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Today's Daf Yomi

February 8, 2017 | ื™ืดื‘ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื–

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Bava Batra 17

The perek ends with praising the virtues of the avot and other biblical characters (including Yishmael who according to tradition, did teshuva at the end of his life). ย The new perek begins with a discussion of the need to leave space from a neighboring pit when digging a pit in one’s property or digging various other things or having flammable substances, or anything that could damage the other’s property. ย Abaye and Rava debate whether or not one can dig a pit near the border of the neighbor if the neighbor does not at present have a pit there. ย There are two versions regarding what type of field they are debating. ย The gemara then tries to reconcile which one is correct based on our mishna.

Study Guide Bava Batra 17.

ืžืขื™ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืžื›ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื›ืœ

a taste of the World-to-Come. They are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Abraham, as it is written with regard to him: โ€œAnd the Lord blessed Abraham with everythingโ€ (Genesis 24:1). Isaac, as it is written with regard to him: โ€œAnd I have eaten from everythingโ€ (Genesis 27:33). Jacob, as it is written with regard to him: โ€œBecause I have everythingโ€ (Genesis 33:11). This teaches that already in their lifetimes they merited everything, i.e., perfection.

ืฉืœืฉื” ืœื ืฉืœื˜ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื•ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื™ ื—ืœืœ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ืš ืฆืขืจื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžื“ื›ืจ

There were three people over whom the evil inclination had no sway. They are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written with regard to them, respectively: โ€œWith everything,โ€ โ€œfrom everything,โ€ โ€œeverything.โ€ The completeness of their blessings means that they did not have to contend with their evil inclinations. And some say that even David was not subject to his evil inclination, as it is written: โ€œAnd my heart has died within meโ€ (Psalms 109:22), meaning that the evil inclination in his heart was nullified as if his heart had died. And how does the other authority, who does not include David in his list, explain this verse? He is mentioning his travails. David means to say that his heart died within him owing to all the suffering that he endured, but he says nothing about his evil inclination.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉืฉื” ืœื ืฉืœื˜ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืžืœืืš ื”ืžื•ืช ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ

The Sages taught: There were six people over whom the Angel of Death had no sway in their demise, and they are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written with regard to them, respectively: โ€œWith everything,โ€ โ€œfrom everything,โ€ โ€œeverythingโ€; since they were blessed with everything they were certainly spared the anguish of the Angel of Death. Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, as it is written with regard to them that they died โ€œby the mouth of the Lordโ€ (Numbers 33:38; Deuteronomy 34:5), which indicates that they died with a kiss, and not at the hand of the Angel of Death.

ื•ื”ื ืžืจื™ื ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืžืจื™ื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื ืฉื™ืงื” ืžืชื” ื“ืืชื™ื ืฉื ืฉื ืžืžืฉื” ื•ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืœื ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ ืฉื’ื ืื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื•ืžืจ

The Gemara asks: But with regard to Miriam it is not written: โ€œBy the mouth of the Lord.โ€ Rabbi Elazar says: Miriam also died with a kiss, as this is learned through a verbal analogy between the word โ€œthereโ€ mentioned in regard to Miriam: โ€œAnd Miriam died thereโ€ (Numbers 20:1), and the word โ€œthereโ€ mentioned in regard to Moses: โ€œAnd Moses died thereโ€ (Deuteronomy 34:5). And for what reason is โ€œby the mouth of the Lordโ€ not stated with regard to her? It is unseemly to mention death by a kiss with regard to a woman.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืœื ืฉืœื˜ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืจืžื” ื•ืชื•ืœืขื” ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ [ื‘ื”ื•] ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ [ื‘ื”ื•] ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ื™ื“ื™ื“ ื”ืณ ื™ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื‘ื˜ื— ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื•ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฃ ื‘ืฉืจื™ ื™ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื‘ื˜ื— ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืจื—ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ื‘ืขื™

The Sages taught: There were seven people over whom the worm and the maggot had no sway, and they are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Moses, Aaron and Miriam, and Benjamin, son of Jacob. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written with regard to them, respectively: โ€œWith everything,โ€ โ€œfrom everything,โ€ โ€œeverything.โ€ Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, as it is written with regard to them: โ€œBy the mouth of the Lordโ€; Benjamin, son of Jacob, as it is written: โ€œAnd to Benjamin he said: The beloved of the Lord, he shall dwell in safety by Himโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12). Even in death, he rests securely, unbothered by worms. And some say that even David is included, as it is written: โ€œMy flesh also dwells secureโ€ (Psalms 16:9). The Gemara asks: And how does the other authority, who does not include David, explain this? The Gemara answers: He is asking for mercy, that his flesh should dwell secure and not be subject to worms and maggots, but his request was denied.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืชื• ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉ ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืขืžืจื ืื‘ื™ ืžืฉื” ื•ื™ืฉื™ ืื‘ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ื›ืœืื‘ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื’ืžืจื ืœื‘ืจ ืžื™ืฉื™ ืื‘ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื“ืžืคืจืฉ ื‘ื™ื” [ืงืจื] ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืช ืขืžืฉื ืฉื ืื‘ืฉืœื ืชื—ืช ื™ื•ืื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื ื•ืขืžืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืฉืžื• ื™ืชืจื ื”ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ืืœ ืื‘ื™ื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืช ื ื—ืฉ ืื—ื•ืช ืฆืจื•ื™ื” ืื ื™ื•ืื‘ ื•ื›ื™ ื‘ืช ื ื—ืฉ ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ืœื ื‘ืช ื™ืฉื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื—ื™ืชื™ื”ื ืฆืจื•ื™ื” ื•ืื‘ื™ื’ื™ืœ ืืœื ื‘ืช ืžื™ ืฉืžืช ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉ

The Sages taught in a baraita: There were four people who died only because of the counsel of the primordial snake, in the wake of which all of humanity became mortal, and not on account of any personal sin. And they are: Benjamin, son of Jacob; Amram, father of Moses; Yishai, father of David; and Chileab, son of David. And all of these are known through tradition except for Yishai, father of David, with regard to whom it is written explicitly: โ€œAnd Absalom placed Amasa over the army instead of Joab, and Amasa was the son of a man whose name was Ithra the Israelite, who engaged in intercourse with Abigail, daughter of Nahash, the sister of Zeruiah, mother of Joabโ€ (IIย Samuel 17:25). But was Abigail the daughter of Nahash? Was she not the daughter of Yishai, as it is written: โ€œAnd their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigailโ€ (Iย Chronicles 2:16)? Rather, she was called โ€œdaughter of Nahashโ€ to indicate that she was the daughter of one who died only because of the counsel of the snake.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื”ืฉื•ืชืคื™ืŸ

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืœื ื™ื—ืคื•ืจ ืื“ื ื‘ื•ืจ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื— ื•ืœื ืžืขืจื” ื•ืœื ืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ื•ืœื ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ื•ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“

MISHNA: A person may not dig a pit close to the pit of another, in order to avoid damaging the latterโ€™s pit. And similarly, one may not dig a ditch, nor a cave, i.e., a covered pit, nor a water channel, nor a laundererโ€™s pond, which is a pit used for washing clothes, unless he distanced all of these three handbreadths from the wall of another and he plasters lime on the place where there is water.

ื•ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ื ืืช ื”ื’ืคืช ื•ืืช ื”ื–ื‘ืœ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืœื— ื•ืืช ื”ืกื™ื“ ื•ืืช ื”ืกืœืขื™ื ืžื›ื•ืชืœื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ืื• ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“ ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื–ืจืขื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ืžื—ืจื™ืฉื” ื•ืืช ืžื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ื›ื•ืชืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

And one must distance the solid residue of produce that has been pressed free of its oil, e.g., the refuse of olives from which oil has been squeezed, and animal manure, and salt, and lime, and rocks three handbreadths from the wall of another, as all these items produce heat and can damage the wall. Or, alternatively, he may plaster the wall with lime to prevent damage. One must likewise distance seeds, i.e., one may not plant seeds, and one may not operate the plow, and one must eliminate urine, three handbreadths from the wall of another.

ื•ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืจื™ื—ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื›ื‘ ืฉื”ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื•ืืช ื”ืชื ื•ืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ืฉื”ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืคื”

The mishna continues: And one must distance a mill from a neighborโ€™s wall by three handbreadths from the lower stone of the mill, which is four handbreadths from the smaller upper stone of the mill. And there must be a distance of three handbreadths from the protruding base [hakalya] of an oven until the wall, which is four handbreadths from the narrow upper rim [hassafa] of the oven.

ื’ืžืณ ืคืชื— ื‘ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืžืกื™ื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ืชืœ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืžื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

GEMARA: The tanna of the mishna opens by speaking of a pit: A person may not dig a pit close to the pit of another, and yet he ends with a reference to a wall: Unless he distances it from the wall of another. Let the tanna teach: Unless he distanced his pit or ditch three handbreadths from the pit of another, just as he begins his statement by referring to a pit. Why does the mishna suddenly mention a wall here?

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ื•

Abaye said, and some say it was Rav Yehuda who said: We learned that the mishna means: From the wall of his pit. In other words, one should read the mishna as follows: Unless he distanced his pit or ditch three handbreadths from the wall of anotherโ€™s pit. The neighbor also built his pit close to the border between the two properties, and the mishna is teaching that the one digging a pit must distance it three handbreadths from the wall of the pit of the other.

ื•ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืžื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื ืคืงื ืžื™ื ื” ืœืžืงื— ื•ืžืžื›ืจ ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืชืœื™ื” ืื ื™ ืžื•ื›ืจ ืœืš ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ื›ื•ืชืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

The Gemara challenges: But even so, let it teach: Unless he distanced his excavations three handbreadths from the pit of another, and one would understand that the term pit is referring to the wall of the otherโ€™s pit. The Gemara responds: By using the phrase: From the wall of another, this teaches us incidentally that the wall of a pit must be at least three handbreadths thick, as the wall of the otherโ€™s pit occupied the full three handbreadths between the cavity of his pit and the property of his neighbor. The practical difference of this observation is with regard to buying and selling, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who says to another: I am selling you a pit and its walls, the wall of the pit must be at least three handbreadths thick.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื‘ื ืœืกืžื•ืš ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ืžืฆืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืกื•ืžืš ื•ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื›ื™ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช

ยง It was stated: With regard to one who comes to dig any of these excavations or place any of the items listed in the mishna close to the boundary of his field, where his neighbor currently has no pit, Abaye says: He may dig or place them close to the boundary; and Rava says: He may not dig or place them close to the boundary. The Gemara explains: All agree that he may not dig or place them close to a field of his neighbor if that field is designated for digging pits, as he will thereby restrict his neighbor from using his field in the manner it is expected to be used. When they disagree it is with regard to a field that is not designated for digging pits.

ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืกื•ืžืš ื“ื”ื ืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืืช ืื™ืžืœื›ืช ื•ื—ืคืจืช ืื ื ื ืžื™ ืžืžืœื›ื ื ื•ื—ืคืจื ื

The Gemara elaborates: Abaye says: He may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary, as the neighborโ€™s field is not designated for pits, so he is not causing any damage by doing so. Rava says: He may not dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary, as the neighbor can say to him: Just as you changed your mind and dug a pit, I too might change my mind and dig a pit, and I will no longer be able to dig near my border if you dig your pit close to the boundary.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืกื•ืžืš ื›ื™ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืกื•ืžืš ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืืžื” ื”ืชื ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ืงื ื ื˜ืข ืื™ืชื ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ืงื ื—ืคืจ ืœื™ืชื ืœื‘ื•ืจ

There are those who say a different version of this discussion: All agree that one may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary of a field that is not designated for digging pits. When they disagree it is with regard to a field that is designated for digging pits. Abaye says: One may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary; and this is the halakha even according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who say in the mishna (25b): One must distance a tree twenty-five cubits from a cistern, lest the roots of the tree grow and damage a neighborโ€™s cistern in his field. The difference is that there it is prohibited, as when he plants the tree there is already a cistern. But here, at the time when he digs his cistern, there is as yet no cistern in his neighborโ€™s field.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื“ืืžืจ ื–ื” ื—ื•ืคืจ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืฉืœื• ื•ื–ื” ื ื•ื˜ืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ืฉืœื• ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ืชื ื“ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ืงื ื ื˜ืข ืœื™ืชื ื”ื• ืœืฉืจืฉื™ื• ื“ืžื–ืงื™ ืœื” ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ืžืจื ื•ืžืจื ื“ืงื ืžื—ื™ื™ืช ืงื ืžืจืคื™ืช ืœื” ืœืืจืขืื™

And Rava says: One may not dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary; and this is the halakha even according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who says in that same mishna: This one may dig in his field and that one may plant in his field, i.e., one need not distance his tree for fear of damaging his neighborโ€™s field through expanding roots. The reason that Rava maintains that his ruling is correct even according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei is that this matter applies only there, as when he plants the tree, its roots, which might damage the cistern, are not yet present. Consequently, when he plants he does not cause any damage. But here, the neighbor can say to him: Each and every strike of yours with the hoe loosens my earth, and therefore you are already causing damage as you dig your cistern.

ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื™ื—ืคื•ืจ ืื“ื ื‘ื•ืจ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื ืœื™ื›ื ื‘ื•ืจ ืกื•ืžืš ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืกื•ืžืš ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช

The Gemara suggests a proof: We learned in the mishna that a person may not dig a pit close to the pit of another, unless he does so at a distance of three handbreadths from his neighborโ€™s wall. The Gemara analyzes this statement: Apparently, the reason he may not dig close to the boundary of his neighborโ€™s field is that there is a pit there, from which it may be inferred that if there is no pit he may dig his pit close to his neighborโ€™s wall. Granted, according to that second version of the dispute, in which you said: All agree that one may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary of a field that is not designated for digging pits, one can explain that the mishna is referring to a field that is not designated for digging pits.

ืืœื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื ืงืฉื™ื

But according to that first version of the dispute, in which you said that they disagree with regard to a field that is not designated for digging pits, there is a difficulty. Granted, this works out well according to the opinion of Abaye, who says that one may dig oneโ€™s pit near the boundary when the neighbor has no pit. But according to the opinion of Rava, who maintains that it is prohibited to dig a pit near the boundary under any circumstances, the ruling of this mishna is difficult.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืจื‘ื ื”ื ืื™ืชืžืจ ืขืœื” ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ื•

The Gemara explains: Rava could have said to you: Wasnโ€™t it stated with regard to that mishna that Abaye says, and some say it was Rav Yehuda who says: We learned that the mishna means: From the wall of his pit? This indicates that the neighbor must distance the edge of his pit from the boundary by the thickness of his wall, which is three handbreadths. Therefore, even according to the ruling of the mishna, one may not dig his pit directly adjacent to the boundary.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืื™ืชืžืจ ืขืœื” ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช

There are those who say this discussion in the form of a challenge to the opinion of Abaye. The mishna teaches that one must distance his pit from that of his neighbor, and it was stated with regard to that ruling that Abaye says, and some say it was Rav Yehuda who says: We learned that it means: From the wall of his pit. In other words, the edge of the neighborโ€™s pit must be three handbreadths away from the boundary. Granted, according to that first version of the dispute, in which you said: All agree that he may not dig or place them close to a field of his neighbor if that field is designated for digging pits, one can explain that the mishna is referring to a field that is designated for digging pits.

ืืœื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ืงืฉื™ื

But according to that second version of the dispute, in which you said that they disagree with regard to a field that is designated for digging pits, there is a difficulty. Granted, this works out well according to the opinion of Rava, who says that it is prohibited to dig a pit near the boundary in this case. But according to the opinion of Abaye, the ruling of this mishna is difficult, as if the mishna is referring to the wall of the neighborโ€™s pit, this indicates that the first pit was dug close to the boundary.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืื• ืœื—ืคื•ืจ ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช

The Gemara explains: Abaye could have said to you: The mishna is referring to the specific case where both neighbors came to dig their pits at the same time. Consequently, they must both distance their pits from one another. If there is no pit as yet next to the boundary, and the neighbor is not digging at that point, one may dig his pit alongside the boundary.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืกืœืข ื”ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื–ื” ื—ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ื–ื” ื—ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืžื›ืืŸ ื–ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“ ื•ื–ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืื ื™

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from a baraita: In the case of rock that is so soft that it crumbles in oneโ€™s hands, and no tool is needed, this one may dig his pit from here, and that one may dig his pit from there. This one distances his pit three handbreadths and plasters with lime, and that one distances his pit three handbreadths and plasters with lime. This indicates that the first one who digs a pit must distance his pit even when the second one does not yet have a pit. The Gemara rejects this proof: Rock that crumbles in oneโ€™s hands is different. In this case, one must maintain a distance from the boundary due to the softness of the ground.

ื•ื“ืงืืจื™ ืœื” ืžืื™ ืงืืจื™ ืœื” ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ื›ื ืœื™ื” ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืžื™ื ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื™ื‘ืขื™ ื ืžื™ ืจื•ื•ื—ื ื˜ืคื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara is puzzled by this exchange: And he who asked it, why did he ask it? The baraita is explicitly referring to rock that crumbles in oneโ€™s hands, so this is clearly a unique case. The Gemara answers that the Sage who asked the question assumed that the halakha of the baraita includes all types of soil, and he thought that it was necessary for the tanna to mention the specific example of rock that crumbles in oneโ€™s hands, as it could enter your mind to say that since this substance crumbles in oneโ€™s hands he is required to keep his pit at an even greater distance. To counter this, the baraita teaches us that a distance of three handbreadths is sufficient.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื’ืคืช ื•ืืช ื”ื–ื‘ืœ ื•ืืช

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the mishna: One must distance the solid residue of produce that has been pressed free of its oil, and animal manure, and

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Bava Batra 17

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Batra 17

ืžืขื™ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืžื›ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื›ืœ

a taste of the World-to-Come. They are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Abraham, as it is written with regard to him: โ€œAnd the Lord blessed Abraham with everythingโ€ (Genesis 24:1). Isaac, as it is written with regard to him: โ€œAnd I have eaten from everythingโ€ (Genesis 27:33). Jacob, as it is written with regard to him: โ€œBecause I have everythingโ€ (Genesis 33:11). This teaches that already in their lifetimes they merited everything, i.e., perfection.

ืฉืœืฉื” ืœื ืฉืœื˜ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื•ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื™ ื—ืœืœ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ืš ืฆืขืจื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžื“ื›ืจ

There were three people over whom the evil inclination had no sway. They are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written with regard to them, respectively: โ€œWith everything,โ€ โ€œfrom everything,โ€ โ€œeverything.โ€ The completeness of their blessings means that they did not have to contend with their evil inclinations. And some say that even David was not subject to his evil inclination, as it is written: โ€œAnd my heart has died within meโ€ (Psalms 109:22), meaning that the evil inclination in his heart was nullified as if his heart had died. And how does the other authority, who does not include David in his list, explain this verse? He is mentioning his travails. David means to say that his heart died within him owing to all the suffering that he endured, but he says nothing about his evil inclination.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉืฉื” ืœื ืฉืœื˜ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืžืœืืš ื”ืžื•ืช ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ

The Sages taught: There were six people over whom the Angel of Death had no sway in their demise, and they are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written with regard to them, respectively: โ€œWith everything,โ€ โ€œfrom everything,โ€ โ€œeverythingโ€; since they were blessed with everything they were certainly spared the anguish of the Angel of Death. Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, as it is written with regard to them that they died โ€œby the mouth of the Lordโ€ (Numbers 33:38; Deuteronomy 34:5), which indicates that they died with a kiss, and not at the hand of the Angel of Death.

ื•ื”ื ืžืจื™ื ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืžืจื™ื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื ืฉื™ืงื” ืžืชื” ื“ืืชื™ื ืฉื ืฉื ืžืžืฉื” ื•ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืœื ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ ืฉื’ื ืื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื•ืžืจ

The Gemara asks: But with regard to Miriam it is not written: โ€œBy the mouth of the Lord.โ€ Rabbi Elazar says: Miriam also died with a kiss, as this is learned through a verbal analogy between the word โ€œthereโ€ mentioned in regard to Miriam: โ€œAnd Miriam died thereโ€ (Numbers 20:1), and the word โ€œthereโ€ mentioned in regard to Moses: โ€œAnd Moses died thereโ€ (Deuteronomy 34:5). And for what reason is โ€œby the mouth of the Lordโ€ not stated with regard to her? It is unseemly to mention death by a kiss with regard to a woman.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืœื ืฉืœื˜ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืจืžื” ื•ืชื•ืœืขื” ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ [ื‘ื”ื•] ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ืžืจื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ [ื‘ื”ื•] ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืณ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ื™ื“ื™ื“ ื”ืณ ื™ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื‘ื˜ื— ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื•ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฃ ื‘ืฉืจื™ ื™ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื‘ื˜ื— ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืจื—ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ื‘ืขื™

The Sages taught: There were seven people over whom the worm and the maggot had no sway, and they are: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Moses, Aaron and Miriam, and Benjamin, son of Jacob. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as it is written with regard to them, respectively: โ€œWith everything,โ€ โ€œfrom everything,โ€ โ€œeverything.โ€ Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, as it is written with regard to them: โ€œBy the mouth of the Lordโ€; Benjamin, son of Jacob, as it is written: โ€œAnd to Benjamin he said: The beloved of the Lord, he shall dwell in safety by Himโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:12). Even in death, he rests securely, unbothered by worms. And some say that even David is included, as it is written: โ€œMy flesh also dwells secureโ€ (Psalms 16:9). The Gemara asks: And how does the other authority, who does not include David, explain this? The Gemara answers: He is asking for mercy, that his flesh should dwell secure and not be subject to worms and maggots, but his request was denied.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืชื• ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉ ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืขืžืจื ืื‘ื™ ืžืฉื” ื•ื™ืฉื™ ืื‘ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ื›ืœืื‘ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื’ืžืจื ืœื‘ืจ ืžื™ืฉื™ ืื‘ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื“ืžืคืจืฉ ื‘ื™ื” [ืงืจื] ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืช ืขืžืฉื ืฉื ืื‘ืฉืœื ืชื—ืช ื™ื•ืื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื ื•ืขืžืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืฉืžื• ื™ืชืจื ื”ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ืืœ ืื‘ื™ื’ื™ืœ ื‘ืช ื ื—ืฉ ืื—ื•ืช ืฆืจื•ื™ื” ืื ื™ื•ืื‘ ื•ื›ื™ ื‘ืช ื ื—ืฉ ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ืœื ื‘ืช ื™ืฉื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื—ื™ืชื™ื”ื ืฆืจื•ื™ื” ื•ืื‘ื™ื’ื™ืœ ืืœื ื‘ืช ืžื™ ืฉืžืช ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉ

The Sages taught in a baraita: There were four people who died only because of the counsel of the primordial snake, in the wake of which all of humanity became mortal, and not on account of any personal sin. And they are: Benjamin, son of Jacob; Amram, father of Moses; Yishai, father of David; and Chileab, son of David. And all of these are known through tradition except for Yishai, father of David, with regard to whom it is written explicitly: โ€œAnd Absalom placed Amasa over the army instead of Joab, and Amasa was the son of a man whose name was Ithra the Israelite, who engaged in intercourse with Abigail, daughter of Nahash, the sister of Zeruiah, mother of Joabโ€ (IIย Samuel 17:25). But was Abigail the daughter of Nahash? Was she not the daughter of Yishai, as it is written: โ€œAnd their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigailโ€ (Iย Chronicles 2:16)? Rather, she was called โ€œdaughter of Nahashโ€ to indicate that she was the daughter of one who died only because of the counsel of the snake.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื”ืฉื•ืชืคื™ืŸ

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืœื ื™ื—ืคื•ืจ ืื“ื ื‘ื•ืจ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื— ื•ืœื ืžืขืจื” ื•ืœื ืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ื•ืœื ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ื•ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“

MISHNA: A person may not dig a pit close to the pit of another, in order to avoid damaging the latterโ€™s pit. And similarly, one may not dig a ditch, nor a cave, i.e., a covered pit, nor a water channel, nor a laundererโ€™s pond, which is a pit used for washing clothes, unless he distanced all of these three handbreadths from the wall of another and he plasters lime on the place where there is water.

ื•ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ื ืืช ื”ื’ืคืช ื•ืืช ื”ื–ื‘ืœ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืœื— ื•ืืช ื”ืกื™ื“ ื•ืืช ื”ืกืœืขื™ื ืžื›ื•ืชืœื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ืื• ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“ ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื–ืจืขื™ื ื•ืืช ื”ืžื—ืจื™ืฉื” ื•ืืช ืžื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ื›ื•ืชืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

And one must distance the solid residue of produce that has been pressed free of its oil, e.g., the refuse of olives from which oil has been squeezed, and animal manure, and salt, and lime, and rocks three handbreadths from the wall of another, as all these items produce heat and can damage the wall. Or, alternatively, he may plaster the wall with lime to prevent damage. One must likewise distance seeds, i.e., one may not plant seeds, and one may not operate the plow, and one must eliminate urine, three handbreadths from the wall of another.

ื•ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืจื™ื—ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื›ื‘ ืฉื”ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื•ืืช ื”ืชื ื•ืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ืฉื”ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืคื”

The mishna continues: And one must distance a mill from a neighborโ€™s wall by three handbreadths from the lower stone of the mill, which is four handbreadths from the smaller upper stone of the mill. And there must be a distance of three handbreadths from the protruding base [hakalya] of an oven until the wall, which is four handbreadths from the narrow upper rim [hassafa] of the oven.

ื’ืžืณ ืคืชื— ื‘ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืžืกื™ื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ืชืœ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืžื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

GEMARA: The tanna of the mishna opens by speaking of a pit: A person may not dig a pit close to the pit of another, and yet he ends with a reference to a wall: Unless he distances it from the wall of another. Let the tanna teach: Unless he distanced his pit or ditch three handbreadths from the pit of another, just as he begins his statement by referring to a pit. Why does the mishna suddenly mention a wall here?

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ื•

Abaye said, and some say it was Rav Yehuda who said: We learned that the mishna means: From the wall of his pit. In other words, one should read the mishna as follows: Unless he distanced his pit or ditch three handbreadths from the wall of anotherโ€™s pit. The neighbor also built his pit close to the border between the two properties, and the mishna is teaching that the one digging a pit must distance it three handbreadths from the wall of the pit of the other.

ื•ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ืง ืžื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื ืคืงื ืžื™ื ื” ืœืžืงื— ื•ืžืžื›ืจ ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืชืœื™ื” ืื ื™ ืžื•ื›ืจ ืœืš ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ื›ื•ืชืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

The Gemara challenges: But even so, let it teach: Unless he distanced his excavations three handbreadths from the pit of another, and one would understand that the term pit is referring to the wall of the otherโ€™s pit. The Gemara responds: By using the phrase: From the wall of another, this teaches us incidentally that the wall of a pit must be at least three handbreadths thick, as the wall of the otherโ€™s pit occupied the full three handbreadths between the cavity of his pit and the property of his neighbor. The practical difference of this observation is with regard to buying and selling, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who says to another: I am selling you a pit and its walls, the wall of the pit must be at least three handbreadths thick.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื‘ื ืœืกืžื•ืš ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ืžืฆืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืกื•ืžืš ื•ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื›ื™ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช

ยง It was stated: With regard to one who comes to dig any of these excavations or place any of the items listed in the mishna close to the boundary of his field, where his neighbor currently has no pit, Abaye says: He may dig or place them close to the boundary; and Rava says: He may not dig or place them close to the boundary. The Gemara explains: All agree that he may not dig or place them close to a field of his neighbor if that field is designated for digging pits, as he will thereby restrict his neighbor from using his field in the manner it is expected to be used. When they disagree it is with regard to a field that is not designated for digging pits.

ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืกื•ืžืš ื“ื”ื ืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืืช ืื™ืžืœื›ืช ื•ื—ืคืจืช ืื ื ื ืžื™ ืžืžืœื›ื ื ื•ื—ืคืจื ื

The Gemara elaborates: Abaye says: He may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary, as the neighborโ€™s field is not designated for pits, so he is not causing any damage by doing so. Rava says: He may not dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary, as the neighbor can say to him: Just as you changed your mind and dug a pit, I too might change my mind and dig a pit, and I will no longer be able to dig near my border if you dig your pit close to the boundary.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืกื•ืžืš ื›ื™ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืกื•ืžืš ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืืžื” ื”ืชื ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ืงื ื ื˜ืข ืื™ืชื ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ืงื ื—ืคืจ ืœื™ืชื ืœื‘ื•ืจ

There are those who say a different version of this discussion: All agree that one may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary of a field that is not designated for digging pits. When they disagree it is with regard to a field that is designated for digging pits. Abaye says: One may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary; and this is the halakha even according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who say in the mishna (25b): One must distance a tree twenty-five cubits from a cistern, lest the roots of the tree grow and damage a neighborโ€™s cistern in his field. The difference is that there it is prohibited, as when he plants the tree there is already a cistern. But here, at the time when he digs his cistern, there is as yet no cistern in his neighborโ€™s field.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื“ืืžืจ ื–ื” ื—ื•ืคืจ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืฉืœื• ื•ื–ื” ื ื•ื˜ืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ืฉืœื• ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ืชื ื“ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ืงื ื ื˜ืข ืœื™ืชื ื”ื• ืœืฉืจืฉื™ื• ื“ืžื–ืงื™ ืœื” ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ืžืจื ื•ืžืจื ื“ืงื ืžื—ื™ื™ืช ืงื ืžืจืคื™ืช ืœื” ืœืืจืขืื™

And Rava says: One may not dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary; and this is the halakha even according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who says in that same mishna: This one may dig in his field and that one may plant in his field, i.e., one need not distance his tree for fear of damaging his neighborโ€™s field through expanding roots. The reason that Rava maintains that his ruling is correct even according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei is that this matter applies only there, as when he plants the tree, its roots, which might damage the cistern, are not yet present. Consequently, when he plants he does not cause any damage. But here, the neighbor can say to him: Each and every strike of yours with the hoe loosens my earth, and therefore you are already causing damage as you dig your cistern.

ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื™ื—ืคื•ืจ ืื“ื ื‘ื•ืจ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื ืœื™ื›ื ื‘ื•ืจ ืกื•ืžืš ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืกื•ืžืš ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช

The Gemara suggests a proof: We learned in the mishna that a person may not dig a pit close to the pit of another, unless he does so at a distance of three handbreadths from his neighborโ€™s wall. The Gemara analyzes this statement: Apparently, the reason he may not dig close to the boundary of his neighborโ€™s field is that there is a pit there, from which it may be inferred that if there is no pit he may dig his pit close to his neighborโ€™s wall. Granted, according to that second version of the dispute, in which you said: All agree that one may dig these excavations or place these items close to the boundary of a field that is not designated for digging pits, one can explain that the mishna is referring to a field that is not designated for digging pits.

ืืœื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื ืงืฉื™ื

But according to that first version of the dispute, in which you said that they disagree with regard to a field that is not designated for digging pits, there is a difficulty. Granted, this works out well according to the opinion of Abaye, who says that one may dig oneโ€™s pit near the boundary when the neighbor has no pit. But according to the opinion of Rava, who maintains that it is prohibited to dig a pit near the boundary under any circumstances, the ruling of this mishna is difficult.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืจื‘ื ื”ื ืื™ืชืžืจ ืขืœื” ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ื•

The Gemara explains: Rava could have said to you: Wasnโ€™t it stated with regard to that mishna that Abaye says, and some say it was Rav Yehuda who says: We learned that the mishna means: From the wall of his pit? This indicates that the neighbor must distance the edge of his pit from the boundary by the thickness of his wall, which is three handbreadths. Therefore, even according to the ruling of the mishna, one may not dig his pit directly adjacent to the boundary.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืื™ืชืžืจ ืขืœื” ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืกื•ืžืš ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช

There are those who say this discussion in the form of a challenge to the opinion of Abaye. The mishna teaches that one must distance his pit from that of his neighbor, and it was stated with regard to that ruling that Abaye says, and some say it was Rav Yehuda who says: We learned that it means: From the wall of his pit. In other words, the edge of the neighborโ€™s pit must be three handbreadths away from the boundary. Granted, according to that first version of the dispute, in which you said: All agree that he may not dig or place them close to a field of his neighbor if that field is designated for digging pits, one can explain that the mishna is referring to a field that is designated for digging pits.

ืืœื ืœื”ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื ื ื™ื—ื ืืœื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ืงืฉื™ื

But according to that second version of the dispute, in which you said that they disagree with regard to a field that is designated for digging pits, there is a difficulty. Granted, this works out well according to the opinion of Rava, who says that it is prohibited to dig a pit near the boundary in this case. But according to the opinion of Abaye, the ruling of this mishna is difficult, as if the mishna is referring to the wall of the neighborโ€™s pit, this indicates that the first pit was dug close to the boundary.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืื• ืœื—ืคื•ืจ ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช

The Gemara explains: Abaye could have said to you: The mishna is referring to the specific case where both neighbors came to dig their pits at the same time. Consequently, they must both distance their pits from one another. If there is no pit as yet next to the boundary, and the neighbor is not digging at that point, one may dig his pit alongside the boundary.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืกืœืข ื”ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื–ื” ื—ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ื–ื” ื—ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื•ืจื• ืžื›ืืŸ ื–ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“ ื•ื–ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืกื™ื“ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืื ื™

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from a baraita: In the case of rock that is so soft that it crumbles in oneโ€™s hands, and no tool is needed, this one may dig his pit from here, and that one may dig his pit from there. This one distances his pit three handbreadths and plasters with lime, and that one distances his pit three handbreadths and plasters with lime. This indicates that the first one who digs a pit must distance his pit even when the second one does not yet have a pit. The Gemara rejects this proof: Rock that crumbles in oneโ€™s hands is different. In this case, one must maintain a distance from the boundary due to the softness of the ground.

ื•ื“ืงืืจื™ ืœื” ืžืื™ ืงืืจื™ ืœื” ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ื›ื ืœื™ื” ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืžื™ื ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื™ื‘ืขื™ ื ืžื™ ืจื•ื•ื—ื ื˜ืคื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara is puzzled by this exchange: And he who asked it, why did he ask it? The baraita is explicitly referring to rock that crumbles in oneโ€™s hands, so this is clearly a unique case. The Gemara answers that the Sage who asked the question assumed that the halakha of the baraita includes all types of soil, and he thought that it was necessary for the tanna to mention the specific example of rock that crumbles in oneโ€™s hands, as it could enter your mind to say that since this substance crumbles in oneโ€™s hands he is required to keep his pit at an even greater distance. To counter this, the baraita teaches us that a distance of three handbreadths is sufficient.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื’ืคืช ื•ืืช ื”ื–ื‘ืœ ื•ืืช

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the mishna: One must distance the solid residue of produce that has been pressed free of its oil, and animal manure, and

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