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July 3, 2024 | 讻状讝 讘住讬讜谉 转砖驻状讚

  • Masechet聽Bava Batra is sponsored by聽Lori Stark in loving memory of her mother in law, Sara Shapiro z"l and her father Nehemiah Sosewitz z"l.

Bava Batra 8

When Rav Nachman bar Rav Chisda collected taxes from Torah scholars, Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak reprimanded him for not fulfilling verses from the Torah, Neviim and K’tuvim, and explained which verses indicate that Torah scholars are exempt from taxes. Rav Papa ruled that orphans should contribute to digging wells for water and Rav Yehuda ruled similarly, that prohans should contribute to taxes to protect the city. Rav Yehuda also ruled that while Torah scholars do not need to pay for protection, as their Torah protects them, they do need to contribute to digging wells. Rabbi Yehuda haNasi distributed food to needy people during a drought but only gave to Torah scholars, not to amei haaretz. His student Yonatan ben Amram did not want to benefit from the Torah so he disguised himself as an am haaretz and convinced Rabbi Yehuda haNasi to give him food anyway. When Rabbi Yehuda haNasi discovered what had happened, he changed his approach and distributed food to everyone. The Mishna ruled that one who lives in the city for twelve months has to pay for the protection of the city, but a different braita relating to laws of an ir hanidachat, a city where all inhabitants worship idols, only thirty days of living there consider one an inhabitant of the city. How is this reconciled? Another braita gives different amounts of time for people living in the city to be required to give different types of tzedaka funds. Raba collected tzedaka from orphans of a particular family. While Abaye questioned this practice, Raba explained why he insisted in this case. Ifra Hormiz, the mother of King Shapur, sent money to Rav Yosef for “mitzva raba” and Abaye explained to Rav Yosef that she must have meant for redeeming captives. Rava explains this based on a verse from Yirmiyahu 15:2. A braita explains that collection of charity must be done by two people and distribution by three. The charity food is collected and distributed by three people. Why is there a difference? Why are two or three people needed? The people of the city can take charity from one use and move it to a different use, if necessary. The braita refers to the collection of charity as serara, authority, since they would force people to give charity and even seize a collateral from those who would not give, even on erev Shabbat. Isn’t this forbidden in a different source? The Gemara distinguishes between collecting from the wealthy and those who are not wealthy. What reward is promised to those who give charity? Charity collectors need to be cautious that they don’t arouse suspicion that they are taking money for themselves.

讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 住讘专 诇讛 讻讚讚专砖 专讘讗 讗谞讬 讞讜诪讛 讝讜 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 讜砖讚讬 讻诪讙讚诇讜转 讗诇讜 讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转


these are Torah scholars, and towers do not require additional protection? The Gemara comments: And Reish Lakish, who did not cite this verse, holds in accordance with the way that Rava expounded the verse: 鈥淚 am a wall鈥; this is referring to the Congregation of Israel. 鈥淎nd my breasts are like towers鈥; these are the synagogues and study halls.


专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 专诪讗 讻专讙讗 讗专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 注讘专转 讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜讗讚谞讘讬讗讬 讜讗讚讻转讜讘讬


It is similarly related that Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda once imposed payment of the poll tax [karga] even on the Sages. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said to him: You have transgressed the words of the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings.


讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗祝 讞讘讘 注诪讬诐 讻诇 拽讚砖讬讜 讘讬讚讱 讗诪专 诪砖讛 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖注讛 砖讗转讛 诪讞讘讘 注诪讬诐 讻诇 拽讚讜砖讬讜 讬讛讬讜 讘讬讚讱 讜讛诐 转讻讜 诇专讙诇讱 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪讻转转讬诐 专讙诇讬讛诐 诪注讬专 诇注讬专 讜诪诪讚讬谞讛 诇诪讚讬谞讛 诇诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讬砖讗 诪讚讘专讜转讬讱 诇讬砖讗 讜诇讬转谉 讘讚讘讜专讜转讬讜 砖诇 诪拽讜诐


You have transgressed the words of the Torah, as it is written: 鈥淓ven when He loves the peoples, all His holy ones are in Your hand鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:3), which is understood to mean that Moses said to the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even when You hold the other nations dear and grant them dominion over Israel, let 鈥渁ll His holy ones,鈥 meaning the Torah scholars, be exclusively in Your hand and free from the authority of the nations, and therefore be exempt from paying taxes. The continuation of that verse can also be understood as referring to Torah scholars, as it states: 鈥淎nd they sit [tukku] at Your feet, receiving Your words鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:3), and Rav Yosef teaches: These are Torah scholars who pound [mekhatetim] their feet from city to city and from country to country to study Torah; 鈥渞eceiving [yissa] Your words,鈥 to discuss [lissa velitten] the utterances of God.


讗讚谞讘讬讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讻讬 讬转谞讜 讘讙讜讬诐 注转讛 讗拽讘爪诐 讜讬讞诇讜 诪注讟 诪诪砖讗 诪诇讱 讜砖专讬诐 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 驻住讜拽 讝讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬转 谞讗诪专 讗讬 转谞讜 讻讜诇讛讜 注转讛 讗拽讘爪诐 讜讗诐 诪注讟 诪讛诐 讬讞诇讜 诪诪砖讗 诪诇讱 讜砖专讬诐


And you have transgressed the words of the Prophets, as it is written: 鈥淭hough they have hired lovers [yitnu] among the nations, now I will gather them, and they will begin to be diminished by reason of the burden of kings and princes鈥 (Hosea 8:10). With regard to this verse, Ulla says: Part of this verse is stated in the Aramaic language; the word yitnu should be understood here in its Aramaic sense: To learn. And the verse should be interpreted as follows: If all of Israel learns Torah, I will gather them already now; and if only a few of them learn Torah, they will be excused from the burden imposed by kings and princes. This indicates that those who study Torah should not be subject to paying taxes.


讗讚讻转讜讘讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪谞讚讛 讘诇讜 讜讛诇讱 诇讗 砖诇讬讟 诇诪专诪讗 注诇讬讛诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪谞讚讛 讝讜 诪谞转 讛诪诇讱 讘诇讜 讝讜 讻住祝 讙讜诇讙诇转讗 讜讛诇讱 讝讜 讗专谞讜谞讗


And furthermore, you have transgressed the words of the Writings, as it is written: 鈥淚t shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost or toll upon them鈥 (Ezra 7:24), i.e., upon the priests and Levites who serve in the Temple. This halakha would apply to Torah scholars as well. And Rav Yehuda says: 鈥淭ribute鈥; this is referring to the king鈥檚 portion, a tax given to the king. 鈥淚mpost鈥; this is referring to the head tax. 鈥淭oll鈥; this is referring to a tax [arnona] paid with property that was imposed from time to time.


专讘 驻驻讗 专诪讗 讻专讬讗 讞讚转讗 讗讬转诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讜讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 诪讬讚讜讬诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬砖拽诇 砖拽讬诇谞讗 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬 诪讬讚讜讬诇 诪讬讚讜讬诇 讜讗讬 诇讗 诪讛讚专谞讗 诇讛 谞讬讛诇讬讬讛讜


It is related that Rav Pappa once imposed a tax for the digging of a new cistern even on orphans. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said to Rav Pappa: Perhaps they will dig, but in the end they will not draw any water from there, and it will turn out that the money will have been spent for nothing. The rest of the townspeople can relinquish their rights to their money, but orphans who are minors cannot do so. Rav Pappa said to him: I shall collect money from the orphans; if they draw water, they will draw water, and if not, I will return the money to the orphans.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻诇 诇讗讙诇讬 讙驻讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬 讗讘诇 专讘谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讬 谞讟讬专讜转讗 讛讻诇 诇讻专讬讗 驻转讬讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诪专讘谞谉 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 谞驻拽讬 讘讗讻诇讜讝讗 讗讘诇 谞驻拽讬 讘讗讻诇讜讝讗 专讘谞谉 诇讗讜 讘谞讬 诪讬驻拽 讘讗讻诇讜讝讗 谞讬谞讛讜:


Rav Yehuda says: All of the city鈥檚 residents must contribute to the building and upkeep of the city gates [le鈥檃glei gappa], and for this purpose money is collected even from orphans. But the Sages do not require protection and are therefore exempt from this payment. All of the city鈥檚 residents must contribute to the digging of cisterns [lekarya patya], and for this purpose money is collected even from the Sages, since they too need water. The Gemara comments: And we said this only when the people are not required to go out en masse [be鈥檃khluza] and do the actual digging, but are obligated merely to contribute money for that purpose. But if the people are required to go out en masse and actually dig, the Sages are not expected to go out with them en masse, but rather they are exempt from such labor.


专讘讬 驻转讞 讗讜爪专讜转 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讗诪专 讬讻谞住讜 讘注诇讬 诪拽专讗 讘注诇讬 诪砖谞讛 讘注诇讬 转诇诪讜讚 讘注诇讬 讛诇讻讛 讘注诇讬 讛讙讚讛 讗讘诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓 讗诇 讬讻谞住讜 讚讞拽 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注诪专诐 讜谞讻谞住 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 驻专谞住谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 拽专讬转 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 砖谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 讗诐 讻谉 讘诪讛 讗驻专谞住讱 [讗诪专 诇讜] 驻专谞住谞讬 讻讻诇讘 讜讻注讜专讘 驻专谞住讬讛


It is related that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once opened his storehouses to distribute food during years of drought. He said: Masters of Bible, masters of Mishna, masters of Talmud, masters of halakha, masters of aggada may enter and receive food from me, but ignoramuses should not enter. Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram, whom Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did not know, pushed his way in, and entered, and said to him: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, sustain me. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My son, have you read the Bible? Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram said to him, out of modesty: No. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi continued: Have you studied Mishna? Once again, Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram said to him: No. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then asked him: If so, by what merit should I sustain you? Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram said to him: Sustain me like a dog and like a raven, who are given food even though they have not learned anything. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was moved by his words and fed him.


讘转专 讚谞驻拽 讬转讬讘 专讘讬 讜拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讜讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖谞转转讬 驻转讬 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 专讘讬 砖诪讗 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注诪专诐 转诇诪讬讚讱 讛讜讗 砖讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 诪讬诪讬讜 讘讚拽讜 讜讗砖讻讞 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讻谞住讜 讛讻诇


After Rabbi Yonatan left, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sat, and was distressed, and said: Woe is me, that I have given my bread to an ignoramus. His son, Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said to him: Perhaps he was your disciple Yonatan ben Amram, who never in his life wanted to materially benefit from the honor shown to the Torah? They investigated the matter and found that such was the case. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then said: Let everyone enter, as there may also be others who hide the fact that they are true Torah scholars.


专讘讬 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬谉 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓 讻讛讛讜讗 讚诪讬 讻诇讬诇讗 讚砖讚讜 讗讟讘专讬讗 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讜讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬转讘讜 专讘谞谉 讘讛讚谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 注专讜拽讬谞谉 [讗诪专 诇讛讜] 注专讜拽讜 注专拽讜 驻诇讙讬讛讜谉 讚诇讬讜讛 驻诇讙讗


Commenting on Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 opinion, the Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi conformed to his standard line of reasoning, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Suffering comes to the world only due to ignoramuses. This is like the incident of the crown tax [kelila] that was imposed on the residents of the city of Tiberias. The heads of the city came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and said to him: The Sages should contribute along with us. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: No, the Sages are exempt. They said to him: Then we will run away and the entire burden will fall on the Torah scholars. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Run away as you please. Half of the city鈥檚 residents ran away. The authorities then waived half the sum that they had initially imposed on the city.


讗转讜 讛谞讛讜 驻诇讙讗 拽诪讬 讚专讘讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬转讘讜 专讘谞谉 讘讛讚谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗 注专讜拽讬谞谉 注专讜拽讜 注专拽讜 讻讜诇讛讜 驻砖 讛讛讜讗 讻讜讘住 砖讚讬讜讛 讗讻讜讘住 注专拽 讻讜讘住 驻拽注 讻诇讬诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 专讗讬转诐 砖讗讬谉 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓:


The half of the population that remained in the city then came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and said to him: The Sages should contribute along with us. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: No, the Sages are exempt. They said to him: Then we too will run away. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Run away as you please. They all ran away, so that only one launderer was left in the city. The authorities imposed the entire tax on the launderer. The launderer then ran away as well. The crown tax was then canceled in its entirety. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: You see from this that suffering comes to the world only due to ignoramuses, for as soon as they all fled from the city, the crown tax was completely canceled.


讜讻诪讛 讬讛讗 讘注讬专 讜讬讛讗 讻讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 讜讻讜壮: 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讛讞诪专转 讜讛讙诪诇转 讛注讜讘专转 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讜诇谞讛 讘转讜讻讛 讜讛讜讚讞讛 注诪讛谉 讛谉 讘住拽讬诇讛 讜诪诪讜谞谉 驻诇讟


搂 The mishna teaches: And how long must one live in the city to be considered like one of the people of the city? Twelve months. And we raise a contradiction from what is taught in a baraita: In the case of a donkey caravan or a camel caravan that was journeying from place to place, and it lodged inside an idolatrous city, and its members were led astray along with the other residents of the city, and they too engaged in idol worship, they, the members of the caravan, are liable to death by stoning like ordinary individual idolaters, and their property escapes destruction, i.e., they are not treated like the residents of an idolatrous city, who are liable to death by the sword and whose property is destroyed.


讜讗诐 谞砖转讛讜 砖诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讛谉 讘住讬讬祝 讜诪诪讜谞谉 讗讘讚


The baraita continues: And if the caravan members had remained in that city for thirty days, they are liable to death by the sword and their property is destroyed, just as it is for the rest of the residents of the city. This seems to indicate that once an individual has lived in a city for thirty days, he is already considered one of its residents.


讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诇讘谞讬 诪转讗 讛讗 诇讬转讜讘讬 诪转讗 讻讚转谞讬讗 讛诪讜讚专 讛谞讗讛 诪讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 讻诇 砖谞砖转讛讗 砖诐 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗住讜专 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪诪谞讜 驻讞讜转 诪讻讗谉 诪讜转专 诪讬讜砖讘讬 讛注讬专 讻诇 砖谞砖转讛讗 砖诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讗住讜专 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪诪谞讜 驻讞讜转 诪讻讗谉 诪讜转专 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪诪谞讜


Rava said: This is not difficult. This period, i.e., twelve months, is required in order to be considered one of the members of the city; and that period, i.e., thirty days, suffices in order to be considered one of the residents of the city. As it is taught in a baraita: One who is prohibited by a vow from deriving benefit from the people of a particular city is prohibited from deriving benefit from anyone who has stayed there for twelve months, but it is permitted for him to derive benefit from anyone who has stayed there for less time than that. By contrast, if he prohibited himself by way of a vow from deriving benefit from the residents of a particular city, he is prohibited from deriving benefit from anyone who has stayed there for thirty days, but it is permitted for him to derive benefit from anyone who has stayed there for less time than that.


讜诇讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诪讬 讘注讬谞谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇转诪讞讜讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诇拽讜驻讛 砖砖讛 诇讻住讜转 转砖注讛 诇拽讘讜专讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诇驻住讬 讛注讬专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讬 转谞谉 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 诇驻住讬 讛注讬专 转谞谉:


The Gemara asks: And do we require that one lives in a city for twelve months for all matters? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If one lives in city for thirty days, he must contribute to the charity platter from which food is distributed to the poor. If he lives there for three months, he must contribute to the charity box. If he lives there for six months, he must contribute to the clothing fund. If he lives there for nine months, he must contribute to the burial fund. If he lives there for twelve months, he must contribute to the columns of the city [lepassei ha鈥檌r], i.e., for the construction of a security fence. Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: When we learned twelve months in the mishna, we learned that with regard to contributing to the columns of the city, money used for protecting and strengthening the city, but not for other matters.


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻诇 诇驻住讬 讛注讬专 讜讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬 讗讘诇 专讘谞谉 诇讗 讚专讘谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讬 谞讟讬专讜转讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖讜专讗 讜诇驻专砖讗讛 讜诇讟专讝讬谞讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬 讗讘诇 专讘谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讬 谞讟讬专讜转讗 讻诇诇讗 讚诪讬诇转讗 讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗讬转 诇讛讜 讛谞讗讛 诪讬谞讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬


And Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: All are required to contribute to the columns of the city, and money is collected for that purpose even from orphans. But the Sages are not required to contribute, since the Sages do not need protection. Rav Pappa said: Money is collected even from orphans for the city wall, for the city horseman, and for the guard [uletarzina] of the city armory, but the Sages do not require protection. The principle of the matter is: Money is collected even from orphans for anything from which they derive benefit.


专讘讛 专诪讗 爪讚拽讛 讗讬转诪讬 讚讘讬 讘专 诪专讬讜谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛转谞讬 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬谉 驻讜住拽讬谉 爪讚拽讛 注诇 讛讬转讜诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诇驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 诇讗讞砖讜讘讬谞讛讜 拽讗 注讘讬讚谞讗


It is reported that Rabba imposed a contribution to a certain charity on the orphans of the house of bar Maryon. Abaye said to him: But didn鈥檛 Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda teach: One does not impose a charity obligation on orphans even for the sake of redeeming captives, since they are minors and are not obligated in the mitzvot? Rabba said to him: I did this to elevate them in standing, i.e., so that people should honor them as generous benefactors; not in order that the poor should benefit.


讗讬驻专讗 讛讜专诪讬讝 讗讬诪讬讛 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 砖讚专讛 讗专谞拽讗 讚讚讬谞专讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛讜讬 诇诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讬转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜拽讗 诪注讬讬谉 讘讛 诪讗讬 诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讚转谞讬 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬谉 驻讜住拽讬谉 爪讚拽讛 注诇 讛讬转讜诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诇驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


Incidental to this story, the Gemara relates that Ifera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapur, king of Persia, sent a purse [arneka] full of dinars to Rav Yosef. She said to him: Let the money be used for a great mitzva. Rav Yosef sat and considered the question: What did Ifera Hurmiz mean when she attached a condition to the gift, saying that it should be used for a great mitzva? Abaye said to him: From what Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda taught, that one does not impose a charity obligation on orphans even for the sake of redeeming captives, learn from this


驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讛讬讗


that redeeming captives is a great mitzva.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘讛 讘专 诪专讬 诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讚驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讛讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讻讬 讬讗诪专讜 讗诇讬讱 讗谞讛 谞爪讗 讜讗诪专转 讗诇讬讛诐 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讗砖专 诇诪讜转 诇诪讜转 讜讗砖专 诇讞专讘 诇讞专讘 讜讗砖专 诇专注讘 诇专注讘 讜讗砖专 诇砖讘讬 诇砖讘讬 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛诪讗讜讞专 讘驻住讜拽 讝讛 拽砖讛 诪讞讘讬专讜


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: Concerning this matter that the Sages stated, that redeeming captives is a great mitzva, from where is it derived? Rabba bar Mari said to him: As it is written: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, when they say to you: To where shall we depart? Then you shall tell them: So says the Lord: Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for famine, to famine; and such as are for captivity, to captivity鈥 (Jeremiah 15:2). And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Whichever punishment is written later in this verse is more severe than the one before it.


讞专讘 拽砖讛 诪诪讜转 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗 讛讗讬 拽讗 诪讬谞讜讜诇 讜讛讗讬 诇讗 拽讗 诪讬谞讜讜诇 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讬拽专 讘注讬谞讬 讛壮 讛诪讜转讛 诇讞住讬讚讬讜


Rabbi Yo岣nan explains: The sword is worse than death. If you wish, say that this is learned from a verse; if you wish, say instead that it is derived by way of logical reasoning. If you wish, say that this is derived by way of logical reasoning: This punishment, i.e., death by sword, mutilates the body, but that punishment, i.e., natural death, does not mutilate it. And if you wish, say that the fact that the sword is worse than death is learned from a verse: 鈥淧recious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His pious ones鈥 (Psalms 116:15).


专注讘 拽砖讛 诪讞专讘 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗 讛讗讬 拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讜讛讗讬 诇讗 拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讬讜 讞诇诇讬 讞专讘 诪讞诇诇讬 专注讘 砖讘讬 [拽砖讛 诪讻讜诇诐] 讚讻讜诇讛讜 讗讬转谞讛讜 讘讬讛:


Famine is worse than the sword. If you wish, say that this is derived by way of logical reasoning: This one, who dies of famine, suffers greatly before departing from this world, but that one, who dies by the sword, does not suffer. If you wish, say instead that the fact that famine is worse than the sword is learned from a verse: 鈥淢ore fortunate were the victims of the sword than the victims of famine鈥 (Lamentations 4:9). And captivity is worse than all of them, as it includes all of them, i.e., famine, the sword, and death.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 拽讜驻讛 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 谞讙讘讬转 讘砖谞讬诐 讜诪转讞诇拽转 讘砖诇砖讛 谞讙讘讬转 讘砖谞讬诐 砖讗讬谉 注讜砖讬诐 砖专专讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 驻讞讜转 诪砖谞讬诐 讜诪转讞诇拽转 讘砖诇砖讛 讻讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转


搂 In connection with the previous discussion concerning charity distribution, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: Money for the charity fund is collected by two people and distributed by three people. It is collected by two people because one does not appoint an authority over the community composed of fewer than two people. And it is distributed by three people, like the number of judges needed in cases of monetary law, since the distributors determine who receives money and who does not, as well as how much each person receives.


转诪讞讜讬 谞讙讘讬转 讘砖诇砖讛 讜诪转讞诇拽转 讘砖诇砖讛 砖讙讘讜讬讛 讜讞诇讜拽讛 砖讜讬诐 转诪讞讜讬 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 拽讜驻讛 诪注专讘 砖讘转 诇注专讘 砖讘转


Food for the charity platter is collected by three people and distributed by three people because its collection and its distribution take place on the same day. Food for the charity platter is collected and distributed every day, and therefore a third individual must participate in the collection so that he will be available to take part in the distribution without delay; whereas the money of the charity fund is distributed only once a week, on each Shabbat eve.


转诪讞讜讬 诇注谞讬讬 注讜诇诐 拽讜驻讛 诇注谞讬讬 讛注讬专 讜专砖讗讬诐 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 诇注砖讜转 拽讜驻讛 转诪讞讜讬 讜转诪讞讜讬 拽讜驻讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 诇讻诇 诪讛 砖讬专爪讜


There are additional differences between these two types of charity operations: The food from the charity platter is distributed to the poor of the world, meaning, to any poor individual arriving in the city; the money of the charity fund is allocated exclusively to the poor of the city. But it is permitted for the residents of the city to use money that has been collected for the charity fund to purchase food for the charity platter to feed the poor; and similarly they may use food that had been collected for the charity platter for the charity fund. In general, it is permitted for them to change the purpose toward which charity will be used to whatever they want, in accordance with the needs of the community.


讜专砖讗讬谉 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 诇讛转谞讜转 注诇 讛诪讚讜转 讜注诇 讛砖注专讬诐 讜注诇 砖讻专 驻讜注诇讬诐 讜诇讛住讬注 注诇 拽讬爪转谉


Similarly, it is permitted for the residents of the city to set the measures used in that city, the prices set for products sold there, and the wages paid to its workers, and to fine people for violating their specifications, in order to enforce observance of these halakhot. This marks the end of the baraita, the details of which the Gemara proceeds to analyze.


讗诪专 诪专 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 砖专专讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 驻讞讜转 诪砖谞讬诐 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛诐 讬拽讞讜 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讜讙讜壮


The Master said in the baraita: One does not appoint an authority over the community composed of fewer than two people. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Na岣an says that this is derived from a verse referring to those engaged in building the Tabernacle and weaving the priestly vestments, who received the community鈥檚 donations. The verse states: 鈥淎nd they shall take the gold, and the sky-blue wool, and the purple wool鈥 (Exodus 28:5). The plural 鈥渢hey鈥 indicates that the collection must be performed by two people.


砖专专讜转 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬 讛讗 讛讬诪讜谞讬 诪讛讬诪谉 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪注砖讛 讜诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 砖谞讬 讗讞讬谉 注诇 讛拽讜驻讛


The Gemara comments: The baraita indicates that authority may not be exercised by less than two people, but even a single individual is trusted to be a treasurer. That is, money for the charity fund is collected by two people, not because a single individual is not trusted not to misappropriate the money, but rather because a single individual should not be given authority over the community. This supports the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina, as Rabbi 岣nina says: There was an incident where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi appointed two brothers to administer the charity fund. Even though the brothers were relatives who are not trusted to testify against each other, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was not concerned and he appointed them.


诪讗讬 砖专专讜转讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 诇驻讬 砖诪诪砖讻谞讬谉 注诇 讛爪讚拽讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜驻拽讚转讬 注诇 讻诇 诇讞爪讬讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 诪专转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讜讗驻讬诇讜 注诇 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛


The Gemara asks: What authority is associated with collecting charity? The Gemara answers: As Rav Na岣an says that Rabba bar Avuh says: Because they can seize collateral for the charity; i.e., they can collect charity by force, and even on Shabbat eve, when people are busy and might claim that they have no time or money. The Gemara objects: Is that so? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淚 will punish all that oppress them鈥 (Jeremiah 30:20), and Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Shmuel bar Marta says in the name of Rav: And punishment will be meted out even to charity collectors? If charity collectors are permitted to force people to contribute charity, why are they counted among Israel鈥檚 oppressors?


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗诪讬讚 讛讗 讚诇讗 讗诪讬讚 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讗 讗讻驻讬讛 诇专讘 谞转谉 讘专 讗诪讬 讜砖拽讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讝讜讝讬 诇爪讚拽讛


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, Rabbi Na岣an鈥檚 statement, applies when the contributor is rich, in which case the collectors may seize money from him even by force. That, Rabbi Yitz岣k鈥檚 statement, applies when he is not rich, in which case the collectors who take money from him by force are termed oppressors of Israel. This right to force contributions from the rich is like what occurred in the incident in which Rava compelled Rav Natan bar Ami and took four hundred dinars from him for charity.


讜讛诪砖讻诇讬诐 讬讝讛专讜 讻讝讛专 讛专拽讬注 讜讙讜壮 讛诪砖讻诇讬诐 讬讝讛专讜 讻讝讛专 讛专拽讬注 讝讛 讚讬讬谉 砖讚谉 讚讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗诪转讜 讜诪爪讚讬拽讬 讛专讘讬诐 讻讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚 讗诇讜 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛


Having raised the issue of charity collection, the Gemara cites various rabbinic expositions with regard to the matter. The verse states: 鈥淎nd they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament; and they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever鈥 (Daniel 12:3). 鈥淎nd they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament鈥; this is a judge who judges an absolutely true judgment, as his wisdom and understanding lead him to a correct judgment. 鈥淎nd they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever鈥; these are the charity collectors, who facilitate the giving of charity.


讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讜讛诪砖讻诇讬诐 讬讝讛专讜 讻讝讛专 讛专拽讬注 讝讛 讚讬讬谉 砖讚谉 讚讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗诪转讜 讜讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛 讜诪爪讚讬拽讬 讛专讘讬诐 讻讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚 讗诇讜 诪诇诪讚讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讻讙讜谉 诪讗谉 讗诪专 专讘 讻讙讜谉 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 讚专讘 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 讚讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讘讙讬谞转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讘拽转讬讛 诇讛讬诪谞讜转讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讗 转诇讬住专 砖谞讬谉 讚诇讗 讞讝讬讗 诇讬 讜讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 讚注转讗讬 注诇讜讬讛讜


It was taught in a baraita: 鈥淎nd they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament鈥; this is a judge who judges an absolutely true judgment and also charity collectors. 鈥淎nd they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever鈥; these are schoolteachers. The Gemara asks: Like whom? Certainly not every schoolteacher is worthy of such accolades. Rav said: For example, Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat. As it is told that Rav once found Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat standing in a garden. Rav said to him: Have you abandoned your trust and neglected your students? Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat said to him: It has been thirteen years now that I have not seen my garden, and even now my thoughts are on the children.


讜专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讛讘讬讜 讻爪讗转 讛砖诪砖 讘讙讘专转讜


In light of the praises heaped upon judges, tax collectors, and schoolteachers, the Gemara asks: And what was said about the Sages? Ravina said that about them it is stated: 鈥淏ut let them that love Him be as the sun when it comes out in its might鈥 (Judges 5:31).


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛 讗讬谞谉 专砖讗讬谉 诇驻专讜砖 讝讛 诪讝讛 讗讘诇 驻讜专砖 讝讛 诇砖注专 讜讝讛 诇讞谞讜转 诪爪讗 诪注讜转 讘砖讜拽 诇讗 讬转谞诐 讘转讜讱 讻讬住讜 讗诇讗 谞讜转谞谉 诇转讜讱 讗专谞拽讬 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讜诇讻砖讬讘讗 诇讘讬转讜 讬讟诇诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 讛讬讛 谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜驻专注讜 讘砖讜拽 诇讗 讬转谞谞讜 诇转讜讱 讻讬住讜 讗诇讗 谞讜转谞谉 诇转讜讱 讗专谞拽讬 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讜诇讻砖讬讘讗 诇讘讬转讜 讬讟诇诐


The Gemara resumes its discussion of the halakhot of charity collection: The Sages taught in a baraita: Charity collectors may not separate from each other, each one collecting in a different place; but in a place where the two can see each other, one collector may separate from the other, e.g., this one going to the gate of a house and that one going to a store. If a charity collector found coins in the market, he may not put them into his own pocket, but rather he must put them into the charity purse, and then later when he comes home, he may take them from there. This is necessary so that people should not suspect him of taking charity money for himself. Similarly, if the charity collector was owed one hundred dinars by another, and the latter repaid his debt in the market, the collector may not put the money he received into his own pocket, but rather he must put it into the charity purse, and then later when he comes home, he may take it.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 注谞讬讬诐 诇讞诇拽 驻讜专讟讬谉 诇讗讞专讬诐 讜讗讬谉 驻讜专讟讬谉 诇注爪诪谉 讙讘讗讬 转诪讞讜讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 注谞讬讬诐 诇讞诇拽 诪讜讻专讬谉 诇讗讞专讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讜讻专讬谉 诇注爪诪谉 诪注讜转 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讗讬谉 诪讜谞讬谉 讗讜转谉 砖转讬诐 讗诇讗 讗讞转 讗讞转


The Sages taught in a baraita: Charity collectors who have no poor people to whom they can distribute the money, may exchange [poretin] the money, i.e., exchange the copper coins, which tend to rust, for silver dinars, with other people, but they should not change it by themselves, i.e., with their own coins, to avoid any suspicion of wrongdoing. Likewise, collectors of food for the charity platter who do not have poor people to whom to distribute the food may sell the food to others, but they should not sell it to themselves, for a similar reason. Coins of charity are not counted two by two, but rather one by one, to avoid errors in tallying.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪专讬砖 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 诪专 讗爪讬驻讬 讚讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讛 诇讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 诇讻诇 诪讛 砖讬专爪讜 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪专讬砖 讛讜讛 注讘讬讚 诪专 转专讬 讻讬住讬 讞讚 诇注谞讬讬 讚注诇诪讗 讜讞讚 诇注谞讬讬 讚诪转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讛 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 转讞诇讬驻讗 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 注讘讬讚 讞讚 讻讬住讗


Abaye said: At first, my Master, Rabba, would not sit on the mats in the synagogue because they had been purchased with charity funds. Once he heard that which is taught in a baraita, that it is permitted for the residents of a city to change the purpose toward which charity will be used to whatever they want, he did sit on them. Abaye said: At first, my Master, Rabba, would make two purses, one for the poor of the rest of the world, and one for the poor of his city. Once he heard what Shmuel said to Rav Ta岣lifa bar Avdimi: Make only one purse,


  • Masechet聽Bava Batra is sponsored by聽Lori Stark in loving memory of her mother in law, Sara Shapiro z"l and her father Nehemiah Sosewitz z"l.

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Bava Batra 8

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Bava Batra 8

讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 住讘专 诇讛 讻讚讚专砖 专讘讗 讗谞讬 讞讜诪讛 讝讜 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 讜砖讚讬 讻诪讙讚诇讜转 讗诇讜 讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转


these are Torah scholars, and towers do not require additional protection? The Gemara comments: And Reish Lakish, who did not cite this verse, holds in accordance with the way that Rava expounded the verse: 鈥淚 am a wall鈥; this is referring to the Congregation of Israel. 鈥淎nd my breasts are like towers鈥; these are the synagogues and study halls.


专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 专诪讗 讻专讙讗 讗专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 注讘专转 讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜讗讚谞讘讬讗讬 讜讗讚讻转讜讘讬


It is similarly related that Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda once imposed payment of the poll tax [karga] even on the Sages. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said to him: You have transgressed the words of the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings.


讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗祝 讞讘讘 注诪讬诐 讻诇 拽讚砖讬讜 讘讬讚讱 讗诪专 诪砖讛 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖注讛 砖讗转讛 诪讞讘讘 注诪讬诐 讻诇 拽讚讜砖讬讜 讬讛讬讜 讘讬讚讱 讜讛诐 转讻讜 诇专讙诇讱 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪讻转转讬诐 专讙诇讬讛诐 诪注讬专 诇注讬专 讜诪诪讚讬谞讛 诇诪讚讬谞讛 诇诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讬砖讗 诪讚讘专讜转讬讱 诇讬砖讗 讜诇讬转谉 讘讚讘讜专讜转讬讜 砖诇 诪拽讜诐


You have transgressed the words of the Torah, as it is written: 鈥淓ven when He loves the peoples, all His holy ones are in Your hand鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:3), which is understood to mean that Moses said to the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even when You hold the other nations dear and grant them dominion over Israel, let 鈥渁ll His holy ones,鈥 meaning the Torah scholars, be exclusively in Your hand and free from the authority of the nations, and therefore be exempt from paying taxes. The continuation of that verse can also be understood as referring to Torah scholars, as it states: 鈥淎nd they sit [tukku] at Your feet, receiving Your words鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:3), and Rav Yosef teaches: These are Torah scholars who pound [mekhatetim] their feet from city to city and from country to country to study Torah; 鈥渞eceiving [yissa] Your words,鈥 to discuss [lissa velitten] the utterances of God.


讗讚谞讘讬讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讻讬 讬转谞讜 讘讙讜讬诐 注转讛 讗拽讘爪诐 讜讬讞诇讜 诪注讟 诪诪砖讗 诪诇讱 讜砖专讬诐 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 驻住讜拽 讝讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬转 谞讗诪专 讗讬 转谞讜 讻讜诇讛讜 注转讛 讗拽讘爪诐 讜讗诐 诪注讟 诪讛诐 讬讞诇讜 诪诪砖讗 诪诇讱 讜砖专讬诐


And you have transgressed the words of the Prophets, as it is written: 鈥淭hough they have hired lovers [yitnu] among the nations, now I will gather them, and they will begin to be diminished by reason of the burden of kings and princes鈥 (Hosea 8:10). With regard to this verse, Ulla says: Part of this verse is stated in the Aramaic language; the word yitnu should be understood here in its Aramaic sense: To learn. And the verse should be interpreted as follows: If all of Israel learns Torah, I will gather them already now; and if only a few of them learn Torah, they will be excused from the burden imposed by kings and princes. This indicates that those who study Torah should not be subject to paying taxes.


讗讚讻转讜讘讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪谞讚讛 讘诇讜 讜讛诇讱 诇讗 砖诇讬讟 诇诪专诪讗 注诇讬讛诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪谞讚讛 讝讜 诪谞转 讛诪诇讱 讘诇讜 讝讜 讻住祝 讙讜诇讙诇转讗 讜讛诇讱 讝讜 讗专谞讜谞讗


And furthermore, you have transgressed the words of the Writings, as it is written: 鈥淚t shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost or toll upon them鈥 (Ezra 7:24), i.e., upon the priests and Levites who serve in the Temple. This halakha would apply to Torah scholars as well. And Rav Yehuda says: 鈥淭ribute鈥; this is referring to the king鈥檚 portion, a tax given to the king. 鈥淚mpost鈥; this is referring to the head tax. 鈥淭oll鈥; this is referring to a tax [arnona] paid with property that was imposed from time to time.


专讘 驻驻讗 专诪讗 讻专讬讗 讞讚转讗 讗讬转诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讜讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 诪讬讚讜讬诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬砖拽诇 砖拽讬诇谞讗 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬 诪讬讚讜讬诇 诪讬讚讜讬诇 讜讗讬 诇讗 诪讛讚专谞讗 诇讛 谞讬讛诇讬讬讛讜


It is related that Rav Pappa once imposed a tax for the digging of a new cistern even on orphans. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said to Rav Pappa: Perhaps they will dig, but in the end they will not draw any water from there, and it will turn out that the money will have been spent for nothing. The rest of the townspeople can relinquish their rights to their money, but orphans who are minors cannot do so. Rav Pappa said to him: I shall collect money from the orphans; if they draw water, they will draw water, and if not, I will return the money to the orphans.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻诇 诇讗讙诇讬 讙驻讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬 讗讘诇 专讘谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讬 谞讟讬专讜转讗 讛讻诇 诇讻专讬讗 驻转讬讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诪专讘谞谉 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 谞驻拽讬 讘讗讻诇讜讝讗 讗讘诇 谞驻拽讬 讘讗讻诇讜讝讗 专讘谞谉 诇讗讜 讘谞讬 诪讬驻拽 讘讗讻诇讜讝讗 谞讬谞讛讜:


Rav Yehuda says: All of the city鈥檚 residents must contribute to the building and upkeep of the city gates [le鈥檃glei gappa], and for this purpose money is collected even from orphans. But the Sages do not require protection and are therefore exempt from this payment. All of the city鈥檚 residents must contribute to the digging of cisterns [lekarya patya], and for this purpose money is collected even from the Sages, since they too need water. The Gemara comments: And we said this only when the people are not required to go out en masse [be鈥檃khluza] and do the actual digging, but are obligated merely to contribute money for that purpose. But if the people are required to go out en masse and actually dig, the Sages are not expected to go out with them en masse, but rather they are exempt from such labor.


专讘讬 驻转讞 讗讜爪专讜转 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讗诪专 讬讻谞住讜 讘注诇讬 诪拽专讗 讘注诇讬 诪砖谞讛 讘注诇讬 转诇诪讜讚 讘注诇讬 讛诇讻讛 讘注诇讬 讛讙讚讛 讗讘诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓 讗诇 讬讻谞住讜 讚讞拽 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注诪专诐 讜谞讻谞住 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 驻专谞住谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 拽专讬转 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 砖谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 讗诐 讻谉 讘诪讛 讗驻专谞住讱 [讗诪专 诇讜] 驻专谞住谞讬 讻讻诇讘 讜讻注讜专讘 驻专谞住讬讛


It is related that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once opened his storehouses to distribute food during years of drought. He said: Masters of Bible, masters of Mishna, masters of Talmud, masters of halakha, masters of aggada may enter and receive food from me, but ignoramuses should not enter. Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram, whom Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did not know, pushed his way in, and entered, and said to him: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, sustain me. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My son, have you read the Bible? Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram said to him, out of modesty: No. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi continued: Have you studied Mishna? Once again, Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram said to him: No. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then asked him: If so, by what merit should I sustain you? Rabbi Yonatan ben Amram said to him: Sustain me like a dog and like a raven, who are given food even though they have not learned anything. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was moved by his words and fed him.


讘转专 讚谞驻拽 讬转讬讘 专讘讬 讜拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讜讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖谞转转讬 驻转讬 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 专讘讬 砖诪讗 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注诪专诐 转诇诪讬讚讱 讛讜讗 砖讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛 诪讬诪讬讜 讘讚拽讜 讜讗砖讻讞 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讻谞住讜 讛讻诇


After Rabbi Yonatan left, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sat, and was distressed, and said: Woe is me, that I have given my bread to an ignoramus. His son, Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said to him: Perhaps he was your disciple Yonatan ben Amram, who never in his life wanted to materially benefit from the honor shown to the Torah? They investigated the matter and found that such was the case. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then said: Let everyone enter, as there may also be others who hide the fact that they are true Torah scholars.


专讘讬 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬谉 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓 讻讛讛讜讗 讚诪讬 讻诇讬诇讗 讚砖讚讜 讗讟讘专讬讗 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讜讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬转讘讜 专讘谞谉 讘讛讚谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 注专讜拽讬谞谉 [讗诪专 诇讛讜] 注专讜拽讜 注专拽讜 驻诇讙讬讛讜谉 讚诇讬讜讛 驻诇讙讗


Commenting on Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 opinion, the Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi conformed to his standard line of reasoning, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Suffering comes to the world only due to ignoramuses. This is like the incident of the crown tax [kelila] that was imposed on the residents of the city of Tiberias. The heads of the city came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and said to him: The Sages should contribute along with us. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: No, the Sages are exempt. They said to him: Then we will run away and the entire burden will fall on the Torah scholars. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Run away as you please. Half of the city鈥檚 residents ran away. The authorities then waived half the sum that they had initially imposed on the city.


讗转讜 讛谞讛讜 驻诇讙讗 拽诪讬 讚专讘讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬转讘讜 专讘谞谉 讘讛讚谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讗 注专讜拽讬谞谉 注专讜拽讜 注专拽讜 讻讜诇讛讜 驻砖 讛讛讜讗 讻讜讘住 砖讚讬讜讛 讗讻讜讘住 注专拽 讻讜讘住 驻拽注 讻诇讬诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 专讗讬转诐 砖讗讬谉 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 注诪讬 讛讗专抓:


The half of the population that remained in the city then came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and said to him: The Sages should contribute along with us. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: No, the Sages are exempt. They said to him: Then we too will run away. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Run away as you please. They all ran away, so that only one launderer was left in the city. The authorities imposed the entire tax on the launderer. The launderer then ran away as well. The crown tax was then canceled in its entirety. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: You see from this that suffering comes to the world only due to ignoramuses, for as soon as they all fled from the city, the crown tax was completely canceled.


讜讻诪讛 讬讛讗 讘注讬专 讜讬讛讗 讻讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 讜讻讜壮: 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讛讞诪专转 讜讛讙诪诇转 讛注讜讘专转 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讜诇谞讛 讘转讜讻讛 讜讛讜讚讞讛 注诪讛谉 讛谉 讘住拽讬诇讛 讜诪诪讜谞谉 驻诇讟


搂 The mishna teaches: And how long must one live in the city to be considered like one of the people of the city? Twelve months. And we raise a contradiction from what is taught in a baraita: In the case of a donkey caravan or a camel caravan that was journeying from place to place, and it lodged inside an idolatrous city, and its members were led astray along with the other residents of the city, and they too engaged in idol worship, they, the members of the caravan, are liable to death by stoning like ordinary individual idolaters, and their property escapes destruction, i.e., they are not treated like the residents of an idolatrous city, who are liable to death by the sword and whose property is destroyed.


讜讗诐 谞砖转讛讜 砖诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讛谉 讘住讬讬祝 讜诪诪讜谞谉 讗讘讚


The baraita continues: And if the caravan members had remained in that city for thirty days, they are liable to death by the sword and their property is destroyed, just as it is for the rest of the residents of the city. This seems to indicate that once an individual has lived in a city for thirty days, he is already considered one of its residents.


讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诇讘谞讬 诪转讗 讛讗 诇讬转讜讘讬 诪转讗 讻讚转谞讬讗 讛诪讜讚专 讛谞讗讛 诪讗谞砖讬 讛注讬专 讻诇 砖谞砖转讛讗 砖诐 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗住讜专 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪诪谞讜 驻讞讜转 诪讻讗谉 诪讜转专 诪讬讜砖讘讬 讛注讬专 讻诇 砖谞砖转讛讗 砖诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讗住讜专 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪诪谞讜 驻讞讜转 诪讻讗谉 诪讜转专 诇讬讛谞讜转 诪诪谞讜


Rava said: This is not difficult. This period, i.e., twelve months, is required in order to be considered one of the members of the city; and that period, i.e., thirty days, suffices in order to be considered one of the residents of the city. As it is taught in a baraita: One who is prohibited by a vow from deriving benefit from the people of a particular city is prohibited from deriving benefit from anyone who has stayed there for twelve months, but it is permitted for him to derive benefit from anyone who has stayed there for less time than that. By contrast, if he prohibited himself by way of a vow from deriving benefit from the residents of a particular city, he is prohibited from deriving benefit from anyone who has stayed there for thirty days, but it is permitted for him to derive benefit from anyone who has stayed there for less time than that.


讜诇讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诪讬 讘注讬谞谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇转诪讞讜讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诇拽讜驻讛 砖砖讛 诇讻住讜转 转砖注讛 诇拽讘讜专讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诇驻住讬 讛注讬专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讬 转谞谉 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 诇驻住讬 讛注讬专 转谞谉:


The Gemara asks: And do we require that one lives in a city for twelve months for all matters? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If one lives in city for thirty days, he must contribute to the charity platter from which food is distributed to the poor. If he lives there for three months, he must contribute to the charity box. If he lives there for six months, he must contribute to the clothing fund. If he lives there for nine months, he must contribute to the burial fund. If he lives there for twelve months, he must contribute to the columns of the city [lepassei ha鈥檌r], i.e., for the construction of a security fence. Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: When we learned twelve months in the mishna, we learned that with regard to contributing to the columns of the city, money used for protecting and strengthening the city, but not for other matters.


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻诇 诇驻住讬 讛注讬专 讜讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬 讗讘诇 专讘谞谉 诇讗 讚专讘谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讬 谞讟讬专讜转讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖讜专讗 讜诇驻专砖讗讛 讜诇讟专讝讬谞讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬 讗讘诇 专讘谞谉 诇讗 爪专讬讻讬 谞讟讬专讜转讗 讻诇诇讗 讚诪讬诇转讗 讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗讬转 诇讛讜 讛谞讗讛 诪讬谞讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬转诪讬


And Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: All are required to contribute to the columns of the city, and money is collected for that purpose even from orphans. But the Sages are not required to contribute, since the Sages do not need protection. Rav Pappa said: Money is collected even from orphans for the city wall, for the city horseman, and for the guard [uletarzina] of the city armory, but the Sages do not require protection. The principle of the matter is: Money is collected even from orphans for anything from which they derive benefit.


专讘讛 专诪讗 爪讚拽讛 讗讬转诪讬 讚讘讬 讘专 诪专讬讜谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛转谞讬 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬谉 驻讜住拽讬谉 爪讚拽讛 注诇 讛讬转讜诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诇驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 诇讗讞砖讜讘讬谞讛讜 拽讗 注讘讬讚谞讗


It is reported that Rabba imposed a contribution to a certain charity on the orphans of the house of bar Maryon. Abaye said to him: But didn鈥檛 Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda teach: One does not impose a charity obligation on orphans even for the sake of redeeming captives, since they are minors and are not obligated in the mitzvot? Rabba said to him: I did this to elevate them in standing, i.e., so that people should honor them as generous benefactors; not in order that the poor should benefit.


讗讬驻专讗 讛讜专诪讬讝 讗讬诪讬讛 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 砖讚专讛 讗专谞拽讗 讚讚讬谞专讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛讜讬 诇诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讬转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜拽讗 诪注讬讬谉 讘讛 诪讗讬 诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讚转谞讬 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬谉 驻讜住拽讬谉 爪讚拽讛 注诇 讛讬转讜诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诇驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


Incidental to this story, the Gemara relates that Ifera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapur, king of Persia, sent a purse [arneka] full of dinars to Rav Yosef. She said to him: Let the money be used for a great mitzva. Rav Yosef sat and considered the question: What did Ifera Hurmiz mean when she attached a condition to the gift, saying that it should be used for a great mitzva? Abaye said to him: From what Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda taught, that one does not impose a charity obligation on orphans even for the sake of redeeming captives, learn from this


驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讛讬讗


that redeeming captives is a great mitzva.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘讛 讘专 诪专讬 诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讚驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讜讬诐 诪爪讜讛 专讘讛 讛讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讻讬 讬讗诪专讜 讗诇讬讱 讗谞讛 谞爪讗 讜讗诪专转 讗诇讬讛诐 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讗砖专 诇诪讜转 诇诪讜转 讜讗砖专 诇讞专讘 诇讞专讘 讜讗砖专 诇专注讘 诇专注讘 讜讗砖专 诇砖讘讬 诇砖讘讬 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛诪讗讜讞专 讘驻住讜拽 讝讛 拽砖讛 诪讞讘讬专讜


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: Concerning this matter that the Sages stated, that redeeming captives is a great mitzva, from where is it derived? Rabba bar Mari said to him: As it is written: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, when they say to you: To where shall we depart? Then you shall tell them: So says the Lord: Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for famine, to famine; and such as are for captivity, to captivity鈥 (Jeremiah 15:2). And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Whichever punishment is written later in this verse is more severe than the one before it.


讞专讘 拽砖讛 诪诪讜转 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗 讛讗讬 拽讗 诪讬谞讜讜诇 讜讛讗讬 诇讗 拽讗 诪讬谞讜讜诇 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讬拽专 讘注讬谞讬 讛壮 讛诪讜转讛 诇讞住讬讚讬讜


Rabbi Yo岣nan explains: The sword is worse than death. If you wish, say that this is learned from a verse; if you wish, say instead that it is derived by way of logical reasoning. If you wish, say that this is derived by way of logical reasoning: This punishment, i.e., death by sword, mutilates the body, but that punishment, i.e., natural death, does not mutilate it. And if you wish, say that the fact that the sword is worse than death is learned from a verse: 鈥淧recious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His pious ones鈥 (Psalms 116:15).


专注讘 拽砖讛 诪讞专讘 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗 讛讗讬 拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讜讛讗讬 诇讗 拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讬讜 讞诇诇讬 讞专讘 诪讞诇诇讬 专注讘 砖讘讬 [拽砖讛 诪讻讜诇诐] 讚讻讜诇讛讜 讗讬转谞讛讜 讘讬讛:


Famine is worse than the sword. If you wish, say that this is derived by way of logical reasoning: This one, who dies of famine, suffers greatly before departing from this world, but that one, who dies by the sword, does not suffer. If you wish, say instead that the fact that famine is worse than the sword is learned from a verse: 鈥淢ore fortunate were the victims of the sword than the victims of famine鈥 (Lamentations 4:9). And captivity is worse than all of them, as it includes all of them, i.e., famine, the sword, and death.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 拽讜驻讛 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 谞讙讘讬转 讘砖谞讬诐 讜诪转讞诇拽转 讘砖诇砖讛 谞讙讘讬转 讘砖谞讬诐 砖讗讬谉 注讜砖讬诐 砖专专讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 驻讞讜转 诪砖谞讬诐 讜诪转讞诇拽转 讘砖诇砖讛 讻讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转


搂 In connection with the previous discussion concerning charity distribution, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: Money for the charity fund is collected by two people and distributed by three people. It is collected by two people because one does not appoint an authority over the community composed of fewer than two people. And it is distributed by three people, like the number of judges needed in cases of monetary law, since the distributors determine who receives money and who does not, as well as how much each person receives.


转诪讞讜讬 谞讙讘讬转 讘砖诇砖讛 讜诪转讞诇拽转 讘砖诇砖讛 砖讙讘讜讬讛 讜讞诇讜拽讛 砖讜讬诐 转诪讞讜讬 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 拽讜驻讛 诪注专讘 砖讘转 诇注专讘 砖讘转


Food for the charity platter is collected by three people and distributed by three people because its collection and its distribution take place on the same day. Food for the charity platter is collected and distributed every day, and therefore a third individual must participate in the collection so that he will be available to take part in the distribution without delay; whereas the money of the charity fund is distributed only once a week, on each Shabbat eve.


转诪讞讜讬 诇注谞讬讬 注讜诇诐 拽讜驻讛 诇注谞讬讬 讛注讬专 讜专砖讗讬诐 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 诇注砖讜转 拽讜驻讛 转诪讞讜讬 讜转诪讞讜讬 拽讜驻讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 诇讻诇 诪讛 砖讬专爪讜


There are additional differences between these two types of charity operations: The food from the charity platter is distributed to the poor of the world, meaning, to any poor individual arriving in the city; the money of the charity fund is allocated exclusively to the poor of the city. But it is permitted for the residents of the city to use money that has been collected for the charity fund to purchase food for the charity platter to feed the poor; and similarly they may use food that had been collected for the charity platter for the charity fund. In general, it is permitted for them to change the purpose toward which charity will be used to whatever they want, in accordance with the needs of the community.


讜专砖讗讬谉 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 诇讛转谞讜转 注诇 讛诪讚讜转 讜注诇 讛砖注专讬诐 讜注诇 砖讻专 驻讜注诇讬诐 讜诇讛住讬注 注诇 拽讬爪转谉


Similarly, it is permitted for the residents of the city to set the measures used in that city, the prices set for products sold there, and the wages paid to its workers, and to fine people for violating their specifications, in order to enforce observance of these halakhot. This marks the end of the baraita, the details of which the Gemara proceeds to analyze.


讗诪专 诪专 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 砖专专讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 驻讞讜转 诪砖谞讬诐 诪谞讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛诐 讬拽讞讜 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讜讙讜壮


The Master said in the baraita: One does not appoint an authority over the community composed of fewer than two people. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Na岣an says that this is derived from a verse referring to those engaged in building the Tabernacle and weaving the priestly vestments, who received the community鈥檚 donations. The verse states: 鈥淎nd they shall take the gold, and the sky-blue wool, and the purple wool鈥 (Exodus 28:5). The plural 鈥渢hey鈥 indicates that the collection must be performed by two people.


砖专专讜转 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬 讛讗 讛讬诪讜谞讬 诪讛讬诪谉 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪注砖讛 讜诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 砖谞讬 讗讞讬谉 注诇 讛拽讜驻讛


The Gemara comments: The baraita indicates that authority may not be exercised by less than two people, but even a single individual is trusted to be a treasurer. That is, money for the charity fund is collected by two people, not because a single individual is not trusted not to misappropriate the money, but rather because a single individual should not be given authority over the community. This supports the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina, as Rabbi 岣nina says: There was an incident where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi appointed two brothers to administer the charity fund. Even though the brothers were relatives who are not trusted to testify against each other, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was not concerned and he appointed them.


诪讗讬 砖专专讜转讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 诇驻讬 砖诪诪砖讻谞讬谉 注诇 讛爪讚拽讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜驻拽讚转讬 注诇 讻诇 诇讞爪讬讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 诪专转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讜讗驻讬诇讜 注诇 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛


The Gemara asks: What authority is associated with collecting charity? The Gemara answers: As Rav Na岣an says that Rabba bar Avuh says: Because they can seize collateral for the charity; i.e., they can collect charity by force, and even on Shabbat eve, when people are busy and might claim that they have no time or money. The Gemara objects: Is that so? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淚 will punish all that oppress them鈥 (Jeremiah 30:20), and Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Shmuel bar Marta says in the name of Rav: And punishment will be meted out even to charity collectors? If charity collectors are permitted to force people to contribute charity, why are they counted among Israel鈥檚 oppressors?


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗诪讬讚 讛讗 讚诇讗 讗诪讬讚 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讗 讗讻驻讬讛 诇专讘 谞转谉 讘专 讗诪讬 讜砖拽讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讝讜讝讬 诇爪讚拽讛


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, Rabbi Na岣an鈥檚 statement, applies when the contributor is rich, in which case the collectors may seize money from him even by force. That, Rabbi Yitz岣k鈥檚 statement, applies when he is not rich, in which case the collectors who take money from him by force are termed oppressors of Israel. This right to force contributions from the rich is like what occurred in the incident in which Rava compelled Rav Natan bar Ami and took four hundred dinars from him for charity.


讜讛诪砖讻诇讬诐 讬讝讛专讜 讻讝讛专 讛专拽讬注 讜讙讜壮 讛诪砖讻诇讬诐 讬讝讛专讜 讻讝讛专 讛专拽讬注 讝讛 讚讬讬谉 砖讚谉 讚讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗诪转讜 讜诪爪讚讬拽讬 讛专讘讬诐 讻讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚 讗诇讜 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛


Having raised the issue of charity collection, the Gemara cites various rabbinic expositions with regard to the matter. The verse states: 鈥淎nd they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament; and they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever鈥 (Daniel 12:3). 鈥淎nd they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament鈥; this is a judge who judges an absolutely true judgment, as his wisdom and understanding lead him to a correct judgment. 鈥淎nd they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever鈥; these are the charity collectors, who facilitate the giving of charity.


讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讜讛诪砖讻诇讬诐 讬讝讛专讜 讻讝讛专 讛专拽讬注 讝讛 讚讬讬谉 砖讚谉 讚讬谉 讗诪转 诇讗诪转讜 讜讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛 讜诪爪讚讬拽讬 讛专讘讬诐 讻讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚 讗诇讜 诪诇诪讚讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讻讙讜谉 诪讗谉 讗诪专 专讘 讻讙讜谉 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 讚专讘 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 讚讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讘讙讬谞转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讘拽转讬讛 诇讛讬诪谞讜转讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讗 转诇讬住专 砖谞讬谉 讚诇讗 讞讝讬讗 诇讬 讜讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 讚注转讗讬 注诇讜讬讛讜


It was taught in a baraita: 鈥淎nd they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament鈥; this is a judge who judges an absolutely true judgment and also charity collectors. 鈥淎nd they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever鈥; these are schoolteachers. The Gemara asks: Like whom? Certainly not every schoolteacher is worthy of such accolades. Rav said: For example, Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat. As it is told that Rav once found Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat standing in a garden. Rav said to him: Have you abandoned your trust and neglected your students? Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat said to him: It has been thirteen years now that I have not seen my garden, and even now my thoughts are on the children.


讜专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讛讘讬讜 讻爪讗转 讛砖诪砖 讘讙讘专转讜


In light of the praises heaped upon judges, tax collectors, and schoolteachers, the Gemara asks: And what was said about the Sages? Ravina said that about them it is stated: 鈥淏ut let them that love Him be as the sun when it comes out in its might鈥 (Judges 5:31).


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛 讗讬谞谉 专砖讗讬谉 诇驻专讜砖 讝讛 诪讝讛 讗讘诇 驻讜专砖 讝讛 诇砖注专 讜讝讛 诇讞谞讜转 诪爪讗 诪注讜转 讘砖讜拽 诇讗 讬转谞诐 讘转讜讱 讻讬住讜 讗诇讗 谞讜转谞谉 诇转讜讱 讗专谞拽讬 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讜诇讻砖讬讘讗 诇讘讬转讜 讬讟诇诐 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 讛讬讛 谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜驻专注讜 讘砖讜拽 诇讗 讬转谞谞讜 诇转讜讱 讻讬住讜 讗诇讗 谞讜转谞谉 诇转讜讱 讗专谞拽讬 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讜诇讻砖讬讘讗 诇讘讬转讜 讬讟诇诐


The Gemara resumes its discussion of the halakhot of charity collection: The Sages taught in a baraita: Charity collectors may not separate from each other, each one collecting in a different place; but in a place where the two can see each other, one collector may separate from the other, e.g., this one going to the gate of a house and that one going to a store. If a charity collector found coins in the market, he may not put them into his own pocket, but rather he must put them into the charity purse, and then later when he comes home, he may take them from there. This is necessary so that people should not suspect him of taking charity money for himself. Similarly, if the charity collector was owed one hundred dinars by another, and the latter repaid his debt in the market, the collector may not put the money he received into his own pocket, but rather he must put it into the charity purse, and then later when he comes home, he may take it.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙讘讗讬 爪讚拽讛 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 注谞讬讬诐 诇讞诇拽 驻讜专讟讬谉 诇讗讞专讬诐 讜讗讬谉 驻讜专讟讬谉 诇注爪诪谉 讙讘讗讬 转诪讞讜讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 注谞讬讬诐 诇讞诇拽 诪讜讻专讬谉 诇讗讞专讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讜讻专讬谉 诇注爪诪谉 诪注讜转 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讗讬谉 诪讜谞讬谉 讗讜转谉 砖转讬诐 讗诇讗 讗讞转 讗讞转


The Sages taught in a baraita: Charity collectors who have no poor people to whom they can distribute the money, may exchange [poretin] the money, i.e., exchange the copper coins, which tend to rust, for silver dinars, with other people, but they should not change it by themselves, i.e., with their own coins, to avoid any suspicion of wrongdoing. Likewise, collectors of food for the charity platter who do not have poor people to whom to distribute the food may sell the food to others, but they should not sell it to themselves, for a similar reason. Coins of charity are not counted two by two, but rather one by one, to avoid errors in tallying.


讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪专讬砖 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 诪专 讗爪讬驻讬 讚讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讛 诇讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 诇讻诇 诪讛 砖讬专爪讜 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪专讬砖 讛讜讛 注讘讬讚 诪专 转专讬 讻讬住讬 讞讚 诇注谞讬讬 讚注诇诪讗 讜讞讚 诇注谞讬讬 讚诪转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讛 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 转讞诇讬驻讗 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 注讘讬讚 讞讚 讻讬住讗


Abaye said: At first, my Master, Rabba, would not sit on the mats in the synagogue because they had been purchased with charity funds. Once he heard that which is taught in a baraita, that it is permitted for the residents of a city to change the purpose toward which charity will be used to whatever they want, he did sit on them. Abaye said: At first, my Master, Rabba, would make two purses, one for the poor of the rest of the world, and one for the poor of his city. Once he heard what Shmuel said to Rav Ta岣lifa bar Avdimi: Make only one purse,


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