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Today's Daf Yomi

January 17, 2020 | כ׳ בטבת תש״פ

Berakhot 14

Can one talk in the middle of hallel or megila? Can one taste food on a fast day? Can one greet someone or deal with things before praying in the morning? Can one stop to greet someone in between the words “is our God” to “truth”? Why? Do we say the entire third paragraph of shema at night or only part? Which part? Why? What is the significance to the order of shema? The gemara quotes a braita that tells a different answer than the one given in the mishna. Does one put on tefillin before or after saying shema? The gemara deals with this question by bringing sources and stories that seem to contradict and tries to resolve the contradiction.

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם

And at the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. And if that is the case, the mishna is no longer difficult.

תניא נמי הכי הקורא את שמע ופגע בו רבו או גדול הימנו בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם

The Gemara remarks: This version of the dispute was also taught in a baraita: One who is reciting Shema and happens upon his teacher or one who is greater than he, at the breaks between the paragraphs he may greet him due to respect and, needless to say, he may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, he may greet another due to fear and, needless to say, he may respond. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and respond due to respect. And in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. The proposed additions to the mishna appear in the version of the dispute cited in the baraita.

בעא מיניה אחי תנא דבי רבי חייא מרבי חייא בהלל ובמגילה מהו שיפסיק אמרינן קל וחומר קריאת שמע דאורייתא פוסק הלל דרבנן מבעיא או דלמא פרסומי ניסא עדיף

Aḥai, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ḥiyya, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya: May one interrupt during the recitation of hallel and the reading of the Megilla, Esther, to greet someone? Do we say that it is an a fortiori inference; if in the middle of Shema, which is a biblical obligation, one may interrupt in order to greet someone, all the more so, in the middle of hallel, which is a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt? Or, perhaps, publicizing the miracle is more significant, so one may not interrupt hallel or the Megilla at all.

אמר ליה פוסק ואין בכך כלום אמר רבה ימים שהיחיד גומר בהן את ההלל בין פרק לפרק פוסק באמצע הפרק אינו פוסק וימים שאין היחיד גומר בהן את ההלל אפילו באמצע הפרק פוסק

Rabbi Ḥiyya said to him: One interrupts and it is of no concern. Rabba said: On days when the individual completes the entire hallel, i.e., the days on which there is a rabbinic obligation to recite hallel, an individual may interrupt between one paragraph and another; however, one may not interrupt in the middle of the paragraph. On days where the individual does not complete the entire hallel, i.e., days on which the recitation of hallel is merely a custom, not a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt even in the middle of the paragraph.

איני והא רב בר שבא איקלע לגביה דרבינא וימים שאין היחיד גומר את ההלל הוה ולא פסיק ליה

The Gemara questions this: It that so? Didn’t Rav bar Shaba once happen to come before Ravina on one of the days when the individual does not complete the entire hallel, and Ravina did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him?

שאני רב בר שבא דלא חשיב עליה דרבינא:

The Gemara responds: The case of Rav bar Shaba is different, as Rav bar Shaba was not considered important to Ravina. That is the reason that he did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him.

בעי מיניה אשיאן תנא דבי רבי אמי מרבי אמי השרוי בתענית מהו שיטעום אכילה ושתיה קביל עליה והא ליכא או דילמא הנאה קביל עליה והא איכא

Having mentioned the dilemma raised by one of those who recite the mishnayot in the study hall, the Gemara cites that Ashyan, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ami, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ami: May one who is fasting taste the food that he is preparing to determine if it spiced properly? Did he accept upon himself to refrain from eating and drinking, and that is not eating and drinking; it is merely tasting? Or, perhaps, he accepted upon himself to refrain from deriving pleasure from food, and that is pleasure when he tastes.

אמר ליה טועם ואין בכך כלום תניא נמי הכי מטעמת אינה טעונה ברכה והשרוי בתענית טועם ואין בכך כלום

Rabbi Ami said to him: He tastes and it is of no concern. This was also taught in a baraita: Tasting a cooked dish does not require a blessing beforehand, and one who is fasting may taste and it is of no concern.

עד כמה

The Gemara asks: How much may one who is fasting taste?

רבי אמי ורבי אסי טעמי עד שיעור רביעתא:

The Gemara responds: When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would fast, they would taste up to a quarter of a log.

אמר רב כל הנותן שלום לחבירו קודם שיתפלל כאילו עשאו במה שנאמר חדלו לכם מן האדם אשר נשמה באפו כי במה נחשב הוא אל תקרי במה אלא במה

Rav said: Anyone who greets another person in the morning before he prayed, it is as if he built an altar for idol worship, as it is stated: “Cease you from man, in whose nostrils there is breath, for how little is he to be accounted” (Isaiah 2:22). When one’s soul is breathed in through his nostrils in the morning (ge’onim) he should turn to no one other than God. And do not read it as it is written, bameh, how; but rather, read bama, altar.

ושמואל אמר במה חשבתו לזה ולא לאלוה

And Shmuel said: The word bameh should not be taken in anything other than its literal connotation. The verse must therefore be understood: How did you consider him so significant, that you gave him priority and not God? Certainly you should have honored God first.

מתיב רב ששת בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב

Rav Sheshet raises an objection: We learned in our mishna that in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet an individual due to respect, and respond to another’s greeting due to respect, despite the fact that the recitation of Shema precedes the Amida prayer.

תרגמה רבי אבא במשכים לפתחו

Rabbi Abba explained this: The prohibition against greeting another in the morning refers specifically to when one sets out early to greet him at his door. If one simply happens to encounter another person, he is permitted to greet him.

אמר רבי יונה אמר רבי זירא כל העושה חפציו קודם שיתפלל כאלו בנה במה אמרו לו במה אמרת אמר להו לא אסור קא אמינא

With regard to this same verse, Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: Anyone who tends to his own affairs before he prays, it is as though he built an altar. They said to Rabbi Yona: Did you say that it was as if one built an altar? Rabbi Yona responded to them: No; I said simply that it is prohibited.

וכדרב אידי בר אבין דאמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן אסור לו לאדם לעשות חפציו קודם שיתפלל שנאמר צדק לפניו יהלך וישם לדרך פעמיו

And as Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: A person is prohibited to attend to his own affairs before he prays, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path” (Psalms 85:14). One should first pray and acknowledge the righteousness of his Creator, and only then should he set out on his way.

ואמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן כל המתפלל ואחר כך יוצא לדרך הקדוש ברוך הוא עושה לו חפציו שנאמר צדק לפניו יהלך וישם לדרך פעמיו:

And, Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: Anyone who first prays and only then sets out on his way, the Holy One, Blessed be He, tends to his affairs, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path.” God will set righteousness before him and satisfy all his wishes, when he sets out on his way.

ואמר רבי יונה אמר רבי זירא כל הלן שבעת ימים בלא חלום נקרא רע שנאמר ושבע ילין בל יפקד רע אל תקרי שבע אלא שבע

Having mentioned his name, the Gemara tangentially cites what Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: One who goes seven nights without a dream, is called evil, as it is stated: “He who has it will abide satisfied [save’a], he will not be visited by evil” (Proverbs 19:23). Rabbi Yona reinterprets the verse: Do not read save’a, satisfied, but sheva, seven. One who sleeps for seven nights without being visited by a dream, is called evil.

אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי חייא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המשביע עצמו מדברי תורה ולן אין מבשרין אותו בשורות רעות שנאמר ושבע ילין בל יפקד רע:

Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said to him: Rabbi Ḥiyya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: Anyone who fills himself with matters of Torah and goes to sleep, they do not deliver evil tidings to him, as it is stated: “He who lies satisfied, will not be visited by evil.”

אלו הן בין הפרקים וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna: These are the breaks between the paragraphs at which one is permitted to interrupt under certain circumstances. According to the first tanna, one may interrupt between the last paragraph of Shema and the blessing that follows it, but Rabbi Yehuda prohibits this.

אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה דאמר בין אלהיכם לאמת ויציב לא יפסיק אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן מאי טעמיה דרבי יהודה דכתיב

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said that one may not interrupt between eloheikhem and emet veyatziv. Furthermore, Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion? This phrase evokes the verse as it is written:

וה׳ אלהים אמת

“And the Lord, God, is True” (Jeremiah 10:10).

חוזר ואומר אמת או אינו חוזר ואומר אמת

After the conclusion of the final paragraph of Shema along with the first word of the subsequent blessing, with the words: “The Lord, your God, is True [Hashem Eloheikhem emet],” the question is posed: Does one repeat emet when he begins the blessing of emet veyatziv, or does he not repeat emet?

אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן חוזר ואומר אמת רבה אמר אינו חוזר ואומר אמת ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה שמעיה רבה דאמר אמת אמת תרי זימני אמר רבה כל אמת אמת תפסיה להאי

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He repeats emet. Rabba said: He does not repeat emet. The Gemara relates: This person who descended to lead the service before Rabba, Rabba heard that he said emet, emet twice. Rabba mocked him and said: Every emet, emet has caught this one; he must be passionate about the pursuit of truth.

אמר רב יוסף כמה מעליא הא שמעתתא דכי אתא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר אמרי במערבא ערבית דבר אל בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם אני ה׳ אלהיכם אמת

Rav Yosef said: How excellent is this tradition that I heard, as when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: In Eretz Yisrael, at the evening prayer they do not recite the entire third portion of Shema, which deals with ritual fringes, as there is no obligation to wear ritual fringes at night. Rather, they say a condensed version of that portion that includes an excerpt from the beginning and an excerpt from the end: “Speak to the children of Israel and say to them…I am the Lord, your God, True” (Numbers 15:38, 41).

אמר ליה אביי מאי מעליותא והא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר וכי תימא ואמרת אליהם לא הוי התחלה והאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק אמר רב דבר אל בני ישראל לא הוי התחלה ואמרת אליהם הוי התחלה

Abaye said to him: What is excellent about this tradition? Didn’t Rav Kahana say that Rav said: One should not begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, but if he does begin, he completes it? And if you say that: Speak to the children of Israel and say to them, is not considered the beginning of the portion of ritual fringes, didn’t Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak say that Rav said: Speak to the children of Israel, is not considered a beginning of the portion of ritual fringes, as many passages in the Torah begin this way; and say to them, is considered a beginning.

אמר רב פפא קסברי במערבא ואמרת אליהם נמי לא הויא התחלה עד דאמר ועשו להם ציצית

Rav Pappa said: In Eretz Yisrael, they hold that and say to them, is not considered a beginning, until he said: And make for them ritual fringes.

אמר אביי הלכך אנן אתחולי מתחלינן דקא מתחלי במערבא וכיון דאתחלינן מגמר נמי גמרינן דהא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר

Abaye said: Therefore, we begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes, since they begin to recite it in Eretz Yisrael. And once we begin to recite it, we complete it as well, as Rav Kahana said that Rav said: One should not begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, but if he does begin, he completes it.

חייא בר רב אמר אמר אני ה׳ אלהיכם צריך לומר אמת לא אמר אני ה׳ אלהיכם אינו צריך לומר אמת

Ḥiyya bar Rav said: If in the evening one recited the portion of ritual fringes concluding with: I am the Lord, your God, he must recite: True and Faithful [emet ve’emuna], and the entire blessing of redemption. However, if he did not recite: I am the Lord, your God, he need not recite emet ve’emuna.

והא בעי לאדכורי יציאת מצרים

The Gemara asks: Isn’t he required to mention the exodus from Egypt at night as well?

דאמר הכי מודים אנחנו לך ה׳ אלהינו שהוצאתנו מארץ מצרים ופדיתנו מבית עבדים ועשית לנו נסים וגבורות על הים ושרנו לך:

The Gemara responds: In place of reciting emet ve’emuna he said the following shorter passage: We give thanks to You, Lord, our God, Who took us out from Egypt and redeemed us from the house of bondage, and performed miracles and mighty deeds on our behalf on the sea, and we sang unto You, as this formula includes all of the content comprising emet ve’emuna.

אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה למה קדמה פרשת שמע וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Why did the portion of Shema precede that of VeHaya im Shamoa? So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot.

תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר בדין הוא שיקדים שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וזה ללמד והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה ללמוד וזה לעשות

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai offers a different explanation for the order of the portions of Shema. He says: By right, Shema should precede VeHaya im Shamoa because the Shema includes the directive to learn, while VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directive to teach. Similarly, VeHaya im Shamoa should precede VaYomer, the final paragraph of Shema, because VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directive to teach, while the portion of ritual fringes includes the directive to perform.

אטו שמע ללמוד אית ביה ללמד ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב ושננתם וקשרתם וכתבתם ותו והיה אם שמוע ללמד הוא דאית ביה ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב וקשרתם וכתבתם

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the portion of Shema contains the directive to learn but it does not contain the directive to teach and perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall teach them to your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), a directive to teach, as well as: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 6:8) and: “And write them on your door posts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), directives to perform? Furthermore, does VeHaya im Shamoa contain the directive to teach but it does not contain the directive to perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 11:18), a directive to perform?

אלא הכי קאמר בדין הוא שתקדם שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וללמד ולעשות והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה יש בה ללמד ולעשות ויאמר אין בה אלא לעשות בלבד

Rather, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai said as follows: By right, the portion of Shema should precede VeHaya im Shamoa because the portion of Shema includes the directives to learn, to teach, and to perform, while VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directives to teach and to perform. VeHaya im Shamoa should precede VaYomer because VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directives to teach and to perform, while VaYomer only includes the directive to perform.

ותיפוק ליה מדרבי יהושע בן קרחה חדא ועוד קאמר חדא כדי שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואחר כך יקבל עליו עול מצות ועוד משום דאית בה הני מילי אחרנייתא

The Gemara asks: Let him derive this, that the portion of Shema is recited first, from the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. The Gemara responds: He stated one reason and another. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai does not disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; he simply suggested as additional explanation as follows: One reason the portion of Shema is recited first is so that one will first accept the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself and afterward the yoke of the mitzvot; and the second reason is because the portion of Shema contains these other elements as well.

רב משי ידיה וקרא קריאת שמע ואנח תפילין וצלי והיכי עביד הכי והתניא החופר כוך למת בקבר פטור מקריאת שמע ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה הגיע זמן קריאת שמע עולה ונוטל ידיו ומניח תפילין וקורא קריאת שמע ומתפלל

The Gemara relates: Rav washed his hands, recited Shema, donned phylacteries, and prayed in that order. The Gemara asks: How could he do that? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: One who digs a grave for the dead in the wall of the family burial cave is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from prayer, from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. When the appointed time for the recitation of Shema arrives, he emerges from the cave, washes his hands, dons phylacteries, recites Shema, and prays.

הא גופא קשיא רישא אמר פטור וסיפא חייב

Before clarifying the problem, the Gemara comments: This baraita itself is difficult; it appears to be contradictory. The first clause of the baraita stated that one digging a grave is exempt from the recitation of Shema, and the latter clause stated that he is obligated to emerge and recite Shema

הא לא קשיא סיפא בתרי ורישא בחד

The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. The latter clause of the baraita refers to a case of two individuals digging the grave together; one pauses to recite Shema while the other continues digging. The first clause of the baraita refers to a case of one individual digging alone, who may not stop.

מכל מקום קשיא לרב רב כרבי יהושע בן קרחה סבירא ליה דאמר עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואחר כך עול מצות

In any case, this baraita contradicts Rav in terms of the order in which the mitzvot are performed. The Gemara responds: Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, who said that the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven takes precedence and should come first, followed by the acceptance of the yoke of the mitzvot. Therefore, Rav first recited Shema, and only then donned phylacteries.

אימר דאמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה להקדים קריאה לקריאה קריאה לעשיה מי שמעת ליה

The Gemara challenges: Say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said to give precedence to recitation of the portion concerning the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven over recitation of other portions. But did you hear him say the halakha gives precedence to recitation over performance?

ותו מי סבר ליה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה והאמר רב חייא בר אשי זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב ומקדים ומשי ידיה ומברך ומתני לן פרקין ומנח תפילין והדר קרי קריאת שמע וכי תימא בדלא מטא זמן קריאת שמע אם כן מאי אסהדתיה דרב חייא בר אשי

And furthermore, does Rav really hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? But didn’t Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi say: Many times I stood before Rav, and he first washed his hands, recited a blessing, taught us our lesson, donned phylacteries, and then recited Shema. And if you say: This was when the time for the recitation of Shema had not yet arrived and that is why he donned his phylacteries first, then what is the point of the testimony of Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi?

לאפוקי ממאן דאמר למשנה אין צריך לברך קמשמע לן דאף למשנה נמי צריך לברך

The Gemara responds: Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi’s story comes to exclude the opinion of the one who said that one need not recite the blessing on Torah study for the study of mishna. It teaches us that even for mishna, one must recite a blessing.

מכל מקום קשיא לרב שלוחא הוא דעוית:

In any case this baraita is difficult for Rav. The Gemara responds: The messenger was at fault and brought Rav his phylacteries late, so Rav recited Shema at its appropriate time and later donned phylacteries.

אמר עולא כל הקורא קריאת שמע בלא תפילין כאילו מעיד עדות שקר בעצמו אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כאילו הקריב עולה בלא מנחה וזבח בלא נסכים:

With regard to the recitation of Shema without phylacteries, Ulla said: Anyone who recites Shema without phylacteries, it is as if he has borne false testimony against himself, as in Shema, he mentions his obligation to don phylacteries and in this case fails to don them himself (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona). Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who recites Shema without phylacteries, it is as if he has offered a burnt-offering without a meal-offering or a peace-offering without libations. Despite the fact that he fulfilled his obligation, his offering is incomplete.

ואמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים שלמה

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who seeks to accept upon himself the complete yoke of the kingdom of Heaven

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite ‘Til...

Berakhot 14

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Berakhot 14

ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם

And at the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. And if that is the case, the mishna is no longer difficult.

תניא נמי הכי הקורא את שמע ופגע בו רבו או גדול הימנו בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם

The Gemara remarks: This version of the dispute was also taught in a baraita: One who is reciting Shema and happens upon his teacher or one who is greater than he, at the breaks between the paragraphs he may greet him due to respect and, needless to say, he may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, he may greet another due to fear and, needless to say, he may respond. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and respond due to respect. And in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. The proposed additions to the mishna appear in the version of the dispute cited in the baraita.

בעא מיניה אחי תנא דבי רבי חייא מרבי חייא בהלל ובמגילה מהו שיפסיק אמרינן קל וחומר קריאת שמע דאורייתא פוסק הלל דרבנן מבעיא או דלמא פרסומי ניסא עדיף

Aḥai, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ḥiyya, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya: May one interrupt during the recitation of hallel and the reading of the Megilla, Esther, to greet someone? Do we say that it is an a fortiori inference; if in the middle of Shema, which is a biblical obligation, one may interrupt in order to greet someone, all the more so, in the middle of hallel, which is a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt? Or, perhaps, publicizing the miracle is more significant, so one may not interrupt hallel or the Megilla at all.

אמר ליה פוסק ואין בכך כלום אמר רבה ימים שהיחיד גומר בהן את ההלל בין פרק לפרק פוסק באמצע הפרק אינו פוסק וימים שאין היחיד גומר בהן את ההלל אפילו באמצע הפרק פוסק

Rabbi Ḥiyya said to him: One interrupts and it is of no concern. Rabba said: On days when the individual completes the entire hallel, i.e., the days on which there is a rabbinic obligation to recite hallel, an individual may interrupt between one paragraph and another; however, one may not interrupt in the middle of the paragraph. On days where the individual does not complete the entire hallel, i.e., days on which the recitation of hallel is merely a custom, not a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt even in the middle of the paragraph.

איני והא רב בר שבא איקלע לגביה דרבינא וימים שאין היחיד גומר את ההלל הוה ולא פסיק ליה

The Gemara questions this: It that so? Didn’t Rav bar Shaba once happen to come before Ravina on one of the days when the individual does not complete the entire hallel, and Ravina did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him?

שאני רב בר שבא דלא חשיב עליה דרבינא:

The Gemara responds: The case of Rav bar Shaba is different, as Rav bar Shaba was not considered important to Ravina. That is the reason that he did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him.

בעי מיניה אשיאן תנא דבי רבי אמי מרבי אמי השרוי בתענית מהו שיטעום אכילה ושתיה קביל עליה והא ליכא או דילמא הנאה קביל עליה והא איכא

Having mentioned the dilemma raised by one of those who recite the mishnayot in the study hall, the Gemara cites that Ashyan, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ami, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ami: May one who is fasting taste the food that he is preparing to determine if it spiced properly? Did he accept upon himself to refrain from eating and drinking, and that is not eating and drinking; it is merely tasting? Or, perhaps, he accepted upon himself to refrain from deriving pleasure from food, and that is pleasure when he tastes.

אמר ליה טועם ואין בכך כלום תניא נמי הכי מטעמת אינה טעונה ברכה והשרוי בתענית טועם ואין בכך כלום

Rabbi Ami said to him: He tastes and it is of no concern. This was also taught in a baraita: Tasting a cooked dish does not require a blessing beforehand, and one who is fasting may taste and it is of no concern.

עד כמה

The Gemara asks: How much may one who is fasting taste?

רבי אמי ורבי אסי טעמי עד שיעור רביעתא:

The Gemara responds: When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would fast, they would taste up to a quarter of a log.

אמר רב כל הנותן שלום לחבירו קודם שיתפלל כאילו עשאו במה שנאמר חדלו לכם מן האדם אשר נשמה באפו כי במה נחשב הוא אל תקרי במה אלא במה

Rav said: Anyone who greets another person in the morning before he prayed, it is as if he built an altar for idol worship, as it is stated: “Cease you from man, in whose nostrils there is breath, for how little is he to be accounted” (Isaiah 2:22). When one’s soul is breathed in through his nostrils in the morning (ge’onim) he should turn to no one other than God. And do not read it as it is written, bameh, how; but rather, read bama, altar.

ושמואל אמר במה חשבתו לזה ולא לאלוה

And Shmuel said: The word bameh should not be taken in anything other than its literal connotation. The verse must therefore be understood: How did you consider him so significant, that you gave him priority and not God? Certainly you should have honored God first.

מתיב רב ששת בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב

Rav Sheshet raises an objection: We learned in our mishna that in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet an individual due to respect, and respond to another’s greeting due to respect, despite the fact that the recitation of Shema precedes the Amida prayer.

תרגמה רבי אבא במשכים לפתחו

Rabbi Abba explained this: The prohibition against greeting another in the morning refers specifically to when one sets out early to greet him at his door. If one simply happens to encounter another person, he is permitted to greet him.

אמר רבי יונה אמר רבי זירא כל העושה חפציו קודם שיתפלל כאלו בנה במה אמרו לו במה אמרת אמר להו לא אסור קא אמינא

With regard to this same verse, Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: Anyone who tends to his own affairs before he prays, it is as though he built an altar. They said to Rabbi Yona: Did you say that it was as if one built an altar? Rabbi Yona responded to them: No; I said simply that it is prohibited.

וכדרב אידי בר אבין דאמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן אסור לו לאדם לעשות חפציו קודם שיתפלל שנאמר צדק לפניו יהלך וישם לדרך פעמיו

And as Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: A person is prohibited to attend to his own affairs before he prays, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path” (Psalms 85:14). One should first pray and acknowledge the righteousness of his Creator, and only then should he set out on his way.

ואמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן כל המתפלל ואחר כך יוצא לדרך הקדוש ברוך הוא עושה לו חפציו שנאמר צדק לפניו יהלך וישם לדרך פעמיו:

And, Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: Anyone who first prays and only then sets out on his way, the Holy One, Blessed be He, tends to his affairs, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path.” God will set righteousness before him and satisfy all his wishes, when he sets out on his way.

ואמר רבי יונה אמר רבי זירא כל הלן שבעת ימים בלא חלום נקרא רע שנאמר ושבע ילין בל יפקד רע אל תקרי שבע אלא שבע

Having mentioned his name, the Gemara tangentially cites what Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: One who goes seven nights without a dream, is called evil, as it is stated: “He who has it will abide satisfied [save’a], he will not be visited by evil” (Proverbs 19:23). Rabbi Yona reinterprets the verse: Do not read save’a, satisfied, but sheva, seven. One who sleeps for seven nights without being visited by a dream, is called evil.

אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי חייא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המשביע עצמו מדברי תורה ולן אין מבשרין אותו בשורות רעות שנאמר ושבע ילין בל יפקד רע:

Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said to him: Rabbi Ḥiyya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: Anyone who fills himself with matters of Torah and goes to sleep, they do not deliver evil tidings to him, as it is stated: “He who lies satisfied, will not be visited by evil.”

אלו הן בין הפרקים וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna: These are the breaks between the paragraphs at which one is permitted to interrupt under certain circumstances. According to the first tanna, one may interrupt between the last paragraph of Shema and the blessing that follows it, but Rabbi Yehuda prohibits this.

אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה דאמר בין אלהיכם לאמת ויציב לא יפסיק אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן מאי טעמיה דרבי יהודה דכתיב

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said that one may not interrupt between eloheikhem and emet veyatziv. Furthermore, Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion? This phrase evokes the verse as it is written:

וה׳ אלהים אמת

“And the Lord, God, is True” (Jeremiah 10:10).

חוזר ואומר אמת או אינו חוזר ואומר אמת

After the conclusion of the final paragraph of Shema along with the first word of the subsequent blessing, with the words: “The Lord, your God, is True [Hashem Eloheikhem emet],” the question is posed: Does one repeat emet when he begins the blessing of emet veyatziv, or does he not repeat emet?

אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן חוזר ואומר אמת רבה אמר אינו חוזר ואומר אמת ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה שמעיה רבה דאמר אמת אמת תרי זימני אמר רבה כל אמת אמת תפסיה להאי

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He repeats emet. Rabba said: He does not repeat emet. The Gemara relates: This person who descended to lead the service before Rabba, Rabba heard that he said emet, emet twice. Rabba mocked him and said: Every emet, emet has caught this one; he must be passionate about the pursuit of truth.

אמר רב יוסף כמה מעליא הא שמעתתא דכי אתא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר אמרי במערבא ערבית דבר אל בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם אני ה׳ אלהיכם אמת

Rav Yosef said: How excellent is this tradition that I heard, as when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: In Eretz Yisrael, at the evening prayer they do not recite the entire third portion of Shema, which deals with ritual fringes, as there is no obligation to wear ritual fringes at night. Rather, they say a condensed version of that portion that includes an excerpt from the beginning and an excerpt from the end: “Speak to the children of Israel and say to them…I am the Lord, your God, True” (Numbers 15:38, 41).

אמר ליה אביי מאי מעליותא והא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר וכי תימא ואמרת אליהם לא הוי התחלה והאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק אמר רב דבר אל בני ישראל לא הוי התחלה ואמרת אליהם הוי התחלה

Abaye said to him: What is excellent about this tradition? Didn’t Rav Kahana say that Rav said: One should not begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, but if he does begin, he completes it? And if you say that: Speak to the children of Israel and say to them, is not considered the beginning of the portion of ritual fringes, didn’t Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak say that Rav said: Speak to the children of Israel, is not considered a beginning of the portion of ritual fringes, as many passages in the Torah begin this way; and say to them, is considered a beginning.

אמר רב פפא קסברי במערבא ואמרת אליהם נמי לא הויא התחלה עד דאמר ועשו להם ציצית

Rav Pappa said: In Eretz Yisrael, they hold that and say to them, is not considered a beginning, until he said: And make for them ritual fringes.

אמר אביי הלכך אנן אתחולי מתחלינן דקא מתחלי במערבא וכיון דאתחלינן מגמר נמי גמרינן דהא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר

Abaye said: Therefore, we begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes, since they begin to recite it in Eretz Yisrael. And once we begin to recite it, we complete it as well, as Rav Kahana said that Rav said: One should not begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, but if he does begin, he completes it.

חייא בר רב אמר אמר אני ה׳ אלהיכם צריך לומר אמת לא אמר אני ה׳ אלהיכם אינו צריך לומר אמת

Ḥiyya bar Rav said: If in the evening one recited the portion of ritual fringes concluding with: I am the Lord, your God, he must recite: True and Faithful [emet ve’emuna], and the entire blessing of redemption. However, if he did not recite: I am the Lord, your God, he need not recite emet ve’emuna.

והא בעי לאדכורי יציאת מצרים

The Gemara asks: Isn’t he required to mention the exodus from Egypt at night as well?

דאמר הכי מודים אנחנו לך ה׳ אלהינו שהוצאתנו מארץ מצרים ופדיתנו מבית עבדים ועשית לנו נסים וגבורות על הים ושרנו לך:

The Gemara responds: In place of reciting emet ve’emuna he said the following shorter passage: We give thanks to You, Lord, our God, Who took us out from Egypt and redeemed us from the house of bondage, and performed miracles and mighty deeds on our behalf on the sea, and we sang unto You, as this formula includes all of the content comprising emet ve’emuna.

אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה למה קדמה פרשת שמע וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Why did the portion of Shema precede that of VeHaya im Shamoa? So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot.

תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר בדין הוא שיקדים שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וזה ללמד והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה ללמוד וזה לעשות

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai offers a different explanation for the order of the portions of Shema. He says: By right, Shema should precede VeHaya im Shamoa because the Shema includes the directive to learn, while VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directive to teach. Similarly, VeHaya im Shamoa should precede VaYomer, the final paragraph of Shema, because VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directive to teach, while the portion of ritual fringes includes the directive to perform.

אטו שמע ללמוד אית ביה ללמד ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב ושננתם וקשרתם וכתבתם ותו והיה אם שמוע ללמד הוא דאית ביה ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב וקשרתם וכתבתם

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the portion of Shema contains the directive to learn but it does not contain the directive to teach and perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall teach them to your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), a directive to teach, as well as: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 6:8) and: “And write them on your door posts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), directives to perform? Furthermore, does VeHaya im Shamoa contain the directive to teach but it does not contain the directive to perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 11:18), a directive to perform?

אלא הכי קאמר בדין הוא שתקדם שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וללמד ולעשות והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה יש בה ללמד ולעשות ויאמר אין בה אלא לעשות בלבד

Rather, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai said as follows: By right, the portion of Shema should precede VeHaya im Shamoa because the portion of Shema includes the directives to learn, to teach, and to perform, while VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directives to teach and to perform. VeHaya im Shamoa should precede VaYomer because VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directives to teach and to perform, while VaYomer only includes the directive to perform.

ותיפוק ליה מדרבי יהושע בן קרחה חדא ועוד קאמר חדא כדי שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואחר כך יקבל עליו עול מצות ועוד משום דאית בה הני מילי אחרנייתא

The Gemara asks: Let him derive this, that the portion of Shema is recited first, from the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. The Gemara responds: He stated one reason and another. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai does not disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; he simply suggested as additional explanation as follows: One reason the portion of Shema is recited first is so that one will first accept the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself and afterward the yoke of the mitzvot; and the second reason is because the portion of Shema contains these other elements as well.

רב משי ידיה וקרא קריאת שמע ואנח תפילין וצלי והיכי עביד הכי והתניא החופר כוך למת בקבר פטור מקריאת שמע ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה הגיע זמן קריאת שמע עולה ונוטל ידיו ומניח תפילין וקורא קריאת שמע ומתפלל

The Gemara relates: Rav washed his hands, recited Shema, donned phylacteries, and prayed in that order. The Gemara asks: How could he do that? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: One who digs a grave for the dead in the wall of the family burial cave is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from prayer, from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. When the appointed time for the recitation of Shema arrives, he emerges from the cave, washes his hands, dons phylacteries, recites Shema, and prays.

הא גופא קשיא רישא אמר פטור וסיפא חייב

Before clarifying the problem, the Gemara comments: This baraita itself is difficult; it appears to be contradictory. The first clause of the baraita stated that one digging a grave is exempt from the recitation of Shema, and the latter clause stated that he is obligated to emerge and recite Shema

הא לא קשיא סיפא בתרי ורישא בחד

The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. The latter clause of the baraita refers to a case of two individuals digging the grave together; one pauses to recite Shema while the other continues digging. The first clause of the baraita refers to a case of one individual digging alone, who may not stop.

מכל מקום קשיא לרב רב כרבי יהושע בן קרחה סבירא ליה דאמר עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואחר כך עול מצות

In any case, this baraita contradicts Rav in terms of the order in which the mitzvot are performed. The Gemara responds: Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, who said that the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven takes precedence and should come first, followed by the acceptance of the yoke of the mitzvot. Therefore, Rav first recited Shema, and only then donned phylacteries.

אימר דאמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה להקדים קריאה לקריאה קריאה לעשיה מי שמעת ליה

The Gemara challenges: Say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said to give precedence to recitation of the portion concerning the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven over recitation of other portions. But did you hear him say the halakha gives precedence to recitation over performance?

ותו מי סבר ליה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה והאמר רב חייא בר אשי זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב ומקדים ומשי ידיה ומברך ומתני לן פרקין ומנח תפילין והדר קרי קריאת שמע וכי תימא בדלא מטא זמן קריאת שמע אם כן מאי אסהדתיה דרב חייא בר אשי

And furthermore, does Rav really hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? But didn’t Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi say: Many times I stood before Rav, and he first washed his hands, recited a blessing, taught us our lesson, donned phylacteries, and then recited Shema. And if you say: This was when the time for the recitation of Shema had not yet arrived and that is why he donned his phylacteries first, then what is the point of the testimony of Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi?

לאפוקי ממאן דאמר למשנה אין צריך לברך קמשמע לן דאף למשנה נמי צריך לברך

The Gemara responds: Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi’s story comes to exclude the opinion of the one who said that one need not recite the blessing on Torah study for the study of mishna. It teaches us that even for mishna, one must recite a blessing.

מכל מקום קשיא לרב שלוחא הוא דעוית:

In any case this baraita is difficult for Rav. The Gemara responds: The messenger was at fault and brought Rav his phylacteries late, so Rav recited Shema at its appropriate time and later donned phylacteries.

אמר עולא כל הקורא קריאת שמע בלא תפילין כאילו מעיד עדות שקר בעצמו אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כאילו הקריב עולה בלא מנחה וזבח בלא נסכים:

With regard to the recitation of Shema without phylacteries, Ulla said: Anyone who recites Shema without phylacteries, it is as if he has borne false testimony against himself, as in Shema, he mentions his obligation to don phylacteries and in this case fails to don them himself (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona). Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who recites Shema without phylacteries, it is as if he has offered a burnt-offering without a meal-offering or a peace-offering without libations. Despite the fact that he fulfilled his obligation, his offering is incomplete.

ואמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים שלמה

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who seeks to accept upon himself the complete yoke of the kingdom of Heaven

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