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Daf Yomi

April 27, 2024 | 讬状讟 讘谞讬住谉 转砖驻状讚

  • Masechet Bava Metzia is sponsored by Rabbi Art Gould in memory of his beloved bride of 50 years, Carol Joy Robinson, Karina Gola bat Huddah v鈥橸ehuda Tzvi.

    专讘讜转 讘谞讜转 注砖讜 讞讬诇 讜讗转 注诇讬转 注诇志讻诇谞讛

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

Bava Metzia 59

It is regarded as a grave transgression to humiliate another person in public. Some emphasize the prohibition against verbally abusing one’s spouse, noting that maintaining food (financial stability) in the household is advisable to preserve harmony. While many prayers may not always find immediate acceptance, the prayers of those who have suffered verbal abuse will always be heard, and God will punish the perpetrators. The story of the oven of Achnai illustrates the potency of prayers from those who have endured verbal abuse. Rabbi Eliezer, who stood against the majority opinion of the rabbis and was subsequently excommunicated and mistreated, serves as a prime example. Despite presenting miraculous signs and even a heavenly voice affirming the correctness of his stance, Rabbi Yehoshua asserted, “It is not in heaven.” This narrative underscores the authority of the rabbinic system to establish its own truths, even if they diverge from the absolute truth of God. However, mentioning this story in this context highlights the impact of words and how the mistreatment of Rabbi Eliezer ultimately led to the death of Rabban Gamliel through his prayers. The prohibition against abusing converts is emphasized, with the Torah warning against it in thirty-six (or forty-six) instances. This underscores the severity of the offense and the importance of treating converts with respect and dignity.

谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讘讜讗 注诇 住驻拽 讗砖转 讗讬砖 讜讗诇 讬诇讘讬谉 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐 诪谞讗 诇谉 诪讚讚专砖 专讘讗 讚讚专砖 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘爪诇注讬 砖诪讞讜 讜谞讗住驻讜 拽专注讜 讜诇讗 讚诪讜 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讙诇讜讬 讜讬讚讜注 诇驻谞讬讱 砖讗诐 讛讬讜 诪拽专注讬诐 讘砖专讬 诇讗 讛讬讛 讚诪讬 砖讜转转 诇讗专抓


It is preferable for a person to engage in intercourse with a woman whose married status is uncertain and not humiliate another in public. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? The Gemara answers: It is from that which Rava interpreted, as Rava interpreted: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd when I limped they rejoiced and gathered鈥hey tore and did not cease [damu]鈥 (Psalms 35:15)? The term 鈥damu鈥 can also be understood as a reference to blood. Concerning the fasting he undertook to atone for his sin with Bathsheba (see II聽Samuel, chapters 11鈥12), David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that if my tormenters were to tear my flesh, my blood [dami] would not flow to the ground, due to excessive fasting.


讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖注讛 砖注讜住拽讬谉 讘谞讙注讬诐 讜讗讛诇讜转 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讬 讚讜讚 讛讘讗 注诇 讗砖转 讗讬砖 诪讬转转讜 讘诪讛 讜讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 诇讛诐 诪讬转转讜 讘讞谞拽 讜讬砖 诇讜 讞诇拽 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗讘诇 讛诪诇讘讬谉 讗转 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐 讗讬谉 诇讜 讞诇拽 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗


And moreover, they torment me to the extent that even at the time when they are engaged in the public study of the halakhot of leprous sores and tents in which there is a corpse, i.e., halakhic matters that have no connection to my sin, they say to me: David, one who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his death is effected with what form of execution? And I say to them: One who engages in intercourse with a married woman before witnesses and with forewarning, his death is by strangulation, but he still has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another in public has no share in the World-to-Come. The transgression of you, who humiliate me, is more severe than my transgression.


讜讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专 讟讜讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬驻讬诇 注爪诪讜 诇讻讘砖谉 讛讗砖 讜讗诇 讬诇讘讬谉 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐 诪谞讗 诇谉 诪转诪专 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬讗 诪讜爪讗转 讜讛讬讗 砖诇讞讛 讗诇 讞诪讬讛


And Mar Zutra bar Toviyya says that Rav says; and some say Rav 岣na bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida says; and some say Rabbi Yo岣nan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: It is more comfortable for a person to cast himself into a fiery furnace, than to humiliate another in public to avoid being cast into the furnace. From where do we derive this? From Tamar, daughter-in-law of Judah. When she was taken out to be burned, she did not reveal that she was pregnant with Judah鈥檚 child. Rather, she left the decision to him, to avoid humiliating him in public, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: I am pregnant by the man to whom these belong. And she said: Examine these, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff?鈥 (Genesis 38:24鈥25).


讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 转讜谞讜 讗讬砖 讗转 注诪讬转讜 注诐 砖讗转讱 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜讜转 讗诇 转讜谞讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘讗讜谞讗转 讗砖转讜 砖诪转讜讱 砖讚诪注转讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讗讜谞讗转讛 拽专讜讘讛


Rav 岣nnana, son of Rav Idi, says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd you shall not mistreat each man his colleague [amito]鈥 (Leviticus 25:17)? The word amito is interpreted as a contraction of im ito, meaning: One who is with him. With one who is with you in observance of Torah and mitzvot, you shall not mistreat him. Rav says: A person must always be careful about mistreatment of his wife. Since her tear is easily elicited, punishment for her mistreatment is immediate.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讬讜诐 砖谞讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞谞注诇讜 砖注专讬 转驻讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讙诐 讻讬 讗讝注拽 讜讗砖讜注 砖转诐 转驻讬诇转讬 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖砖注专讬 转驻讬诇讛 谞谞注诇讜 砖注专讬 讚诪注讜转 诇讗 谞谞注诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪注讛 转驻诇转讬 讛壮 讜砖讜注转讬 讛讗讝讬谞讛 讗诇 讚诪注转讬 讗诇 转讞专砖


Rabbi Elazar says: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were locked, and prayer is not accepted as it once was, as it is stated in lament of the Temple鈥檚 destruction: 鈥淭hough I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer鈥 (Lamentations 3:8). Yet, despite the fact that the gates of prayer were locked with the destruction of the Temple, the gates of tears were not locked, and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears鈥 (Psalms 39:13).


讜讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛讛讜诇讱 讘注爪转 讗砖转讜 谞讜驻诇 讘讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 专拽 诇讗 讛讬讛 讻讗讞讗讘 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗讬转转讱 讙讜爪讗 讙讞讬谉 讜转诇讞讜砖 诇讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗 讜讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讘讬转讗 诇讬砖谞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚砖诪讬讗 讜讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗


And Rav says: Nevertheless, anyone who follows the counsel of his wife descends into Gehenna, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut there was none like Ahab, who did give himself over to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, whom Jezebel his wife incited鈥 (I聽Kings 21:25). Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But don鈥檛 people say a popular proverb: If your wife is short, stoop and whisper to her and consult with her? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this statement of Rav instructs that one not follow her counsel in general matters; and that proverb instructs that one follow her counsel in household matters. The Gemara presents another version of this distinction: This statement of Rav maintains that one should not follow her counsel in divine matters; and that proverb maintains that one should follow her counsel in general matters.


讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 讛砖注专讬诐 谞谞注诇讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖注专讬 讗讜谞讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讛壮 谞爪讘 注诇 讞讜诪转 讗谞讱 讜讘讬讚讜 讗谞讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讻诇 谞驻专注 讘讬讚讬 砖诇讬讞 讞讜抓 诪讗讜谞讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讬讚讜 讗谞讱


Rav 岣sda says: All the gates of Heaven are apt to be locked, except for the gates of prayer for victims of verbal mistreatment, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd behold, the Lord stood upon a wall built with a plumb line, and a plumb line in His hand鈥 (Amos 7:7). God stands with the scales of justice in His hand to determine if one has been subjected to injustice. Rabbi Elazar says: In response to all transgressions, God punishes the perpetrator by means of an agent, except for mistreatment [ona鈥檃], as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a plumb line [anakh] in His hand.鈥 The term for mistreatment and the term for plumb line are spelled in a similar manner, indicating that God Himself inflicts retribution.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 砖诇砖讛 讗讬谉 讛驻专讙讜讚 谞谞注诇 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讗讜谞讗讛 讜讙讝诇 讜注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗讜谞讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘讬讚讜 讗谞讱 讙讝诇 讚讻转讬讘 讞诪住 讜砖讚 讬砖诪注 讘讛 注诇 驻谞讬 转诪讬讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛注诐 讛诪讻注讬住讬诐 讗转讬 注诇 驻谞讬 转诪讬讚 讜讙讜壮


Rabbi Abbahu says: There are three sins before whose transgressors the curtain [hapargod] between the world and the Divine Presence is not locked; their sins reach the Divine Presence. They are: Verbal mistreatment, robbery, and idol worship. Mistreatment, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a plumb line in His hand鈥; robbery, as it is stated: 鈥淰iolence and robbery are heard in her, they are before Me continually鈥 (Jeremiah 6:7); idol worship, as it is stated: 鈥淎 people that angers Me before Me continually; that sacrifice in gardens, and burn incense upon bricks鈥 (Isaiah 65:3).


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘转讘讜讗讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖讗讬谉 诪专讬讘讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 注诇 注住拽讬 转讘讜讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛砖诐 讙讘讜诇讱 砖诇讜诐 讞诇讘 讞讟讬诐 讬砖讘讬注讱 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讻诪砖诇诐 砖注专讬 诪讻讚讗 谞拽讬砖 讜讗转讬 转讙专讗 讘讘讬转讗


Apropos the topic of how a man should approach his household, Rav Yehuda says: A person must always be careful about ensuring that there is grain inside his house, as discord is found in a person鈥檚 house only over matters of grain, as it is stated: 鈥淗e makes your borders peace; He gives you plenty with the finest wheat鈥 (Psalms 147:14). If there is the finest wheat in your house, there will be peace there. Rav Pappa said: This is in accordance with the adage that people say: When the barley is emptied from the jug, quarrel knocks and enters the house.


讜讗诪专 专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘转讘讜讗讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇讗 谞拽专讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚诇讬诐 讗诇讗 注诇 注住拽讬 转讘讜讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讗诐 讝专注 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讞谞讜 注诇讬讛诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讚诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗讚 诪驻谞讬 诪讚讬谉


And Rav 岣nnana bar Pappa says: A person must always be careful about ensuring that there is grain inside his house, as the Jewish people were characterized as poor only over matters of grain, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it was, if Israel sowed, and Midian and the children of the east ascended鈥 (Judges 6:3); and it is written: 鈥淎nd they encamped against them and they destroyed the crops of the land鈥 (Judges 6:4); and it is further written: 鈥淎nd Israel was greatly impoverished due to Midian鈥 (Judges 6:6).


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘讻讘讜讚 讗砖转讜 砖讗讬谉 讘专讻讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讗砖转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗讘专诐 讛讟讬讘 讘注讘讜专讛 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讗 诇讘谞讬 诪讞讜讝讗 讗讜拽讬专讜 诇谞砖讬讬讻讜 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转转注转专讜


And Rabbi 岣lbo says: A person must always be careful about sustaining the honor of his wife, as blessing is found in a person鈥檚 house only because of his wife, as it is stated in allusion to this: 鈥淎nd he dealt well with Abram for her sake, and he had sheep and oxen鈥 (Genesis 12:16). And that is what Rava said to the residents of Me岣za, where he lived: Honor your wives, so that you will become rich.


转谞谉 讛转诐 讞转讻讜 讞讜诇讬讜转 讜谞转谉 讞讜诇 讘讬谉 讞讜诇讬讗 诇讞讜诇讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪讟讛专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪讟诪讗讬谉


搂 Apropos the topic of verbal mistreatment, we learned in a mishna there (Kelim 5:10): If one cut an earthenware oven widthwise into segments, and placed sand between each and every segment, Rabbi Eliezer deems it ritually pure. Because of the sand, its legal status is not that of a complete vessel, and therefore it is not susceptible to ritual impurity. And the Rabbis deem it ritually impure, as it is functionally a complete oven.


讜讝讛 讛讜讗 转谞讜专 砖诇 注讻谞讗讬 诪讗讬 注讻谞讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讛拽讬驻讜 讚讘专讬诐 讻注讻谞讗 讝讜 讜讟诪讗讜讛讜 转谞讗 讘讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讛砖讬讘 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讻诇 转砖讜讘讜转 砖讘注讜诇诐 讜诇讗 拽讬讘诇讜 讛讬诪谞讜


And this is known as the oven of akhnai. The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of akhnai, a snake, in this context? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is characterized in that manner due to the fact that the Rabbis surrounded it with their statements like this snake, which often forms a coil when at rest, and deemed it impure. The Sages taught: On that day, when they discussed this matter, Rabbi Eliezer answered all possible answers in the world to support his opinion, but the Rabbis did not accept his explanations from him.


讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 讞专讜讘 讝讛 讬讜讻讬讞 谞注拽专 讞专讜讘 诪诪拽讜诪讜 诪讗讛 讗诪讛 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讗诪讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛讞专讜讘 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 讗诪转 讛诪讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 讞讝专讜 讗诪转 讛诪讬诐 诇讗讞讜专讬讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪讗诪转 讛诪讬诐


After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, this carob tree will prove it. The carob tree was uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits. The Rabbis said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from the carob tree. Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the stream will prove it. The water in the stream turned backward and began flowing in the opposite direction. They said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from a stream.


讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 讻讜转诇讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讬讜讻讬讞讜 讛讟讜 讻讜转诇讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 诇讬驻讜诇 讙注专 讘讛诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪谞爪讞讬诐 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讘讛诇讻讛 讗转诐 诪讛 讟讬讘讻诐 诇讗 谞驻诇讜 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜诇讗 讝拽驻讜 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜注讚讬谉 诪讟讬谉 讜注讜诪讚讬谉


Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the walls of the study hall will prove it. The walls of the study hall leaned inward and began to fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scolded the walls and said to them: If Torah scholars are contending with each other in matters of halakha, what is the nature of your involvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls did not fall because of the deference due Rabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because of the deference due Rabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning.


讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 讬爪讗转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诪讛 诇讻诐 讗爪诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 砖讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讜 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐


Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, Heaven will prove it. A Divine Voice emerged from Heaven and said: Why are you differing with Rabbi Eliezer, as the halakha is in accordance with his opinion in every place that he expresses an opinion?


注诪讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 注诇 专讙诇讬讜 讜讗诪专 诇讗 讘砖诪讬诐 讛讬讗 诪讗讬 诇讗 讘砖诪讬诐 讛讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 砖讻讘专 谞转谞讛 转讜专讛 诪讛专 住讬谞讬 讗讬谉 讗谞讜 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讘转 拽讜诇 砖讻讘专 讻转讘转 讘讛专 住讬谞讬 讘转讜专讛 讗讞专讬 专讘讬诐 诇讛讟转 讗砖讻讞讬讛 专讘讬 谞转谉 诇讗诇讬讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讗 讞讬讬讱 讜讗诪专 谞爪讞讜谞讬 讘谞讬 谞爪讞讜谞讬 讘谞讬


Rabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said: It is written: 鈥淚t is not in heaven鈥 (Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of the phrase 鈥淚t is not in heaven鈥 in this context? Rabbi Yirmeya says: Since the Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: 鈥淎fter a majority to incline鈥 (Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion, the halakha is not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, Rabbi Natan encountered Elijah the prophet and said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time, when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, smiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me.


讗诪专讜 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讛讘讬讗讜 讻诇 讟讛专讜转 砖讟讬讛专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜砖专驻讜诐 讘讗砖 讜谞诪谞讜 注诇讬讜 讜讘专讻讜讛讜 讜讗诪专讜 诪讬 讬诇讱 讜讬讜讚讬注讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗谞讬 讗诇讱 砖诪讗 讬诇讱 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉 讜讬讜讚讬注讜 讜谞诪爪讗 诪讞专讬讘 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜


The Sages said: On that day, the Sages brought all the ritually pure items deemed pure by the ruling of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to the oven and burned them in fire, and the Sages reached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. And the Sages said: Who will go and inform him of his ostracism? Rabbi Akiva, his beloved disciple, said to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person go and inform him in a callous and offensive manner, and he would thereby destroy the entire world.


诪讛 注砖讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讘砖 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜谞转注讟祝 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜讬砖讘 诇驻谞讬讜 讘专讬讞讜拽 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 注拽讬讘讗 诪讛 讬讜诐 诪讬讜诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讻诪讚讜诪讛 诇讬 砖讞讘讬专讬诐 讘讚讬诇讬诐 诪诪讱 讗祝 讛讜讗 拽专注 讘讙讚讬讜 讜讞诇抓 诪谞注诇讬讜 讜谞砖诪讟 讜讬砖讘 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注


What did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black, as an expression of mourning and pain, and sat before Rabbi Eliezer at a distance of four cubits, which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, what is different about today from other days, that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, it appears to me that your colleagues are distancing themselves from you. He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer too, rent his garments and removed his shoes, as is the custom of an ostracized person, and he dropped from his seat and sat upon the ground.


讝诇讙讜 注讬谞讬讜 讚诪注讜转 诇拽讛 讛注讜诇诐 砖诇讬砖 讘讝讬转讬诐 讜砖诇讬砖 讘讞讟讬诐 讜砖诇讬砖 讘砖注讜专讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讘爪拽 砖讘讬讚讬 讗砖讛 讟驻讞 转谞讗 讗祝 讙讚讜诇 讛讬讛 讘讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞转谉 讘讜 注讬谞讬讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞砖专祝


The Gemara relates: His eyes shed tears, and as a result the entire world was afflicted: One-third of its olives were afflicted, and one-third of its wheat, and one-third of its barley. And some say that even dough kneaded in a woman鈥檚 hands spoiled. The Sages taught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned.


讜讗祝 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讛 讘讗 讘住驻讬谞讛 注诪讚 注诇讬讜 谞讞砖讜诇 诇讟讘注讜 讗诪专 讻诪讚讜诪讛 诇讬 砖讗讬谉 讝讛 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讛讜专拽谞讜住 注诪讚 注诇 专讙诇讬讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讙诇讜讬 讜讬讚讜注 诇驻谞讬讱 砖诇讗 诇讻讘讜讚讬 注砖讬转讬 讜诇讗 诇讻讘讜讚 讘讬转 讗讘讗 注砖讬转讬 讗诇讗 诇讻讘讜讚讱 砖诇讗 讬专讘讜 诪讞诇讜拽讜转 讘讬砖专讗诇 谞讞 讛讬诐 诪讝注驻讜


And even Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, was coming on a boat at the time, and a large wave swelled over him and threatened to drown him. Rabban Gamliel said: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel stood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honor that I acted when ostracizing him, nor was it for the honor of the house of my father that I acted; rather, it was for Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel. In response, the sea calmed from its raging.


讗讬诪讗 砖诇讜诐 讚讘讬转讛讜 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讜讗讬 诪讛讛讜讗 诪注砖讛 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 讛讜讛 砖讘拽讛 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诇诪讬驻诇 注诇 讗驻讬讛 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 专讬砖 讬专讞讗 讛讜讛 讜讗讬讞诇祝 诇讛 讘讬谉 诪诇讗 诇讞住专 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗转讗 注谞讬讗 讜拽讗讬 讗讘讘讗 讗驻讬拽讗 诇讬讛 专讬驻转讗


The Gemara further relates: Imma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his head and recite the ta岣nun prayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. A certain day was around the day of the New Moon, and she inadvertently substituted a full thirty-day month for a deficient twenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. Some say that a pauper came and stood at the door, and she took bread out to him. The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.


讗砖讻讞转讬讛 讚谞驻诇 注诇 讗谞驻讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 拽讜诐 拽讟诇讬转 诇讗讞讬 讗讚讛讻讬 谞驻拽 砖讬驻讜专讗 诪讘讬转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚砖讻讬讘 讗诪专 诇讛 诪谞讗 讬讚注转 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 讻诇 讛砖注专讬诐 谞谞注诇讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖注专讬 讗讜谞讗讛


When she returned, she found him and saw that he had lowered his head in prayer. She said to him: Arise, you already killed my brother. Meanwhile, the sound of a shofar emerged from the house of Rabban Gamliel to announce that the Nasi had died. Rabbi Eliezer said to her: From where did you know that your brother would die? She said to him: This is the tradition that I received from the house of the father of my father: All the gates of Heaven are apt to be locked, except for the gates of prayer for victims of verbal mistreatment.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讗谞讛 讗转 讛讙专 注讜讘专 讘砖诇砖讛 诇讗讜讬谉 讜讛诇讜讞爪讜 注讜讘专 讘砖谞讬诐


The Sages taught: One who verbally mistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses him in other ways violates two.


诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诪讗谞讛 讚讻转讬讘讬 砖诇砖讛 诇讗讜讬谉 讜讙专 诇讗 转讜谞讛 讜讻讬 讬讙讜专 讗转讱 讙专 讘讗专爪讻诐 诇讗 转讜谞讜 讗转讜 讜诇讗 转讜谞讜 讗讬砖 讗转 注诪讬转讜 讜讙专 讘讻诇诇 注诪讬转讜 讛讜讗 诇讜讞爪讜 谞诪讬 砖诇砖讛 讻转讬讘讬 讜诇讗 转诇讞爪谞讜 讜讙专 诇讗 转诇讞抓 讜诇讗 转讛讬讛 诇讜 讻谞砖讛 讜讙专 讘讻诇诇 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 讘砖诇砖讛


The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to verbal mistreatment, that three prohibitions are written concerning it: 鈥淎nd you shall neither mistreat a convert鈥 (Exodus 22:20); 鈥淎nd when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him鈥 (Leviticus 19:33); 鈥淎nd you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague鈥 (Leviticus 25:17), and a convert is included in the category of colleague? With regard to one who also oppresses a convert as well, three prohibitions are written: 鈥淎nd you shall neither mistreat a convert, nor oppress him鈥 (Exodus 22:20); 鈥淎nd you shall not oppress a convert (Exodus 23:9); 鈥淎nd you shall not be to him like a creditor鈥 (Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, in which converts are included. Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. Rather, both this one, who verbally mistreats a convert, and that one, who oppresses him, violate three prohibitions.


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讝讛讬专讛 转讜专讛 讘砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖砖讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 讘讙专 诪驻谞讬 砖住讜专讜 专注


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard to causing any distress to a convert? It is due to the fact that a convert鈥檚 inclination is evil, i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living.


诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讙专 诇讗 转讜谞讛 讜诇讗 转诇讞爪谞讜 讻讬 讙专讬诐 讛讬讬转诐 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 转谞讬谞讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诪讜诐 砖讘讱 讗诇 转讗诪专 诇讞讘专讱 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讚讝拽讬祝 诇讬讛 讝拽讬驻讗 讘讚讬讜转拽讬讛 诇讗 谞讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诇讞讘专讬讛 讝拽讬祝 讘讬谞讬转讗


What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt鈥 (Exodus 22:20)? We learned in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mention it in another. Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. And this explains the adage that people say: One who has a person hanged in his family [bidyotkei], does not say to another member of his household: Hang a fish for me, as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family.


诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 驻讬专讜转 讘驻讬专讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讞讚砖讬诐


MISHNA: One may not intermingle produce bought from one supplier with other produce, even if he intermingles new produce with other new produce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.


  • Masechet Bava Metzia is sponsored by Rabbi Art Gould in memory of his beloved bride of 50 years, Carol Joy Robinson, Karina Gola bat Huddah v鈥橸ehuda Tzvi.

    专讘讜转 讘谞讜转 注砖讜 讞讬诇 讜讗转 注诇讬转 注诇志讻诇谞讛

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

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Bava Metzia 59

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Metzia 59

谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讘讜讗 注诇 住驻拽 讗砖转 讗讬砖 讜讗诇 讬诇讘讬谉 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐 诪谞讗 诇谉 诪讚讚专砖 专讘讗 讚讚专砖 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘爪诇注讬 砖诪讞讜 讜谞讗住驻讜 拽专注讜 讜诇讗 讚诪讜 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讙诇讜讬 讜讬讚讜注 诇驻谞讬讱 砖讗诐 讛讬讜 诪拽专注讬诐 讘砖专讬 诇讗 讛讬讛 讚诪讬 砖讜转转 诇讗专抓


It is preferable for a person to engage in intercourse with a woman whose married status is uncertain and not humiliate another in public. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? The Gemara answers: It is from that which Rava interpreted, as Rava interpreted: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd when I limped they rejoiced and gathered鈥hey tore and did not cease [damu]鈥 (Psalms 35:15)? The term 鈥damu鈥 can also be understood as a reference to blood. Concerning the fasting he undertook to atone for his sin with Bathsheba (see II聽Samuel, chapters 11鈥12), David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that if my tormenters were to tear my flesh, my blood [dami] would not flow to the ground, due to excessive fasting.


讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖注讛 砖注讜住拽讬谉 讘谞讙注讬诐 讜讗讛诇讜转 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讬 讚讜讚 讛讘讗 注诇 讗砖转 讗讬砖 诪讬转转讜 讘诪讛 讜讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 诇讛诐 诪讬转转讜 讘讞谞拽 讜讬砖 诇讜 讞诇拽 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗讘诇 讛诪诇讘讬谉 讗转 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐 讗讬谉 诇讜 讞诇拽 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗


And moreover, they torment me to the extent that even at the time when they are engaged in the public study of the halakhot of leprous sores and tents in which there is a corpse, i.e., halakhic matters that have no connection to my sin, they say to me: David, one who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his death is effected with what form of execution? And I say to them: One who engages in intercourse with a married woman before witnesses and with forewarning, his death is by strangulation, but he still has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another in public has no share in the World-to-Come. The transgression of you, who humiliate me, is more severe than my transgression.


讜讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专 讟讜讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬驻讬诇 注爪诪讜 诇讻讘砖谉 讛讗砖 讜讗诇 讬诇讘讬谉 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐 诪谞讗 诇谉 诪转诪专 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬讗 诪讜爪讗转 讜讛讬讗 砖诇讞讛 讗诇 讞诪讬讛


And Mar Zutra bar Toviyya says that Rav says; and some say Rav 岣na bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida says; and some say Rabbi Yo岣nan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: It is more comfortable for a person to cast himself into a fiery furnace, than to humiliate another in public to avoid being cast into the furnace. From where do we derive this? From Tamar, daughter-in-law of Judah. When she was taken out to be burned, she did not reveal that she was pregnant with Judah鈥檚 child. Rather, she left the decision to him, to avoid humiliating him in public, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: I am pregnant by the man to whom these belong. And she said: Examine these, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff?鈥 (Genesis 38:24鈥25).


讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 转讜谞讜 讗讬砖 讗转 注诪讬转讜 注诐 砖讗转讱 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜讜转 讗诇 转讜谞讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘讗讜谞讗转 讗砖转讜 砖诪转讜讱 砖讚诪注转讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讗讜谞讗转讛 拽专讜讘讛


Rav 岣nnana, son of Rav Idi, says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd you shall not mistreat each man his colleague [amito]鈥 (Leviticus 25:17)? The word amito is interpreted as a contraction of im ito, meaning: One who is with him. With one who is with you in observance of Torah and mitzvot, you shall not mistreat him. Rav says: A person must always be careful about mistreatment of his wife. Since her tear is easily elicited, punishment for her mistreatment is immediate.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讬讜诐 砖谞讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞谞注诇讜 砖注专讬 转驻讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讙诐 讻讬 讗讝注拽 讜讗砖讜注 砖转诐 转驻讬诇转讬 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖砖注专讬 转驻讬诇讛 谞谞注诇讜 砖注专讬 讚诪注讜转 诇讗 谞谞注诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪注讛 转驻诇转讬 讛壮 讜砖讜注转讬 讛讗讝讬谞讛 讗诇 讚诪注转讬 讗诇 转讞专砖


Rabbi Elazar says: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were locked, and prayer is not accepted as it once was, as it is stated in lament of the Temple鈥檚 destruction: 鈥淭hough I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer鈥 (Lamentations 3:8). Yet, despite the fact that the gates of prayer were locked with the destruction of the Temple, the gates of tears were not locked, and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears鈥 (Psalms 39:13).


讜讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛讛讜诇讱 讘注爪转 讗砖转讜 谞讜驻诇 讘讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 专拽 诇讗 讛讬讛 讻讗讞讗讘 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗讬转转讱 讙讜爪讗 讙讞讬谉 讜转诇讞讜砖 诇讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗 讜讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讘讬转讗 诇讬砖谞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚砖诪讬讗 讜讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗


And Rav says: Nevertheless, anyone who follows the counsel of his wife descends into Gehenna, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut there was none like Ahab, who did give himself over to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, whom Jezebel his wife incited鈥 (I聽Kings 21:25). Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But don鈥檛 people say a popular proverb: If your wife is short, stoop and whisper to her and consult with her? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this statement of Rav instructs that one not follow her counsel in general matters; and that proverb instructs that one follow her counsel in household matters. The Gemara presents another version of this distinction: This statement of Rav maintains that one should not follow her counsel in divine matters; and that proverb maintains that one should follow her counsel in general matters.


讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 讛砖注专讬诐 谞谞注诇讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖注专讬 讗讜谞讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讛壮 谞爪讘 注诇 讞讜诪转 讗谞讱 讜讘讬讚讜 讗谞讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讻诇 谞驻专注 讘讬讚讬 砖诇讬讞 讞讜抓 诪讗讜谞讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讬讚讜 讗谞讱


Rav 岣sda says: All the gates of Heaven are apt to be locked, except for the gates of prayer for victims of verbal mistreatment, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd behold, the Lord stood upon a wall built with a plumb line, and a plumb line in His hand鈥 (Amos 7:7). God stands with the scales of justice in His hand to determine if one has been subjected to injustice. Rabbi Elazar says: In response to all transgressions, God punishes the perpetrator by means of an agent, except for mistreatment [ona鈥檃], as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a plumb line [anakh] in His hand.鈥 The term for mistreatment and the term for plumb line are spelled in a similar manner, indicating that God Himself inflicts retribution.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 砖诇砖讛 讗讬谉 讛驻专讙讜讚 谞谞注诇 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讗讜谞讗讛 讜讙讝诇 讜注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗讜谞讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘讬讚讜 讗谞讱 讙讝诇 讚讻转讬讘 讞诪住 讜砖讚 讬砖诪注 讘讛 注诇 驻谞讬 转诪讬讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛注诐 讛诪讻注讬住讬诐 讗转讬 注诇 驻谞讬 转诪讬讚 讜讙讜壮


Rabbi Abbahu says: There are three sins before whose transgressors the curtain [hapargod] between the world and the Divine Presence is not locked; their sins reach the Divine Presence. They are: Verbal mistreatment, robbery, and idol worship. Mistreatment, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a plumb line in His hand鈥; robbery, as it is stated: 鈥淰iolence and robbery are heard in her, they are before Me continually鈥 (Jeremiah 6:7); idol worship, as it is stated: 鈥淎 people that angers Me before Me continually; that sacrifice in gardens, and burn incense upon bricks鈥 (Isaiah 65:3).


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘转讘讜讗讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖讗讬谉 诪专讬讘讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 注诇 注住拽讬 转讘讜讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛砖诐 讙讘讜诇讱 砖诇讜诐 讞诇讘 讞讟讬诐 讬砖讘讬注讱 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讻诪砖诇诐 砖注专讬 诪讻讚讗 谞拽讬砖 讜讗转讬 转讙专讗 讘讘讬转讗


Apropos the topic of how a man should approach his household, Rav Yehuda says: A person must always be careful about ensuring that there is grain inside his house, as discord is found in a person鈥檚 house only over matters of grain, as it is stated: 鈥淗e makes your borders peace; He gives you plenty with the finest wheat鈥 (Psalms 147:14). If there is the finest wheat in your house, there will be peace there. Rav Pappa said: This is in accordance with the adage that people say: When the barley is emptied from the jug, quarrel knocks and enters the house.


讜讗诪专 专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘转讘讜讗讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇讗 谞拽专讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚诇讬诐 讗诇讗 注诇 注住拽讬 转讘讜讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讗诐 讝专注 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讞谞讜 注诇讬讛诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讚诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗讚 诪驻谞讬 诪讚讬谉


And Rav 岣nnana bar Pappa says: A person must always be careful about ensuring that there is grain inside his house, as the Jewish people were characterized as poor only over matters of grain, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it was, if Israel sowed, and Midian and the children of the east ascended鈥 (Judges 6:3); and it is written: 鈥淎nd they encamped against them and they destroyed the crops of the land鈥 (Judges 6:4); and it is further written: 鈥淎nd Israel was greatly impoverished due to Midian鈥 (Judges 6:6).


讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘讻讘讜讚 讗砖转讜 砖讗讬谉 讘专讻讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讗砖转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗讘专诐 讛讟讬讘 讘注讘讜专讛 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讗 诇讘谞讬 诪讞讜讝讗 讗讜拽讬专讜 诇谞砖讬讬讻讜 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转转注转专讜


And Rabbi 岣lbo says: A person must always be careful about sustaining the honor of his wife, as blessing is found in a person鈥檚 house only because of his wife, as it is stated in allusion to this: 鈥淎nd he dealt well with Abram for her sake, and he had sheep and oxen鈥 (Genesis 12:16). And that is what Rava said to the residents of Me岣za, where he lived: Honor your wives, so that you will become rich.


转谞谉 讛转诐 讞转讻讜 讞讜诇讬讜转 讜谞转谉 讞讜诇 讘讬谉 讞讜诇讬讗 诇讞讜诇讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪讟讛专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪讟诪讗讬谉


搂 Apropos the topic of verbal mistreatment, we learned in a mishna there (Kelim 5:10): If one cut an earthenware oven widthwise into segments, and placed sand between each and every segment, Rabbi Eliezer deems it ritually pure. Because of the sand, its legal status is not that of a complete vessel, and therefore it is not susceptible to ritual impurity. And the Rabbis deem it ritually impure, as it is functionally a complete oven.


讜讝讛 讛讜讗 转谞讜专 砖诇 注讻谞讗讬 诪讗讬 注讻谞讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讛拽讬驻讜 讚讘专讬诐 讻注讻谞讗 讝讜 讜讟诪讗讜讛讜 转谞讗 讘讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讛砖讬讘 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讻诇 转砖讜讘讜转 砖讘注讜诇诐 讜诇讗 拽讬讘诇讜 讛讬诪谞讜


And this is known as the oven of akhnai. The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of akhnai, a snake, in this context? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is characterized in that manner due to the fact that the Rabbis surrounded it with their statements like this snake, which often forms a coil when at rest, and deemed it impure. The Sages taught: On that day, when they discussed this matter, Rabbi Eliezer answered all possible answers in the world to support his opinion, but the Rabbis did not accept his explanations from him.


讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 讞专讜讘 讝讛 讬讜讻讬讞 谞注拽专 讞专讜讘 诪诪拽讜诪讜 诪讗讛 讗诪讛 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讗诪讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛讞专讜讘 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 讗诪转 讛诪讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 讞讝专讜 讗诪转 讛诪讬诐 诇讗讞讜专讬讛诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪讗诪转 讛诪讬诐


After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, this carob tree will prove it. The carob tree was uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits. The Rabbis said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from the carob tree. Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the stream will prove it. The water in the stream turned backward and began flowing in the opposite direction. They said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from a stream.


讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 讻讜转诇讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讬讜讻讬讞讜 讛讟讜 讻讜转诇讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 诇讬驻讜诇 讙注专 讘讛诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪谞爪讞讬诐 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讘讛诇讻讛 讗转诐 诪讛 讟讬讘讻诐 诇讗 谞驻诇讜 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜诇讗 讝拽驻讜 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜注讚讬谉 诪讟讬谉 讜注讜诪讚讬谉


Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the walls of the study hall will prove it. The walls of the study hall leaned inward and began to fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scolded the walls and said to them: If Torah scholars are contending with each other in matters of halakha, what is the nature of your involvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls did not fall because of the deference due Rabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because of the deference due Rabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning.


讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讬 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 讬爪讗转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诪讛 诇讻诐 讗爪诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 砖讛诇讻讛 讻诪讜转讜 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐


Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, Heaven will prove it. A Divine Voice emerged from Heaven and said: Why are you differing with Rabbi Eliezer, as the halakha is in accordance with his opinion in every place that he expresses an opinion?


注诪讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 注诇 专讙诇讬讜 讜讗诪专 诇讗 讘砖诪讬诐 讛讬讗 诪讗讬 诇讗 讘砖诪讬诐 讛讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 砖讻讘专 谞转谞讛 转讜专讛 诪讛专 住讬谞讬 讗讬谉 讗谞讜 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讘转 拽讜诇 砖讻讘专 讻转讘转 讘讛专 住讬谞讬 讘转讜专讛 讗讞专讬 专讘讬诐 诇讛讟转 讗砖讻讞讬讛 专讘讬 谞转谉 诇讗诇讬讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讗 讞讬讬讱 讜讗诪专 谞爪讞讜谞讬 讘谞讬 谞爪讞讜谞讬 讘谞讬


Rabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said: It is written: 鈥淚t is not in heaven鈥 (Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of the phrase 鈥淚t is not in heaven鈥 in this context? Rabbi Yirmeya says: Since the Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: 鈥淎fter a majority to incline鈥 (Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion, the halakha is not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, Rabbi Natan encountered Elijah the prophet and said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time, when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, smiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me.


讗诪专讜 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讛讘讬讗讜 讻诇 讟讛专讜转 砖讟讬讛专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜砖专驻讜诐 讘讗砖 讜谞诪谞讜 注诇讬讜 讜讘专讻讜讛讜 讜讗诪专讜 诪讬 讬诇讱 讜讬讜讚讬注讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗谞讬 讗诇讱 砖诪讗 讬诇讱 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞讜 讛讙讜谉 讜讬讜讚讬注讜 讜谞诪爪讗 诪讞专讬讘 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜


The Sages said: On that day, the Sages brought all the ritually pure items deemed pure by the ruling of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to the oven and burned them in fire, and the Sages reached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. And the Sages said: Who will go and inform him of his ostracism? Rabbi Akiva, his beloved disciple, said to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person go and inform him in a callous and offensive manner, and he would thereby destroy the entire world.


诪讛 注砖讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讘砖 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜谞转注讟祝 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜讬砖讘 诇驻谞讬讜 讘专讬讞讜拽 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 注拽讬讘讗 诪讛 讬讜诐 诪讬讜诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讻诪讚讜诪讛 诇讬 砖讞讘讬专讬诐 讘讚讬诇讬诐 诪诪讱 讗祝 讛讜讗 拽专注 讘讙讚讬讜 讜讞诇抓 诪谞注诇讬讜 讜谞砖诪讟 讜讬砖讘 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注


What did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black, as an expression of mourning and pain, and sat before Rabbi Eliezer at a distance of four cubits, which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, what is different about today from other days, that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, it appears to me that your colleagues are distancing themselves from you. He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer too, rent his garments and removed his shoes, as is the custom of an ostracized person, and he dropped from his seat and sat upon the ground.


讝诇讙讜 注讬谞讬讜 讚诪注讜转 诇拽讛 讛注讜诇诐 砖诇讬砖 讘讝讬转讬诐 讜砖诇讬砖 讘讞讟讬诐 讜砖诇讬砖 讘砖注讜专讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讘爪拽 砖讘讬讚讬 讗砖讛 讟驻讞 转谞讗 讗祝 讙讚讜诇 讛讬讛 讘讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞转谉 讘讜 注讬谞讬讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞砖专祝


The Gemara relates: His eyes shed tears, and as a result the entire world was afflicted: One-third of its olives were afflicted, and one-third of its wheat, and one-third of its barley. And some say that even dough kneaded in a woman鈥檚 hands spoiled. The Sages taught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned.


讜讗祝 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讛 讘讗 讘住驻讬谞讛 注诪讚 注诇讬讜 谞讞砖讜诇 诇讟讘注讜 讗诪专 讻诪讚讜诪讛 诇讬 砖讗讬谉 讝讛 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讛讜专拽谞讜住 注诪讚 注诇 专讙诇讬讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讙诇讜讬 讜讬讚讜注 诇驻谞讬讱 砖诇讗 诇讻讘讜讚讬 注砖讬转讬 讜诇讗 诇讻讘讜讚 讘讬转 讗讘讗 注砖讬转讬 讗诇讗 诇讻讘讜讚讱 砖诇讗 讬专讘讜 诪讞诇讜拽讜转 讘讬砖专讗诇 谞讞 讛讬诐 诪讝注驻讜


And even Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, was coming on a boat at the time, and a large wave swelled over him and threatened to drown him. Rabban Gamliel said: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel stood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honor that I acted when ostracizing him, nor was it for the honor of the house of my father that I acted; rather, it was for Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel. In response, the sea calmed from its raging.


讗讬诪讗 砖诇讜诐 讚讘讬转讛讜 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讜讗讬 诪讛讛讜讗 诪注砖讛 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 讛讜讛 砖讘拽讛 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诇诪讬驻诇 注诇 讗驻讬讛 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 专讬砖 讬专讞讗 讛讜讛 讜讗讬讞诇祝 诇讛 讘讬谉 诪诇讗 诇讞住专 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗转讗 注谞讬讗 讜拽讗讬 讗讘讘讗 讗驻讬拽讗 诇讬讛 专讬驻转讗


The Gemara further relates: Imma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his head and recite the ta岣nun prayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. A certain day was around the day of the New Moon, and she inadvertently substituted a full thirty-day month for a deficient twenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. Some say that a pauper came and stood at the door, and she took bread out to him. The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.


讗砖讻讞转讬讛 讚谞驻诇 注诇 讗谞驻讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 拽讜诐 拽讟诇讬转 诇讗讞讬 讗讚讛讻讬 谞驻拽 砖讬驻讜专讗 诪讘讬转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚砖讻讬讘 讗诪专 诇讛 诪谞讗 讬讚注转 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 讻诇 讛砖注专讬诐 谞谞注诇讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖注专讬 讗讜谞讗讛


When she returned, she found him and saw that he had lowered his head in prayer. She said to him: Arise, you already killed my brother. Meanwhile, the sound of a shofar emerged from the house of Rabban Gamliel to announce that the Nasi had died. Rabbi Eliezer said to her: From where did you know that your brother would die? She said to him: This is the tradition that I received from the house of the father of my father: All the gates of Heaven are apt to be locked, except for the gates of prayer for victims of verbal mistreatment.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讗谞讛 讗转 讛讙专 注讜讘专 讘砖诇砖讛 诇讗讜讬谉 讜讛诇讜讞爪讜 注讜讘专 讘砖谞讬诐


The Sages taught: One who verbally mistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses him in other ways violates two.


诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诪讗谞讛 讚讻转讬讘讬 砖诇砖讛 诇讗讜讬谉 讜讙专 诇讗 转讜谞讛 讜讻讬 讬讙讜专 讗转讱 讙专 讘讗专爪讻诐 诇讗 转讜谞讜 讗转讜 讜诇讗 转讜谞讜 讗讬砖 讗转 注诪讬转讜 讜讙专 讘讻诇诇 注诪讬转讜 讛讜讗 诇讜讞爪讜 谞诪讬 砖诇砖讛 讻转讬讘讬 讜诇讗 转诇讞爪谞讜 讜讙专 诇讗 转诇讞抓 讜诇讗 转讛讬讛 诇讜 讻谞砖讛 讜讙专 讘讻诇诇 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 讘砖诇砖讛


The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to verbal mistreatment, that three prohibitions are written concerning it: 鈥淎nd you shall neither mistreat a convert鈥 (Exodus 22:20); 鈥淎nd when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him鈥 (Leviticus 19:33); 鈥淎nd you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague鈥 (Leviticus 25:17), and a convert is included in the category of colleague? With regard to one who also oppresses a convert as well, three prohibitions are written: 鈥淎nd you shall neither mistreat a convert, nor oppress him鈥 (Exodus 22:20); 鈥淎nd you shall not oppress a convert (Exodus 23:9); 鈥淎nd you shall not be to him like a creditor鈥 (Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, in which converts are included. Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. Rather, both this one, who verbally mistreats a convert, and that one, who oppresses him, violate three prohibitions.


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讝讛讬专讛 转讜专讛 讘砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖砖讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 讘讙专 诪驻谞讬 砖住讜专讜 专注


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard to causing any distress to a convert? It is due to the fact that a convert鈥檚 inclination is evil, i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living.


诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讙专 诇讗 转讜谞讛 讜诇讗 转诇讞爪谞讜 讻讬 讙专讬诐 讛讬讬转诐 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 转谞讬谞讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 诪讜诐 砖讘讱 讗诇 转讗诪专 诇讞讘专讱 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讚讝拽讬祝 诇讬讛 讝拽讬驻讗 讘讚讬讜转拽讬讛 诇讗 谞讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诇讞讘专讬讛 讝拽讬祝 讘讬谞讬转讗


What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt鈥 (Exodus 22:20)? We learned in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mention it in another. Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. And this explains the adage that people say: One who has a person hanged in his family [bidyotkei], does not say to another member of his household: Hang a fish for me, as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family.


诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 驻讬专讜转 讘驻讬专讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讞讚砖讬诐


MISHNA: One may not intermingle produce bought from one supplier with other produce, even if he intermingles new produce with other new produce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.


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