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Today's Daf Yomi

January 21, 2020 | 讻状讚 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Berakhot 18

One whose close relative died is considered an ‘onen’ and is exempt from commandments. Why? What does it mean “if your dead is before you” – is it to be taken literally? What is forbidden to do in a cemetary if one is close to a dead body so that one does not upset the dead? If the dead can’t see then why will it upset them? There is a question whether or not dead people can see what goes on in this world – and verses and stories are brought to try to come to a conclusion regarding this topic.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讜讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讜讘砖讘转 诪讬住讘 讜讗讜讻诇 讘砖专 讜砖讜转讛 讬讬谉 讜诪讘专讱 讜诪讝诪谉 讜诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜讞讬讬讘 讘讻诇 讛诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪转讜讱 砖谞转讞讬讬讘 讘讗诇讜 谞转讞讬讬讘 讘讻讜诇谉

And there is no need for others to recite a blessing beforehand on his behalf, nor do others invite him to join in Grace after Meals, as he cannot be a member of the quorum of three required to recite the formula. He is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from the Amida prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. On Shabbat, however, he reclines at the meal as per his custom, and eats meat and drinks wine, and recites blessings and recites the formula to invite the participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals, and others may recite blessings on his behalf and invite him to join in Grace after Meals, and he is obligated in all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Just as he is obligated on Shabbat to fulfill these mitzvot associated with Shabbat meals, he is obligated to fulfill all mitzvot.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the practical difference between the apparently identical statements of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and the first tanna? The practical difference between them is with regard to conjugal relations. The first tanna holds that although there is no mourning on Shabbat, since refraining from addressing his wife鈥檚 conjugal rights would not be a public display of mourning, conjugal relations are prohibited. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that since there is no mourning on Shabbat, he must fulfill the mitzva of addressing his wife鈥檚 conjugal rights.

拽转谞讬 诪讬讛转 驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 转专讙诪讗 讗诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜讗讜讻诇 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖诪讜讟诇 注诇讬讜 诇拽讜讘专讜 讻诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讜 讚诪讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽诐 讗讘专讛诐 诪注诇 驻谞讬 诪转讜 讜谞讗诪专 讜讗拽讘专讛 诪转讬 诪诇驻谞讬 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讜讟诇 注诇讬讜 诇拽讜讘专讜 讻诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讜 讚诪讬

In any event, the baraita teaches that one is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from the Amida prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. This is an apparent contradiction of our mishna which states that one is exempt only when the deceased is laid before him. To resolve this contradiction, Rav Pappa said: Explain the baraita as applicable only to the particular case when one turns his face away and eats, with the deceased laid out before him. In the other cases, when he is in a different room, he is obligated in all mitzvot. Rav Ashi says: The phrase: The deceased is laid out before him, is not to be taken literally, but rather, since it is incumbent upon him to bury the deceased, and he is not yet buried, it is as if he is laid out before him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham rose up from before his dead鈥 (Genesis 23:3), and when Abraham speaks with the Hittites, it is stated: 鈥淪o that I may bury my dead from before me鈥 (Genesis 23:4). As long as it is incumbent upon him to bury him, it is as he is laid out before him.

诪转讜 讗讬谉 讗讘诇 诪砖诪专讜 诇讗

From the mishna one can infer that when his deceased relative is laid out before him, yes, he is exempt from mitzvot. But, if it is not his relative and he is only watching over the deceased, no, he is not exempt.

讜讛转谞讬讗 讛诪砖诪专 讗转 讛诪转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转讜 驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 诪砖诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转讜 诪转讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪砖诪专讜

The Gemara challenges: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: One who watches over the deceased, even if it is not his deceased relative, is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah? The Gemara responds that these two sources should not be understood as contradictory, but as complementary. In both the cases, he is exempt; where one watches over the deceased, but it is not his deceased relative, as well as the case where it is his deceased relative, but he is not watching over the deceased.

诪转讜 讜诪砖诪专讜 讗讬谉 讗讘诇 诪讛诇讱 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讛诇讱 讗讚诐 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜转驻讬诇讬谉 讘专讗砖讜 讜住驻专 转讜专讛 讘讝专讜注讜 讜拽讜专讗 讜讗诐 注讜砖讛 讻谉 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 诇讜注讙 诇专砖 讞专祝 注讜砖讛讜

The Gemara further challenges: We concluded that, in both cases, if it is his deceased relative or if he was watching over the unrelated deceased, he is exempt from mitzvot. However, one walking in a cemetery is not exempt. Wasn鈥檛 it taught explicitly in a baraita: One may not walk in a cemetery with phylacteries on his head and a Torah scroll in his arm and read from it? If one does so he commits a transgression due to the verse: 鈥淗e who mocks the poor blasphemes his Creator鈥 (Proverbs 17:5). As the deceased is incapable of fulfilling mitzvot, fulfilling a mitzva in his presence is seen as mocking him.

讛转诐 转讜讱 讗专讘注 [讗诪讜转] 讛讜讗 讚讗住讜专 讞讜抓 诇讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讞讬讬讘 讚讗诪专 诪专 诪转 转讜驻住 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 诇拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讛讻讗 讞讜抓 诇讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 谞诪讬 驻讟讜专:

The Gemara answers: There, when one walks in a cemetery, within four cubits of a grave, that is prohibited. However, beyond four cubits from a grave, one is obligated in prayer and phylacteries. As the Master said: The deceased occupies four cubits with regard to the exemption from the recitation of Shema. One who walks within four cubits of the deceased is exempt. Here, however, in the case where it is either his deceased relative or he is watching over an unrelated deceased, beyond four cubits he is also exempt.

讙讜驻讗 讛诪砖诪专 讗转 讛诪转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转讜 驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讛讬讜 砖谞讬诐 讝讛 诪砖诪专 讜讝讛 拽讜专讗 讜讝讛 诪砖诪专 讜讝讛 拽讜专讗 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讛讬讜 讘讗讬诐 讘住驻讬谞讛 诪谞讬讞讜 讘讝讜讬转 讝讜 讜诪转驻诇诇讬谉 砖谞讬讛诐 讘讝讜讬转 讗讞专转

The Gemara discusses the matter of the baraita itself. It was taught in the baraita: One who watches over the deceased, even though it is not his dead relative, is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from the Amida prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The baraita continues: If two individuals were watching over the deceased, this one watches and that one recites Shema, and then that one watches and this one recites Shema. Ben Azzai says: If they were traveling with the deceased on a boat, they are permitted to set the deceased down in this corner of the boat and both pray in another corner of the boat.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇注讻讘专讬诐 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诪专 住讘专 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讜诪专 住讘专 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉:

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? Ravina said: The practical difference between them is whether or not one need be concerned about mice even inside the boat. The first Sage holds that we are concerned about mice everywhere, and it is therefore inappropriate to leave the deceased unguarded, even on a boat, lest he be eaten by mice. The other Sage, ben Azzai, maintains that we are not concerned about mice on a boat.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讜诇讬讱 注爪诪讜转 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬转谞诐 讘讚住拽讬讗 讜讬转谞诐 注诇 讙讘讬 讞诪讜专 讜讬专讻讘 注诇讬讛诐 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讜讛讙 讘讛诐 诪谞讛讙 讘讝讬讜谉 讜讗诐 讛讬讛 诪转讬专讗 诪驻谞讬 讙讜讬诐 讜诪驻谞讬 诇住讟讬诐 诪讜转专 讜讻讚专讱 砖讗诪专讜 讘注爪诪讜转 讻讱 讗诪专讜 讘住驻专 转讜专讛

The Gemara discusses other issues concerning the dignity of the deceased. The Sages taught: One who transports bones from place to place may not place them in a saddlebag [disakaya] and place them on the donkey鈥檚 back and ride on them, as in doing so he treats the remains disgracefully. However, if he is afraid of gentiles or highwaymen and therefore must move quickly, he is permitted to do so. And just as they said with regard to bones, so they said with regard to a Torah scroll.

讗讛讬讬讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗专讬砖讗 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讬 讙专注 住驻专 转讜专讛 诪注爪诪讜转 讗诇讗 讗住讬驻讗:

With regard to this last statement, the Gemara asks: To what section of the baraita does the parallel to a Torah scroll refer? If you say that this refers to the first clause of the baraita, this is obvious. Is a Torah scroll less important than bones of the dead? Certainly one may not treat a Torah disgracefully. Rather, this statement must refer to the latter clause of the baraita, that in a dangerous situation, one is permitted to ride on a Torah scroll as well.

讗诪专 专讞讘讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讻诇 讛专讜讗讛 讛诪转 讜讗讬谞讜 诪诇讜讛讜 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 诇注讙 诇专砖 讞专祝 注砖讛讜 讜讗诐 讛诇讜讛讜 诪讛 砖讻专讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 诪诇讜讛 讛壮 讞讜谞谉 讚诇 讜诪讻讘讚讜 讞谞谉 讗讘讬讜谉:

Ra岣va said that Rav Yehuda said: One who sees the deceased taken to burial and does not escort him has committed a transgression due to the verse: 鈥淗e who mocks the poor blasphemes his Creator.鈥 And if he does escort him, what is his reward? Rav Asi said: The verse says about him: 鈥淗e who gives to the poor gives a loan to the Lord, and the Lord will repay him鈥 (Proverbs 19:17), and: 鈥淗e who oppresses the poor blasphemes his Creator, but he who is gracious to the poor honors Him鈥 (Proverbs 14:31).

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讛讜讜 砖拽诇讬 讜讗讝诇讬 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讛讜讛 拽砖讚讬讗 转讻诇转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讚诇讬讬讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诇诪讞专 讘讗讬谉 讗爪诇谞讜 讜注讻砖讬讜 诪讞专驻讬谉 讗讜转谞讜

The Gemara relates that Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Yonatan were walking in a cemetery and the sky-blue string of Rabbi Yonatan鈥檚 ritual fringes was cast to the ground and dragging across the graves. Rabbi 岣yya said to him: Lift it, so the dead will not say: Tomorrow, when their day comes, they will come to be buried with us, and now they are insulting us.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诪讬 讬讚注讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛诪转讬诐 讗讬谞诐 讬讜讚注讬诐 诪讗讜诪讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诐 拽专讬转 诇讗 砖谞讬转 讗诐 砖谞讬转 诇讗 砖诇砖转 讗诐 砖诇砖转 诇讗 驻讬专砖讜 诇讱 讻讬 讛讞讬讬诐 讬讜讚注讬诐 砖讬诪讜转讜 讗诇讜 爪讚讬拽讬诐 砖讘诪讬转转谉 谞拽专讗讜 讞讬讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 讘谉 讗讬砖 讞讬 专讘 驻注诇讬诐 诪拽讘爪讗诇 讛讜讗 讛讻讛 讗转 砖谞讬 讗专讗诇 诪讜讗讘 讜讛讜讗 讬专讚 讜讛讻讛 讗转 讛讗专讬 讘转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讘讬讜诐 讛砖诇讙

Rabbi Yonatan said to him: Do the dead know so much? Isn鈥檛 it stated: 鈥淎nd the dead know nothing鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:5)? Rabbi 岣yya said to him: If you read the verse, you did not read it a second time, and if you read it a second time, you did not read it a third time, and if you read it a third time, they did not explain it to you properly. The meaning of the verse: 鈥淔or the living know that they will die, and the dead know nothing and have no more reward, for their memory has been forgotten鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:5): For the living know that they will die, these are the righteous, who even in their death are called living. An allusion to this is as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Benayahu, son of Yehoyada, son of a valiant man of Kabze鈥檈l, who had done mighty deeds, he smote the two altar-hearths of Moab; he went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow鈥 (II Samuel 23:20).

讘谉 讗讬砖 讞讬 讗讟讜 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讘谞讬 诪转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讗诇讗 讘谉 讗讬砖 讞讬 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪讬转转讜 拽专讜讬 讞讬 专讘 驻注诇讬诐 诪拽讘爪讗诇 砖专讬讘讛 讜拽讘抓 驻讜注诇讬诐 诇转讜专讛 讜讛讜讗 讛讻讛 讗转 砖谞讬 讗专讗诇 诪讜讗讘 砖诇讗 讛谞讬讞 讻诪讜转讜 诇讗 讘诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讗 讘诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬

He was referred to in the verse as son of a living man. The Gemara wonders: Is that to say, the fact that the Bible referred to him with that appellation, that all others are children of the dead? Rather, the verse should be explained as follows: The son of a living man who lives forever, who even in death is referred to as living. Man of Kabze鈥檈l who had done mighty deeds, as he accumulated and gathered many workers for the sake of the Torah. Who killed the two lion-hearted men [Ariel] of Moab, as after his death he left no one his equal, in either the First Temple or the Second Temple periods, as the Temple is called Ariel (see Isaiah 29:1), and the two Ariel refers to the two Temples.

讜讛讜讗 讬专讚 讜讛讻讛 讗转 讛讗专讬 讘转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讘讬讜诐 讛砖诇讙 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚转讘专 讙讝讬讝讬 讚讘专讚讗 讜谞讞转 讜讟讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚转谞讗 住讬驻专讗 讚讘讬 专讘 讘讬讜诪讗 讚住讬转讜讗

The Sages disagreed over the interpretation of the rest of the verse: 鈥淎nd who descended and slew the lion in the pit on the snowy day.鈥 Some say that this means that he broke blocks of hail and descended and immersed himself in the water to purify himself. Others say that he learned all of the Sifra, the halakhic midrash on the book of Leviticus of the school of Rav, on a winter鈥檚 day.

讜讛诪转讬诐 讗讬谞诐 讬讜讚注讬诐 诪讗讜诪讛 讗诇讜 专砖注讬诐 砖讘讞讬讬讛谉 拽专讜讬讬谉 诪转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 讞诇诇 专砖注 谞砖讬讗 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 注诇 驻讬 砖谞讬诐 注讚讬诐 讗讜 (注诇 驻讬) 砖诇砖讛 注讚讬诐 讬讜诪转 讛诪转 讞讬 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讛诪转 诪注讬拽专讗:

In contrast to the righteous, who are referred to as living even after their death, the verse states explicitly: 鈥淭he dead know nothing.鈥 These are the wicked, who even during their lives are called dead, as the prophet Ezekiel said in reference to a king of Israel who was alive: 鈥淎nd you are a slain, wicked prince of Israel鈥 (Ezekiel 21:30). And if you wish, say instead that the proof is from here: 鈥淎t the mouth of two witnesses or three witnesses the dead shall be put to death鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:6). This is puzzling. As long as the accused has not been sentenced to death, he is alive. Rather, this person who is wicked is considered dead from the outset.

讘谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 谞驻讜拽 诇拽专讬讬转讗 讗讬讬拽专 诇讛讜 转诇诪讜讚讬讬讛讜 讛讜讜 拽讗 诪爪注专讬 诇讗讚讻讜专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚 诇讞讘专讬讛 讬讚注 讗讘讜谉 讘讛讗讬 爪注专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讚讱 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讬讻讘讚讜 讘谞讬讜 讜诇讗 讬讚注

The Gemara relates a story on this topic: The sons of Rabbi 岣yya went out to the villages to oversee the laborers. They forgot what they had learned and were struggling to recall it. One of them said to the other: Does our deceased father know of our anguish? The other said to him: From where would he know? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淗is sons are honored yet he shall not know it, they come to sorrow and he shall not understand them鈥 (Job 14:21)? The dead do not know.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讚讱 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讗讱 讘砖专讜 注诇讬讜 讬讻讗讘 讜谞驻砖讜 注诇讬讜 转讗讘诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 拽砖讛 专诪讛 诇诪转 讻诪讞讟 讘讘砖专 讛讞讬

The other said back to him: And do the dead truly not know? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淥nly in his flesh does he feel pain, in his soul does he mourn鈥 (Job 14:22)? Based on this verse Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Gnawing maggots are as excruciating to the dead as the stab of a needle to the flesh of the living. The dead must have the capacity to feel and know.

讗诪专讬 讘爪注专讗 讚讬讚讛讜 讬讚注讬 讘爪注专讗 讚讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 讬讚注讬

In order to reconcile this contradiction they said: They know of their own pain but do not know of the pain of others.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘讞住讬讚 讗讞讚 砖谞转谉 讚讬谞专 诇注谞讬 讘注专讘 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讜讛拽谞讬讟转讜 讗砖转讜 讜讛诇讱 讜诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜砖诪注 砖转讬 专讜讞讜转 砖诪住驻专讜转 讝讜 诇讝讜 讗诪专讛 讞讚讗 诇讞讘专转讛 讞讘专转讬 讘讜讗讬 讜谞砖讜讟 讘注讜诇诐 讜谞砖诪注 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 诪讛 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讛 讗讬谞讬 讬讻讜诇讛 砖讗谞讬 拽讘讜专讛 讘诪讞爪诇转 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诇讻讬 讗转 讜诪讛 砖讗转 砖讜诪注转 讗诪专讬 诇讬 讛诇讻讛 讛讬讗 讜砖讟讛 讜讘讗讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讛 讞讘专转讬 诪讛 砖诪注转 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 讗诪专讛 诇讛 砖诪注转讬 砖讻诇 讛讝讜专注 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讘专讚 诪诇拽讛 讗讜转讜 讛诇讱 讛讜讗 讜讝专注 讘专讘讬注讛 砖谞讬讛 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇拽讛 砖诇讜 诇讗 诇拽讛

The Gemara challenges this: And is it so that the dead do not know of the pain of others? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving a pious man who gave a poor man a dinar on the eve of Rosh HaShana during drought years, and his wife mocked him for giving so large a sum at so difficult a time? And in order to escape her incessant mockery, he went and slept in the cemetery. That night in his dream (Ritva, HaKotev, Maharsha), he heard two spirits conversing with each other. One said to the other: My friend, let us roam the world and hear from behind the heavenly curtain [pargod], which separates the Divine Presence from the world, what calamity will befall the world. The other spirit said to her: I cannot go with you, as I am buried in a mat of reeds, but you go, and tell me what you hear. She went, and roamed, and came back. The other spirit said: My friend, what did you hear from behind the heavenly curtain? She replied: I heard that anyone who sows during the first rainy season of this year, hail will fall and strike his crops. Hearing this, the pious man went and sowed his seeds during the second rainy season. Ultimately, the crops of the entire world were stricken by hail and his crops were not stricken.

诇砖谞讛 讛讗讞专转 讛诇讱 讜诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜砖诪注 讗讜转谉 砖转讬 专讜讞讜转 砖诪住驻专讜转 讝讜 注诐 讝讜 讗诪专讛 讞讚讗 诇讞讘专转讛 讘讜讗讬 讜谞砖讜讟 讘注讜诇诐 讜谞砖诪注 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 诪讛 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讬 诇讗 讻讱 讗诪专转讬 诇讱 讗讬谞讬 讬讻讜诇讛 砖讗谞讬 拽讘讜专讛 讘诪讞爪诇转 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诇讻讬 讗转 讜诪讛 砖讗转 砖讜诪注转 讘讜讗讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬 讛诇讻讛 讜砖讟讛 讜讘讗讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讛 讞讘专转讬 诪讛 砖诪注转 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 讗诪专讛 诇讛 砖诪注转讬 砖讻诇 讛讝讜专注 讘专讘讬注讛 砖谞讬讛 砖讚驻讜谉 诪诇拽讛 讗讜转讜 讛诇讱 讜讝专注 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞砖讚祝 讜砖诇讜 诇讗 谞砖讚祝

The following year, on the eve of Rosh HaShana, the same pious man went and slept in the cemetery at his own initiative, and again he heard the two spirits conversing with each other. One said to the other: Let us roam the world and hear from behind the heavenly curtain what calamity will befall the world. She said to her: My friend, have I not already told you that I cannot, as I am buried in a mat of reeds? Rather, you go, and tell me what you hear. She went, and roamed, and returned. The other spirit said to her: My friend, what did you hear from behind the curtain? She said to her: I heard that those who sow during the second rainy season blight will strike his crops. That pious man went and sowed during the first rainy season. Since everyone else sowed during the second rainy season, ultimately, the crops of the entire world were blighted and his crops were not blighted.

讗诪专讛 诇讜 讗砖转讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗砖转拽讚 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇拽讛 讜砖诇讱 诇讗 诇拽讛 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞砖讚祝 讜砖诇讱 诇讗 谞砖讚祝 住讞 诇讛 讻诇 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 注讚 砖谞驻诇讛 拽讟讟讛 讘讬谉 讗砖转讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 讞住讬讚 讜讘讬谉 讗诪讛 砖诇 讗讜转讛 专讬讘讛 讗诪专讛 诇讛 诇讻讬 讜讗专讗讱 讘转讱 砖讛讬讗 拽讘讜专讛 讘诪讞爪诇转 砖诇 拽谞讬诐

The pious man鈥檚 wife said to him: Why is it that last year, the crops of the entire world were stricken and yours were not stricken, and now this year, the crops of the entire world were blighted and yours were not blighted? He related to her the entire story. They said: It was not even a few days later that a quarrel fell between the pious man鈥檚 wife and the mother of the young woman who was buried there. The pious man鈥檚 wife said to her scornfully: Go and I will show you your daughter, and you will see that she is buried in a mat of reeds.

诇砖谞讛 讛讗讞专转 讛诇讱 讜诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜砖诪注 讗讜转谉 专讜讞讜转 砖诪住驻专讜转 讝讜 注诐 讝讜 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讬 讘讜讗讬 讜谞砖讜讟 讘注讜诇诐 讜谞砖诪注 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 诪讛 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讬 讛谞讬讞讬谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬 诇讘讬谞讱 讻讘专 谞砖诪注讜 讘讬谉 讛讞讬讬诐 讗诇诪讗 讬讚注讬

The following year, he again went and slept in the cemetery, and heard the same spirits conversing with each other. One said to the other: My friend, let us roam the world and hear from behind the heavenly curtain what calamity will befall the world. She said to her: My friend, leave me alone, as words that we have privately exchanged between us have already been heard among the living. Apparently, the dead know what transpires in this world.

讚讬诇诪讗 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 砖讻讬讘 讜讗讝讬诇 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜

The Gemara responds: This is no proof; perhaps another person, who heard about the conversation of the spirits secondhand, died and he went and told them that they had been overheard.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讝注讬专讬 讛讜讛 诪驻拽讬讚 讝讜讝讬 讙讘讬 讗讜砖驻讝讬讻转讬讛 注讚 讚讗转讬 讜讗讝讬诇 诇讘讬 专讘 砖讻讬讘讛 讗讝诇 讘转专讛 诇讞爪专 诪讜转 讗诪专 诇讛 讝讜讝讬 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诪转讜转讬 讘爪谞讜专讗 讚讚砖讗 讘讚讜讱 驻诇谉 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讛 诇讗讬诪讗 转砖讚专 诇讬 诪住专拽讗讬 讜讙讜讘转讗讬 讚讻讜讞诇讗 讘讛讚讬 驻诇谞讬转讗 讚讗转讬讗 诇诪讞专 讗诇诪讗 讬讚注讬

With regard to the deceased鈥檚 knowledge of what transpires, come and hear a proof, as it is told: Ze鈥檌ri would deposit his dinars with his innkeeper. While he was going and coming to and from the school of Rav, she died, and he did not know where she had put the money. So he went after her to her grave in the cemetery and said to her: Where are the dinars? She replied: Go and get them from beneath the hinge of the door in such and such a place, and tell my mother that she should send me my comb and a tube of eyeshadow with such and such a woman who will die and come here tomorrow. Apparently, the dead know what transpires in this world.

讚诇诪讗 讚讜诪讛 拽讚讬诐 讜诪讻专讬讝 诇讛讜

The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps the angel Duma, who oversees the dead, comes beforehand and announces to them that a particular individual will arrive the next day, but they themselves do not know.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讜讜 拽讗 诪驻拽讚讬 讙讘讬讛 讝讜讝讬 讚讬转诪讬 讻讬 谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 砖诪讜讗诇 讙讘讬讛 讛讜讜 拽讗 拽专讜 诇讬讛 讘专 讗讻讬诇 讝讜讝讬 讚讬转诪讬 讗讝诇 讗讘转专讬讛 诇讞爪专 诪讜转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讘讗 讟讜讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讛讻讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讘讗 讘专 讗讘讗 谞诪讬 讟讜讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讛讻讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 住诇讬拽 诇诪转讬讘转讗 讚专拽讬注讗 讗讚讛讻讬 讞讝讬讬讛 诇诇讜讬 讚讬转讬讘 讗讘专讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 讬转讘转 讗讘专讗讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 住诇拽转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专讬 诇讬 讻诇 讻讬 讛谞讱 砖谞讬 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽转 诇诪转讬讘转讗 讚专讘讬 讗驻住 讜讗讞诇讬砖转讬讛 诇讚注转讬讛 诇讗 诪注讬讬诇讬谞谉 诇讱 诇诪转讬讘转讗 讚专拽讬注讗

The Gemara cites another proof: Come and hear, as it is told: They would deposit the money of orphans with Shmuel鈥檚 father for safekeeping. When Shmuel鈥檚 father died, Shmuel was not with him, and did not learn from him the location of the money. Since he did not return it, Shmuel was called: Son of him who consumes the money of orphans. Shmuel went after his father to the cemetery and said to the dead: I want Abba. The dead said to him: There are many Abbas here. He told them: I want Abba bar Abba. They said to him: There are also many people named Abba bar Abba here. He told them: I want Abba bar Abba, the father of Shmuel. Where is he? They replied: Ascend to the yeshiva on high. Meanwhile, he saw his friend Levi sitting outside the yeshiva, away from the rest of the deceased. He asked him: Why do you sit outside? Why did you not ascend to the yeshiva? He replied: Because they tell me that for all those years that you didn鈥檛 enter the yeshiva of Rabbi Afes, and thereby upset him, we will not grant you entry to the yeshiva on high.

讗讚讛讻讬 讜讛讻讬 讗转讗 讗讘讜讛 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 讘讻讬 讜讗讞讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 拽讗 讘讻讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诇注讙诇 拽讗 讗转讬转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讞讬讻转 讚讞砖讬讘转 讘讛讗讬 注诇诪讗 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讞砖讬讘谞讗 谞注讬讬诇讜讛 诇诇讜讬 讜注讬讬诇讜讛讜 诇诇讜讬

Meanwhile, Shmuel鈥檚 father came and Shmuel saw that he was crying and laughing. Shmuel said to his father: Why are you crying? His father replied: Because you will come here soon. Shmuel continued and asked: Why are you laughing? His father replied: Because you are extremely important in this world. Shmuel said to him: If I am important, then let them grant Levi entry to the yeshiva. And so it was that they granted Levi entry to the yeshiva.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讜讝讬 讚讬转诪讬 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 讘讗诪转讗 讚专讞讬讗 注讬诇讗讬 讜转转讗讬 讚讬讚谉 讜诪讬爪注讬 讚讬转诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 注讘讚转 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讙谞讜讘讬 讙谞讘讬 诪讙谞讘讜 诪讚讬讚谉 讗讬 讗讻诇讛 讗专注讗 讗讻诇讛 诪讚讬讚谉 讗诇诪讗 讚讬讚注讬 讚讬诇诪讗 砖讗谞讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讬讜谉 讚讞砖讬讘 拽讚诪讬 讜诪讻专讝讬 驻谞讜 诪拽讜诐

Shmuel said to his father: Where is the orphans鈥 money? He said to him: Go and retrieve it from the millhouse, where you will find the uppermost and the lowermost money is ours, and the money in the middle belongs to the orphans. Shmuel said to him: Why did you do that? He replied: If thieves stole, they would steal from our money on top, which the thief would see first. If the earth swallowed up any of it, it would swallow from our money, on the bottom. Apparently, the dead, in this case Shmuel鈥檚 father, know when others will die. Since Shmuel did not die the next day, clearly the angel Duma could not have informed them (Tosafot). The Gemara responds: Perhaps Shmuel is different, and because he is so important they announce beforehand: Clear place for his arrival.

讜讗祝 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诪谞讬谉 诇诪转讬诐 砖诪住驻专讬诐 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇讬讜 讝讗转 讛讗专抓 讗砖专 谞砖讘注转讬 诇讗讘专讛诐 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讬注拽讘 诇讗诪专 诪讗讬 诇讗诪专 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讗讘专讛诐 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讬注拽讘 砖讘讜注讛 砖谞砖讘注转讬 诇讻诐 讻讘专 拽讬讬诪转讬讛 诇讘谞讬讻诐

In any case, with regard to the crux of the issue, Rabbi Yonatan also reconsidered his opinion, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that the dead converse with each other? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd the Lord said to him, this is the land that I swore to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, saying: I will give it to your offspring鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:4). What is the meaning of 鈥渟aying鈥? It means that God told Moses: Go and tell Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that the oath that I swore to you I have already fulfilled for your descendants.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 18

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Berakhot 18

讜讗讬谉 诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讜讘砖讘转 诪讬住讘 讜讗讜讻诇 讘砖专 讜砖讜转讛 讬讬谉 讜诪讘专讱 讜诪讝诪谉 讜诪讘专讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜诪讝诪谞讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜讞讬讬讘 讘讻诇 讛诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪转讜讱 砖谞转讞讬讬讘 讘讗诇讜 谞转讞讬讬讘 讘讻讜诇谉

And there is no need for others to recite a blessing beforehand on his behalf, nor do others invite him to join in Grace after Meals, as he cannot be a member of the quorum of three required to recite the formula. He is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from the Amida prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. On Shabbat, however, he reclines at the meal as per his custom, and eats meat and drinks wine, and recites blessings and recites the formula to invite the participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals, and others may recite blessings on his behalf and invite him to join in Grace after Meals, and he is obligated in all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Just as he is obligated on Shabbat to fulfill these mitzvot associated with Shabbat meals, he is obligated to fulfill all mitzvot.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the practical difference between the apparently identical statements of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and the first tanna? The practical difference between them is with regard to conjugal relations. The first tanna holds that although there is no mourning on Shabbat, since refraining from addressing his wife鈥檚 conjugal rights would not be a public display of mourning, conjugal relations are prohibited. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that since there is no mourning on Shabbat, he must fulfill the mitzva of addressing his wife鈥檚 conjugal rights.

拽转谞讬 诪讬讛转 驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 转专讙诪讗 讗诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜讗讜讻诇 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖诪讜讟诇 注诇讬讜 诇拽讜讘专讜 讻诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讜 讚诪讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽诐 讗讘专讛诐 诪注诇 驻谞讬 诪转讜 讜谞讗诪专 讜讗拽讘专讛 诪转讬 诪诇驻谞讬 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讜讟诇 注诇讬讜 诇拽讜讘专讜 讻诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讜 讚诪讬

In any event, the baraita teaches that one is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from the Amida prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. This is an apparent contradiction of our mishna which states that one is exempt only when the deceased is laid before him. To resolve this contradiction, Rav Pappa said: Explain the baraita as applicable only to the particular case when one turns his face away and eats, with the deceased laid out before him. In the other cases, when he is in a different room, he is obligated in all mitzvot. Rav Ashi says: The phrase: The deceased is laid out before him, is not to be taken literally, but rather, since it is incumbent upon him to bury the deceased, and he is not yet buried, it is as if he is laid out before him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham rose up from before his dead鈥 (Genesis 23:3), and when Abraham speaks with the Hittites, it is stated: 鈥淪o that I may bury my dead from before me鈥 (Genesis 23:4). As long as it is incumbent upon him to bury him, it is as he is laid out before him.

诪转讜 讗讬谉 讗讘诇 诪砖诪专讜 诇讗

From the mishna one can infer that when his deceased relative is laid out before him, yes, he is exempt from mitzvot. But, if it is not his relative and he is only watching over the deceased, no, he is not exempt.

讜讛转谞讬讗 讛诪砖诪专 讗转 讛诪转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转讜 驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 诪砖诪专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转讜 诪转讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪砖诪专讜

The Gemara challenges: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: One who watches over the deceased, even if it is not his deceased relative, is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah? The Gemara responds that these two sources should not be understood as contradictory, but as complementary. In both the cases, he is exempt; where one watches over the deceased, but it is not his deceased relative, as well as the case where it is his deceased relative, but he is not watching over the deceased.

诪转讜 讜诪砖诪专讜 讗讬谉 讗讘诇 诪讛诇讱 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讛诇讱 讗讚诐 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜转驻讬诇讬谉 讘专讗砖讜 讜住驻专 转讜专讛 讘讝专讜注讜 讜拽讜专讗 讜讗诐 注讜砖讛 讻谉 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 诇讜注讙 诇专砖 讞专祝 注讜砖讛讜

The Gemara further challenges: We concluded that, in both cases, if it is his deceased relative or if he was watching over the unrelated deceased, he is exempt from mitzvot. However, one walking in a cemetery is not exempt. Wasn鈥檛 it taught explicitly in a baraita: One may not walk in a cemetery with phylacteries on his head and a Torah scroll in his arm and read from it? If one does so he commits a transgression due to the verse: 鈥淗e who mocks the poor blasphemes his Creator鈥 (Proverbs 17:5). As the deceased is incapable of fulfilling mitzvot, fulfilling a mitzva in his presence is seen as mocking him.

讛转诐 转讜讱 讗专讘注 [讗诪讜转] 讛讜讗 讚讗住讜专 讞讜抓 诇讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讞讬讬讘 讚讗诪专 诪专 诪转 转讜驻住 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 诇拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讛讻讗 讞讜抓 诇讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 谞诪讬 驻讟讜专:

The Gemara answers: There, when one walks in a cemetery, within four cubits of a grave, that is prohibited. However, beyond four cubits from a grave, one is obligated in prayer and phylacteries. As the Master said: The deceased occupies four cubits with regard to the exemption from the recitation of Shema. One who walks within four cubits of the deceased is exempt. Here, however, in the case where it is either his deceased relative or he is watching over an unrelated deceased, beyond four cubits he is also exempt.

讙讜驻讗 讛诪砖诪专 讗转 讛诪转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转讜 驻讟讜专 诪拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪谉 讛转驻诇讛 讜诪谉 讛转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诪讻诇 诪爪讜转 讛讗诪讜专讜转 讘转讜专讛 讛讬讜 砖谞讬诐 讝讛 诪砖诪专 讜讝讛 拽讜专讗 讜讝讛 诪砖诪专 讜讝讛 拽讜专讗 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讛讬讜 讘讗讬诐 讘住驻讬谞讛 诪谞讬讞讜 讘讝讜讬转 讝讜 讜诪转驻诇诇讬谉 砖谞讬讛诐 讘讝讜讬转 讗讞专转

The Gemara discusses the matter of the baraita itself. It was taught in the baraita: One who watches over the deceased, even though it is not his dead relative, is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from the Amida prayer and from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The baraita continues: If two individuals were watching over the deceased, this one watches and that one recites Shema, and then that one watches and this one recites Shema. Ben Azzai says: If they were traveling with the deceased on a boat, they are permitted to set the deceased down in this corner of the boat and both pray in another corner of the boat.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇注讻讘专讬诐 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诪专 住讘专 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讜诪专 住讘专 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉:

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? Ravina said: The practical difference between them is whether or not one need be concerned about mice even inside the boat. The first Sage holds that we are concerned about mice everywhere, and it is therefore inappropriate to leave the deceased unguarded, even on a boat, lest he be eaten by mice. The other Sage, ben Azzai, maintains that we are not concerned about mice on a boat.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪讜诇讬讱 注爪诪讜转 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬转谞诐 讘讚住拽讬讗 讜讬转谞诐 注诇 讙讘讬 讞诪讜专 讜讬专讻讘 注诇讬讛诐 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讜讛讙 讘讛诐 诪谞讛讙 讘讝讬讜谉 讜讗诐 讛讬讛 诪转讬专讗 诪驻谞讬 讙讜讬诐 讜诪驻谞讬 诇住讟讬诐 诪讜转专 讜讻讚专讱 砖讗诪专讜 讘注爪诪讜转 讻讱 讗诪专讜 讘住驻专 转讜专讛

The Gemara discusses other issues concerning the dignity of the deceased. The Sages taught: One who transports bones from place to place may not place them in a saddlebag [disakaya] and place them on the donkey鈥檚 back and ride on them, as in doing so he treats the remains disgracefully. However, if he is afraid of gentiles or highwaymen and therefore must move quickly, he is permitted to do so. And just as they said with regard to bones, so they said with regard to a Torah scroll.

讗讛讬讬讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗专讬砖讗 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讬 讙专注 住驻专 转讜专讛 诪注爪诪讜转 讗诇讗 讗住讬驻讗:

With regard to this last statement, the Gemara asks: To what section of the baraita does the parallel to a Torah scroll refer? If you say that this refers to the first clause of the baraita, this is obvious. Is a Torah scroll less important than bones of the dead? Certainly one may not treat a Torah disgracefully. Rather, this statement must refer to the latter clause of the baraita, that in a dangerous situation, one is permitted to ride on a Torah scroll as well.

讗诪专 专讞讘讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讻诇 讛专讜讗讛 讛诪转 讜讗讬谞讜 诪诇讜讛讜 注讜讘专 诪砖讜诐 诇注讙 诇专砖 讞专祝 注砖讛讜 讜讗诐 讛诇讜讛讜 诪讛 砖讻专讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 诪诇讜讛 讛壮 讞讜谞谉 讚诇 讜诪讻讘讚讜 讞谞谉 讗讘讬讜谉:

Ra岣va said that Rav Yehuda said: One who sees the deceased taken to burial and does not escort him has committed a transgression due to the verse: 鈥淗e who mocks the poor blasphemes his Creator.鈥 And if he does escort him, what is his reward? Rav Asi said: The verse says about him: 鈥淗e who gives to the poor gives a loan to the Lord, and the Lord will repay him鈥 (Proverbs 19:17), and: 鈥淗e who oppresses the poor blasphemes his Creator, but he who is gracious to the poor honors Him鈥 (Proverbs 14:31).

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讛讜讜 砖拽诇讬 讜讗讝诇讬 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讛讜讛 拽砖讚讬讗 转讻诇转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讚诇讬讬讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诇诪讞专 讘讗讬谉 讗爪诇谞讜 讜注讻砖讬讜 诪讞专驻讬谉 讗讜转谞讜

The Gemara relates that Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Yonatan were walking in a cemetery and the sky-blue string of Rabbi Yonatan鈥檚 ritual fringes was cast to the ground and dragging across the graves. Rabbi 岣yya said to him: Lift it, so the dead will not say: Tomorrow, when their day comes, they will come to be buried with us, and now they are insulting us.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诪讬 讬讚注讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛诪转讬诐 讗讬谞诐 讬讜讚注讬诐 诪讗讜诪讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诐 拽专讬转 诇讗 砖谞讬转 讗诐 砖谞讬转 诇讗 砖诇砖转 讗诐 砖诇砖转 诇讗 驻讬专砖讜 诇讱 讻讬 讛讞讬讬诐 讬讜讚注讬诐 砖讬诪讜转讜 讗诇讜 爪讚讬拽讬诐 砖讘诪讬转转谉 谞拽专讗讜 讞讬讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 讘谉 讗讬砖 讞讬 专讘 驻注诇讬诐 诪拽讘爪讗诇 讛讜讗 讛讻讛 讗转 砖谞讬 讗专讗诇 诪讜讗讘 讜讛讜讗 讬专讚 讜讛讻讛 讗转 讛讗专讬 讘转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讘讬讜诐 讛砖诇讙

Rabbi Yonatan said to him: Do the dead know so much? Isn鈥檛 it stated: 鈥淎nd the dead know nothing鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:5)? Rabbi 岣yya said to him: If you read the verse, you did not read it a second time, and if you read it a second time, you did not read it a third time, and if you read it a third time, they did not explain it to you properly. The meaning of the verse: 鈥淔or the living know that they will die, and the dead know nothing and have no more reward, for their memory has been forgotten鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:5): For the living know that they will die, these are the righteous, who even in their death are called living. An allusion to this is as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Benayahu, son of Yehoyada, son of a valiant man of Kabze鈥檈l, who had done mighty deeds, he smote the two altar-hearths of Moab; he went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow鈥 (II Samuel 23:20).

讘谉 讗讬砖 讞讬 讗讟讜 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讘谞讬 诪转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讗诇讗 讘谉 讗讬砖 讞讬 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪讬转转讜 拽专讜讬 讞讬 专讘 驻注诇讬诐 诪拽讘爪讗诇 砖专讬讘讛 讜拽讘抓 驻讜注诇讬诐 诇转讜专讛 讜讛讜讗 讛讻讛 讗转 砖谞讬 讗专讗诇 诪讜讗讘 砖诇讗 讛谞讬讞 讻诪讜转讜 诇讗 讘诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讗 讘诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬

He was referred to in the verse as son of a living man. The Gemara wonders: Is that to say, the fact that the Bible referred to him with that appellation, that all others are children of the dead? Rather, the verse should be explained as follows: The son of a living man who lives forever, who even in death is referred to as living. Man of Kabze鈥檈l who had done mighty deeds, as he accumulated and gathered many workers for the sake of the Torah. Who killed the two lion-hearted men [Ariel] of Moab, as after his death he left no one his equal, in either the First Temple or the Second Temple periods, as the Temple is called Ariel (see Isaiah 29:1), and the two Ariel refers to the two Temples.

讜讛讜讗 讬专讚 讜讛讻讛 讗转 讛讗专讬 讘转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讘讬讜诐 讛砖诇讙 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚转讘专 讙讝讬讝讬 讚讘专讚讗 讜谞讞转 讜讟讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚转谞讗 住讬驻专讗 讚讘讬 专讘 讘讬讜诪讗 讚住讬转讜讗

The Sages disagreed over the interpretation of the rest of the verse: 鈥淎nd who descended and slew the lion in the pit on the snowy day.鈥 Some say that this means that he broke blocks of hail and descended and immersed himself in the water to purify himself. Others say that he learned all of the Sifra, the halakhic midrash on the book of Leviticus of the school of Rav, on a winter鈥檚 day.

讜讛诪转讬诐 讗讬谞诐 讬讜讚注讬诐 诪讗讜诪讛 讗诇讜 专砖注讬诐 砖讘讞讬讬讛谉 拽专讜讬讬谉 诪转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 讞诇诇 专砖注 谞砖讬讗 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 注诇 驻讬 砖谞讬诐 注讚讬诐 讗讜 (注诇 驻讬) 砖诇砖讛 注讚讬诐 讬讜诪转 讛诪转 讞讬 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讛诪转 诪注讬拽专讗:

In contrast to the righteous, who are referred to as living even after their death, the verse states explicitly: 鈥淭he dead know nothing.鈥 These are the wicked, who even during their lives are called dead, as the prophet Ezekiel said in reference to a king of Israel who was alive: 鈥淎nd you are a slain, wicked prince of Israel鈥 (Ezekiel 21:30). And if you wish, say instead that the proof is from here: 鈥淎t the mouth of two witnesses or three witnesses the dead shall be put to death鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:6). This is puzzling. As long as the accused has not been sentenced to death, he is alive. Rather, this person who is wicked is considered dead from the outset.

讘谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 谞驻讜拽 诇拽专讬讬转讗 讗讬讬拽专 诇讛讜 转诇诪讜讚讬讬讛讜 讛讜讜 拽讗 诪爪注专讬 诇讗讚讻讜专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚 诇讞讘专讬讛 讬讚注 讗讘讜谉 讘讛讗讬 爪注专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讚讱 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讬讻讘讚讜 讘谞讬讜 讜诇讗 讬讚注

The Gemara relates a story on this topic: The sons of Rabbi 岣yya went out to the villages to oversee the laborers. They forgot what they had learned and were struggling to recall it. One of them said to the other: Does our deceased father know of our anguish? The other said to him: From where would he know? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淗is sons are honored yet he shall not know it, they come to sorrow and he shall not understand them鈥 (Job 14:21)? The dead do not know.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讚讱 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讗讱 讘砖专讜 注诇讬讜 讬讻讗讘 讜谞驻砖讜 注诇讬讜 转讗讘诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 拽砖讛 专诪讛 诇诪转 讻诪讞讟 讘讘砖专 讛讞讬

The other said back to him: And do the dead truly not know? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淥nly in his flesh does he feel pain, in his soul does he mourn鈥 (Job 14:22)? Based on this verse Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Gnawing maggots are as excruciating to the dead as the stab of a needle to the flesh of the living. The dead must have the capacity to feel and know.

讗诪专讬 讘爪注专讗 讚讬讚讛讜 讬讚注讬 讘爪注专讗 讚讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 讬讚注讬

In order to reconcile this contradiction they said: They know of their own pain but do not know of the pain of others.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘讞住讬讚 讗讞讚 砖谞转谉 讚讬谞专 诇注谞讬 讘注专讘 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讜讛拽谞讬讟转讜 讗砖转讜 讜讛诇讱 讜诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜砖诪注 砖转讬 专讜讞讜转 砖诪住驻专讜转 讝讜 诇讝讜 讗诪专讛 讞讚讗 诇讞讘专转讛 讞讘专转讬 讘讜讗讬 讜谞砖讜讟 讘注讜诇诐 讜谞砖诪注 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 诪讛 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讛 讗讬谞讬 讬讻讜诇讛 砖讗谞讬 拽讘讜专讛 讘诪讞爪诇转 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诇讻讬 讗转 讜诪讛 砖讗转 砖讜诪注转 讗诪专讬 诇讬 讛诇讻讛 讛讬讗 讜砖讟讛 讜讘讗讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讛 讞讘专转讬 诪讛 砖诪注转 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 讗诪专讛 诇讛 砖诪注转讬 砖讻诇 讛讝讜专注 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讘专讚 诪诇拽讛 讗讜转讜 讛诇讱 讛讜讗 讜讝专注 讘专讘讬注讛 砖谞讬讛 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇拽讛 砖诇讜 诇讗 诇拽讛

The Gemara challenges this: And is it so that the dead do not know of the pain of others? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving a pious man who gave a poor man a dinar on the eve of Rosh HaShana during drought years, and his wife mocked him for giving so large a sum at so difficult a time? And in order to escape her incessant mockery, he went and slept in the cemetery. That night in his dream (Ritva, HaKotev, Maharsha), he heard two spirits conversing with each other. One said to the other: My friend, let us roam the world and hear from behind the heavenly curtain [pargod], which separates the Divine Presence from the world, what calamity will befall the world. The other spirit said to her: I cannot go with you, as I am buried in a mat of reeds, but you go, and tell me what you hear. She went, and roamed, and came back. The other spirit said: My friend, what did you hear from behind the heavenly curtain? She replied: I heard that anyone who sows during the first rainy season of this year, hail will fall and strike his crops. Hearing this, the pious man went and sowed his seeds during the second rainy season. Ultimately, the crops of the entire world were stricken by hail and his crops were not stricken.

诇砖谞讛 讛讗讞专转 讛诇讱 讜诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜砖诪注 讗讜转谉 砖转讬 专讜讞讜转 砖诪住驻专讜转 讝讜 注诐 讝讜 讗诪专讛 讞讚讗 诇讞讘专转讛 讘讜讗讬 讜谞砖讜讟 讘注讜诇诐 讜谞砖诪注 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 诪讛 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讬 诇讗 讻讱 讗诪专转讬 诇讱 讗讬谞讬 讬讻讜诇讛 砖讗谞讬 拽讘讜专讛 讘诪讞爪诇转 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诇讻讬 讗转 讜诪讛 砖讗转 砖讜诪注转 讘讜讗讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬 讛诇讻讛 讜砖讟讛 讜讘讗讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讛 讞讘专转讬 诪讛 砖诪注转 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 讗诪专讛 诇讛 砖诪注转讬 砖讻诇 讛讝讜专注 讘专讘讬注讛 砖谞讬讛 砖讚驻讜谉 诪诇拽讛 讗讜转讜 讛诇讱 讜讝专注 讘专讘讬注讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞砖讚祝 讜砖诇讜 诇讗 谞砖讚祝

The following year, on the eve of Rosh HaShana, the same pious man went and slept in the cemetery at his own initiative, and again he heard the two spirits conversing with each other. One said to the other: Let us roam the world and hear from behind the heavenly curtain what calamity will befall the world. She said to her: My friend, have I not already told you that I cannot, as I am buried in a mat of reeds? Rather, you go, and tell me what you hear. She went, and roamed, and returned. The other spirit said to her: My friend, what did you hear from behind the curtain? She said to her: I heard that those who sow during the second rainy season blight will strike his crops. That pious man went and sowed during the first rainy season. Since everyone else sowed during the second rainy season, ultimately, the crops of the entire world were blighted and his crops were not blighted.

讗诪专讛 诇讜 讗砖转讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗砖转拽讚 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇拽讛 讜砖诇讱 诇讗 诇拽讛 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞砖讚祝 讜砖诇讱 诇讗 谞砖讚祝 住讞 诇讛 讻诇 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 注讚 砖谞驻诇讛 拽讟讟讛 讘讬谉 讗砖转讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 讞住讬讚 讜讘讬谉 讗诪讛 砖诇 讗讜转讛 专讬讘讛 讗诪专讛 诇讛 诇讻讬 讜讗专讗讱 讘转讱 砖讛讬讗 拽讘讜专讛 讘诪讞爪诇转 砖诇 拽谞讬诐

The pious man鈥檚 wife said to him: Why is it that last year, the crops of the entire world were stricken and yours were not stricken, and now this year, the crops of the entire world were blighted and yours were not blighted? He related to her the entire story. They said: It was not even a few days later that a quarrel fell between the pious man鈥檚 wife and the mother of the young woman who was buried there. The pious man鈥檚 wife said to her scornfully: Go and I will show you your daughter, and you will see that she is buried in a mat of reeds.

诇砖谞讛 讛讗讞专转 讛诇讱 讜诇谉 讘讘讬转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜砖诪注 讗讜转谉 专讜讞讜转 砖诪住驻专讜转 讝讜 注诐 讝讜 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讬 讘讜讗讬 讜谞砖讜讟 讘注讜诇诐 讜谞砖诪注 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 诪讛 驻讜专注谞讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗诪专讛 诇讛 讞讘专转讬 讛谞讬讞讬谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬 诇讘讬谞讱 讻讘专 谞砖诪注讜 讘讬谉 讛讞讬讬诐 讗诇诪讗 讬讚注讬

The following year, he again went and slept in the cemetery, and heard the same spirits conversing with each other. One said to the other: My friend, let us roam the world and hear from behind the heavenly curtain what calamity will befall the world. She said to her: My friend, leave me alone, as words that we have privately exchanged between us have already been heard among the living. Apparently, the dead know what transpires in this world.

讚讬诇诪讗 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 砖讻讬讘 讜讗讝讬诇 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜

The Gemara responds: This is no proof; perhaps another person, who heard about the conversation of the spirits secondhand, died and he went and told them that they had been overheard.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讝注讬专讬 讛讜讛 诪驻拽讬讚 讝讜讝讬 讙讘讬 讗讜砖驻讝讬讻转讬讛 注讚 讚讗转讬 讜讗讝讬诇 诇讘讬 专讘 砖讻讬讘讛 讗讝诇 讘转专讛 诇讞爪专 诪讜转 讗诪专 诇讛 讝讜讝讬 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诪转讜转讬 讘爪谞讜专讗 讚讚砖讗 讘讚讜讱 驻诇谉 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讛 诇讗讬诪讗 转砖讚专 诇讬 诪住专拽讗讬 讜讙讜讘转讗讬 讚讻讜讞诇讗 讘讛讚讬 驻诇谞讬转讗 讚讗转讬讗 诇诪讞专 讗诇诪讗 讬讚注讬

With regard to the deceased鈥檚 knowledge of what transpires, come and hear a proof, as it is told: Ze鈥檌ri would deposit his dinars with his innkeeper. While he was going and coming to and from the school of Rav, she died, and he did not know where she had put the money. So he went after her to her grave in the cemetery and said to her: Where are the dinars? She replied: Go and get them from beneath the hinge of the door in such and such a place, and tell my mother that she should send me my comb and a tube of eyeshadow with such and such a woman who will die and come here tomorrow. Apparently, the dead know what transpires in this world.

讚诇诪讗 讚讜诪讛 拽讚讬诐 讜诪讻专讬讝 诇讛讜

The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps the angel Duma, who oversees the dead, comes beforehand and announces to them that a particular individual will arrive the next day, but they themselves do not know.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讜讜 拽讗 诪驻拽讚讬 讙讘讬讛 讝讜讝讬 讚讬转诪讬 讻讬 谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 砖诪讜讗诇 讙讘讬讛 讛讜讜 拽讗 拽专讜 诇讬讛 讘专 讗讻讬诇 讝讜讝讬 讚讬转诪讬 讗讝诇 讗讘转专讬讛 诇讞爪专 诪讜转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讘讗 讟讜讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讛讻讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讘讗 讘专 讗讘讗 谞诪讬 讟讜讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讛讻讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 住诇讬拽 诇诪转讬讘转讗 讚专拽讬注讗 讗讚讛讻讬 讞讝讬讬讛 诇诇讜讬 讚讬转讬讘 讗讘专讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 讬转讘转 讗讘专讗讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 住诇拽转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专讬 诇讬 讻诇 讻讬 讛谞讱 砖谞讬 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽转 诇诪转讬讘转讗 讚专讘讬 讗驻住 讜讗讞诇讬砖转讬讛 诇讚注转讬讛 诇讗 诪注讬讬诇讬谞谉 诇讱 诇诪转讬讘转讗 讚专拽讬注讗

The Gemara cites another proof: Come and hear, as it is told: They would deposit the money of orphans with Shmuel鈥檚 father for safekeeping. When Shmuel鈥檚 father died, Shmuel was not with him, and did not learn from him the location of the money. Since he did not return it, Shmuel was called: Son of him who consumes the money of orphans. Shmuel went after his father to the cemetery and said to the dead: I want Abba. The dead said to him: There are many Abbas here. He told them: I want Abba bar Abba. They said to him: There are also many people named Abba bar Abba here. He told them: I want Abba bar Abba, the father of Shmuel. Where is he? They replied: Ascend to the yeshiva on high. Meanwhile, he saw his friend Levi sitting outside the yeshiva, away from the rest of the deceased. He asked him: Why do you sit outside? Why did you not ascend to the yeshiva? He replied: Because they tell me that for all those years that you didn鈥檛 enter the yeshiva of Rabbi Afes, and thereby upset him, we will not grant you entry to the yeshiva on high.

讗讚讛讻讬 讜讛讻讬 讗转讗 讗讘讜讛 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 讘讻讬 讜讗讞讬讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 拽讗 讘讻讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诇注讙诇 拽讗 讗转讬转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讞讬讻转 讚讞砖讬讘转 讘讛讗讬 注诇诪讗 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讞砖讬讘谞讗 谞注讬讬诇讜讛 诇诇讜讬 讜注讬讬诇讜讛讜 诇诇讜讬

Meanwhile, Shmuel鈥檚 father came and Shmuel saw that he was crying and laughing. Shmuel said to his father: Why are you crying? His father replied: Because you will come here soon. Shmuel continued and asked: Why are you laughing? His father replied: Because you are extremely important in this world. Shmuel said to him: If I am important, then let them grant Levi entry to the yeshiva. And so it was that they granted Levi entry to the yeshiva.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讜讝讬 讚讬转诪讬 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 讘讗诪转讗 讚专讞讬讗 注讬诇讗讬 讜转转讗讬 讚讬讚谉 讜诪讬爪注讬 讚讬转诪讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 注讘讚转 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讙谞讜讘讬 讙谞讘讬 诪讙谞讘讜 诪讚讬讚谉 讗讬 讗讻诇讛 讗专注讗 讗讻诇讛 诪讚讬讚谉 讗诇诪讗 讚讬讚注讬 讚讬诇诪讗 砖讗谞讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讬讜谉 讚讞砖讬讘 拽讚诪讬 讜诪讻专讝讬 驻谞讜 诪拽讜诐

Shmuel said to his father: Where is the orphans鈥 money? He said to him: Go and retrieve it from the millhouse, where you will find the uppermost and the lowermost money is ours, and the money in the middle belongs to the orphans. Shmuel said to him: Why did you do that? He replied: If thieves stole, they would steal from our money on top, which the thief would see first. If the earth swallowed up any of it, it would swallow from our money, on the bottom. Apparently, the dead, in this case Shmuel鈥檚 father, know when others will die. Since Shmuel did not die the next day, clearly the angel Duma could not have informed them (Tosafot). The Gemara responds: Perhaps Shmuel is different, and because he is so important they announce beforehand: Clear place for his arrival.

讜讗祝 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诪谞讬谉 诇诪转讬诐 砖诪住驻专讬诐 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇讬讜 讝讗转 讛讗专抓 讗砖专 谞砖讘注转讬 诇讗讘专讛诐 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讬注拽讘 诇讗诪专 诪讗讬 诇讗诪专 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讗讘专讛诐 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讬注拽讘 砖讘讜注讛 砖谞砖讘注转讬 诇讻诐 讻讘专 拽讬讬诪转讬讛 诇讘谞讬讻诐

In any case, with regard to the crux of the issue, Rabbi Yonatan also reconsidered his opinion, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that the dead converse with each other? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd the Lord said to him, this is the land that I swore to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, saying: I will give it to your offspring鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:4). What is the meaning of 鈥渟aying鈥? It means that God told Moses: Go and tell Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that the oath that I swore to you I have already fulfilled for your descendants.

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