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Today's Daf Yomi

December 13, 2016 | ื™ืดื’ ื‘ื›ืกืœื• ืชืฉืขืดื–

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Bava Metzia 78

If one tries is selling something and is desperate for the money then the sale isn’t final until he receives all his money. ย But if he is trying to get rid of bad property, then the sale is final even before he receives all the money. ย The mishna brings cases where one rents an item for a certain purpose and then uses it for a different purpose. ย If the animal died because of the change, the renter is obligated. ย In the first line of the mishna, it seems to imply that the renter is responsible for all cases where a change was made – not necessarily depending on how it died – which is different from the second part of the mishna where it depending on how it died. ย The gemara gives 4 answers – 3 establish the mishna in cases where the animal died because of the change. ย The fourth says that the first part is Rabbi Meir’s opinion and the second part if the rabbis opinion. ย And that Rabbi Meir holds that anyone who goes against the owner’s wishes is called a robber. ย The gemara then tries to figure out where this statement of Rabbi Meir was said.


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ืžืคื ื™ ืจืขืชื”

due to its poor quality. In other words, he was eager to sell not due to financial pressure, but because he wanted to get rid of this low-value field. His persistent demands for every last dinar are due to his fear that the buyer will change his mind and cancel the transaction.

ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื‘ืขื™ ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืื” ื•ืœื ืืฉื›ื— ื•ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืงื ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ื ืคื™ืง ืื–ื•ื–ื™ ืœื ืงื ื™ ืืœื ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืื” ื•ืœื ืืฉื›ื— ื•ืื™ ื˜ืจื— ื”ื•ื” ืžืฉื›ื— ื•ืœื ื˜ืจื— ื•ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืงื ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ื ืคื™ืง ืื–ื•ื–ื™ ืžืื™ ื›ืžื•ื›ืจ ืฉื“ื”ื• ืžืคื ื™ ืจืขืชื” ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื ืชื™ืงื•

The Gemara discusses a similar case. It is obvious that if one wants to sell his property for one hundred dinars but does not find a buyer, and in actuality he sells property for two hundred, and goes in and goes out for money, the buyer has not acquired the field, as it is clear that the seller performed the transaction due to financial straits. But if he wants to sell his property for one hundred and does not find a willing buyer, and the case was that if he troubled himself he would find one, and instead he did not trouble himself and sells property for two hundred, and then he goes in and goes out for money, what is the halakha? Is he considered like one who sells a field due to its poor quality or not? No answer was found, and therefore the Gemara states that this dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืฉื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžืจ ื•ืืช ื”ืงื“ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืื• ืžื˜ืขืŸ ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื›ืจืŸ

ยง The mishna teaches that if one hired a donkey driver or a potter and they reneged, and the goods would be lost, he may hire other workers at a higher price at the formerโ€™s expense, or deceive them to make them agree to return to work. The Gemara asks: Up to what amount may he hire at their expense? Rav Naแธฅman said: Up to their wages, i.e., if the first workers did part of the work and the employer had not yet paid them, he may add the amount he owes the original workers to the new workersโ€™ wage.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืขื“ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื– ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืืชื” ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื™ื“ื•

Rava raised an objection to Rav Naแธฅman: But it was taught in a baraita that he can hire at their expense for up to forty or fifty dinars. Rav Naแธฅman said to him: When that baraita is taught it is with regard to a case where the bundle has come into his possession, i.e., the original worker left his tool kit with the employer. In this situation, the employer has more financial leverage, as he can sell the contents of the bundle to cover even higher costs.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื• ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื• ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื• ื‘ื”ืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื–ื• ืขืฉืจ ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ื–ื• ืขืฉืจ ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ืื ื”ื—ืœื™ืงื” ืคื˜ื•ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื•ื—ืžื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ืื ื”ื—ืœื™ืงื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื•ืื ื”ื•ื—ืžื” ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืื ืžื—ืžืช ื”ืžืขืœื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘

MISHNA: With regard to one who rents a donkey to lead it on a mountain but he led it in a valley, or one who rents a donkey to lead it in a valley but he led it on a mountain, even if this path is ten mil and that one is also ten mil, and the animal dies, he is liable. With regard to one who rents a donkey to lead it on a mountain but he led it in a valley, if it slipped and injured itself he is exempt, but if it died of heatstroke he is liable, as it was the walk in the hotter valley that caused its death. With regard to one who rents a donkey to lead it in a valley but he led it on a mountain, if it slipped he is liable, because this was caused by the mountainous terrain, but if it died of heatstroke he is exempt. If it suffered from heatstroke due to the ascent, he is liable.

ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืžืชื” ืื• ื ืฉื‘ืจื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ [ืœื•] ื—ืžื•ืจ

With regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill or was seized for public service [angarya], the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you, and he is not required to reimburse the renter or to supply him with another donkey. If the animal died or its leg broke, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืจื™ืฉื ื“ืœื ืงื ืžืคืœื™ื’ ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืกื™ืคื ื“ืงื ืžืคืœื™ื’

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is different about the first clause, where the tanna does not distinguish between the various ways in which the animal might have died, as he rules that the renter is always liable, and what is different about the latter clause, where he does distinguish between whether the animal was injured through slipping or heatstroke?

ืืžืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืฉืžืชื” ืžื—ืžืช ืื•ื™ืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ื”ืจ ืงื˜ืœื” ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ื‘ืงืขื” ืงื˜ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืชื” ืžื—ืžืช ืื•ื‘ืฆื ื ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื›ื™ืฉื” ื ื—ืฉ

The Gemara answers: A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yannai said: The first clause is referring to a case where it died on account of the air, as we say that the air of the mountains killed it and we can equally say that the air of the valley killed it. A change in weather such that the animal is exposed to weather conditions he is unaccustomed to can be lethal. Rabbi Yosei bar แธคanina said: The mishna is referring to a case where it died on account of exhaustion [uvtzena], as it can be assumed that this was caused by the weather. Rabba said: The mishna is speaking of a case where a snake bit it, as this is just as likely to happen in one place as it is in the other.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื ืžื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

Conversely, Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: In accordance with whose opinion is this statement of the first clause of the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who says: Anyone who diverges from the intention of the employer by acting against their agreement

ื ืงืจื ื’ื–ืœืŸ

is called a robber. Since he contravened their agreement and did not receive approval of the other party, it is considered as though he stole the animal from its owner. A robber is liable for any damage that occurs, even due to circumstances beyond his control.

ื”ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืฆื‘ืข ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฆืžืจ ืœืฆื‘ืข ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืœื• ืื“ื•ื ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืฉื—ื•ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืื“ื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ื“ืžื™ ืฆืžืจื•

The Gemara asks: Which of Rabbi Meirโ€™s statements indicates that this is his opinion? If we say that it is Rabbi Meirโ€™s statement with regard to a dyer, this claim can be refuted. As we learned in a mishna (Bava Kamma 100b): With regard to one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it red for him, and instead he dyed it black, or to dye it black and he dyed it red, Rabbi Meir says: The dyer gives the owner of the wool the value of his wool.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื”ืฉื‘ื— ื™ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืืช ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื— ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ื—

Rabbi Yehuda says: If the value of the enhancement resulting from the dying exceeds the dyerโ€™s expenses, then the owner of the wool gives the dyer the expenses. And if the expenses exceed the enhancement, he gives him the value of the enhancement. This apparently indicates that because the dyer diverged from the agreement, Rabbi Meir considers him a robber, which is why the dyer must refund the entire value of the wool.

ืžืžืื™ ื“ืœืžื ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืงื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืžืขืฉื”

The Gemara challenges this proof. From where do you know that this mishna is the source of Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion with regard to reneging on an agreement made with an employer? Perhaps it is different there, as the dyer acquired the wool by means of the physical change in a substance, and it is for that reason, not due to his divergence from the agreement, that he is comparable to a robber.

ืืœื ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืžื’ื‘ืช ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžื’ื‘ืช ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืžื’ื‘ืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ืœืื•ืชื” ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืงื“ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœื™ื ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœื›ื™ืก ืฉืœ ืฆื“ืงื”

Rather, the source of the opinion of Rabbi Meir is the case of Purim collection. As it is taught in a baraita: The Purim collection, i.e., money collected for the Purim feast for paupers, may be used only for Purim; the city collection, i.e., money collected for poor people of a certain city, is given only for that city. And one does not scrutinize the matter by limiting the allocation for the poor to the exact costs of the meal and no more, but they acquire the calves and slaughter and eat them, and the remainder of the money, over and above the costs of the Purim feast, goes to the charity fund and is used for other charitable needs.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื’ื‘ืช ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื ื™ ืจืฉืื™ ืœื™ืงื— ืžื”ืŸ ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืœืกื ื“ืœื• ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืชื ื” ื‘ืžืขืžื“ ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžื™ืงืœ

Rabbi Eliezer says that this is not the case. Rather, the Purim collection is only for the Purim feast, and it is not permitted for a poor person to purchase even a strap for his sandal from it unless he stipulated in the presence of the people of the city that he may do as he wishes with the money he receives. This is the statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov, who said it in the name of Rabbi Meir. But Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is lenient. This shows that according to Rabbi Meir the recipient may not diverge at all from the intention of the one who gave the charity.

ื“ืœืžื ื”ืชื ื ืžื™ ื“ืื“ืขืชื ื“ืคื•ืจื™ื ื”ื•ื ื“ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืื“ืขืชื ื“ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara refutes this proof: Perhaps there too, this is considered an explicit condition, as it was with the intent that the poor person use it for Purim that he gave him money, but he did not give it to him with the intent that it be used for anything else. Consequently, that is why Rabbi Meir rules stringently in a case of this kind, where the recipient diverged from the intention of the giver.

ืืœื ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ื“ื™ื ืจ ืœืขื ื™ ืœื™ืงื— ืœื• ื—ืœื•ืง ืœื ื™ืงื— ื‘ื• ื˜ืœื™ืช ื˜ืœื™ืช ืœื ื™ืงื— ื‘ื• ื—ืœื•ืง ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

Rather, the proof that Rabbi Meir maintains that one who diverges from an agreement is considered a robber is from this statement of Rabbi Meir, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir: In the case of one who gives a dinar to a poor person to purchase a robe for himself, he may not purchase a cloak with it; if he gives him money to purchase a cloak, he may not purchase a robe with it, because in so doing he diverges from the intent of the homeowner, i.e., the giver.

ื•ื“ืœืžื ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืืชื• ืœืžื—ืฉื“ื™ื” ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืคืœื ื™ื ื–ื‘ื ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืฉื ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ืขื ื™ื ื•ืœื ื–ื‘ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื–ื‘ื ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ื’ืœื™ืžื ื•ืœื ื–ื‘ืŸ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara rejects this proof as well: Perhaps it is different there, as they will come to suspect the giver of going back on his word, for people will say that so-and-so said: I am purchasing clothing for such and such a poor person, but he did not actually purchase it. Alternatively, people will claim that he said: I am purchasing him a cloak, but he did not actually purchase it for him, as they do not see the poor person wearing the item they heard the giver promise to purchase for him. In other words, in this case the poor person might not diverge from the intent of the giver in order not to discredit the giver in the eyes of the public.

ืื ื›ืŸ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืฉื“ ืžืื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื ื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื ืงืจื ื’ื–ืœืŸ

The Gemara responds: If so, if this is the reason, let the mishna teach: Because of suspicion. What is the meaning of the phrase: Because he diverges from the intent of the homeowner? Conclude from it that he is called a robber because he changed and departed from the terms of the agreement, and this shows that anyone who diverges from the intention of the employer is called a robber. Evidently, this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืžืื™ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ื”ื›ื ืชืจื’ื™ืžื• ื ื”ื•ืจื™ืชื ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื–ืงืช

ยง The mishna teaches with regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill [vehivrika], that the one who rented it to him bears no responsibility. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term vehivrika? Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted it as light in the eye, a white spot that forms on the pupil of the donkeyโ€™s eye that impairs its vision. Rava said that it is referring to worm rot [avzeket], a disease of worms in the donkeyโ€™s foot.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื‘ื–ืงืช ื‘ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืžืœื›ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžืื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืื• ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื“ื”ื‘ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื“ื”ื‘ ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื‘ืงื•ื”

With regard to the term worm rot, the Gemara relates: There was a certain individual who said to others: I saw worm rot on the kingโ€™s clothing. They said to him: On what did you see it? On silver, i.e., linen, items or on gold, i.e., woolen, items? There are those who say that he said he had seen it on silver items, and they killed him. Since worms are not found on linen garments, they realized that he must have been lying. There are those who say that he said he had seen it on gold items, and therefore they let him be.

ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืื‘ืœ ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ

ยง The mishna teaches: Or if the donkey was seized for public service, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. Rav says: They taught this halakha only with regard to temporary public service, i.e., the government confiscates the animal for a certain period of time, after which they return it. But in a case of permanent public service, where they confiscated the animal permanently, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ื•ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ

And Shmuel said: Whether the donkey was seized to perform a permanent public service or a temporary public service, if it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking, i.e., the government officials led the animal in the direction it was already going, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. The common practice was that when an animal was confiscated by government officials, the one who had been leading it would follow them until the officials found another animal. At this point, the officials would take the animal they just found and release the one they had previously seized. Therefore, the owner can insist that the renter follow the officials, who in any event are going in the direction he wishes to go, in order to retrieve the animal he had rented. But if it was seized and then taken not in the direction in which it was walking, but in a different direction, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืื• ืฉื ืฉืชื˜ืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืžืชื” ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: With regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill or went mad, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. If it died or was seized for public service, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืืœื ืœืฉืžื•ืืœ ืงืฉื™ื

Granted, according to the opinion of Rav this is not difficult, as he can explain that here, in the mishna, it is referring to permanent public service, and therefore the owner does not have to provide the renter with another donkey, whereas there, in the baraita, it is referring to temporary public service. Consequently, the owner must give the renter another donkey. But according to the opinion of Shmuel it is difficult.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ืœืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ืžื™ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ืฉื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ื›ืืŸ ืฉืœื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื”

And if you would say that according to the opinion of Shmuel too, it is not difficult, as he could resolve the apparent contradiction in a similar manner by explaining that here, in the mishna, it is referring to a case where it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking, and there, in the baraita, it is referring to a case where it was seized and then taken not in the direction in which it was walking but in a different direction, this resolution is not possible.

ื”ื ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ื•ืื ืœืื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืœืชื ื ืงืžื ืœื ืฉืื ื™ ืœื™ื”

This resolution cannot be accepted, because from the fact that the baraita teaches in the latter clause that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: If it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you, but if not the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey, by inference one can learn that according to the opinion of the first tanna there is no difference whether or not the animal was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking. If so, the baraita is difficult to reconcile with Shmuelโ€™s opinion.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœืื• ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื“ืงืื™ ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ ืื ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ื•ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืื• ื ืฉืชื˜ื™ืช ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืžืชื” ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš

The Gemara answers that Shmuel could say to you: Isnโ€™t there the ruling of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, who holds in accordance with my opinion? I spoke in accordance with the ruling of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. If you wish, say instead that the entire baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, and it is incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: With regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill or went mad, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. If it died or was seized for public service, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey. In what case is this statement said? When it is seized and then taken not in the direction in which it was walking but in a different direction, but if it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Bava Metzia 78

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Metzia 78

ืžืคื ื™ ืจืขืชื”

due to its poor quality. In other words, he was eager to sell not due to financial pressure, but because he wanted to get rid of this low-value field. His persistent demands for every last dinar are due to his fear that the buyer will change his mind and cancel the transaction.

ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื‘ืขื™ ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืื” ื•ืœื ืืฉื›ื— ื•ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืงื ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ื ืคื™ืง ืื–ื•ื–ื™ ืœื ืงื ื™ ืืœื ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžืื” ื•ืœื ืืฉื›ื— ื•ืื™ ื˜ืจื— ื”ื•ื” ืžืฉื›ื— ื•ืœื ื˜ืจื— ื•ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืงื ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ื ืคื™ืง ืื–ื•ื–ื™ ืžืื™ ื›ืžื•ื›ืจ ืฉื“ื”ื• ืžืคื ื™ ืจืขืชื” ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื ืชื™ืงื•

The Gemara discusses a similar case. It is obvious that if one wants to sell his property for one hundred dinars but does not find a buyer, and in actuality he sells property for two hundred, and goes in and goes out for money, the buyer has not acquired the field, as it is clear that the seller performed the transaction due to financial straits. But if he wants to sell his property for one hundred and does not find a willing buyer, and the case was that if he troubled himself he would find one, and instead he did not trouble himself and sells property for two hundred, and then he goes in and goes out for money, what is the halakha? Is he considered like one who sells a field due to its poor quality or not? No answer was found, and therefore the Gemara states that this dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืฉื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžืจ ื•ืืช ื”ืงื“ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืื• ืžื˜ืขืŸ ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื›ืจืŸ

ยง The mishna teaches that if one hired a donkey driver or a potter and they reneged, and the goods would be lost, he may hire other workers at a higher price at the formerโ€™s expense, or deceive them to make them agree to return to work. The Gemara asks: Up to what amount may he hire at their expense? Rav Naแธฅman said: Up to their wages, i.e., if the first workers did part of the work and the employer had not yet paid them, he may add the amount he owes the original workers to the new workersโ€™ wage.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืขื“ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื– ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ืืชื” ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื™ื“ื•

Rava raised an objection to Rav Naแธฅman: But it was taught in a baraita that he can hire at their expense for up to forty or fifty dinars. Rav Naแธฅman said to him: When that baraita is taught it is with regard to a case where the bundle has come into his possession, i.e., the original worker left his tool kit with the employer. In this situation, the employer has more financial leverage, as he can sell the contents of the bundle to cover even higher costs.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื• ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื• ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื• ื‘ื”ืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื–ื• ืขืฉืจ ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ื–ื• ืขืฉืจ ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ืื ื”ื—ืœื™ืงื” ืคื˜ื•ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื•ื—ืžื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ืื ื”ื—ืœื™ืงื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื•ืื ื”ื•ื—ืžื” ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืื ืžื—ืžืช ื”ืžืขืœื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘

MISHNA: With regard to one who rents a donkey to lead it on a mountain but he led it in a valley, or one who rents a donkey to lead it in a valley but he led it on a mountain, even if this path is ten mil and that one is also ten mil, and the animal dies, he is liable. With regard to one who rents a donkey to lead it on a mountain but he led it in a valley, if it slipped and injured itself he is exempt, but if it died of heatstroke he is liable, as it was the walk in the hotter valley that caused its death. With regard to one who rents a donkey to lead it in a valley but he led it on a mountain, if it slipped he is liable, because this was caused by the mountainous terrain, but if it died of heatstroke he is exempt. If it suffered from heatstroke due to the ascent, he is liable.

ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืžืชื” ืื• ื ืฉื‘ืจื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ [ืœื•] ื—ืžื•ืจ

With regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill or was seized for public service [angarya], the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you, and he is not required to reimburse the renter or to supply him with another donkey. If the animal died or its leg broke, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืจื™ืฉื ื“ืœื ืงื ืžืคืœื™ื’ ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืกื™ืคื ื“ืงื ืžืคืœื™ื’

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is different about the first clause, where the tanna does not distinguish between the various ways in which the animal might have died, as he rules that the renter is always liable, and what is different about the latter clause, where he does distinguish between whether the animal was injured through slipping or heatstroke?

ืืžืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืฉืžืชื” ืžื—ืžืช ืื•ื™ืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ื”ืจ ืงื˜ืœื” ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ื‘ืงืขื” ืงื˜ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืชื” ืžื—ืžืช ืื•ื‘ืฆื ื ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื›ื™ืฉื” ื ื—ืฉ

The Gemara answers: A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yannai said: The first clause is referring to a case where it died on account of the air, as we say that the air of the mountains killed it and we can equally say that the air of the valley killed it. A change in weather such that the animal is exposed to weather conditions he is unaccustomed to can be lethal. Rabbi Yosei bar แธคanina said: The mishna is referring to a case where it died on account of exhaustion [uvtzena], as it can be assumed that this was caused by the weather. Rabba said: The mishna is speaking of a case where a snake bit it, as this is just as likely to happen in one place as it is in the other.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื ืžื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

Conversely, Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: In accordance with whose opinion is this statement of the first clause of the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who says: Anyone who diverges from the intention of the employer by acting against their agreement

ื ืงืจื ื’ื–ืœืŸ

is called a robber. Since he contravened their agreement and did not receive approval of the other party, it is considered as though he stole the animal from its owner. A robber is liable for any damage that occurs, even due to circumstances beyond his control.

ื”ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืฆื‘ืข ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฆืžืจ ืœืฆื‘ืข ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืœื• ืื“ื•ื ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืฉื—ื•ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืื“ื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ื“ืžื™ ืฆืžืจื•

The Gemara asks: Which of Rabbi Meirโ€™s statements indicates that this is his opinion? If we say that it is Rabbi Meirโ€™s statement with regard to a dyer, this claim can be refuted. As we learned in a mishna (Bava Kamma 100b): With regard to one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it red for him, and instead he dyed it black, or to dye it black and he dyed it red, Rabbi Meir says: The dyer gives the owner of the wool the value of his wool.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื”ืฉื‘ื— ื™ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืืช ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื— ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ื—

Rabbi Yehuda says: If the value of the enhancement resulting from the dying exceeds the dyerโ€™s expenses, then the owner of the wool gives the dyer the expenses. And if the expenses exceed the enhancement, he gives him the value of the enhancement. This apparently indicates that because the dyer diverged from the agreement, Rabbi Meir considers him a robber, which is why the dyer must refund the entire value of the wool.

ืžืžืื™ ื“ืœืžื ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืงื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืžืขืฉื”

The Gemara challenges this proof. From where do you know that this mishna is the source of Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion with regard to reneging on an agreement made with an employer? Perhaps it is different there, as the dyer acquired the wool by means of the physical change in a substance, and it is for that reason, not due to his divergence from the agreement, that he is comparable to a robber.

ืืœื ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืžื’ื‘ืช ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžื’ื‘ืช ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ืžื’ื‘ืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ืœืื•ืชื” ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืงื“ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœื™ื ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœื›ื™ืก ืฉืœ ืฆื“ืงื”

Rather, the source of the opinion of Rabbi Meir is the case of Purim collection. As it is taught in a baraita: The Purim collection, i.e., money collected for the Purim feast for paupers, may be used only for Purim; the city collection, i.e., money collected for poor people of a certain city, is given only for that city. And one does not scrutinize the matter by limiting the allocation for the poor to the exact costs of the meal and no more, but they acquire the calves and slaughter and eat them, and the remainder of the money, over and above the costs of the Purim feast, goes to the charity fund and is used for other charitable needs.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื’ื‘ืช ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื ื™ ืจืฉืื™ ืœื™ืงื— ืžื”ืŸ ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืœืกื ื“ืœื• ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืชื ื” ื‘ืžืขืžื“ ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžื™ืงืœ

Rabbi Eliezer says that this is not the case. Rather, the Purim collection is only for the Purim feast, and it is not permitted for a poor person to purchase even a strap for his sandal from it unless he stipulated in the presence of the people of the city that he may do as he wishes with the money he receives. This is the statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov, who said it in the name of Rabbi Meir. But Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is lenient. This shows that according to Rabbi Meir the recipient may not diverge at all from the intention of the one who gave the charity.

ื“ืœืžื ื”ืชื ื ืžื™ ื“ืื“ืขืชื ื“ืคื•ืจื™ื ื”ื•ื ื“ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืื“ืขืชื ื“ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara refutes this proof: Perhaps there too, this is considered an explicit condition, as it was with the intent that the poor person use it for Purim that he gave him money, but he did not give it to him with the intent that it be used for anything else. Consequently, that is why Rabbi Meir rules stringently in a case of this kind, where the recipient diverged from the intention of the giver.

ืืœื ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ื“ื™ื ืจ ืœืขื ื™ ืœื™ืงื— ืœื• ื—ืœื•ืง ืœื ื™ืงื— ื‘ื• ื˜ืœื™ืช ื˜ืœื™ืช ืœื ื™ืงื— ื‘ื• ื—ืœื•ืง ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช

Rather, the proof that Rabbi Meir maintains that one who diverges from an agreement is considered a robber is from this statement of Rabbi Meir, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir: In the case of one who gives a dinar to a poor person to purchase a robe for himself, he may not purchase a cloak with it; if he gives him money to purchase a cloak, he may not purchase a robe with it, because in so doing he diverges from the intent of the homeowner, i.e., the giver.

ื•ื“ืœืžื ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืืชื• ืœืžื—ืฉื“ื™ื” ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืคืœื ื™ื ื–ื‘ื ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืฉื ืœืคืœื•ื ื™ ืขื ื™ื ื•ืœื ื–ื‘ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื–ื‘ื ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ื’ืœื™ืžื ื•ืœื ื–ื‘ืŸ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara rejects this proof as well: Perhaps it is different there, as they will come to suspect the giver of going back on his word, for people will say that so-and-so said: I am purchasing clothing for such and such a poor person, but he did not actually purchase it. Alternatively, people will claim that he said: I am purchasing him a cloak, but he did not actually purchase it for him, as they do not see the poor person wearing the item they heard the giver promise to purchase for him. In other words, in this case the poor person might not diverge from the intent of the giver in order not to discredit the giver in the eyes of the public.

ืื ื›ืŸ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืฉื“ ืžืื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื ื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื ืงืจื ื’ื–ืœืŸ

The Gemara responds: If so, if this is the reason, let the mishna teach: Because of suspicion. What is the meaning of the phrase: Because he diverges from the intent of the homeowner? Conclude from it that he is called a robber because he changed and departed from the terms of the agreement, and this shows that anyone who diverges from the intention of the employer is called a robber. Evidently, this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืžืื™ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ื”ื›ื ืชืจื’ื™ืžื• ื ื”ื•ืจื™ืชื ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื–ืงืช

ยง The mishna teaches with regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill [vehivrika], that the one who rented it to him bears no responsibility. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term vehivrika? Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted it as light in the eye, a white spot that forms on the pupil of the donkeyโ€™s eye that impairs its vision. Rava said that it is referring to worm rot [avzeket], a disease of worms in the donkeyโ€™s foot.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื‘ื–ืงืช ื‘ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืžืœื›ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžืื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืื• ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื“ื”ื‘ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ื“ื”ื‘ ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื‘ืงื•ื”

With regard to the term worm rot, the Gemara relates: There was a certain individual who said to others: I saw worm rot on the kingโ€™s clothing. They said to him: On what did you see it? On silver, i.e., linen, items or on gold, i.e., woolen, items? There are those who say that he said he had seen it on silver items, and they killed him. Since worms are not found on linen garments, they realized that he must have been lying. There are those who say that he said he had seen it on gold items, and therefore they let him be.

ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืื‘ืœ ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ

ยง The mishna teaches: Or if the donkey was seized for public service, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. Rav says: They taught this halakha only with regard to temporary public service, i.e., the government confiscates the animal for a certain period of time, after which they return it. But in a case of permanent public service, where they confiscated the animal permanently, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ื•ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ

And Shmuel said: Whether the donkey was seized to perform a permanent public service or a temporary public service, if it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking, i.e., the government officials led the animal in the direction it was already going, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. The common practice was that when an animal was confiscated by government officials, the one who had been leading it would follow them until the officials found another animal. At this point, the officials would take the animal they just found and release the one they had previously seized. Therefore, the owner can insist that the renter follow the officials, who in any event are going in the direction he wishes to go, in order to retrieve the animal he had rented. But if it was seized and then taken not in the direction in which it was walking, but in a different direction, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืื• ืฉื ืฉืชื˜ืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืžืชื” ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: With regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill or went mad, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. If it died or was seized for public service, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืืœื ืœืฉืžื•ืืœ ืงืฉื™ื

Granted, according to the opinion of Rav this is not difficult, as he can explain that here, in the mishna, it is referring to permanent public service, and therefore the owner does not have to provide the renter with another donkey, whereas there, in the baraita, it is referring to temporary public service. Consequently, the owner must give the renter another donkey. But according to the opinion of Shmuel it is difficult.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ืœืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ืžื™ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ืฉื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ื›ืืŸ ืฉืœื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื”

And if you would say that according to the opinion of Shmuel too, it is not difficult, as he could resolve the apparent contradiction in a similar manner by explaining that here, in the mishna, it is referring to a case where it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking, and there, in the baraita, it is referring to a case where it was seized and then taken not in the direction in which it was walking but in a different direction, this resolution is not possible.

ื”ื ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ื•ืื ืœืื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืœืชื ื ืงืžื ืœื ืฉืื ื™ ืœื™ื”

This resolution cannot be accepted, because from the fact that the baraita teaches in the latter clause that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: If it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you, but if not the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey, by inference one can learn that according to the opinion of the first tanna there is no difference whether or not the animal was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking. If so, the baraita is difficult to reconcile with Shmuelโ€™s opinion.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœืื• ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื“ืงืื™ ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ ืื ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ื•ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ืงื” ืื• ื ืฉืชื˜ื™ืช ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš ืžืชื” ืื• ืฉื ืขืฉื™ืช ืื ื’ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื• ื—ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื ื™ื˜ืœื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื™ื›ืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืคื ื™ืš

The Gemara answers that Shmuel could say to you: Isnโ€™t there the ruling of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, who holds in accordance with my opinion? I spoke in accordance with the ruling of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. If you wish, say instead that the entire baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, and it is incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: With regard to one who rents a donkey and it became ill or went mad, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you. If it died or was seized for public service, the owner is obligated to provide the renter with another donkey. In what case is this statement said? When it is seized and then taken not in the direction in which it was walking but in a different direction, but if it was seized and then taken in the direction in which it was walking, the owner can say to the renter: That which is yours is before you.

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