Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

January 16, 2017 | ื™ืดื— ื‘ื˜ื‘ืช ืชืฉืขืดื–

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah Shlema of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Bava Metzia 112

Study Guide Bava Metzia 112. Halachot are derived from the various words in the verses about holding back another’s salary to match the 3 different opinions of the tannaim discussed in the previous daf. ย  Further drashot are made to explain all the exceptions to the halacha. ย Do these laws apply also to a kablan – one who gets paid for the job and not per hour? ย If there is disagreement between the employer and the worker about whether he was paid or not, if it was before the time he was supposed to get paid, we allow the worker to swear that he didn’t get paid and then the employer needs to pay. ย This goes against the general principal that the one who swears is the one who doesn’t pay. ย Why is that? ย Is there a reason to protect the laborer more than the employer? ย Various arguments are brought and rejected as the issue is complex.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื ืืช ื ืคืฉื• ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืขืœื” ื–ื” ื‘ื›ื‘ืฉ ื•ื ืชืœื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื•ืžืกืจ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืœืžื™ืชื” ืœื ืขืœ ืฉื›ืจื•

The Gemara asks: And what does the other Sage, the second tanna, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: That verse is necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: The expression โ€œfor he sets his soul upon itโ€ explains why one must be so precise when paying a laborer his wages: For what reason did this laborer ascend on a tall ramp or suspend himself from a tree and risk death to himself? Was it not for his wages? How, then, can his employer delay his payment?

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื•ืืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื ืืช ื ืคืฉื• ื›ืœ ื”ื›ื•ื‘ืฉ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื ืคืฉื• ืžืžื ื• ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื’ื–ืœืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื ื’ื–ืœ

Alternatively, the words โ€œfor he sets his soul upon itโ€ teach that concerning one who withholds the wages of a hired laborer, it is as though he takes his soul from him. Rav Huna and Rav แธคisda disagreed over the meaning of this statement. One says it is referring to the soul of the robber, meaning that one who steals from a hired laborer by delaying payment of his wages causes Heaven to remove his own soul, and one says that he takes the soul of the robbery victim, meaning that one who steals from a hired worker causes the death of the worker.

ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื’ื–ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœ ืชื’ื–ืœ ื“ืœ ื›ื™ ื“ืœ ื”ื•ื ื•ืืœ ืชื“ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉืขืจ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ื™ืจื™ื‘ ืจื™ื‘ื ื•ืงื‘ืข ืืช ืงื‘ืขื™ื”ื ื ืคืฉ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื ื’ื–ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืŸ ืืจื—ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื‘ื•ืฆืข ื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืขืœื™ื• ื™ืงื—

The Gemara cites proof for these two opinions. The one who says it is referring to the soul of the robber bases his opinion on a verse, as it is written: โ€œDo not rob from the weak because he is weak, nor crush the poor in the gateโ€ (Proverbs 22:22), and it is written immediately afterward: โ€œFor the Lord will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those who spoil themโ€ (Proverbs 22:23). This indicates that God will take the soul of one who steals from a poor person. And the one who says it is referring to the soul of the robbery victim bases his opinion on a verse, as it is written: โ€œSo are the ways of everyone who is greedy for gain; it takes away the life of its ownersโ€ (Proverbs 1:19). A robber is considered as if he removed the very soul of his victim.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืช ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืขืœื™ื• ื™ืงื— ื‘ืขืœื™ื• ื“ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงื‘ืข ืืช ืงื‘ืขื™ื”ื ื ืคืฉ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืงืืžืจ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืงื‘ืข ืืช ืงื‘ืขื™ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื ื˜ืœื• ื ืคืฉ

The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage too, isnโ€™t it written: โ€œIt takes away the life of its ownersโ€? How does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: This is referring to its current owner, i.e., the robber, who took the money and now owns it. The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage too, isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd spoil the soul of those who spoil themโ€? How does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: This verse employs the style know as: What is the reason, as follows: What is the reason that God will spoil those who spoil them? Because they took someoneโ€™s soul, for which He will exact retribution.

ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืชื‘ืขื• ืœื ืชื‘ืขื• ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืชืœื™ืŸ ืคืขืœืช ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื ืชื‘ืขื• ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชืš ืœื“ืขืชืš

ยง The mishna teaches: When does he transgress these prohibitions? He transgresses them when the one owed the money claimed the payment from him. If he did not claim his payment from him, the other does not transgress the prohibitions. The Sages taught: With regard to the verse: โ€œThe wages of a hired laborer shall not remain with you all night until the morningโ€ (Leviticus 19:13), one might have thought that he should be liable even if the laborer did not claim his wages from him. The verse states โ€œwith you,โ€ meaning the prohibition is not transgressed unless it is with your knowledge and consent that you have not paid him. But if he did not even request his wages yet, the prohibition has not been violated.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชืš ืฉื™ืฉ ืืชืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชืš ื•ืœื ืฉื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™

Furthermore, one might have thought that the employer is liable even if he does not have the money to pay him. Therefore, the verse states โ€œwith you,โ€ indicating that there is money with you. One might have thought that even if the employer transferred his payment to a storekeeper or to a money changer, he still violates the prohibition of delaying payment of wages. Therefore, the verse states โ€œwith you,โ€ indicating that it applies only if the payment is your obligation, but not if he transferred it to a storekeeper or to a money changer, as then the payment of the laborerโ€™s wages is no longer his responsibility.

ื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ื—ื•ื–ืจ

ยง The mishna teaches: If the one who owes the money transferred his payment by leaving instructions with a storekeeper or with a money changer to pay him, he does not transgress the prohibitions. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If the storekeeper or money changer neglected to pay the wages, may the laborer return to the employer and claim his money from him, or may he not return, as the storekeeper or money changer is now his exclusive address for complaints? Rav Sheshet says he may not return, and Rabba says he may return.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืขื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื ืžื™ื”ื“ืจ ื”ื“ืจ ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ

Rabba said: From where do I state my opinion? From the fact that the mishna teaches: He does not transgress the prohibition, from which it may be inferred: He does not transgress the prohibition, but the laborer may still return to him to collect his wages. And Rav Sheshet said: What is the meaning of the ruling that he does not transgress the prohibition? It means that he is not included in the category of transgressing, as his transfer of the payment exempts him from all responsibility.

ื‘ืขื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืžืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืงื‘ืœื ื•ืช ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ

The Sages inquired of Rav Sheshet: If the laborer worked as a contractor, who is paid for a completed job rather than by the hour, does the employer violate the prohibition of delaying payment of wages or does he not violate the prohibition of delaying payment of wages?

ืื•ืžืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื— ื›ืœื™ ื•ื”ืœื•ืื” ื”ื™ื ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื— ื›ืœื™ ื•ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื

The resolution to this inquiry depends on how a craftsmanโ€™s wages are classified. Does a craftsman, who is a type of contractor, acquire ownership rights through enhancement of the vessel? This would mean that the craftsman is considered to have acquired the vessel through his work, which enhances its value, and it remains in his possession until he returns it to the owners, who are then considered to have purchased the enhanced item from him. And accordingly, his payment is akin to a loan in that it will not be subject to the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages. Or perhaps a craftsman does not acquire ownership rights through enhancement of the vessel,and the obligation of the owner to pay him is similar to the obligation to pay wages to any laborer, in which case the money is classified as a wage, and is subject to the prohibition of delaying wages.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื”ืชื ืฉื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™

Rav Sheshet said to them: He does violate the prohibition. They asked Rav Sheshet: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that a contractor does not violate the prohibition? Rav Sheshet replied: There it is referring to a case where he transferred the wages to a storekeeper or to a money changer.

ื ื™ืžื ืžืกื™ื™ืขื ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ื˜ืœื™ืชื• ืœืื•ืžืŸ ื’ืžืจื” ื•ื”ื•ื“ื™ืขื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืขืฉืจื” ื™ืžื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ ื ืชื ื” ืœื• ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืฉืฉืงืขื” ืขืœื™ื• ื—ืžื” ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that the following baraita supports the opinion of Rav Sheshet: With regard to one who gave his garment to a craftsman, and the craftsman concluded the work and notified the owner that the work was complete, even if the owner delays paying the craftsman from now until ten days henceforth, he does not violate the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages. If the craftsman gave the garment to him at midday, then once the sun has set and the owner has not paid him, the owner does violate the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages.

ื•ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืื•ืžืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื— ื›ืœื™ ืืžืื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ

The Gemara concludes: And if it enters your mind to say that a craftsman acquires ownership rights through the enhancement of the vessel, why does the owner violate the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages? It is as if the craftsman acquired the garment, and the payment is considered to be a purchase of the garment by the owner, rather than a wage.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื‘ื’ืจื“ื ื“ืกืจื‘ืœื ืœืžืื™ ื™ื”ื‘ื” ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื” ืœืจื›ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื”

Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said: There is no proof from here, as the baraita is stating the halakha with regard to the laundering of a thick garment, where there is no enhancement of the garment. Therefore, the craftsman does not acquire it. The Gemara asks: Ultimately, to what end did the owner of the garment give it to the craftsman? He gave it to him in order to soften it. Once he has softened it, that is its enhancement, and the craftsman has therefore acquired it.

ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืงื ืื’ืจื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืœื‘ื˜ื•ืฉื™ ื‘ื˜ืฉื ื•ื‘ื˜ืฉื ื‘ืžืขืชื

The Gemara responds: No, it is necessary to teach this halakha in a case where the owner hired the craftsman for treading, i.e., to forcefully tread on the garment in water until it softens, with the owner paying the craftsman a maโ€™a coin for each tread. Accordingly, this is considered hired labor, where the craftsman is paid based on the amount of times he performed an action, and not contractual labor, where he is paid based on the outcome, in this case, a softened garment, and the prohibition of delaying payment of wages does apply to this case.

ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื‘ื–ืžื ื• ื ืฉื‘ืข ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืืžืื™ ืชืงื™ื ื• ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžืฉืชื‘ืข ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ

The mishna teaches: If a hired laborer requests payment at the proper time and the employer claims he already paid him, the laborer takes an oath that he did not receive his wages and then receives the wages from the employer. The Gemara asks: Why did the Sages institute for a hired laborer, who is the plaintiff, to take an oath and receive his wages, in opposition to the principle that in the case of a monetary dispute between two parties, the defendant takes an oath that he is not liable and thereby exempts himself from payment?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื ื• ื›ืืŸ ื”ื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื”ื ื™ ืชืงื ื•ืช ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชืงื ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื ื• ื›ืืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืงื˜ื ื•ืช

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They taught great halakhot here. The Gemara is puzzled by this choice of words: Are these halakhot? They are ordinances designed for the proper running of business transactions, not halakhot that apply to everyone at all times. The Gemara emends the above statement: Rather, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They taught great ordinances here. The Gemara is still unsatisfied with the terminology: Does the word great indicate by inference that there are minor ordinances? Which ordinances are considered of minor importance?

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชืงื ื•ืช ืงื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืฉื ื• ื›ืืŸ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื“ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื•ืขืงืจื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื“ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืฉื“ื™ื•ื” ืืฉื›ื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื• ื“ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื•ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื• ื“ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืžืคืกื“ื ื ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

Rather, Rav Naแธฅman says that Shmuel says: They taught fixed ordinances here that are necessary for practical life. The reason is that taking the oath is actually the duty of the employer, but the Sages transferred the oath of the employer and imposed it upon the hired laborer due to the livelihood of the hired laborer. The laborer requires his wages to survive, and therefore if the employer is allowed to exempt himself by taking an oath, the laborer will be left with nothing. The Gemara asks: And simply due to the livelihood of the hired laborer should we cause the employer to lose out? If the employer is entitled to take an oath to exempt himself, why should he suffer due to the laborerโ€™s needs?

ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืžืฉืชื‘ืข ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ืชื’ืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืžืฉืชื‘ืข ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื™ืคืงืข ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ื’ืจื•ื”ื• ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื™ื” ืื’ืจ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื™ื” ืื™ืชื’ืจ

The Gemara answers: It is preferable for the employer himself that the hired laborer should take an oath and receive his wages so that laborers will hire themselves out to him with the knowledge that their wages are secure. The Gemara asks: Why not argue the reverse, that it is preferable for the hired laborer himself that the employer should take an oath and be exempt so that he should be hired? If the terms of labor are too imposing, people will not hire laborers. The Gemara responds: The employer must perforce find a laborer to hire. The Gemara retorts: A hired laborer, too, must perforce allow himself to be hired out.

ืืœื ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ืจื•ื“ ื‘ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื”ื•ื ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื™ืชื‘ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœื ืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืคื™ืก ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

The Gemara now retracts the previous explanation: Rather, the employer is preoccupied with many laborers, and it is more likely that he forgot and mistakenly believed that he already paid this laborerโ€™s wages. The Gemara asks: If so, i.e., if it is reasonable that the employer forgot, we should give the laborer his wages without him taking an oath, as there are grounds to presume that the employer erred. The Gemara responds: The laborer takes an oath in order to alleviate the concerns of the employer, as, if he is not required to take an oath, the employer will feel that he has been cheated.

ื•ื ื™ืชื‘ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื˜ืจื™ื—ื ืœื”ื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ื ื™ืชื‘ ืœื™ื” ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ื”ืงืคื”

The Gemara asks: But why not have the employer instead give him his wages in the presence of witnesses each time, which would remove any uncertainty? The Gemara answers: The matter would be an inconvenience to them both if they needed to find witnesses before each payment. The Gemara asks: But why not have the employer give him the wages at the outset, before he starts working, when he is less preoccupied? The Gemara answers: Both of them want the payment to be in the form of credit, i.e., that the wages not be paid in advance. The employer prefers this arrangement in case he has no ready cash at his disposal, while the laborer also prefers to be paid at the end of the day so that he does not lose his money in the meantime.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืงืฆืฅ ื ืžื™ ืืœืžื” ืชื ื™ื ืื•ืžืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ืงืฆืฆืช ืœื™ ื•ื”ืœื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืงืฆืฆืชื™ ืœืš ืืœื ืื—ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ื”ืจืื™ื” ืงืฆื™ืฆื” ื•ื“ืื™ ืžื™ื“ื›ืจ ื“ื›ื™ืจื™ ืœื” ืื™ื ืฉื™

The Gemara asks: If so, then even if the dispute between them concerns a fixed amount of payment as well, the laborer should take an oath. Why did we learn in a baraita: If the craftsman says: You fixed two coins for me as my payment, and the other, i.e., the employer, says: I fixed only one coin for you, then the burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Why is it not assumed that the employer was preoccupied and forgot, as in the previous case? The Gemara answers: The fixing of wages is certainly an event that people remember, and there is no concern that the employer forgot how much he stipulated.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื‘ืจ ื–ืžื ื• ื ืžื™ ืืœืžื” ืชื ืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ื–ืžื ื• ืื™ื ื• ื ืฉื‘ืข ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื—ื–ืงื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: If so, i.e., if the concern exists that the employer might have forgotten, then even if his time had passed for claiming his wages, the laborer should be entitled to take an oath and claim his wages. Why did we learn in the mishna: If the time had passed he does not take an oath and receive the wages? The Gemara answers: The reason in that case is that a presumption exists that an employer does not generally violate the prohibition of delaying payment of wages.

ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ืจื•ื“ ื‘ืคื•ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžืงืžื™ื” ื“ืœื™ืžื˜ื™ื™ื” ื–ืžืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t you say that the employer is preoccupied with his laborers? The Gemara answers: This statement applies only before the time of his obligation to pay arrives, as it is possible that his preoccupation with other matters caused him to forget whether he had already paid him,

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah Shlema of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Bava Metzia 112

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Metzia 112

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื ืืช ื ืคืฉื• ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืขืœื” ื–ื” ื‘ื›ื‘ืฉ ื•ื ืชืœื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื•ืžืกืจ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ืœืžื™ืชื” ืœื ืขืœ ืฉื›ืจื•

The Gemara asks: And what does the other Sage, the second tanna, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: That verse is necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: The expression โ€œfor he sets his soul upon itโ€ explains why one must be so precise when paying a laborer his wages: For what reason did this laborer ascend on a tall ramp or suspend himself from a tree and risk death to himself? Was it not for his wages? How, then, can his employer delay his payment?

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื•ืืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื ืืช ื ืคืฉื• ื›ืœ ื”ื›ื•ื‘ืฉ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื ืคืฉื• ืžืžื ื• ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื’ื–ืœืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื ื’ื–ืœ

Alternatively, the words โ€œfor he sets his soul upon itโ€ teach that concerning one who withholds the wages of a hired laborer, it is as though he takes his soul from him. Rav Huna and Rav แธคisda disagreed over the meaning of this statement. One says it is referring to the soul of the robber, meaning that one who steals from a hired laborer by delaying payment of his wages causes Heaven to remove his own soul, and one says that he takes the soul of the robbery victim, meaning that one who steals from a hired worker causes the death of the worker.

ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื’ื–ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœ ืชื’ื–ืœ ื“ืœ ื›ื™ ื“ืœ ื”ื•ื ื•ืืœ ืชื“ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉืขืจ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ื™ืจื™ื‘ ืจื™ื‘ื ื•ืงื‘ืข ืืช ืงื‘ืขื™ื”ื ื ืคืฉ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื ืคืฉื• ืฉืœ ื ื’ื–ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืŸ ืืจื—ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื‘ื•ืฆืข ื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืขืœื™ื• ื™ืงื—

The Gemara cites proof for these two opinions. The one who says it is referring to the soul of the robber bases his opinion on a verse, as it is written: โ€œDo not rob from the weak because he is weak, nor crush the poor in the gateโ€ (Proverbs 22:22), and it is written immediately afterward: โ€œFor the Lord will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those who spoil themโ€ (Proverbs 22:23). This indicates that God will take the soul of one who steals from a poor person. And the one who says it is referring to the soul of the robbery victim bases his opinion on a verse, as it is written: โ€œSo are the ways of everyone who is greedy for gain; it takes away the life of its ownersโ€ (Proverbs 1:19). A robber is considered as if he removed the very soul of his victim.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืช ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืขืœื™ื• ื™ืงื— ื‘ืขืœื™ื• ื“ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงื‘ืข ืืช ืงื‘ืขื™ื”ื ื ืคืฉ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืงืืžืจ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืงื‘ืข ืืช ืงื‘ืขื™ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื ื˜ืœื• ื ืคืฉ

The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage too, isnโ€™t it written: โ€œIt takes away the life of its ownersโ€? How does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: This is referring to its current owner, i.e., the robber, who took the money and now owns it. The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage too, isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd spoil the soul of those who spoil themโ€? How does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: This verse employs the style know as: What is the reason, as follows: What is the reason that God will spoil those who spoil them? Because they took someoneโ€™s soul, for which He will exact retribution.

ืื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืชื‘ืขื• ืœื ืชื‘ืขื• ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืชืœื™ืŸ ืคืขืœืช ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื ืชื‘ืขื• ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชืš ืœื“ืขืชืš

ยง The mishna teaches: When does he transgress these prohibitions? He transgresses them when the one owed the money claimed the payment from him. If he did not claim his payment from him, the other does not transgress the prohibitions. The Sages taught: With regard to the verse: โ€œThe wages of a hired laborer shall not remain with you all night until the morningโ€ (Leviticus 19:13), one might have thought that he should be liable even if the laborer did not claim his wages from him. The verse states โ€œwith you,โ€ meaning the prohibition is not transgressed unless it is with your knowledge and consent that you have not paid him. But if he did not even request his wages yet, the prohibition has not been violated.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชืš ืฉื™ืฉ ืืชืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชืš ื•ืœื ืฉื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™

Furthermore, one might have thought that the employer is liable even if he does not have the money to pay him. Therefore, the verse states โ€œwith you,โ€ indicating that there is money with you. One might have thought that even if the employer transferred his payment to a storekeeper or to a money changer, he still violates the prohibition of delaying payment of wages. Therefore, the verse states โ€œwith you,โ€ indicating that it applies only if the payment is your obligation, but not if he transferred it to a storekeeper or to a money changer, as then the payment of the laborerโ€™s wages is no longer his responsibility.

ื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ื—ื•ื–ืจ

ยง The mishna teaches: If the one who owes the money transferred his payment by leaving instructions with a storekeeper or with a money changer to pay him, he does not transgress the prohibitions. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If the storekeeper or money changer neglected to pay the wages, may the laborer return to the employer and claim his money from him, or may he not return, as the storekeeper or money changer is now his exclusive address for complaints? Rav Sheshet says he may not return, and Rabba says he may return.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืขื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื ืžื™ื”ื“ืจ ื”ื“ืจ ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ

Rabba said: From where do I state my opinion? From the fact that the mishna teaches: He does not transgress the prohibition, from which it may be inferred: He does not transgress the prohibition, but the laborer may still return to him to collect his wages. And Rav Sheshet said: What is the meaning of the ruling that he does not transgress the prohibition? It means that he is not included in the category of transgressing, as his transfer of the payment exempts him from all responsibility.

ื‘ืขื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืžืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืงื‘ืœื ื•ืช ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ

The Sages inquired of Rav Sheshet: If the laborer worked as a contractor, who is paid for a completed job rather than by the hour, does the employer violate the prohibition of delaying payment of wages or does he not violate the prohibition of delaying payment of wages?

ืื•ืžืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื— ื›ืœื™ ื•ื”ืœื•ืื” ื”ื™ื ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื— ื›ืœื™ ื•ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื

The resolution to this inquiry depends on how a craftsmanโ€™s wages are classified. Does a craftsman, who is a type of contractor, acquire ownership rights through enhancement of the vessel? This would mean that the craftsman is considered to have acquired the vessel through his work, which enhances its value, and it remains in his possession until he returns it to the owners, who are then considered to have purchased the enhanced item from him. And accordingly, his payment is akin to a loan in that it will not be subject to the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages. Or perhaps a craftsman does not acquire ownership rights through enhancement of the vessel,and the obligation of the owner to pay him is similar to the obligation to pay wages to any laborer, in which case the money is classified as a wage, and is subject to the prohibition of delaying wages.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื”ืชื ืฉื”ืžื—ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™

Rav Sheshet said to them: He does violate the prohibition. They asked Rav Sheshet: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that a contractor does not violate the prohibition? Rav Sheshet replied: There it is referring to a case where he transferred the wages to a storekeeper or to a money changer.

ื ื™ืžื ืžืกื™ื™ืขื ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ื˜ืœื™ืชื• ืœืื•ืžืŸ ื’ืžืจื” ื•ื”ื•ื“ื™ืขื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืขืฉืจื” ื™ืžื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ ื ืชื ื” ืœื• ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ื•ื ืžืฉืฉืงืขื” ืขืœื™ื• ื—ืžื” ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that the following baraita supports the opinion of Rav Sheshet: With regard to one who gave his garment to a craftsman, and the craftsman concluded the work and notified the owner that the work was complete, even if the owner delays paying the craftsman from now until ten days henceforth, he does not violate the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages. If the craftsman gave the garment to him at midday, then once the sun has set and the owner has not paid him, the owner does violate the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages.

ื•ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืื•ืžืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื— ื›ืœื™ ืืžืื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ

The Gemara concludes: And if it enters your mind to say that a craftsman acquires ownership rights through the enhancement of the vessel, why does the owner violate the prohibition of delaying the payment of wages? It is as if the craftsman acquired the garment, and the payment is considered to be a purchase of the garment by the owner, rather than a wage.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื‘ื’ืจื“ื ื“ืกืจื‘ืœื ืœืžืื™ ื™ื”ื‘ื” ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื” ืœืจื›ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื”

Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said: There is no proof from here, as the baraita is stating the halakha with regard to the laundering of a thick garment, where there is no enhancement of the garment. Therefore, the craftsman does not acquire it. The Gemara asks: Ultimately, to what end did the owner of the garment give it to the craftsman? He gave it to him in order to soften it. Once he has softened it, that is its enhancement, and the craftsman has therefore acquired it.

ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืงื ืื’ืจื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืœื‘ื˜ื•ืฉื™ ื‘ื˜ืฉื ื•ื‘ื˜ืฉื ื‘ืžืขืชื

The Gemara responds: No, it is necessary to teach this halakha in a case where the owner hired the craftsman for treading, i.e., to forcefully tread on the garment in water until it softens, with the owner paying the craftsman a maโ€™a coin for each tread. Accordingly, this is considered hired labor, where the craftsman is paid based on the amount of times he performed an action, and not contractual labor, where he is paid based on the outcome, in this case, a softened garment, and the prohibition of delaying payment of wages does apply to this case.

ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื‘ื–ืžื ื• ื ืฉื‘ืข ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืืžืื™ ืชืงื™ื ื• ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžืฉืชื‘ืข ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ

The mishna teaches: If a hired laborer requests payment at the proper time and the employer claims he already paid him, the laborer takes an oath that he did not receive his wages and then receives the wages from the employer. The Gemara asks: Why did the Sages institute for a hired laborer, who is the plaintiff, to take an oath and receive his wages, in opposition to the principle that in the case of a monetary dispute between two parties, the defendant takes an oath that he is not liable and thereby exempts himself from payment?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื ื• ื›ืืŸ ื”ื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื”ื ื™ ืชืงื ื•ืช ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชืงื ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื ื• ื›ืืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืงื˜ื ื•ืช

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They taught great halakhot here. The Gemara is puzzled by this choice of words: Are these halakhot? They are ordinances designed for the proper running of business transactions, not halakhot that apply to everyone at all times. The Gemara emends the above statement: Rather, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They taught great ordinances here. The Gemara is still unsatisfied with the terminology: Does the word great indicate by inference that there are minor ordinances? Which ordinances are considered of minor importance?

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชืงื ื•ืช ืงื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืฉื ื• ื›ืืŸ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื“ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื•ืขืงืจื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื“ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืฉื“ื™ื•ื” ืืฉื›ื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื• ื“ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื•ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื• ื“ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืžืคืกื“ื ื ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

Rather, Rav Naแธฅman says that Shmuel says: They taught fixed ordinances here that are necessary for practical life. The reason is that taking the oath is actually the duty of the employer, but the Sages transferred the oath of the employer and imposed it upon the hired laborer due to the livelihood of the hired laborer. The laborer requires his wages to survive, and therefore if the employer is allowed to exempt himself by taking an oath, the laborer will be left with nothing. The Gemara asks: And simply due to the livelihood of the hired laborer should we cause the employer to lose out? If the employer is entitled to take an oath to exempt himself, why should he suffer due to the laborerโ€™s needs?

ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืžืฉืชื‘ืข ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ืชื’ืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืžืฉืชื‘ืข ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื™ืคืงืข ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ื’ืจื•ื”ื• ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื™ื” ืื’ืจ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื™ื” ืื™ืชื’ืจ

The Gemara answers: It is preferable for the employer himself that the hired laborer should take an oath and receive his wages so that laborers will hire themselves out to him with the knowledge that their wages are secure. The Gemara asks: Why not argue the reverse, that it is preferable for the hired laborer himself that the employer should take an oath and be exempt so that he should be hired? If the terms of labor are too imposing, people will not hire laborers. The Gemara responds: The employer must perforce find a laborer to hire. The Gemara retorts: A hired laborer, too, must perforce allow himself to be hired out.

ืืœื ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ืจื•ื“ ื‘ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื”ื•ื ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื™ืชื‘ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœื ืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืคื™ืก ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

The Gemara now retracts the previous explanation: Rather, the employer is preoccupied with many laborers, and it is more likely that he forgot and mistakenly believed that he already paid this laborerโ€™s wages. The Gemara asks: If so, i.e., if it is reasonable that the employer forgot, we should give the laborer his wages without him taking an oath, as there are grounds to presume that the employer erred. The Gemara responds: The laborer takes an oath in order to alleviate the concerns of the employer, as, if he is not required to take an oath, the employer will feel that he has been cheated.

ื•ื ื™ืชื‘ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื˜ืจื™ื—ื ืœื”ื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ื ื™ืชื‘ ืœื™ื” ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ื”ืงืคื”

The Gemara asks: But why not have the employer instead give him his wages in the presence of witnesses each time, which would remove any uncertainty? The Gemara answers: The matter would be an inconvenience to them both if they needed to find witnesses before each payment. The Gemara asks: But why not have the employer give him the wages at the outset, before he starts working, when he is less preoccupied? The Gemara answers: Both of them want the payment to be in the form of credit, i.e., that the wages not be paid in advance. The employer prefers this arrangement in case he has no ready cash at his disposal, while the laborer also prefers to be paid at the end of the day so that he does not lose his money in the meantime.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืงืฆืฅ ื ืžื™ ืืœืžื” ืชื ื™ื ืื•ืžืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืชื™ื ืงืฆืฆืช ืœื™ ื•ื”ืœื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืงืฆืฆืชื™ ืœืš ืืœื ืื—ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ื”ืจืื™ื” ืงืฆื™ืฆื” ื•ื“ืื™ ืžื™ื“ื›ืจ ื“ื›ื™ืจื™ ืœื” ืื™ื ืฉื™

The Gemara asks: If so, then even if the dispute between them concerns a fixed amount of payment as well, the laborer should take an oath. Why did we learn in a baraita: If the craftsman says: You fixed two coins for me as my payment, and the other, i.e., the employer, says: I fixed only one coin for you, then the burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Why is it not assumed that the employer was preoccupied and forgot, as in the previous case? The Gemara answers: The fixing of wages is certainly an event that people remember, and there is no concern that the employer forgot how much he stipulated.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืขื‘ืจ ื–ืžื ื• ื ืžื™ ืืœืžื” ืชื ืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ื–ืžื ื• ืื™ื ื• ื ืฉื‘ืข ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื—ื–ืงื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: If so, i.e., if the concern exists that the employer might have forgotten, then even if his time had passed for claiming his wages, the laborer should be entitled to take an oath and claim his wages. Why did we learn in the mishna: If the time had passed he does not take an oath and receive the wages? The Gemara answers: The reason in that case is that a presumption exists that an employer does not generally violate the prohibition of delaying payment of wages.

ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ืจื•ื“ ื‘ืคื•ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžืงืžื™ื” ื“ืœื™ืžื˜ื™ื™ื” ื–ืžืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t you say that the employer is preoccupied with his laborers? The Gemara answers: This statement applies only before the time of his obligation to pay arrives, as it is possible that his preoccupation with other matters caused him to forget whether he had already paid him,

Scroll To Top