: “He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause” (Job 9:17). Rabba says: Job blasphemed with mention of a tempest and he was answered with mention of a tempest.

בסערה חרף דכתיב אשר בשערה ישופני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלף לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו דכתיב ויען ה׳ את איוב מן הסערה ויאמר [וגו׳] אזר נא כגבר חלציך אשאלך והודיעני

Rabba explains: He blasphemed with mention of a tempest [bise’ara], as it is written: “He crushes me with a tempest.” Job said before God: Master of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused Iyov, Job, with oyev, enemy. He was answered with mention of a tempest, as it is written: “Then the Lord answered Job out of the tempest, and said: Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now your loins like a man, for I will demand of you and let me know your answer” (Job 38:1–3).

אמר לו הרבה נימין בראתי באדם וכל נימא ונימא בראתי לה גומא בפני עצמה שלא יהו שתים יונקות מגומא אחת שאלמלי שתים יונקות מגומא אחת מחשיכות מאור עיניו של אדם בין גומא לגומא לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

What is the meaning of “out of the tempest”? God said to him: I have created many hairs [nimin] on a person, and for each hair I created its own follicle through which the hair is sustained, so that two hairs should not draw from one follicle. As were two hairs to draw from one follicle, they would impair a man’s vision. Now, if I do not confuse one follicle with another, would I confuse Iyov with oyev? The Hebrew word for tempest, se’ara, is phonetically identical to the Hebrew word for hair.

מי פלג לשטף תעלה [וגו׳] הרבה טיפין בראתי בעבים וכל טיפה וטיפה בראתי לה דפוס בפני עצמה כדי שלא יהו שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד שאלמלי שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד מטשטשות את הארץ ואינה מוציאה פירות בין טיפה לטיפה לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי מאי משמע דהאי תעלה לישנא דדפוס היא אמר רבה בר שילא דכתיב ויעש תעלה כבית סאתים זרע

God further said to Job: “Who has divided a channel [te’ala] for the torrent of rain, or a path for the lightning of thunder”? (Job 38:25). I have created many drops of water in the clouds, and for each drop I created its own channel, so that two drops should not emerge from the same channel. As were two drops to emerge from the same channel they would destroy the earth and it would not yield produce. Now, if I do not confuse one drop with another, would I confuse Iyov with oyev? Incidentally, the Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this term te’ala means a channel? Rabba bar Sheila said: As it is written with regard to Elijah the prophet: “And he fashioned a channel [te’ala] about the altar, as great as would contain two se’a of seed” (I Kings 18:32).

ודרך לחזיז קלות הרבה קולות בראתי בעבים וכל קול וקול בראתי לו שביל בפני עצמו כדי שלא יהו שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד שאלמלי שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד מחריבין את כל העולם בין קול לקול לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

The second half of the aforementioned verse in Job states: “Or a path for the lightning of thunder,” which is interpreted as follows: God said: I have created many thunderclaps in the clouds, and for each and every thunderclap I created its own path, so that two thunderclaps should not issue forth from the same path. As were two thunderclaps to issue from the same path, they would destroy the world. Now, if I do not confuse one thunderclap with another, would I confuse Iyov with oyev?

הידעת עת לדת יעלי סלע חלל אילות תשמר יעלה זו אכזרית על בניה בשעה שכורעת

It is further stated there: “Do you know when the wild goats of the rock give birth? Can you mark when the hinds do calve?” (Job 39:1). This goat is cruel to her young and shows them no pity; when she squats

ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

to give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so that the kid should fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and if the eagle reached her one moment early or was one moment late, the kid would immediately die. Now, if I do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse Iyov with oyev?

חלל אילות תשמר אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי

Similarly: “Can you mark when the hinds do calve?” (Job 39:1). The womb of this hind is narrow, which makes for a difficult delivery. When she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [derakon] that bites her at the opening of the womb, which then becomes loose, and she gives birth, and if the snake reached her one moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die. Now, if I do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse Iyov with oyev?

[איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל וכתיב כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו

The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: “Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom” (Job 34:35). But on the other hand, it is written with regard to Job’s friends: “You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job” (Job 42:8). Rava said: From here it may be inferred that a person is not held responsible for what he says when he is in distress. Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.

וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי

The verse states: “And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him” (Job 2:11). What does “they had made an appointment together” mean? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: This phrase teaches that they all entered through one gate at the same time. And a Sage taught in a baraita: There were three hundred parasangs between each and every one of them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.

מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא

The Gemara asks: How did they all know at the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? There are those who say that they each had a crown which displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. And there are those who say they each had trees and when the trees withered they knew that sorrow had visited one of them. Rava said that this closeness between Job and his friends explains the adage that people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death. If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.

ויהי כי החל האדם לרב על פני האדמה ובנות ילדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רבייה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב

The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. “And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [larov] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them” (Genesis 6:1). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Larov means that propagation [reviyya] came to the world through these daughters. Reish Lakish says: Strife [meriva] came to the world. Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: According to you who say that due to the daughters propagation came to the world, for what reason were the number of Job’s daughters not doubled, when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?

אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך

Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: Granted, the numbers of Job’s daughters were not doubled in name, meaning they did not become twice as many, but they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch” (Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty.

ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר כי תקרעי בפוך

Jemimah [Yemima]; in her beauty she was similar to the day [yom]. Keziah; her scent wafted like the cassia [ketzia] tree. Keren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [keren] of a keresh, an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. They laughed at this in the West, Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered a blemish when a person resembles the horn of a keresh. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: She was like garden saffron [kekurkema derishka], which is the best of its kind. Keren refers to a garden, and pukh means ornament, as it is stated: “Though you enlarge your eyes with paint [pukh], you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).

רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי

It is reported that a daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he was upset that he did not have a son. His father said to him: Propagation has come to the world through the birth of a daughter. Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon: Your father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taught in a baraita: The world cannot endure without males and females, as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. But fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females. Similarly, the world cannot endure without either a spice dealer whose wares are sweet-smelling, or a tanner [bursi], who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. Fortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller, and woe to him whose occupation is a tanner.

כתנאי וה׳ ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא

The Gemara comments that this disagreement is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im: The Torah states: “And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [bakkol]” (Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about what bakkol means. Rabbi Meir says: The blessing is that he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says: On the contrary, the blessing was that he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [itztagninut] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his door due to his wisdom. This is the blessing of bakkol, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hung this stone from the sphere of the sun, which from that point on brought healing to the sick. Abaye said: This explains the adage that people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted.

דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו

Alternatively, what is the blessing of bakkol? That Esau did not rebel in Abraham’s lifetime, that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. Alternatively, the blessing of bakkol is that Ishmael repented in Abraham’s lifetime. The Gemara explains: From where do we derive that Esau did not rebel in Abraham’s lifetime? As it is written: “And Jacob was cooking a stew and Esau came in from the field and he was faint” (Genesis 25:29), and a baraita taught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father, as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.

[ומאי שנא של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי

The Gemara explains: And what is different about lentils that they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? They say in the West, Eretz Yisrael, in the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth, i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, so too a mourner has no mouth, that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. Alternatively, just as this lentil is completely round, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between the two explanations? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to whether it is appropriate to console a mourner with eggs, which have no opening but are not completely round.

אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: That wicked Esau committed five transgressions on that day that Abraham died: He engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principle of God’s existence, he denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright.

בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להרגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא למה זה לי וכתיב התם זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב ויבז עשו את הבכורה

The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. He engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, as it is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written there with regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: “For he found her in a field” (Deuteronomy 22:27). He killed a person, as it is written here: “And he was faint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers” (Jeremiah 4:31). And he denied the principle of God’s existence, as it is written here: “What profit is this to me” (Genesis 25:32); and it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him” (Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” And he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death” (Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. And he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright” (Genesis 25:34).

ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא אמר ליה רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן

And from where do we derive that Ishmael repented in Abraham’s lifetime? From the incident involving Ravina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi, who were sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozing while they were talking. Ravina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you say that any death with regard to which the word gevia, expire, is mentioned is the death of the righteous? Rav Ḥama bar Buzi said to him: Yes. For example: “And Isaac expired [vayyigva], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: But with regard to the generation of the flood it states: “And all flesh expired [vayyigva]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi said to him: We say this only when both gevia and asifa, gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.

והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי אמר רבי יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר ויקברו אתו יצחק וישמעאל בניו

Ravina asked: But isn’t there Ishmael, about whom gevia and asifa are written, as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [vayyigva vayyamot]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? Meanwhile Rava, who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully awoke and said to them: Children [dardekei], this is what Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him” (Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.

ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו

The Gemara asks: But perhaps the verse listed them in the order of their wisdom; that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: But if that is so, consider that the verse states: “And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him” (Genesis 35:29). What is the reason that the verse there did not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, since Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him, it is clear that he made Isaac his leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented in Abraham’s lifetime.

תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקדוש ברוך הוא בעולם הזה

Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that the Sages taught: There were three people to whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave already in this world

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