Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Daf Yomi

May 13, 2024 | 讛壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讚

  • Masechet Bava Metzia is sponsored by Rabbi Art Gould in memory of his beloved bride of 50 years, Carol Joy Robinson, Karina Gola bat Huddah v鈥橸ehuda Tzvi.

    专讘讜转 讘谞讜转 注砖讜 讞讬诇 讜讗转 注诇讬转 注诇志讻诇谞讛

Bava Metzia 75

Today’s daf is dedicated to the memory of the fallen soldiers of the IDF and security forces who fell in defense of Am Israel and Eretz Israel, and to the memory of those whose lives were tragically lost in terrorist attacks. This year we especially are thinking about those lost on and after Oct. 7th. May their memories be blessed. We continue to pray for the safe and speedy return of our hostages.聽聽

Today’s daf is sponsored by Bracha Rutner in loving memory of Anna Rutner, Sarah bat Yom Tov v’Rachel. “She was a woman who valued education, was naturally curious about the world and people, who was very beloved by her family. Her love of learning was an inspiration to her family and she would be so proud of all of our accomplishments. May her neshama have an Aliyah.”

Is it permissible to borrow grains with the agreement to return them later in the season when their value is expected to increase? Typically, such arrangements are viewed as involving interest since the value of the grains is likely to rise. However, it is allowed if the borrower already possesses grains, even if they are not readily accessible. Should the borrower only borrow against the grains they presently own, or can it be a nominal amount? Hillel prohibited lending a loaf of bread, fearing that the price of wheat might surge before the loaf is repaid. What rationale led the rabbis to disagree with Hillel’s position? Shmuel asserted that Torah scholars could lend money to one another on interest 鈥 why? Rav sanctioned a father lending to his child on interest for educational purposes, yet the Gemara dismissed this, citing the potential for sending the wrong message to children. Can a person work for a friend one day and vice-versa without incurring usury issues? Under what circumstances is this permissible? Transgressions of interest extend beyond monetary transactions to include conveying information or offering greetings. What infractions do both borrower and lender commit when doing loaning with interest? Numerous statements underscore the severe repercussions for those involved in interest-based lending. It is cautioned against lending money without witnesses, as Rav fears it may prompt the borrower to deny the loan, while Reish Lakish is apprehensive about inviting curses upon the lender due to erroneous perceptions of dishonesty.

讛诇讜讬谞讬 讻讜专 讞讟讬谉 讜拽讜爪抓 诇讜 讚诪讬诐 讛讜讝诇讜 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讞讟讬诐 讛讜拽专讜 谞讜转谉 讚诪讬讛诐


Lend me a kor of wheat, and the lender may set a price for him, stating that the borrower must repay the wheat in the future according to the value of wheat at the time of the loan. If, by the time the borrower must repay the loan, the wheat depreciates in value, he gives the lender a quantity of wheat equivalent to what he borrowed, and if it appreciates, he gives the value of the wheat he borrowed as per the market rate when he borrowed it, as agreed, but no more.


讜讛诇讗 拽爪抓 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗诐 诇讗 拽爪抓 讛讜讝诇讜 谞讜讟诇 讞讟讬讜 讛讜拽专讜 谞讜转谉 讚诪讬讛诐


The Gemara questions this ruling: If the price of wheat depreciates, why should it be permitted for the borrower to pay him with wheat worth less than the value of the amount he borrowed? But he fixed a price at the time of the loan, and therefore the borrower owes him this amount of money. Rav Sheshet said: This is what the tanna is saying: If the lender did not set a price but merely lent him wheat, and it depreciates in value, the lender takes his wheat, as they did not agree that the borrower must repay the wheat according to its value at the time that the loan was taken out. But if it appreciates in value, the borrower gives the value of the wheat he borrowed as per the market rate when he borrowed it, in order to avoid the payment of interest.


诪转谞讬壮 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讛诇讜讬谞讬 讻讜专 讞讟讬谉 讜讗谞讬 讗转谉 诇讱 诇讙讜专谉 讗讘诇 讗讜诪专 诇讜 讛诇讜讬谞讬 注讚 砖讬讘讗 讘谞讬 讗讜 注讚 砖讗诪爪讗 诪驻转讞 讜讛诇诇 讗讜住专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专 诇讗 转诇讜讛 讗砖讛 讻讻专 诇讞讘专转讛 注讚 砖转注砖讬讛 讚诪讬诐 砖诪讗 讬讜拽专讜 讞讟讬谉 讜谞诪爪讗讜 讘讗讜转 诇讬讚讬 专讘讬转


MISHNA: A person may not say to another: Lend me a kor of wheat and I will give it back to you at the time the wheat is brought to the granary, as the wheat may increase in value, which would mean that when he gives him back a kor of wheat at the time the wheat is brought to the granary it is worth more than the value of the loan, and he therefore will have paid interest. But he may say to him: Lend me a kor of wheat for a short period of time, e.g., until my son comes or until I find the key, as there is no concern about a change in price during such a short interval of time. And Hillel prohibits the practice even in this case. And Hillel would similarly say: A woman may not lend a loaf of bread to another unless she establishes its monetary value, lest the wheat appreciate in value before she returns it, and they will therefore have come to transgress the prohibition of interest.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讬砖 诇讜 住讗讛 诇讜讛 住讗讛 住讗转讬诐 诇讜讛 住讗转讬诐 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 诇讜 住讗讛 诇讜讛 注诇讬讛 讻诪讛 讻讜专讬谉


GEMARA: Rav Huna said: One who has a se鈥檃 of an item in his house may borrow a se鈥檃 of that item. Since he has available a se鈥檃 that he could give back right away, he may borrow one se鈥檃, and similarly, if he has two se鈥檃 available he may borrow two se鈥檃. Rabbi Yitz岣k says: Even if he has only one se鈥檃, he may borrow several kor in reliance upon it. Since he can repay part of the loan immediately, and as the market value has yet to change there is only a concern about future interest, this concern is mitigated when it does not apply to the entire loan.


转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诇住讬讜注讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讟讬驻转 讬讬谉 讗讬谉 诇讜 讟讬驻转 砖诪谉 讗讬谉 诇讜 讛讗 讬砖 诇讜 诇讜讛 注诇讬讛 讻诪讛 讟讬驻讬谉


The Gemara comments: Rabbi 岣yya teaches a baraita in support of Rabbi Yitz岣k鈥檚 ruling: If one does not have a drop of wine or if he does not have a drop of oil, he may not borrow wine or oil. Consequently, by inference it can be derived: If he does have a drop of wine or oil, he may borrow many drops in reliance upon it, as the tanna is certainly not referring to a case where he borrows just a few meager drops.


讜讛诇诇 讗讜住专 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讛诇诇 讜诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛


搂 The mishna teaches: And Hillel prohibits this practice. Rav Na岣an says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Hillel. The Gemara comments: But the halakha is not, in fact, in accordance with the ruling of Shmuel.


讜讻谉 讛讬讛 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专 诇讗 转诇讜讛 讗砖讛 [讜讻讜壮] 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讝讜 讚讘专讬 讛诇诇 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜讬诐 住转诐 讜驻讜专注讬诐 住转诐


搂 The mishna further teaches: And Hillel would similarly say: A woman may not lend even a loaf of bread due to concern that she will violate the prohibition of interest. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: This is the statement of Hillel, but the Rabbis say that one may borrow various types of foods without specification and repay them without specification. If neighbors are not particular with one another about these items, there is no concern about interest, in contrast to Hillel鈥檚 opinon.


讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘谞讬 讞讘讜专讛 讛诪拽驻讬讚讬谉 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 注讜讘专讬谉 诪砖讜诐 诪讚讛 讜诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽诇 讜诪砖讜诐 诪谞讬谉 讜诪砖讜诐 诇讜讬谉 讜驻讜专注讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讻讚讘专讬 讛诇诇 讗祝 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬转


And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: With regard to the members of a group of people that eat together who are particular with each other and insist that each pay for precisely what he ate, if they dine together on Shabbat, they transgress a prohibition with regard to the strictures of measure, and with regard to the strictures of weight, and with regard to the strictures of counting, all of which are calculations that are forbidden on Shabbat. And they transgress a prohibition with regard to lending and repaying on a Festival, and according to the statement of Hillel, they also transgress the prohibition with regard to interest.


讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讜转专讬诐 诇诇讜讜转 讝讛 诪讝讛 讘专讘讬转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讬讚注 讬讚注讬 讚专讘讬转 讗住讜专讛 讜诪转谞讛 讛讜讗 讚讬讛讘讜 讗讛讚讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗讘讜讛 讘专 讗讬讛讬 讛诇讜讬谞讬 诪讗讛 驻诇驻诇讬谉 讘诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬谉 驻诇驻诇讬谉 讜讗专讬讱


And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: It is permitted for Torah scholars to borrow from one another with interest. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this? It is because they are fully aware that interest is prohibited, and therefore they do not intend the loan to be a formal business transaction. They willingly forgo the additional payments to each other at the outset, and the extra payment is a gift that they give one another. The Gemara relates: Shmuel said to Avuh bar Ihi: Lend me one hundred peppers in exchange for 120 peppers that I will give you at a later date. And you should know that this matter is fitting and appropriate, as I intend that the additional twenty peppers be a gift.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讜转专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 诇讛诇讜讜转 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讘专讘讬转 讻讚讬 诇讛讟注讬诪谉 讟注诐 专讘讬转 讜诇讗讜 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗转讬 诇诪讬住专讱


Similarly, Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: It is permitted for a person to lend to his sons and the members of his household with interest, in order to have them taste the taste of interest so that they will understand how interest increases and how hard it is to repay it, which will discourage them from ever borrowing with interest again. The Gemara comments: But this is not correct, because the members of his household may become corrupted by doing so and act similarly with others in cases when there is no justification for such behavior.


诪转谞讬壮 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 谞讻砖 注诪讬 讜讗谞讻砖 注诪讱 注讚讜专 注诪讬 讜讗注讚讜专 注诪讱 讜诇讗 讬讗诪专 诇讜 谞讻砖 注诪讬 讜讗注讚讜专 注诪讱 注讚讜专 注诪讬 讜讗谞讻砖 注诪讱


MISHNA: A person may say to another: Weed the wild growths from my field with me now, and I will weed your field with you at a later stage, or: Till my field with me today and I will till with you on a different day. But he may not say to him: Weed with me today and I will till with you a different day, or: Till with me today and I will weed with you, as due to the different nature of the tasks it is possible that one of them will have to work harder than the other did, which is a type of interest, since he repaid him with additional labor.


讻诇 讬诪讬 讙专讬讚 讗讞讚 讻诇 讬诪讬 专讘讬注讛 讗讞转 诇讗 讬讗诪专 诇讜 讞专讜砖 注诪讬 讘讙专讬讚 讜讗谞讬 讗讞专讜砖 注诪讱 讘专讘讬注讛


All the dry days during the summer, when it does not rain, are viewed as one period, meaning that if they each agreed to work one day, the dry days are viewed as though they were all exactly equal in length, despite the slight differences between them. Similarly, all the rainy days are treated as one period. But he may not say to him: Plow with me in the dry season and I will plow with you in the rainy season.


专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬砖 专讘讬转 诪讜拽讚诪转 讜讬砖 专讘讬转 诪讗讜讞专转 讻讬爪讚 谞转谉 注讬谞讬讜 诇诇讜讜转 讛讬诪谞讜 讜讛讜讗 诪砖诇讞 诇讜 讜讗讜诪专 讘砖讘讬诇 砖转诇讜谞讬 讝讜 讛讬讗 专讘讬转 诪讜拽讚诪转 诇讜讛 讛讬诪谞讜 讜讛讞讝讬专 诇讜 讗转 诪注讜转讬讜 讜讛讜讗 诪砖诇讞 诇讜 讜讗讜诪专 讘砖讘讬诇 诪注讜转讬讱 砖讛讬讜 讘讟讬诇讜转 讗爪诇讬 讝讜 讛讬讗 专讘讬转 诪讗讜讞专转


Rabban Gamliel says: There is a case of pre-paid interest, and there is also a case of interest paid later, both of which are prohibited. How so? If he had hopes of borrowing money from him in the future, and he sends him money or a gift and says: I am sending you this gift in order that you will lend to me, this is pre-paid interest. Similarly, if he borrowed money from him and subsequently returned his money, and he later sends a gift to him and says: I am sending you this gift in order to repay you for your money, which was idle with me, preventing you from earning a profit from it, this is interest paid later.


专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讬砖 专讘讬转 讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 讬讗诪专 诇讜 讚注 讻讬 讘讗 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 诪诪拽讜诐 驻诇讜谞讬


Rabbi Shimon says: Not only is there interest consisting of payment of money or items, but there is also verbal interest. For example, the borrower may not say to the lender: You should know that so-and-so has come from such and such a place, when he is aware that this information is of significance to his creditor. Since his intention is to provide a benefit to the lender, he has effectively paid him an extra sum for the money he lent him, which constitutes interest.


讜讗诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 讛诪诇讜讛 讜讛诇讜讛 讜讛注专讘 讜讛注讚讬诐 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛住讜驻专 注讜讘专讬诐 诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转转谉 讜诪砖讜诐 讗诇 转拽讞 诪讗转讜 讜诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转讛讬讛 诇讜 讻谞讜砖讛 讜诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转砖讬诪讜谉 注诇讬讜 谞砖讱 讜诪砖讜诐 讜诇驻谞讬 注讜专 诇讗 转转谉 诪讻砖讜诇 讜讬专讗转 诪讗诇讛讬讱 讗谞讬 讛壮


And these people violate a prohibition of interest: The lender, and the borrower, and the guarantor, and the witnesses. And the Rabbis say: Also the scribe who writes the promissory note violates this prohibition. These parties to the transaction violate different prohibtions. Some are in violation of: 鈥淵ou shall not give him your money with interest鈥 (Leviticus 25:37), and of: 鈥淒o not take from him interest or increase鈥 (Leviticus 25:36), and of: 鈥淒o not be to him as a creditor鈥 (Exodus 22:24), and of 鈥淒o not place interest upon him鈥 (Exodus 22:24), and of: 鈥淎nd you shall not place a stumbling block before the blind, and you shall fear your God; I am the Lord鈥 (Leviticus 19:14).


讙诪壮 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 诇谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜讗讬谞讜 专讙讬诇 诇讛拽讚讬诐 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 砖讗住讜专 诇讛拽讚讬诐 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞砖讱 讻诇 讚讘专 讗砖专 讬砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讬讘讜专 讗住讜专


GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: From where is it derived with regard to one who is owed one hundred dinars by another, and the borrower is not accustomed to greeting that lender, that it is prohibited to start greeting him after being granted the loan? The verse states: 鈥淚nterest of any matter [davar] that is lent with interest鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:20), which can also be read as indicating that even speech [dibbur] can be prohibited as interest.


讜讗诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪诇讜讛 注讜讘专 讘讻讜诇谉 诇讜讛 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转砖讬讱 诇讗讞讬讱 讜诇讗讞讬讱 诇讗 转砖讬讱 讜诇驻谞讬 注讜专 诇讗 转转谉 诪讻砖讜诇 注专讘 讜讛注讚讬诐 讗讬谉 注讜讘专讬谉 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转砖讬诪讜谉 注诇讬讜 谞砖讱


搂 The mishna teaches: And these people violate the prohibition of interest. Abaye says: The lender violates all of them, meaning all of the prohibitions listed in the mishna. The borrower violates the prohibition of: 鈥淵ou shall not lend to your brother with interest鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:20), as he enables his brother to lend with interest. And they also violate the prohibition: 鈥淵ou may lend to a gentile with interest, but to your brother you shall not lend with interest鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:21), as well as: 鈥淎nd you shall not place a stumbling block before the blind鈥 (Leviticus 19:14). The guarantor and the witness violate only: 鈥淒o not place interest upon him鈥 (Exodus 22:24).


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 诪诇讜讬 专讘讬转 讬讜转专 诪诪讛 砖诪专讜讬讞讬诐 诪驻住讬讚讬诐 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖诪砖讬诪讬诐 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 讞讻诐 讜转讜专转讜 讗诪转 讜讗讜诪专讬谉 讗讬诇讜 讛讬讛 讬讜讚注 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 砖讬讛讬讛 专讬讜讞 讘讚讘专 诇讗 讛讬讛 讻讜转讘讜


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon says: Those who lend with interest lose more than they gain, as they will eventually be punished by God. Moreover, a loan of this kind desecrates the name of Heaven, as they cause it to seem that Moses our teacher is a scholar and his Torah is true. This is a euphemism; Rabbi Shimon means that their actions make a mockery of Moses and his Torah. And this is because they say: Had Moses our teacher known that there was a profit involved in the matter, he would not have written it as a prohibition. Not only do they violate a mitzva but they also belittle the Torah.


讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 诪谞讬谉 诇谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜讬讜讚注 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 砖讗住讜专 诇注讘讜专 诇驻谞讬讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇讗 转讛讬讛 诇讜 讻谞砖讛


搂 The Gemara cites further statements with regard to loans in general. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael, he said: From where is it derived that with regard to one who is owed one hundred dinars by another and knows that the borrower does not have the funds to repay him, that it is prohibited for him to pass before the borrower, so as not to embarrass the borrower and cause him discomfort? The verse states: 鈥淒o not be to him as a creditor鈥 (Exodus 22:24). Even if he does not claim the debt from the borrower, his presence reminds the latter of the debt, which distresses him.


专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讻讗讬诇讜 讚谞讜 讘砖谞讬 讚讬谞讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛专讻讘转 讗谞讜砖 诇专讗砖谞讜 讘讗谞讜 讘讗砖 讜讘诪讬诐


Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi both say that if one upsets another in this way, it is as though he sentences him to two types of punishments, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou have caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water鈥 (Psalms 66:12). As the one in control, a creditor is regarded as though he had brought the debtor through fire and water.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 诪注讜转 讜诪诇讜讛 讗讜转谉 砖诇讗 讘注讚讬诐 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 讜诇驻谞讬 注讜专 诇讗 转转谉 诪讻砖诇 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讙讜专诐 拽诇诇讛 诇注爪诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 转讗诇诪谞讛 砖驻转讬 砖拽专 讛讚讜讘专讜转 注诇 爪讚讬拽 注转拽


Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Whoever has money and lends it not in the presence of witnesses violates the prohibition of: 鈥淎nd you shall not place a stumbling block before the blind鈥 (Leviticus 19:14), as this tempts the borrower not to repay his debt. And Reish Lakish says: He brings a curse upon himself, as it is stated: 鈥淟et the lying lips be dumb, which speak arrogantly against the righteous, with pride and contempt鈥 (Psalms 31:19), as when the lender comes to claim his money without any proof, people will think he is falsely accusing the borrower, and they will end up cursing him.


讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘 讗砖讬 拽讗 诪拽讬讬诐 专讘讬谞讗 讻诇 诪讛 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 讘讛讚讬 驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 诇讬砖讚专 诇讬 诪专 注砖专讛 讝讜讝讬 讚讗转专诪讬 诇讬 拽讟讬谞讗 讚讗专注讗 诇诪讝讘谉 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 住讛讚讬 讜谞讻转讘 讻转讘讗 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讗谞讗 谞诪讬 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 讻诇 砖讻谉 诪专 讚讟专讬讚 讘讙讬专住讬讛 诪砖转诇讬 讜讙讜专诐 拽诇诇讛 诇注爪诪讬


The Gemara cites a related incident: The Sages said to Rav Ashi: Ravina fulfills all of the directives that the Sages say. Seeking to test him, Rav Ashi sent a messenger to him close to sunset on the eve of Shabbat, at the busiest time of the week, with the following request: Let the Master send me ten dinars as a loan, as I have happened upon a small piece of land for an acquisition and I need the money. Ravina sent a message to him: Let the Master bring witnesses and we will write a written document for this loan. Rav Ashi sent a message to him: Even I, as well? Do you suspect even me of shirking payment? Ravina sent a message to him: All the more so it is necessary to document a loan to the Master, who is occupied with his studies and therefore very likely to forget, and I will thereby bring a curse upon myself.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 爪讜注拽讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 谞注谞讬谉 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 诪注讜转 讜诪诇讜讛 讗讜转谉 砖诇讗 讘注讚讬诐 讜讛拽讜谞讛 讗讚讜谉 诇注爪诪讜 讜诪讬 砖讗砖转讜 诪讜砖诇转 注诇讬讜


The Sages taught in a baraita: There are three who cry out and are not answered, as they are responsible for their own troubles. And they are: One who has money and lends it not in the presence of witnesses, and one who acquires a master for himself, and one whose wife rules over him.


拽讜谞讛 讗讚讜谉 诇注爪诪讜 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 转讜诇讛 谞讻住讬讜 讘谞讻专讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讛讻讜转讘 谞讻住讬讜 诇讘谞讬讜 讘讞讬讬讜 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚讘讬砖 诇讬讛 讘讛讗 诪转讗 讜诇讗 讗讝讬诇 诇诪转讗 讗讞专讬转讗


The Gemara clarifies: One who acquires a master for himself, what is it? There are those who say that it is referring to one who attributes his property to a gentile. He falsely claims that his possessions belong to a gentile in order to evade his obligations, thereby inviting the gentile to take advantage of this declaration. And there are those who say that it is referring to one who writes a document bequeathing his property as a gift to his children in his lifetime, as he becomes financially dependent on them. And there are those who say that it is referring to one who has bad fortune in this town but does not go to a different town. He is consequently responsible for his own misfortunes.


讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗讬讝讛讜 谞砖讱



诪转谞讬壮 讛砖讜讻专 讗转 讛讗讜诪谞讬谉 讜讛讟注讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 转专注讜诪转 砖讻专 讗转 讛讞诪专 讜讗转 讛拽讚专 诇讛讘讬讗 驻专讬讬驻专讬谉 讜讞诇讬诇讬诐 诇讻诇讛 讗讜 诇诪转 讜驻讜注诇讬谉 诇讛注诇讜转 驻砖转谞讜 诪谉 讛诪砖专讛 讜讻诇 讚讘专 砖讗讘讚 讜讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 砖诐 讗讚诐 砖讜讻专 注诇讬讛谉 讗讜 诪讟注谉


MISHNA: With regard to one who hires artisans or laborers, and they deceived one another, they have nothing but a grievance against one another, and they have no financial claim against the deceptive party. If one hired a donkey driver or a potter to bring posts [piryafarin] for a canopy or flutes to play in honor of a bride or the dead, or if he hired laborers to bring up his flax from the retting tub, i.e., the container of water in which flax is placed in the first stage of the manufacture of linen, and likewise any matter that involves financial loss if not performed on time and the laborers reneged, if this occurred in a place where there is no other person to perform the task, he may hire replacements for a large fee at the expense of the first workers, or deceive them to get them to return to work.


讛砖讜讻专 讗转 讛讗讜诪谞讬谉 讜讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 讬讚诐 注诇 讛转讞转讜谞讛


The mishna states a related halakha: With regard to one who hires artisans or laborers to perform work and they reneged on the agreement midway through the work, they are at a disadvantage. They must ensure that the employer does not suffer a loss.


  • Masechet Bava Metzia is sponsored by Rabbi Art Gould in memory of his beloved bride of 50 years, Carol Joy Robinson, Karina Gola bat Huddah v鈥橸ehuda Tzvi.

    专讘讜转 讘谞讜转 注砖讜 讞讬诇 讜讗转 注诇讬转 注诇志讻诇谞讛

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Bava Metzia 鈥 71-77 鈥 Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

This week we will learn about selling produce and the current market value. One may not set the price for...
talking talmud_square

Bava Metzia 75: The Halacha of Hillel

The last daf of the fifth perek wraps up the discussion of interest with two final mishnahs. The Genara after...
gefet logo daf

Valid Interest Loan Witness?! – Gefet with Rabbanit Yael Shimoni

Gefet:聽Gemara, Perushim and Tosfot An in-depth (Iyun) Gemara shiur with Rabbanit Yael Shimoni and Shalhevet Schwartz (Episode 79) Are witnesses...
on second thought thumbnail

What Does Interest Have to Do With Fear of God? – On Second Thought

On Second Thought: Delving Into the Sugya with Rabbanit Yafit Clymer Sources Bava Metzia 70-80 Listen here: Watch here: https://youtu.be/8TM9_pRkPao

Bava Metzia 75

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Metzia 75

讛诇讜讬谞讬 讻讜专 讞讟讬谉 讜拽讜爪抓 诇讜 讚诪讬诐 讛讜讝诇讜 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讞讟讬诐 讛讜拽专讜 谞讜转谉 讚诪讬讛诐


Lend me a kor of wheat, and the lender may set a price for him, stating that the borrower must repay the wheat in the future according to the value of wheat at the time of the loan. If, by the time the borrower must repay the loan, the wheat depreciates in value, he gives the lender a quantity of wheat equivalent to what he borrowed, and if it appreciates, he gives the value of the wheat he borrowed as per the market rate when he borrowed it, as agreed, but no more.


讜讛诇讗 拽爪抓 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗诐 诇讗 拽爪抓 讛讜讝诇讜 谞讜讟诇 讞讟讬讜 讛讜拽专讜 谞讜转谉 讚诪讬讛诐


The Gemara questions this ruling: If the price of wheat depreciates, why should it be permitted for the borrower to pay him with wheat worth less than the value of the amount he borrowed? But he fixed a price at the time of the loan, and therefore the borrower owes him this amount of money. Rav Sheshet said: This is what the tanna is saying: If the lender did not set a price but merely lent him wheat, and it depreciates in value, the lender takes his wheat, as they did not agree that the borrower must repay the wheat according to its value at the time that the loan was taken out. But if it appreciates in value, the borrower gives the value of the wheat he borrowed as per the market rate when he borrowed it, in order to avoid the payment of interest.


诪转谞讬壮 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讛诇讜讬谞讬 讻讜专 讞讟讬谉 讜讗谞讬 讗转谉 诇讱 诇讙讜专谉 讗讘诇 讗讜诪专 诇讜 讛诇讜讬谞讬 注讚 砖讬讘讗 讘谞讬 讗讜 注讚 砖讗诪爪讗 诪驻转讞 讜讛诇诇 讗讜住专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专 诇讗 转诇讜讛 讗砖讛 讻讻专 诇讞讘专转讛 注讚 砖转注砖讬讛 讚诪讬诐 砖诪讗 讬讜拽专讜 讞讟讬谉 讜谞诪爪讗讜 讘讗讜转 诇讬讚讬 专讘讬转


MISHNA: A person may not say to another: Lend me a kor of wheat and I will give it back to you at the time the wheat is brought to the granary, as the wheat may increase in value, which would mean that when he gives him back a kor of wheat at the time the wheat is brought to the granary it is worth more than the value of the loan, and he therefore will have paid interest. But he may say to him: Lend me a kor of wheat for a short period of time, e.g., until my son comes or until I find the key, as there is no concern about a change in price during such a short interval of time. And Hillel prohibits the practice even in this case. And Hillel would similarly say: A woman may not lend a loaf of bread to another unless she establishes its monetary value, lest the wheat appreciate in value before she returns it, and they will therefore have come to transgress the prohibition of interest.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讬砖 诇讜 住讗讛 诇讜讛 住讗讛 住讗转讬诐 诇讜讛 住讗转讬诐 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 诇讜 住讗讛 诇讜讛 注诇讬讛 讻诪讛 讻讜专讬谉


GEMARA: Rav Huna said: One who has a se鈥檃 of an item in his house may borrow a se鈥檃 of that item. Since he has available a se鈥檃 that he could give back right away, he may borrow one se鈥檃, and similarly, if he has two se鈥檃 available he may borrow two se鈥檃. Rabbi Yitz岣k says: Even if he has only one se鈥檃, he may borrow several kor in reliance upon it. Since he can repay part of the loan immediately, and as the market value has yet to change there is only a concern about future interest, this concern is mitigated when it does not apply to the entire loan.


转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诇住讬讜注讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讟讬驻转 讬讬谉 讗讬谉 诇讜 讟讬驻转 砖诪谉 讗讬谉 诇讜 讛讗 讬砖 诇讜 诇讜讛 注诇讬讛 讻诪讛 讟讬驻讬谉


The Gemara comments: Rabbi 岣yya teaches a baraita in support of Rabbi Yitz岣k鈥檚 ruling: If one does not have a drop of wine or if he does not have a drop of oil, he may not borrow wine or oil. Consequently, by inference it can be derived: If he does have a drop of wine or oil, he may borrow many drops in reliance upon it, as the tanna is certainly not referring to a case where he borrows just a few meager drops.


讜讛诇诇 讗讜住专 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讛诇诇 讜诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛


搂 The mishna teaches: And Hillel prohibits this practice. Rav Na岣an says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of Hillel. The Gemara comments: But the halakha is not, in fact, in accordance with the ruling of Shmuel.


讜讻谉 讛讬讛 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专 诇讗 转诇讜讛 讗砖讛 [讜讻讜壮] 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讝讜 讚讘专讬 讛诇诇 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜讬诐 住转诐 讜驻讜专注讬诐 住转诐


搂 The mishna further teaches: And Hillel would similarly say: A woman may not lend even a loaf of bread due to concern that she will violate the prohibition of interest. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: This is the statement of Hillel, but the Rabbis say that one may borrow various types of foods without specification and repay them without specification. If neighbors are not particular with one another about these items, there is no concern about interest, in contrast to Hillel鈥檚 opinon.


讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讘谞讬 讞讘讜专讛 讛诪拽驻讬讚讬谉 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 注讜讘专讬谉 诪砖讜诐 诪讚讛 讜诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽诇 讜诪砖讜诐 诪谞讬谉 讜诪砖讜诐 诇讜讬谉 讜驻讜专注讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讻讚讘专讬 讛诇诇 讗祝 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬转


And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: With regard to the members of a group of people that eat together who are particular with each other and insist that each pay for precisely what he ate, if they dine together on Shabbat, they transgress a prohibition with regard to the strictures of measure, and with regard to the strictures of weight, and with regard to the strictures of counting, all of which are calculations that are forbidden on Shabbat. And they transgress a prohibition with regard to lending and repaying on a Festival, and according to the statement of Hillel, they also transgress the prohibition with regard to interest.


讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讜转专讬诐 诇诇讜讜转 讝讛 诪讝讛 讘专讘讬转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讬讚注 讬讚注讬 讚专讘讬转 讗住讜专讛 讜诪转谞讛 讛讜讗 讚讬讛讘讜 讗讛讚讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗讘讜讛 讘专 讗讬讛讬 讛诇讜讬谞讬 诪讗讛 驻诇驻诇讬谉 讘诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬谉 驻诇驻诇讬谉 讜讗专讬讱


And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: It is permitted for Torah scholars to borrow from one another with interest. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this? It is because they are fully aware that interest is prohibited, and therefore they do not intend the loan to be a formal business transaction. They willingly forgo the additional payments to each other at the outset, and the extra payment is a gift that they give one another. The Gemara relates: Shmuel said to Avuh bar Ihi: Lend me one hundred peppers in exchange for 120 peppers that I will give you at a later date. And you should know that this matter is fitting and appropriate, as I intend that the additional twenty peppers be a gift.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讜转专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 诇讛诇讜讜转 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讘专讘讬转 讻讚讬 诇讛讟注讬诪谉 讟注诐 专讘讬转 讜诇讗讜 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗转讬 诇诪讬住专讱


Similarly, Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: It is permitted for a person to lend to his sons and the members of his household with interest, in order to have them taste the taste of interest so that they will understand how interest increases and how hard it is to repay it, which will discourage them from ever borrowing with interest again. The Gemara comments: But this is not correct, because the members of his household may become corrupted by doing so and act similarly with others in cases when there is no justification for such behavior.


诪转谞讬壮 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 谞讻砖 注诪讬 讜讗谞讻砖 注诪讱 注讚讜专 注诪讬 讜讗注讚讜专 注诪讱 讜诇讗 讬讗诪专 诇讜 谞讻砖 注诪讬 讜讗注讚讜专 注诪讱 注讚讜专 注诪讬 讜讗谞讻砖 注诪讱


MISHNA: A person may say to another: Weed the wild growths from my field with me now, and I will weed your field with you at a later stage, or: Till my field with me today and I will till with you on a different day. But he may not say to him: Weed with me today and I will till with you a different day, or: Till with me today and I will weed with you, as due to the different nature of the tasks it is possible that one of them will have to work harder than the other did, which is a type of interest, since he repaid him with additional labor.


讻诇 讬诪讬 讙专讬讚 讗讞讚 讻诇 讬诪讬 专讘讬注讛 讗讞转 诇讗 讬讗诪专 诇讜 讞专讜砖 注诪讬 讘讙专讬讚 讜讗谞讬 讗讞专讜砖 注诪讱 讘专讘讬注讛


All the dry days during the summer, when it does not rain, are viewed as one period, meaning that if they each agreed to work one day, the dry days are viewed as though they were all exactly equal in length, despite the slight differences between them. Similarly, all the rainy days are treated as one period. But he may not say to him: Plow with me in the dry season and I will plow with you in the rainy season.


专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬砖 专讘讬转 诪讜拽讚诪转 讜讬砖 专讘讬转 诪讗讜讞专转 讻讬爪讚 谞转谉 注讬谞讬讜 诇诇讜讜转 讛讬诪谞讜 讜讛讜讗 诪砖诇讞 诇讜 讜讗讜诪专 讘砖讘讬诇 砖转诇讜谞讬 讝讜 讛讬讗 专讘讬转 诪讜拽讚诪转 诇讜讛 讛讬诪谞讜 讜讛讞讝讬专 诇讜 讗转 诪注讜转讬讜 讜讛讜讗 诪砖诇讞 诇讜 讜讗讜诪专 讘砖讘讬诇 诪注讜转讬讱 砖讛讬讜 讘讟讬诇讜转 讗爪诇讬 讝讜 讛讬讗 专讘讬转 诪讗讜讞专转


Rabban Gamliel says: There is a case of pre-paid interest, and there is also a case of interest paid later, both of which are prohibited. How so? If he had hopes of borrowing money from him in the future, and he sends him money or a gift and says: I am sending you this gift in order that you will lend to me, this is pre-paid interest. Similarly, if he borrowed money from him and subsequently returned his money, and he later sends a gift to him and says: I am sending you this gift in order to repay you for your money, which was idle with me, preventing you from earning a profit from it, this is interest paid later.


专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讬砖 专讘讬转 讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 讬讗诪专 诇讜 讚注 讻讬 讘讗 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 诪诪拽讜诐 驻诇讜谞讬


Rabbi Shimon says: Not only is there interest consisting of payment of money or items, but there is also verbal interest. For example, the borrower may not say to the lender: You should know that so-and-so has come from such and such a place, when he is aware that this information is of significance to his creditor. Since his intention is to provide a benefit to the lender, he has effectively paid him an extra sum for the money he lent him, which constitutes interest.


讜讗诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 讛诪诇讜讛 讜讛诇讜讛 讜讛注专讘 讜讛注讚讬诐 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛住讜驻专 注讜讘专讬诐 诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转转谉 讜诪砖讜诐 讗诇 转拽讞 诪讗转讜 讜诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转讛讬讛 诇讜 讻谞讜砖讛 讜诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转砖讬诪讜谉 注诇讬讜 谞砖讱 讜诪砖讜诐 讜诇驻谞讬 注讜专 诇讗 转转谉 诪讻砖讜诇 讜讬专讗转 诪讗诇讛讬讱 讗谞讬 讛壮


And these people violate a prohibition of interest: The lender, and the borrower, and the guarantor, and the witnesses. And the Rabbis say: Also the scribe who writes the promissory note violates this prohibition. These parties to the transaction violate different prohibtions. Some are in violation of: 鈥淵ou shall not give him your money with interest鈥 (Leviticus 25:37), and of: 鈥淒o not take from him interest or increase鈥 (Leviticus 25:36), and of: 鈥淒o not be to him as a creditor鈥 (Exodus 22:24), and of 鈥淒o not place interest upon him鈥 (Exodus 22:24), and of: 鈥淎nd you shall not place a stumbling block before the blind, and you shall fear your God; I am the Lord鈥 (Leviticus 19:14).


讙诪壮 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 诇谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜讗讬谞讜 专讙讬诇 诇讛拽讚讬诐 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 砖讗住讜专 诇讛拽讚讬诐 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞砖讱 讻诇 讚讘专 讗砖专 讬砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讬讘讜专 讗住讜专


GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: From where is it derived with regard to one who is owed one hundred dinars by another, and the borrower is not accustomed to greeting that lender, that it is prohibited to start greeting him after being granted the loan? The verse states: 鈥淚nterest of any matter [davar] that is lent with interest鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:20), which can also be read as indicating that even speech [dibbur] can be prohibited as interest.


讜讗诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪诇讜讛 注讜讘专 讘讻讜诇谉 诇讜讛 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转砖讬讱 诇讗讞讬讱 讜诇讗讞讬讱 诇讗 转砖讬讱 讜诇驻谞讬 注讜专 诇讗 转转谉 诪讻砖讜诇 注专讘 讜讛注讚讬诐 讗讬谉 注讜讘专讬谉 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 诇讗 转砖讬诪讜谉 注诇讬讜 谞砖讱


搂 The mishna teaches: And these people violate the prohibition of interest. Abaye says: The lender violates all of them, meaning all of the prohibitions listed in the mishna. The borrower violates the prohibition of: 鈥淵ou shall not lend to your brother with interest鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:20), as he enables his brother to lend with interest. And they also violate the prohibition: 鈥淵ou may lend to a gentile with interest, but to your brother you shall not lend with interest鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:21), as well as: 鈥淎nd you shall not place a stumbling block before the blind鈥 (Leviticus 19:14). The guarantor and the witness violate only: 鈥淒o not place interest upon him鈥 (Exodus 22:24).


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 诪诇讜讬 专讘讬转 讬讜转专 诪诪讛 砖诪专讜讬讞讬诐 诪驻住讬讚讬诐 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖诪砖讬诪讬诐 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 讞讻诐 讜转讜专转讜 讗诪转 讜讗讜诪专讬谉 讗讬诇讜 讛讬讛 讬讜讚注 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 砖讬讛讬讛 专讬讜讞 讘讚讘专 诇讗 讛讬讛 讻讜转讘讜


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon says: Those who lend with interest lose more than they gain, as they will eventually be punished by God. Moreover, a loan of this kind desecrates the name of Heaven, as they cause it to seem that Moses our teacher is a scholar and his Torah is true. This is a euphemism; Rabbi Shimon means that their actions make a mockery of Moses and his Torah. And this is because they say: Had Moses our teacher known that there was a profit involved in the matter, he would not have written it as a prohibition. Not only do they violate a mitzva but they also belittle the Torah.


讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 诪谞讬谉 诇谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜讬讜讚注 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 砖讗住讜专 诇注讘讜专 诇驻谞讬讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇讗 转讛讬讛 诇讜 讻谞砖讛


搂 The Gemara cites further statements with regard to loans in general. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael, he said: From where is it derived that with regard to one who is owed one hundred dinars by another and knows that the borrower does not have the funds to repay him, that it is prohibited for him to pass before the borrower, so as not to embarrass the borrower and cause him discomfort? The verse states: 鈥淒o not be to him as a creditor鈥 (Exodus 22:24). Even if he does not claim the debt from the borrower, his presence reminds the latter of the debt, which distresses him.


专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讻讗讬诇讜 讚谞讜 讘砖谞讬 讚讬谞讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛专讻讘转 讗谞讜砖 诇专讗砖谞讜 讘讗谞讜 讘讗砖 讜讘诪讬诐


Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi both say that if one upsets another in this way, it is as though he sentences him to two types of punishments, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou have caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water鈥 (Psalms 66:12). As the one in control, a creditor is regarded as though he had brought the debtor through fire and water.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 诪注讜转 讜诪诇讜讛 讗讜转谉 砖诇讗 讘注讚讬诐 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 讜诇驻谞讬 注讜专 诇讗 转转谉 诪讻砖诇 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讙讜专诐 拽诇诇讛 诇注爪诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 转讗诇诪谞讛 砖驻转讬 砖拽专 讛讚讜讘专讜转 注诇 爪讚讬拽 注转拽


Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Whoever has money and lends it not in the presence of witnesses violates the prohibition of: 鈥淎nd you shall not place a stumbling block before the blind鈥 (Leviticus 19:14), as this tempts the borrower not to repay his debt. And Reish Lakish says: He brings a curse upon himself, as it is stated: 鈥淟et the lying lips be dumb, which speak arrogantly against the righteous, with pride and contempt鈥 (Psalms 31:19), as when the lender comes to claim his money without any proof, people will think he is falsely accusing the borrower, and they will end up cursing him.


讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘 讗砖讬 拽讗 诪拽讬讬诐 专讘讬谞讗 讻诇 诪讛 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 讘讛讚讬 驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 诇讬砖讚专 诇讬 诪专 注砖专讛 讝讜讝讬 讚讗转专诪讬 诇讬 拽讟讬谞讗 讚讗专注讗 诇诪讝讘谉 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 谞讬转讬 诪专 住讛讚讬 讜谞讻转讘 讻转讘讗 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讗谞讗 谞诪讬 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 讻诇 砖讻谉 诪专 讚讟专讬讚 讘讙讬专住讬讛 诪砖转诇讬 讜讙讜专诐 拽诇诇讛 诇注爪诪讬


The Gemara cites a related incident: The Sages said to Rav Ashi: Ravina fulfills all of the directives that the Sages say. Seeking to test him, Rav Ashi sent a messenger to him close to sunset on the eve of Shabbat, at the busiest time of the week, with the following request: Let the Master send me ten dinars as a loan, as I have happened upon a small piece of land for an acquisition and I need the money. Ravina sent a message to him: Let the Master bring witnesses and we will write a written document for this loan. Rav Ashi sent a message to him: Even I, as well? Do you suspect even me of shirking payment? Ravina sent a message to him: All the more so it is necessary to document a loan to the Master, who is occupied with his studies and therefore very likely to forget, and I will thereby bring a curse upon myself.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 爪讜注拽讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 谞注谞讬谉 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 诪注讜转 讜诪诇讜讛 讗讜转谉 砖诇讗 讘注讚讬诐 讜讛拽讜谞讛 讗讚讜谉 诇注爪诪讜 讜诪讬 砖讗砖转讜 诪讜砖诇转 注诇讬讜


The Sages taught in a baraita: There are three who cry out and are not answered, as they are responsible for their own troubles. And they are: One who has money and lends it not in the presence of witnesses, and one who acquires a master for himself, and one whose wife rules over him.


拽讜谞讛 讗讚讜谉 诇注爪诪讜 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 转讜诇讛 谞讻住讬讜 讘谞讻专讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讛讻讜转讘 谞讻住讬讜 诇讘谞讬讜 讘讞讬讬讜 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚讘讬砖 诇讬讛 讘讛讗 诪转讗 讜诇讗 讗讝讬诇 诇诪转讗 讗讞专讬转讗


The Gemara clarifies: One who acquires a master for himself, what is it? There are those who say that it is referring to one who attributes his property to a gentile. He falsely claims that his possessions belong to a gentile in order to evade his obligations, thereby inviting the gentile to take advantage of this declaration. And there are those who say that it is referring to one who writes a document bequeathing his property as a gift to his children in his lifetime, as he becomes financially dependent on them. And there are those who say that it is referring to one who has bad fortune in this town but does not go to a different town. He is consequently responsible for his own misfortunes.


讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗讬讝讛讜 谞砖讱



诪转谞讬壮 讛砖讜讻专 讗转 讛讗讜诪谞讬谉 讜讛讟注讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 转专注讜诪转 砖讻专 讗转 讛讞诪专 讜讗转 讛拽讚专 诇讛讘讬讗 驻专讬讬驻专讬谉 讜讞诇讬诇讬诐 诇讻诇讛 讗讜 诇诪转 讜驻讜注诇讬谉 诇讛注诇讜转 驻砖转谞讜 诪谉 讛诪砖专讛 讜讻诇 讚讘专 砖讗讘讚 讜讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 砖诐 讗讚诐 砖讜讻专 注诇讬讛谉 讗讜 诪讟注谉


MISHNA: With regard to one who hires artisans or laborers, and they deceived one another, they have nothing but a grievance against one another, and they have no financial claim against the deceptive party. If one hired a donkey driver or a potter to bring posts [piryafarin] for a canopy or flutes to play in honor of a bride or the dead, or if he hired laborers to bring up his flax from the retting tub, i.e., the container of water in which flax is placed in the first stage of the manufacture of linen, and likewise any matter that involves financial loss if not performed on time and the laborers reneged, if this occurred in a place where there is no other person to perform the task, he may hire replacements for a large fee at the expense of the first workers, or deceive them to get them to return to work.


讛砖讜讻专 讗转 讛讗讜诪谞讬谉 讜讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 讬讚诐 注诇 讛转讞转讜谞讛


The mishna states a related halakha: With regard to one who hires artisans or laborers to perform work and they reneged on the agreement midway through the work, they are at a disadvantage. They must ensure that the employer does not suffer a loss.


Scroll To Top