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Today's Daf Yomi

May 17, 2019 | 讬状讘 讘讗讬讬专 转砖注状讟

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Bekhorot 30

If someone knows that someone doesn’t keep a particular mitzva, can one trust them in other areas? Are there particular things they can;t be trusted for or maybe everything? The gemara brings several braitot that discuss the issue of “chaverut” – a type of club that those in it would be very careful about keeping a high level of purity. How does one get accepted into the club? Do talmidei chachamim need to go through a process or do they get in automatically? What about the family of a club member – are they in automatically? What about a married women who was married to a member and then to an am haaretz or vice-versa?


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转专讘讗 讚讗讟诪讗 讘诪专 讚讻谞转讗 拽谞住讬讛 专讘讗 诇讝讘讜谞讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讗诪讙讜讝讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬诐 讜诪诇讞 谞诪讬

fat of the kidney adjacent to the thigh, which is forbidden, in place of fat of the intestines, which is permitted. Rava penalized him and prohibited him even from selling nuts. Rav Pappa said to Rava: In accordance with which opinion in the mishna is your ruling? It must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, then you should prohibit this butcher from selling even water and salt.

诇注讜诇诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讘讗讬住讜专讗 讚讙讜驻讬讛 拽谞住讬谞谉 诇讬讛 住转诐 讚专讚拽讬 讙专讜 讘讗诪讙讜讝讬 讜讗讝讬诇 讜诪砖讘砖 诇讘谞讬 讟讘讞讬 讜讙专讬 诇讛讜 讘讗诪讙讜讝讬 讜诪讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 转专讘讗 讚讗讟诪讗 讜诪讝讘讬谉 诇讬讛 讘诪专 讚讻谞转讗

Rava replied: Actually, my ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one is suspected only about those items that are related to the prohibition in question. And we are in fact penalizing him with regard to items related to the prohibition itself. How so? Ordinary children are enticed by nuts, and that individual went and misled the children of butchers and enticed them with nuts, and they brought him fat of the kidney that is adjacent to the thigh, and he sold it as though it were fat of the intestines.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专讜转 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专讜转 讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讝讛 讜注诇 讝讛 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 讜讬砖 砖讛讜讗 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 讜讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讚 诇讗 注诇 讝讛 讜诇讗 注诇 讝讛 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讚讘专 诇讗 讚谞讜 讜诇讗 诪注讬讚讜

MISHNA: One who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes; and likewise, one who is suspect with regard to tithes is not suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year. One who is suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes, is suspect with regard to selling ritually impure foods as though they were ritually pure items. But there are those who are suspect with regard to ritually pure items who are not suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, nor with regard to that, tithes. This is the principle with regard to these matters: Anyone who is suspect with regard to a specific matter may neither adjudicate cases nor testify in cases involving that matter.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖讘讬注讬转 诇讗 讘注讬讗 讞讜诪讛 诪注砖专 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬 讞讜诪讛 讞诪讬专 诇讬讛

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that one who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? One is not required to eat produce of the Sabbatical Year within the wall of Jerusalem, and therefore he treats it lightly. As for second tithe, since one is required to eat it only within the wall of Jerusalem, it is possible that it seems more stringent for him, and therefore he is not suspect, despite the suspicions with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year.

讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪注砖专 讗讬转 诇讬讛 驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讬注讬转 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讗 诪讬转住专讗 诇讬讛 讜诇讬转 诇讬讛 驻讚讬讜谉 讞诪讬专讗 诇讬讛

The mishna teaches: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is not suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? The Gemara answers: Since there is redemption for tithes, one might treat them lightly. As for produce of the Sabbatical Year, since it is always prohibited to him and there is no redemption of it, it is possible that it seems more stringent for him, and therefore he is not suspect.

讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讝讛 讜注诇 讝讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讞砖讬讚 讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讚专讘谞谉

The mishna teaches: One who is suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes, is suspect with regard to selling ritually impure foods as though they were ritually pure items. The Gemara explains: Since he is suspect with regard to matters that apply by Torah law, all the more so that he is suspect with regard to matters that are by rabbinic law. Eating non-sacred food in a state of ritual purity is an ordinance of the Sages; it does not apply by Torah law. Consequently, he is certainly not trusted with regard to that matter.

讜讬砖 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 谞讛讬 讗讚专讘谞谉 讞砖讬讚 讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诇讗 讞砖讬讚 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 谞讗诪谉 注诇 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讗 讞砖讬讚 讞砖讬讚

The mishna teaches: But there are those who are suspect with regard to ritually pure items who are not suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? Granted, he is suspect with regard to prohibitions that are by rabbinic law, but he is not suspect with regard to prohibitions that are by Torah law. And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: If one is trusted with regard to ritually pure items he is trusted with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year. It can be inferred from here that if he is suspect with regard to ritually pure items he is likewise suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讻砖专讗讬谞讜讛讜 砖谞讜讛讙 讘爪讬谞注讗 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜

Rabbi Ilai says: The mishna is referring to a case where they saw him practicing stringencies with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year and tithes privately, within his home. Since he himself is known to be trustworthy in these matters in private, he is not suspected of violating these prohibitions in his business, despite his lack of trustworthiness with regard to ritual purity.

专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗诪专 讻讙讜谉 讚讛讜讛 讞砖讬讚 诇转专讜讬讬讛讜 讜讗转讗 拽诪讬 专讘谞谉 讜拽讘讬诇 讗转专讜讬讬讛讜 讜讛讚专 讗讬讞砖讚 讗讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讬讙讜 讚讞砖讬讚 讗讛讗 讞砖讬讚 谞诪讬 讗讗讬讚讱

Rabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yishmael, said that there is an alternative answer: The baraita is referring to a case where one was suspect with regard to both ritually pure items and produce of the Sabbatical Year, and he came before the Sages and accepted upon himself that he would observe both of them, and afterward he was suspected with regard to one of them. The reason for the halakha here is that we say: Since he is suspect with regard to this one of them, he is also suspect with regard to the other one. Although one of the prohibitions is more stringent than the other, the court has seen that he cannot be trusted to keep his word about either of them.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专

搂 The mishna teaches: One who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes. Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, the unattributed. Most unattributed statements of tanna鈥檌m were formulated by Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students and reflect his opinions. But the Rabbis say: One who is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year is suspect with regard to tithe.

诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讘讗转专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讘讬注讬转 讞诪讬专讗 诇讛讜 讚讛讛讜讗 讚讛讜讛 拽专讬 诇讬讛 诇讞讘专讬讛 讚讬讬专讗 讘专 讚讬讬专转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转讬转讬 诇讬 讚诇讗 讗讻诇讬 驻讬专讜转 砖讘讬注讬转 讻讜讜转讱

The Gemara asks: Who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as in Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 locale they considered produce of the Sabbatical Year an especially stringent prohibition. Therefore, if a resident of that place was suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year, he was certainly not trusted with regard to tithes. As in that locale, if a certain person would call another: A convert, son of a female convert, wishing to insult him, that person would say to him in reply: I have a blessing coming to me, as I do not eat produce of the Sabbatical Year like you do. This indicates that the accusation of eating produce of the Sabbatical Year was a great insult, since they treated the Sabbatical Year stringently.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讜诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讞砖讜讚 诇讚讘专 讗讞讚 讛讜讬 讞砖讜讚 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛

There are those who say that Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, the unattributed. But the Rabbis say: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year. And who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Meir, who says: One who is suspect with regard to one matter is suspect with regard to the entire Torah.

专讘讬 讬讜谞讛 讜专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 讝注讬专讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜谞讛 讜专讘讬 讝注讬专讗 转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讞讚 讗诪专 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yona and Rabbi Yirmeya, who were students of Rabbi Zeira, disagreed about this matter. And some say that it was Rabbi Yona and Rabbi Zeira, students of Rabbi Yo岣nan, who disagreed. One said: But the Rabbis say that one who is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year

讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 讜诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讜诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

is suspect with regard to tithe. And who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. And the other one says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year. And who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Meir.

讚转谞讬讗 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讜谞讞砖讚 诇讚讘专 讗讞讚 谞讞砖讚 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 谞讞砖讚 讗诇讗 诇讗讜转讜 讚讘专 讘诇讘讚

As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Demai 2:4): With regard to an am ha鈥檃retz, i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, who accepts upon himself the commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status, i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by 岣verim, including teruma, tithes, and 岣lla, and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy but subsequently he was suspected with regard to one matter in which others saw him act improperly, he is suspected with regard to the entire Torah. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter.

讛讙专 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讞砖讚 诇讚讘专 讗讞讚 讛讜讬 讞砖讜讚 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讬砖专讗诇 诪砖讜诪讚 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讚讗讬 拽讚讬砖 拽讬讚讜砖讬讜 拽讬讚讜砖讬谉

It is also taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Demai 2:4): With regard to a convert who accepted upon himself upon his conversion matters of Torah, i.e., all of the mitzvot, even if he is suspect with regard to one matter alone, he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he is considered like a Jewish transgressor [meshummad], who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical difference resulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is that if he betroths a woman, his betrothal is a valid betrothal, and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讞讜抓 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讙讜讬 砖讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讞讜抓 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讚拽讚讜拽 讗讞讚 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who comes to accept upon himself the commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status except for one matter, which he does not wish to observe, he is not accepted, and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of a gentile who comes to convert and takes upon himself to accept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not accepted as a convert. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Even if he refuses to accept one detail of rabbinic law, he is not accepted.

讜讻谉 讘谉 诇讜讬 砖讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 诇讜讬讛 讜讻讛谉 砖讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讻讛讜谞讛 讞讜抓 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讛诪拽专讬讘 讗转 讚诐 讛砖诇诪讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讛注讘讜讚讛 讛诪住讜专讛 诇讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讜讚讛 讘讛 讗讬谉 诇讜 讞诇拽 讘讻讛讜谞讛

The baraita continues: And similarly, in the case of a Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated: 鈥淗e among the sons of Aaron, that sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion鈥 (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to the Temple service, which is handed over to the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to it in its entirety has no share in the priesthood.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讗诐 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 砖谞讜讛讙 讘爪讬谞注讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪诇诪讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诪诇诪讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 讻讱 讜讘讬谉 讻讱 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讛讜讗 诇诪讚 讻讚专讻讜 讜讛讜诇讱

The Gemara continues on a similar topic. The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who comes to accept upon himself a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status, if we have seen that he practices such matters in private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taught the precise details of being a 岣ver. But if we have not seen him act as a 岣ver in his home, he is taught first and afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: Whether in this case or that case, he is first accepted, and he then continues to learn in the usual manner, i.e., as a 岣ver he learns from others how to behave.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 诇讻谞驻讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪拽讘诇讬谉 诇讟讛专讜转 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讗讬谞讬 诪拽讘诇 讗诇讗 诇讻谞驻讬诐 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 拽讬讘诇 诇讟讛专讜转 讜诇讗 拽讬讘诇 诇讻谞驻讬诐 讗祝 诇讟讛专讜转 诇讗 拽讬讘诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: An am ha鈥檃retz who wishes to become a 岣ver is accepted first with regard to hands, i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, and afterward he is accepted as trustworthy for purity in general. And if he says: I wish to accept purity only with regard to hands, he is accepted for this. If he wishes to accept upon himself the stringencies of a 岣ver with regard to ritual purity but he does not accept upon himself the stringencies with regard to hands, i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, he is not accepted even for purity in general.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注讚 讻诪讛 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇诪砖拽讬谉 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇讻住讜转 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讜讚砖 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 诇砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讜讚砖

The Sages taught in a baraita: Until when is he accepted, i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a 岣ver? Beit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard to impurity of clothing, about which 岣verim would be careful as well, twelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Both with regard to this, liquids, and that, clothing, he must maintain the practice for twelve months before he is fully accepted as a 岣ver.

讗诐 讻谉 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诪拽讜诇讬 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜诪讞讜诪专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 诇砖诇砖讬诐

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, this is one of the rare cases of the leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel, and yet it is not included in tractate Eduyyot, which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. Rather, the text of the baraita must be emended so that it reads: Beit Hillel say: Both with regard to this, liquids and that, clothing, he must maintain the practice for thirty days before he is fully accepted as a 岣ver.

(住讬诪谉 讞讘专 转诇诪讬讚 转讻诇转 诪讻住 讞讝专 讙讘讗讬 讘注爪诪讜)

搂 The Gemara provides a mnemonic to remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: 岣ver; student; sky-blue dye [tekhelet]; tax; return; tax collector; by himself.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讗讬谞谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 讚讜诪讛 讞讘专 砖拽讬讘诇 诇讘谉 讞讘专 砖拽讬讘诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who comes to accept upon himself a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status must accept it in the presence of three 岣verim. But his children and the members of his household are not required to accept the status of 岣ver separately in the presence of three 岣verim. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children and the members of his household must accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim, because a 岣ver, who accepted it himself in the presence of three others, is not comparable to the son of a 岣ver, who accepted that status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讜讗驻讬诇讜 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讝拽谉 讜讬讜砖讘 讘讬砖讬讘讛 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 砖讻讘专 拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 诪砖注讛 砖讬砖讘 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讗讞专讬诐 诪拽讘诇讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who comes to accept upon himself a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status must accept it in the presence of three 岣verim, and even a Torah scholar who wishes to become a 岣ver must accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim. But an elder who sits and studies Torah in a yeshiva is not required to accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim, as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he sat and dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. Abba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim; and not only does he have the status of 岣ver without an explicit declaration in the presence of three 岣verim, but others can accept that they wish to become a 岣ver in his presence.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬诪讬 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讗谞讟讬讙谞讜住 谞砖谞讬转 诪砖谞讛 讝讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讬住转驻拽 诇讛讜 诪讬诇转讗 讘讟讛专讜转 砖讚专讜 专讘谞谉 诇讙讘讬 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讗谞讟讬讙谞讜住 讗讝讬诇讜 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇注讬讬谉 讘讛 讗砖讻讞讜讛 讚拽讗 讟注讬谉 讟讛专讜转 讗讜转讬讘 专讘谞谉 诪讚讬讚讬讛 诇讙讘讬讬讛讜 讜拽讗讬 讗讬讛讜 诇注讬讜谞讬 讘讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This mishna, i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim, was taught in the days of the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus. At that time, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain about a certain matter of ritual purity. The Sages sent a delegation of their students to the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus and told them to go and tell him to examine this matter. The students found him while he was carrying items that were ritually pure. The son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus seated Sages from his own yeshiva next to the students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. And he stood and examined the matter.

讗转讜 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讘讬讜 砖诇 讝讛 讘讬讝讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讗祝 讛讜讗 诪讘讝讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐

The students returned and came and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei that the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of amei ha鈥檃retz. Rabbi Yehuda said to them in anger: This one鈥檚 father, i.e., Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus, degraded Torah scholars by not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And he too, the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus, degrades Torah scholars.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻讘讜讚 讝拽谉 讬讛讗 诪讜谞讞 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讗诇讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞讛讙讜 讻讛谞讬诐 住讬诇住讜诇 讘注爪诪谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讜住专讬谉 讗转 讛讟讛专讜转 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Rabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder, i.e., both the father and son, be left in its place. He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. Rather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves, and they decided that they will not pass ritually pure items to any other person. Therefore, the son of Rabbi 岣nina, as a priest, acted appropriately.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讞讘专 砖诪转 讗砖转讜 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讛专讬 讛谉 讘讞讝拽转谉 注讚 砖讬讞砖讚讜 讜讻谉 讞爪专 砖诪讜讻专讬谉 讘讛 转讻诇转 讛专讬 讛讬讗 讘讞讝拽转讛 注讚 砖转讬驻住诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of a 岣ver that died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptive status until they are suspected of engaging in inappropriate deeds. And similarly, in the case of a courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptive status as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold until it is disqualified due to the merchant鈥檚 unscrupulous behavior.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗砖转 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖谞砖讗转 诇讞讘专 讜讻谉 讘转讜 砖诇 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖谞砖讗转 诇讞讘专 讜讻谉 注讘讚讜 砖诇 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖谞诪讻专 诇讞讘专 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讗砖转 讞讘专 砖谞砖讗转 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讻谉 讘转讜 砖诇 讞讘专 砖谞砖讗转 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讻谉 注讘讚讜 砖诇 讞讘专 砖谞诪讻专 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讘转讞诇讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: The former wife an am ha鈥檃retz who later marries a 岣ver, and likewise the daughter of an am ha鈥檃retz who marries a 岣ver, and likewise the slave of an am ha鈥檃retz who is sold to a 岣ver, must all accept upon themselves a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status. But with regard to the former wife of a 岣ver who later marries an am ha鈥檃retz, and likewise the daughter of a 岣ver who marries an am ha鈥檃retz, and likewise the slave of a 岣ver who was sold to an am ha鈥檃retz, these people need not accept upon themselves a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status ab initio, as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a 岣ver.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 注诇讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 诇讻转讞诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪注砖讛 讘讗砖讛 讗讞转 砖谞砖讗转 诇讞讘专 讜讛讬转讛 拽讜诪注转 诇讜 转驻讬诇讬谉 注诇 讬讚讜 谞砖讗转 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讛讬转讛 拽讜砖专转 诇讜 拽砖专讬 诪讜讻住 注诇 讬讚讜

The baraita continues: Rabbi Meir says: They too must accept upon themselves a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status ab initio. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar would illustrate this point and say in the name of Rabbi Meir: There was an incident involving a certain woman who married a 岣ver and would tie [koma鈥檃t] for him phylacteries on his hand, and she later married a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand, which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Bekhorot 30

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bekhorot 30

转专讘讗 讚讗讟诪讗 讘诪专 讚讻谞转讗 拽谞住讬讛 专讘讗 诇讝讘讜谞讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讗诪讙讜讝讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬诐 讜诪诇讞 谞诪讬

fat of the kidney adjacent to the thigh, which is forbidden, in place of fat of the intestines, which is permitted. Rava penalized him and prohibited him even from selling nuts. Rav Pappa said to Rava: In accordance with which opinion in the mishna is your ruling? It must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. If it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, then you should prohibit this butcher from selling even water and salt.

诇注讜诇诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讘讗讬住讜专讗 讚讙讜驻讬讛 拽谞住讬谞谉 诇讬讛 住转诐 讚专讚拽讬 讙专讜 讘讗诪讙讜讝讬 讜讗讝讬诇 讜诪砖讘砖 诇讘谞讬 讟讘讞讬 讜讙专讬 诇讛讜 讘讗诪讙讜讝讬 讜诪讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 转专讘讗 讚讗讟诪讗 讜诪讝讘讬谉 诇讬讛 讘诪专 讚讻谞转讗

Rava replied: Actually, my ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one is suspected only about those items that are related to the prohibition in question. And we are in fact penalizing him with regard to items related to the prohibition itself. How so? Ordinary children are enticed by nuts, and that individual went and misled the children of butchers and enticed them with nuts, and they brought him fat of the kidney that is adjacent to the thigh, and he sold it as though it were fat of the intestines.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专讜转 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专讜转 讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讝讛 讜注诇 讝讛 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 讜讬砖 砖讛讜讗 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 讜讗讬谞讜 讞砖讜讚 诇讗 注诇 讝讛 讜诇讗 注诇 讝讛 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讚讘专 诇讗 讚谞讜 讜诇讗 诪注讬讚讜

MISHNA: One who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes; and likewise, one who is suspect with regard to tithes is not suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year. One who is suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes, is suspect with regard to selling ritually impure foods as though they were ritually pure items. But there are those who are suspect with regard to ritually pure items who are not suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, nor with regard to that, tithes. This is the principle with regard to these matters: Anyone who is suspect with regard to a specific matter may neither adjudicate cases nor testify in cases involving that matter.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖讘讬注讬转 诇讗 讘注讬讗 讞讜诪讛 诪注砖专 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬 讞讜诪讛 讞诪讬专 诇讬讛

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that one who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? One is not required to eat produce of the Sabbatical Year within the wall of Jerusalem, and therefore he treats it lightly. As for second tithe, since one is required to eat it only within the wall of Jerusalem, it is possible that it seems more stringent for him, and therefore he is not suspect, despite the suspicions with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year.

讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪注砖专 讗讬转 诇讬讛 驻讚讬讜谉 砖讘讬注讬转 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讗 诪讬转住专讗 诇讬讛 讜诇讬转 诇讬讛 驻讚讬讜谉 讞诪讬专讗 诇讬讛

The mishna teaches: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is not suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? The Gemara answers: Since there is redemption for tithes, one might treat them lightly. As for produce of the Sabbatical Year, since it is always prohibited to him and there is no redemption of it, it is possible that it seems more stringent for him, and therefore he is not suspect.

讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讝讛 讜注诇 讝讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讞砖讬讚 讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讚专讘谞谉

The mishna teaches: One who is suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes, is suspect with regard to selling ritually impure foods as though they were ritually pure items. The Gemara explains: Since he is suspect with regard to matters that apply by Torah law, all the more so that he is suspect with regard to matters that are by rabbinic law. Eating non-sacred food in a state of ritual purity is an ordinance of the Sages; it does not apply by Torah law. Consequently, he is certainly not trusted with regard to that matter.

讜讬砖 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 谞讛讬 讗讚专讘谞谉 讞砖讬讚 讗讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诇讗 讞砖讬讚 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讛讟讛专讜转 谞讗诪谉 注诇 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讗 讞砖讬讚 讞砖讬讚

The mishna teaches: But there are those who are suspect with regard to ritually pure items who are not suspect with regard to this, the Sabbatical Year, or with regard to that, tithes. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? Granted, he is suspect with regard to prohibitions that are by rabbinic law, but he is not suspect with regard to prohibitions that are by Torah law. And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: If one is trusted with regard to ritually pure items he is trusted with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year. It can be inferred from here that if he is suspect with regard to ritually pure items he is likewise suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讻砖专讗讬谞讜讛讜 砖谞讜讛讙 讘爪讬谞注讗 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜

Rabbi Ilai says: The mishna is referring to a case where they saw him practicing stringencies with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year and tithes privately, within his home. Since he himself is known to be trustworthy in these matters in private, he is not suspected of violating these prohibitions in his business, despite his lack of trustworthiness with regard to ritual purity.

专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗诪专 讻讙讜谉 讚讛讜讛 讞砖讬讚 诇转专讜讬讬讛讜 讜讗转讗 拽诪讬 专讘谞谉 讜拽讘讬诇 讗转专讜讬讬讛讜 讜讛讚专 讗讬讞砖讚 讗讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讬讙讜 讚讞砖讬讚 讗讛讗 讞砖讬讚 谞诪讬 讗讗讬讚讱

Rabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yishmael, said that there is an alternative answer: The baraita is referring to a case where one was suspect with regard to both ritually pure items and produce of the Sabbatical Year, and he came before the Sages and accepted upon himself that he would observe both of them, and afterward he was suspected with regard to one of them. The reason for the halakha here is that we say: Since he is suspect with regard to this one of them, he is also suspect with regard to the other one. Although one of the prohibitions is more stringent than the other, the court has seen that he cannot be trusted to keep his word about either of them.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专

搂 The mishna teaches: One who is suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year is not suspect with regard to tithes. Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, the unattributed. Most unattributed statements of tanna鈥檌m were formulated by Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students and reflect his opinions. But the Rabbis say: One who is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year is suspect with regard to tithe.

诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讘讗转专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讘讬注讬转 讞诪讬专讗 诇讛讜 讚讛讛讜讗 讚讛讜讛 拽专讬 诇讬讛 诇讞讘专讬讛 讚讬讬专讗 讘专 讚讬讬专转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转讬转讬 诇讬 讚诇讗 讗讻诇讬 驻讬专讜转 砖讘讬注讬转 讻讜讜转讱

The Gemara asks: Who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as in Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 locale they considered produce of the Sabbatical Year an especially stringent prohibition. Therefore, if a resident of that place was suspect with regard to the Sabbatical Year, he was certainly not trusted with regard to tithes. As in that locale, if a certain person would call another: A convert, son of a female convert, wishing to insult him, that person would say to him in reply: I have a blessing coming to me, as I do not eat produce of the Sabbatical Year like you do. This indicates that the accusation of eating produce of the Sabbatical Year was a great insult, since they treated the Sabbatical Year stringently.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讜诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讞砖讜讚 诇讚讘专 讗讞讚 讛讜讬 讞砖讜讚 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛

There are those who say that Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, the unattributed. But the Rabbis say: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year. And who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Meir, who says: One who is suspect with regard to one matter is suspect with regard to the entire Torah.

专讘讬 讬讜谞讛 讜专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 讝注讬专讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜谞讛 讜专讘讬 讝注讬专讗 转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讞讚 讗诪专 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yona and Rabbi Yirmeya, who were students of Rabbi Zeira, disagreed about this matter. And some say that it was Rabbi Yona and Rabbi Zeira, students of Rabbi Yo岣nan, who disagreed. One said: But the Rabbis say that one who is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year

讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 讜诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛诪注砖专 讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讜诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

is suspect with regard to tithe. And who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. And the other one says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard to produce of the Sabbatical Year. And who are the Sages referred to here as the Rabbis? It is Rabbi Meir.

讚转谞讬讗 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讜谞讞砖讚 诇讚讘专 讗讞讚 谞讞砖讚 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 谞讞砖讚 讗诇讗 诇讗讜转讜 讚讘专 讘诇讘讚

As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Demai 2:4): With regard to an am ha鈥檃retz, i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, who accepts upon himself the commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status, i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by 岣verim, including teruma, tithes, and 岣lla, and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy but subsequently he was suspected with regard to one matter in which others saw him act improperly, he is suspected with regard to the entire Torah. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter.

讛讙专 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讞砖讚 诇讚讘专 讗讞讚 讛讜讬 讞砖讜讚 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讬砖专讗诇 诪砖讜诪讚 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讚讗讬 拽讚讬砖 拽讬讚讜砖讬讜 拽讬讚讜砖讬谉

It is also taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Demai 2:4): With regard to a convert who accepted upon himself upon his conversion matters of Torah, i.e., all of the mitzvot, even if he is suspect with regard to one matter alone, he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he is considered like a Jewish transgressor [meshummad], who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical difference resulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is that if he betroths a woman, his betrothal is a valid betrothal, and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讞讜抓 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讙讜讬 砖讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讞讜抓 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讚拽讚讜拽 讗讞讚 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who comes to accept upon himself the commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status except for one matter, which he does not wish to observe, he is not accepted, and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of a gentile who comes to convert and takes upon himself to accept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not accepted as a convert. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Even if he refuses to accept one detail of rabbinic law, he is not accepted.

讜讻谉 讘谉 诇讜讬 砖讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 诇讜讬讛 讜讻讛谉 砖讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讻讛讜谞讛 讞讜抓 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讛诪拽专讬讘 讗转 讚诐 讛砖诇诪讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讛注讘讜讚讛 讛诪住讜专讛 诇讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讜讚讛 讘讛 讗讬谉 诇讜 讞诇拽 讘讻讛讜谞讛

The baraita continues: And similarly, in the case of a Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated: 鈥淗e among the sons of Aaron, that sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion鈥 (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to the Temple service, which is handed over to the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to it in its entirety has no share in the priesthood.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讗诐 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 砖谞讜讛讙 讘爪讬谞注讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪诇诪讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诪诇诪讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 讻讱 讜讘讬谉 讻讱 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讛讜讗 诇诪讚 讻讚专讻讜 讜讛讜诇讱

The Gemara continues on a similar topic. The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who comes to accept upon himself a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status, if we have seen that he practices such matters in private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taught the precise details of being a 岣ver. But if we have not seen him act as a 岣ver in his home, he is taught first and afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: Whether in this case or that case, he is first accepted, and he then continues to learn in the usual manner, i.e., as a 岣ver he learns from others how to behave.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 诇讻谞驻讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪拽讘诇讬谉 诇讟讛专讜转 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讗讬谞讬 诪拽讘诇 讗诇讗 诇讻谞驻讬诐 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 拽讬讘诇 诇讟讛专讜转 讜诇讗 拽讬讘诇 诇讻谞驻讬诐 讗祝 诇讟讛专讜转 诇讗 拽讬讘诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: An am ha鈥檃retz who wishes to become a 岣ver is accepted first with regard to hands, i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, and afterward he is accepted as trustworthy for purity in general. And if he says: I wish to accept purity only with regard to hands, he is accepted for this. If he wishes to accept upon himself the stringencies of a 岣ver with regard to ritual purity but he does not accept upon himself the stringencies with regard to hands, i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, he is not accepted even for purity in general.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注讚 讻诪讛 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇诪砖拽讬谉 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇讻住讜转 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讜讚砖 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 诇砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讜讚砖

The Sages taught in a baraita: Until when is he accepted, i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a 岣ver? Beit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard to impurity of clothing, about which 岣verim would be careful as well, twelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Both with regard to this, liquids, and that, clothing, he must maintain the practice for twelve months before he is fully accepted as a 岣ver.

讗诐 讻谉 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诪拽讜诇讬 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜诪讞讜诪专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 诇砖诇砖讬诐

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, this is one of the rare cases of the leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel, and yet it is not included in tractate Eduyyot, which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. Rather, the text of the baraita must be emended so that it reads: Beit Hillel say: Both with regard to this, liquids and that, clothing, he must maintain the practice for thirty days before he is fully accepted as a 岣ver.

(住讬诪谉 讞讘专 转诇诪讬讚 转讻诇转 诪讻住 讞讝专 讙讘讗讬 讘注爪诪讜)

搂 The Gemara provides a mnemonic to remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: 岣ver; student; sky-blue dye [tekhelet]; tax; return; tax collector; by himself.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讗讬谞谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 讚讜诪讛 讞讘专 砖拽讬讘诇 诇讘谉 讞讘专 砖拽讬讘诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who comes to accept upon himself a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status must accept it in the presence of three 岣verim. But his children and the members of his household are not required to accept the status of 岣ver separately in the presence of three 岣verim. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children and the members of his household must accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim, because a 岣ver, who accepted it himself in the presence of three others, is not comparable to the son of a 岣ver, who accepted that status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讘讗 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讜讗驻讬诇讜 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讝拽谉 讜讬讜砖讘 讘讬砖讬讘讛 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 砖讻讘专 拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 诪砖注讛 砖讬砖讘 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇 讘驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讞讘讬专讬诐 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讗讞专讬诐 诪拽讘诇讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who comes to accept upon himself a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status must accept it in the presence of three 岣verim, and even a Torah scholar who wishes to become a 岣ver must accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim. But an elder who sits and studies Torah in a yeshiva is not required to accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim, as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he sat and dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. Abba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to accept the status of 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim; and not only does he have the status of 岣ver without an explicit declaration in the presence of three 岣verim, but others can accept that they wish to become a 岣ver in his presence.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讬诪讬 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讗谞讟讬讙谞讜住 谞砖谞讬转 诪砖谞讛 讝讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讬住转驻拽 诇讛讜 诪讬诇转讗 讘讟讛专讜转 砖讚专讜 专讘谞谉 诇讙讘讬 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讗谞讟讬讙谞讜住 讗讝讬诇讜 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇注讬讬谉 讘讛 讗砖讻讞讜讛 讚拽讗 讟注讬谉 讟讛专讜转 讗讜转讬讘 专讘谞谉 诪讚讬讚讬讛 诇讙讘讬讬讛讜 讜拽讗讬 讗讬讛讜 诇注讬讜谞讬 讘讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This mishna, i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a 岣ver in the presence of three 岣verim, was taught in the days of the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus. At that time, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain about a certain matter of ritual purity. The Sages sent a delegation of their students to the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus and told them to go and tell him to examine this matter. The students found him while he was carrying items that were ritually pure. The son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus seated Sages from his own yeshiva next to the students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. And he stood and examined the matter.

讗转讜 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讘讬讜 砖诇 讝讛 讘讬讝讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讗祝 讛讜讗 诪讘讝讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐

The students returned and came and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei that the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of amei ha鈥檃retz. Rabbi Yehuda said to them in anger: This one鈥檚 father, i.e., Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus, degraded Torah scholars by not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And he too, the son of Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus, degrades Torah scholars.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻讘讜讚 讝拽谉 讬讛讗 诪讜谞讞 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讗诇讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞讛讙讜 讻讛谞讬诐 住讬诇住讜诇 讘注爪诪谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讜住专讬谉 讗转 讛讟讛专讜转 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Rabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder, i.e., both the father and son, be left in its place. He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. Rather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves, and they decided that they will not pass ritually pure items to any other person. Therefore, the son of Rabbi 岣nina, as a priest, acted appropriately.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讞讘专 砖诪转 讗砖转讜 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讛专讬 讛谉 讘讞讝拽转谉 注讚 砖讬讞砖讚讜 讜讻谉 讞爪专 砖诪讜讻专讬谉 讘讛 转讻诇转 讛专讬 讛讬讗 讘讞讝拽转讛 注讚 砖转讬驻住诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of a 岣ver that died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptive status until they are suspected of engaging in inappropriate deeds. And similarly, in the case of a courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptive status as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold until it is disqualified due to the merchant鈥檚 unscrupulous behavior.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗砖转 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖谞砖讗转 诇讞讘专 讜讻谉 讘转讜 砖诇 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖谞砖讗转 诇讞讘专 讜讻谉 注讘讚讜 砖诇 注诐 讛讗专抓 砖谞诪讻专 诇讞讘专 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讗砖转 讞讘专 砖谞砖讗转 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讻谉 讘转讜 砖诇 讞讘专 砖谞砖讗转 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讻谉 注讘讚讜 砖诇 讞讘专 砖谞诪讻专 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 讘转讞诇讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: The former wife an am ha鈥檃retz who later marries a 岣ver, and likewise the daughter of an am ha鈥檃retz who marries a 岣ver, and likewise the slave of an am ha鈥檃retz who is sold to a 岣ver, must all accept upon themselves a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status. But with regard to the former wife of a 岣ver who later marries an am ha鈥檃retz, and likewise the daughter of a 岣ver who marries an am ha鈥檃retz, and likewise the slave of a 岣ver who was sold to an am ha鈥檃retz, these people need not accept upon themselves a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status ab initio, as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a 岣ver.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇拽讘诇 注诇讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜转 诇讻转讞诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪注砖讛 讘讗砖讛 讗讞转 砖谞砖讗转 诇讞讘专 讜讛讬转讛 拽讜诪注转 诇讜 转驻讬诇讬谉 注诇 讬讚讜 谞砖讗转 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜讛讬转讛 拽讜砖专转 诇讜 拽砖专讬 诪讜讻住 注诇 讬讚讜

The baraita continues: Rabbi Meir says: They too must accept upon themselves a commitment to observe the matters associated with 岣ver status ab initio. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar would illustrate this point and say in the name of Rabbi Meir: There was an incident involving a certain woman who married a 岣ver and would tie [koma鈥檃t] for him phylacteries on his hand, and she later married a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand, which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.

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