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Today's Daf Yomi

January 5, 2020 | 讞壮 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Berakhot 2

What is the time range in which one can say the prayer of Shema at night? Why did the mishna start in mid topic? Why with the night prayer and not the morning prayer of Shema? Why did they describe the time based on an action and not in a time frame connected to the sun (from when three stars come out)? The gemara brings several braitot that deal with the same question but bring different answers and the gemara tries to figure out what the different times are and how these different sources work together.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诪讗讬诪转讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬谉 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 注讚 住讜祝 讛讗砖诪讜专讛 讛专讗砖讜谞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The beginning of tractate Berakhot, the first tractate in the first of the six orders of Mishna, opens with a discussion of the recitation of Shema, as the recitation of Shema encompasses an acceptance of the yoke of Heaven and of the mitzvot, and as such, forms the basis for all subsequent teachings. The Mishna opens with the laws regarding the appropriate time to recite Shema:

MISHNA: From when, that is, from what time, does one recite Shema in the evening? From the time when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. Until when does the time for the recitation of the evening Shema extend? Until the end of the first watch. The term used in the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:7) to indicate the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is beshokhbekha, when you lie down, which refers to the time in which individuals go to sleep. Therefore, the time for the recitation of Shema is the first portion of the night, when individuals typically prepare for sleep. That is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转

The Rabbis say: The time for the recitation of the evening Shema is until midnight.

专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

Rabban Gamliel says: One may recite Shema until dawn, indicating that beshokhbekha is to be understood as a reference to the entire time people sleep in their beds, the whole night.

诪注砖讛 讜讘讗讜 讘谞讬讜 诪讘讬转 讛诪砖转讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇讗 拽专讬谞讜 讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 诇讗 注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讞讬讬讘讬谉 讗转诐 诇拽专讜转 讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讛 砖讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

The mishna relates that Rabban Gamliel practiced in accordance with his ruling. There was an incident where Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 sons returned very late from a wedding hall. They said to him, as they had been preoccupied with celebrating with the groom and bride: We did not recite Shema. He said to them: If the dawn has not yet arrived, you are obligated to recite Shema. Since Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 opinion disagreed with that of the Rabbis, he explained to his sons that the Rabbis actually agree with him, and that it is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but rather, wherever the Sages say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.

讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘专讬诐 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讻诇 讛谞讗讻诇讬诐 诇讬讜诐 讗讞讚 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讗诐 讻谉 诇诪讛 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛:

Rabban Gamliel cites several cases in support of his claim, such as the burning of fats and limbs on the altar. Due to the quantity of offerings each day, the priests were often unable to complete the burning of all of the fats and limbs, so they continued to be burned into the night, as it is written: 鈥淭his is the law of the burnt offering: The burnt offering shall remain upon the pyre on the altar all night until morning, while the fire on the altar burns it鈥 (Leviticus 6:2). And, with regard to all sacrifices, such as the sin-offerings and the guilt-offerings that are eaten for one day and night; although the Sages state that they may be eaten only until midnight, by Torah law they may be eaten until dawn. This is in accordance with the verse: 鈥淥n the day on which it is offered must you eat. Do not leave it until the morning鈥 (Leviticus 7:15). If so, why did the Sages say that they may be eaten only until midnight? This is in order to distance a person from transgression, as if one believes that he has until dawn to perform the mitzva, he might be negligent and postpone it until the opportunity to perform the mitzva has passed.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 讛讬讻讗 拽讗讬 讚拽转谞讬 诪讗讬诪转讬

GEMARA: The Mishna opens with the laws concerning the appropriate time to recite Shema with the question: From when does one recite Shema in the evening? With regard to this question, the Gemara asks: On the basis of what prior knowledge does the tanna of our mishna ask: From when? It would seem from his question that the obligation to recite Shema in the evening was already established, and that the tanna seeks only to clarify details that relate to it. But our mishna is the very first mishna in the Talmud.

讜转讜 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚转谞讬 讘注专讘讬转 讘专讬砖讗 诇转谞讬 讚砖讞专讬转 讘专讬砖讗

The Gemara asks: And furthermore, what distinguishes the evening Shema, that it was taught first? Let the tanna teach regarding the recitation of the morning Shema first. Since most mitzvot apply during the day, the tanna should discuss the morning Shema before discussing the evening Shema, just as the daily morning offering is discussed before the evening offering (Tosefot HaRosh).

转谞讗 讗拽专讗 拽讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘砖讻讘讱 讜讘拽讜诪讱 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讝诪谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讚砖讻讬讘讛 讗讬诪转 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉

The Gemara offers a single response to both questions: The tanna bases himself on the verse as it is written: 鈥淵ou will talk of them when you sit in your home, and when you walk along the way, when you lie down, and when you arise鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:7). By teaching the laws of the evening Shema first, the tanna has established that the teachings of the Oral Torah correspond to that which is taught in the Written Torah. And based on the Written Torah, the tanna teaches the oral law: When is the time for the recitation of Shema of lying down as commanded in the Torah? From when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. Just as the Written Torah begins with the evening Shema, so too must the Oral Torah.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讬诇讬祝 诪讘专讬讬转讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚

However, there is another possible explanation for why the mishna opens with the evening Shema rather than with the morning Shema. If you wish, you could say instead that the tanna derives the precedence of the evening Shema from the order of the creation of the world. As it is written in the story of creation: 鈥淎nd there was evening, and there was morning, one day鈥 (Genesis 1:5). According to this verse, day begins with the evening and not the morning. For both of these reasons it was appropriate to open the discussion of the laws of the recitation of Shema with the evening Shema.

讗讬 讛讻讬 住讬驻讗 讚拽转谞讬 讘砖讞专 诪讘专讱 砖转讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛 讜讗讞转 诇讗讞专讬讛 讘注专讘 诪讘专讱 砖转讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛 讜砖转讬诐 诇讗讞专讬讛 诇转谞讬 讚注专讘讬转 讘专讬砖讗

The Gemara asks: If so, why does the latter clause of the mishna, which appears later in the chapter, teach: In the morning one recites two blessings before Shema and one blessing afterward, and in the evening one recites two blessings before Shema and two afterward? Based upon the above reasoning, the mishna should have taught the blessing recited before and after the evening Shema first.

转谞讗 驻转讞 讘注专讘讬转 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讘砖讞专讬转 注讚 讚拽讗讬 讘砖讞专讬转 驻专讬砖 诪讬诇讬 讚砖讞专讬转 讜讛讚专 驻专讬砖 诪讬诇讬 讚注专讘讬转:

The Gemara answers: Indeed, the tanna began by discussing the laws regarding the recitation of the evening Shema, and then taught the laws regarding the recitation of the morning Shema. Once he was already dealing with the morning Shema, he explained the matters of the morning Shema, and then explained the matters of the evening Shema.

讗诪专 诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 诪讻讚讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬诪转 拽讗 讗讻诇讬 转专讜诪讛 诪砖注转 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇转谞讬 诪砖注转 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐

The Gemara proceeds to clarify the rest of the mishna. The Master said in the mishna that the beginning of the period when one recites Shema in the evening is when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. However, this does not specify a definitive time. When do the priests enter to partake of their teruma? From the time of the emergence of the stars. If that is the case, then let the tanna teach that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is from the time of the emergence of the stars.

诪诇转讗 讗讙讘 讗讜专讞讬讛 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬诪转 拽讗 讗讻诇讬 讘转专讜诪讛 诪砖注转 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讛讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讻驻专讛 诇讗 诪注讻讘讗 讻讚转谞讬讗 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 讜讟讛专 讘讬讗转 砖诪砖讜 诪注讻讘转讜 诪诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪讛 讜讗讬谉 讻驻专转讜 诪注讻讘转讜 诪诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪讛

The Gemara responds: Indeed it would have been simpler to say that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema begins with the emergence of the stars, but the particular expression used by the tanna teaches us another matter in passing: When do priests partake of their teruma? From the time of the emergence of the stars. And the tanna teaches us a new halakha parenthetically: failure to bring an atonement offering does not prevent a priest from eating teruma. In cases where an impure priest is required to immerse himself in a ritual bath and bring an atonement offering, even if he already immersed himself, he is not completely ritually pure until he brings the atonement offering. Nevertheless, he is still permitted to partake of teruma. Taught in passing in our mishna, this is articulated fully in a baraita, based on a close reading of the biblical passages. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of ritual impurity, it is said: 鈥淥ne who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. And the sun sets and it is purified. Afterwards, he may eat from the teruma, for it is his bread鈥 (Leviticus 22:6鈥7). From the passage: 鈥淎nd the sun sets and it is purified,鈥 that the absence of the setting of his sun prevents him from partaking of teruma, but failure to bring the atonement offering does not prevent him from partaking of teruma, may be inferred.

讜诪诪讗讬 讚讛讗讬 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 讘讬讗转 讛砖诪砖 讜讛讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗

The Gemara discusses the proof offered in the baraita: From where do we know that the phrase: 鈥淎nd the sun sets鈥 refers to the complete setting of the sun, and therefore, 鈥渁nd it is purified鈥 refers to the fact that the day is pure, i.e., and the sun sets and it is purified is one phrase meaning that the sun will set, the air will clear, and the stars will emerge (Rav Hai Gaon)?

讚讬诇诪讗 讘讬讗转 讗讜专讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讙讘专讗

Perhaps the expression: 鈥淎nd the sun sets and it is purified鈥 refers to the very beginning of sunset, the setting of the sun鈥檚 light. According to that explanation, what does the expression and it is purified mean? It means that the person will become purified. After immersing, he will wait until the beginning of sunset, and only then will he be able to eat of his teruma (Tosafot).

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜讬讟讛专 诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗 讻讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗讬注专讘 砖诪砖讗 讜讗讚讻讬 讬讜诪讗

Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: If so, that: And it is purified, means that the priest goes and purifies himself, then let the verse say unambiguously: And he will become purified. Since the Torah does not employ that language, the conclusion is: What is the meaning of the expression: And it is purified? It means the day is pure, no residue of day remains, as people say colloquially: The sun has set and the day is purified.

讘诪注专讘讗 讛讗 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 诇讗 砖诪讬注 诇讛讜 讜讘注讜 诇讛 诪讬讘注讬讗 讛讗讬 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 讘讬讗转 砖诪砖讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讘讬讗转 讗讜专讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讙讘专讗

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they did not hear this explanation given by Rabba bar Rav Sheila. They raised the dilemma: Does the expression: And the sun sets, refer to the actual setting of the sun, and does: And it is purified, mean the day clears away? Or perhaps it refers to the setting of its light at sunset, in which case what is the meaning of: And it is purified? It refers to the purification of the person. In other words, in Eretz Yisrael, they attempted to clarify the halakha based on the biblical passage, but were unable to do so.

讜讛讚专 驻砖讟讜 诇讛 诪讘专讬讬转讗 诪讚拽转谞讬 讘讘专讬讬转讗 住讬诪谉 诇讚讘专 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘讬讗转 砖诪砖讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗:

Ultimately they resolved this dilemma from a baraita. It was taught in a baraita that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema corresponds to the time when priests are permitted to eat of their teruma, a sign for which is the emergence of the stars. Therefore, derive from here that 鈥渁nd the sun sets鈥 refers to the complete sunset, and the expression 鈥渁nd it is purified鈥 means the day clears away, as the Sages in Babylonia concluded.

讗诪专 诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪讗讬诪转讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬谉 诪砖讛注谞讬 谞讻谞住 诇讗讻讜诇 驻转讜 讘诪诇讞 注讚 砖注讛 砖注讜诪讚 诇讬驻讟专 诪转讜讱 住注讜讚转讜

In our mishna, the Master said: The beginning of the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. The Gemara raises a contradiction to this opinion from a baraita that states that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is: From when a poor person enters to eat his bread with salt until he rises from his meal.

住讬驻讗 讜讚讗讬 驻诇讬讙讗 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉 专讬砖讗 诪讬 诇讬诪讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉

The Gemara begins its analysis by clarifying whether there is an actual contradiction here, or whether different expressions are being employed to describe the same time. The latter clause of the baraita, which established that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema ends when a poor person rises from his meal, certainly disagrees with our mishna. Since the poor person clearly does not continue eating until the end of the first watch, this baraita certainly contradicts our mishna. With regard to the first clause of the baraita, however, which establishes the beginning of the time for the recitation of the evening Shema, shall we say that it disagrees with our mishna?

诇讗 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara immediately rejects this idea: No, the time when the poor person eats and the time when the priest is purified and permitted to partake of his teruma are one and the same time.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪讗讬诪转讬 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬转 诪砖注讛 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 驻转谉 讘注专讘讬 砖讘转讜转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 讝讻讗讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 住讬诪谉 诇讚讘专 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诇讚讘专 讝讻专 诇讚讘专 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗谞讞谞讜 注砖讬诐 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讞爪讬诐 诪讞讝讬拽讬诐 讘专诪讞讬诐 诪注诇讜转 讛砖讞专 注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 讜讛讬讜 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 诪砖诪专 讜讛讬讜诐 诪诇讗讻讛

The Gemara raises a contradiction from the Tosefta: From when does one begin to recite Shema in the evening? From the time when people enter to eat their bread on Shabbat eve. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. As they do in our mishna, the Rabbis say: From the time when the priests are eligible to partake of their teruma, a sign for which is the emergence of the stars. And although there is no explicit proof that the emergence of the stars is when one may begin to recite the evening Shema, there is an allusion in the book of Nehemiah to the fact that the emergence of the stars is generally considered the beginning of the night. As it is stated with regard to the building of the walls of Jerusalem: 鈥淎nd we perform the work, and half of them grasp their spears from dawn until the emergence of the stars鈥 (Nehemiah 4:15). And it says: 鈥淭hat in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labor in the day鈥 (Nehemiah 4:16). From here we ascertain that the day ends with the emergence of the stars.

诪讗讬 讜讗讜诪专

Even before analyzing these sources, the Gemara seeks to clarify a confusing element in the Tosefta. In their biblical proof, the Rabbis do not suffice with one verse, but rather they say: And it says鈥nd they cite an additional verse. What is added by this use of: And it says? It seems superfluous, as the entire proof appears in the first verse.

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诪讻讬 注专讘讗 砖诪砖讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讚诪讞砖讻讬 讜诪拽讚诪讬 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛讬讜 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 诪砖诪专 讜讛讬讜诐 诪诇讗讻讛

The Gemara answers that the first verse was not sufficient. As, if you say that night begins when the sun sets, but the workers stayed late and arrived early; i.e., due to the importance of their task they worked even into the night. In anticipation of this objection, the second verse was cited to teach: Come and hear, as it is stated: 鈥淭hat in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labor in the day,鈥 the time between dawn and the emergence of the stars is explicitly referred to as 鈥渄ay,鈥 proving that night begins with the emergence of the stars.

拽讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚注谞讬 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

In analyzing the three opinions regarding the beginning of the period for the recitation of the evening Shema, the Gemara begins with the supposition: It might enter your mind to say that the time when the poor person typically eats his meal and the time when ordinary people eat their Shabbat evening meal are one and the same time, since in both cases those eating would seek to begin their meals as early as possible, as, for different reasons, they are unable to kindle additional lights to illuminate their meal. And, if you say that the time of the poor person鈥檚 meal and the time when the priest is purified and permitted to partake of his teruma are one and the same time, then the opinion of the Rabbis is identical to that of Rabbi Meir. What is their disagreement?

讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 注谞讬 砖注讜专讗 诇讞讜讚 讜讻讛谉 砖注讜专讗 诇讞讜讚 诇讗 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讜注谞讬 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诇讗讜 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗

Rather, what we said previously must be rejected, and instead learn from this that there is a separate time for the poor person and a separate time for the priest. However, this conclusion is based on the assumption that the time of the poor person and the time of people are the same. That too can be rejected with the assertion that, no, the time of the poor person and the priest are one and the same time, and the time of the poor person and people are not the same. Accordingly, the opinion expressed by the tanna in our baraita is identical to that of the other tanna鈥檌m, and only Rabbi Meir disagrees with them.

讜注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪讗讬诪转讬 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诇拽专讜转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬谉 诪砖注讛 砖拽讚砖 讛讬讜诐 讘注专讘讬 砖讘转讜转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 诪讟讜讛专讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 讟讜讘诇讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讛诇讗 讻讛谞讬诐 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 讛诐 讟讜讘诇讬诐 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖注谞讬 谞讻谞住 诇讗讻讜诇 驻转讜 讘诪诇讞 专讘讬 讗讞讗讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖专讜讘 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讛住讘

And is the time of the poor person and the priest the same? The Gemara raises a contradiction to this approach from another baraita, in which other opinions regarding the time for the recitation of the evening Shema are cited: From when does one begin to recite the evening Shema?
From the time when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat, this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, who established an earlier time for Shema.
Rabbi Yehoshua, like our mishna, says: From the time when the priests are eligible to partake of their teruma.
Rabbi Meir says: The time for the recitation of Shema begins before the priests were purified, from when the priests immerse themselves in order to partake of their teruma.
Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: How is it possible that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema corresponds to the time of the priests鈥 immersion? Do the priests not immerse themselves during the day, so that with nightfall and the onset of a new day they will be purified? If so, how can that time be called night?
Rabbi 岣nina says that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema begins when the poor person enters to eat his bread with salt.
But Rabbi A岣i, and some say Rabbi A岣, says: From the time when most people enter to recline at their meal during the week.

讜讗讬 讗诪专转 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

The preceding was the text of the baraita. Returning to our question, if you say that the time of the poor person and the priest are one and the same time, then the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina is identical to that of Rabbi Yehoshua. However, the fact that they are cited together indicates that they are not, in fact, the same.

讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖注讜专讗 讚注谞讬 诇讞讜讚 讜砖注讜专讗 讚讻讛谉 诇讞讜讚 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

Rather, must one not conclude from this the time for the poor person is separate and the time for the priest is separate? Since no objection is raised, the Gemara concedes: Indeed, conclude from this.

讛讬 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 诪讗讜讞专 诪住转讘专讗 讚注谞讬 诪讗讜讞专 讚讗讬 讗诪专转 讚注谞讬 诪讜拽讚诐 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讚注谞讬 诪讗讜讞专 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:

Having established that the time of the poor person and that of the priest are different, the Gemara seeks to determine: which one is later? The Gemara suggests that it is reasonable to conclude that the time of the poor person is later. As if you say that the poor person is earlier, it would be impossible to establish a time earlier than that established by Rabbi Yehoshua, unless we hold that night begins with sunset, in which case the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina is identical to that of Rabbi Eliezer. Rather, must one not conclude from this that the poor person is later? The Gemara notes: Indeed, conclude from this.

讗诪专 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讛诇讗 讻讛谞讬诐 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 讛诐 讟讜讘诇讬诐

We learned that the Master said in a baraita that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema according to Rabbi Meir begins with the time of the immersion of the priests. Regarding this, Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: Do the priests not immerse themselves during the day?

砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara notes: What Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir seems correct, and how can Rabbi Meir respond? Rabbi Meir鈥檚 response is connected to the fundamental dispute over when night begins. After sunset, a period begins which is neither day nor night. The tanna鈥檌m disagree over the precise duration of this period known as twilight [bein hashemashot]. Rabbi Yehuda holds that twilight extends a full hour after sunset. Rabbi Ne岣mya agrees in principle, though he disagrees over the specifics. Rabbi Yosei maintains that twilight is very brief, and occurs immediately before the emergence of the stars, which marks the beginning of the night. Regarding Rabbi Meir鈥檚 argument, Rabbi Yehuda asks that since the priests immerse themselves before twilight, they have a long wait until nightfall; clearly their immersion takes place while it is still day.

讜专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬 住讘专转 讚讗谞讗 讗讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讚讬讚讱 拽讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讗谞讗 讗讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 拽讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讻讛专祝 注讬谉 讝讛 谞讻谞住 讜讝讛 讬讜爪讗 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注诪讜讚 注诇讬讜

The Gemara answers that Rabbi Meir said to Rabbi Yehuda as follows: Do you maintain that I am speaking of your definition of twilight? I am speaking of Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 definition of twilight, as Rabbi Yosei said: Twilight is like the blink of an eye; night begins and day ends and the time between them is so brief, it is impossible to quantify. According to this opinion, the priests immerse themselves just before the emergence of the stars, when it is already considered night.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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At Tara in this Fateful Hour (Berakhot 2a-5b)

The first tractate of the Babylonian Talmud begins, rather surprisingly, with an extended discussion of the architectonics of the night....
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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 2

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Berakhot 2

诪讗讬诪转讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬谉 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 注讚 住讜祝 讛讗砖诪讜专讛 讛专讗砖讜谞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The beginning of tractate Berakhot, the first tractate in the first of the six orders of Mishna, opens with a discussion of the recitation of Shema, as the recitation of Shema encompasses an acceptance of the yoke of Heaven and of the mitzvot, and as such, forms the basis for all subsequent teachings. The Mishna opens with the laws regarding the appropriate time to recite Shema:

MISHNA: From when, that is, from what time, does one recite Shema in the evening? From the time when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. Until when does the time for the recitation of the evening Shema extend? Until the end of the first watch. The term used in the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:7) to indicate the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is beshokhbekha, when you lie down, which refers to the time in which individuals go to sleep. Therefore, the time for the recitation of Shema is the first portion of the night, when individuals typically prepare for sleep. That is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转

The Rabbis say: The time for the recitation of the evening Shema is until midnight.

专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

Rabban Gamliel says: One may recite Shema until dawn, indicating that beshokhbekha is to be understood as a reference to the entire time people sleep in their beds, the whole night.

诪注砖讛 讜讘讗讜 讘谞讬讜 诪讘讬转 讛诪砖转讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇讗 拽专讬谞讜 讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诐 诇讗 注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讞讬讬讘讬谉 讗转诐 诇拽专讜转 讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讛 砖讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

The mishna relates that Rabban Gamliel practiced in accordance with his ruling. There was an incident where Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 sons returned very late from a wedding hall. They said to him, as they had been preoccupied with celebrating with the groom and bride: We did not recite Shema. He said to them: If the dawn has not yet arrived, you are obligated to recite Shema. Since Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 opinion disagreed with that of the Rabbis, he explained to his sons that the Rabbis actually agree with him, and that it is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but rather, wherever the Sages say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.

讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘专讬诐 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讻诇 讛谞讗讻诇讬诐 诇讬讜诐 讗讞讚 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讗诐 讻谉 诇诪讛 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛:

Rabban Gamliel cites several cases in support of his claim, such as the burning of fats and limbs on the altar. Due to the quantity of offerings each day, the priests were often unable to complete the burning of all of the fats and limbs, so they continued to be burned into the night, as it is written: 鈥淭his is the law of the burnt offering: The burnt offering shall remain upon the pyre on the altar all night until morning, while the fire on the altar burns it鈥 (Leviticus 6:2). And, with regard to all sacrifices, such as the sin-offerings and the guilt-offerings that are eaten for one day and night; although the Sages state that they may be eaten only until midnight, by Torah law they may be eaten until dawn. This is in accordance with the verse: 鈥淥n the day on which it is offered must you eat. Do not leave it until the morning鈥 (Leviticus 7:15). If so, why did the Sages say that they may be eaten only until midnight? This is in order to distance a person from transgression, as if one believes that he has until dawn to perform the mitzva, he might be negligent and postpone it until the opportunity to perform the mitzva has passed.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 讛讬讻讗 拽讗讬 讚拽转谞讬 诪讗讬诪转讬

GEMARA: The Mishna opens with the laws concerning the appropriate time to recite Shema with the question: From when does one recite Shema in the evening? With regard to this question, the Gemara asks: On the basis of what prior knowledge does the tanna of our mishna ask: From when? It would seem from his question that the obligation to recite Shema in the evening was already established, and that the tanna seeks only to clarify details that relate to it. But our mishna is the very first mishna in the Talmud.

讜转讜 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚转谞讬 讘注专讘讬转 讘专讬砖讗 诇转谞讬 讚砖讞专讬转 讘专讬砖讗

The Gemara asks: And furthermore, what distinguishes the evening Shema, that it was taught first? Let the tanna teach regarding the recitation of the morning Shema first. Since most mitzvot apply during the day, the tanna should discuss the morning Shema before discussing the evening Shema, just as the daily morning offering is discussed before the evening offering (Tosefot HaRosh).

转谞讗 讗拽专讗 拽讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘砖讻讘讱 讜讘拽讜诪讱 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讝诪谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讚砖讻讬讘讛 讗讬诪转 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉

The Gemara offers a single response to both questions: The tanna bases himself on the verse as it is written: 鈥淵ou will talk of them when you sit in your home, and when you walk along the way, when you lie down, and when you arise鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:7). By teaching the laws of the evening Shema first, the tanna has established that the teachings of the Oral Torah correspond to that which is taught in the Written Torah. And based on the Written Torah, the tanna teaches the oral law: When is the time for the recitation of Shema of lying down as commanded in the Torah? From when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. Just as the Written Torah begins with the evening Shema, so too must the Oral Torah.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讬诇讬祝 诪讘专讬讬转讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚

However, there is another possible explanation for why the mishna opens with the evening Shema rather than with the morning Shema. If you wish, you could say instead that the tanna derives the precedence of the evening Shema from the order of the creation of the world. As it is written in the story of creation: 鈥淎nd there was evening, and there was morning, one day鈥 (Genesis 1:5). According to this verse, day begins with the evening and not the morning. For both of these reasons it was appropriate to open the discussion of the laws of the recitation of Shema with the evening Shema.

讗讬 讛讻讬 住讬驻讗 讚拽转谞讬 讘砖讞专 诪讘专讱 砖转讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛 讜讗讞转 诇讗讞专讬讛 讘注专讘 诪讘专讱 砖转讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛 讜砖转讬诐 诇讗讞专讬讛 诇转谞讬 讚注专讘讬转 讘专讬砖讗

The Gemara asks: If so, why does the latter clause of the mishna, which appears later in the chapter, teach: In the morning one recites two blessings before Shema and one blessing afterward, and in the evening one recites two blessings before Shema and two afterward? Based upon the above reasoning, the mishna should have taught the blessing recited before and after the evening Shema first.

转谞讗 驻转讞 讘注专讘讬转 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讘砖讞专讬转 注讚 讚拽讗讬 讘砖讞专讬转 驻专讬砖 诪讬诇讬 讚砖讞专讬转 讜讛讚专 驻专讬砖 诪讬诇讬 讚注专讘讬转:

The Gemara answers: Indeed, the tanna began by discussing the laws regarding the recitation of the evening Shema, and then taught the laws regarding the recitation of the morning Shema. Once he was already dealing with the morning Shema, he explained the matters of the morning Shema, and then explained the matters of the evening Shema.

讗诪专 诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 诪讻讚讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬诪转 拽讗 讗讻诇讬 转专讜诪讛 诪砖注转 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 诇转谞讬 诪砖注转 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐

The Gemara proceeds to clarify the rest of the mishna. The Master said in the mishna that the beginning of the period when one recites Shema in the evening is when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. However, this does not specify a definitive time. When do the priests enter to partake of their teruma? From the time of the emergence of the stars. If that is the case, then let the tanna teach that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is from the time of the emergence of the stars.

诪诇转讗 讗讙讘 讗讜专讞讬讛 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬诪转 拽讗 讗讻诇讬 讘转专讜诪讛 诪砖注转 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讛讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讻驻专讛 诇讗 诪注讻讘讗 讻讚转谞讬讗 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 讜讟讛专 讘讬讗转 砖诪砖讜 诪注讻讘转讜 诪诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪讛 讜讗讬谉 讻驻专转讜 诪注讻讘转讜 诪诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪讛

The Gemara responds: Indeed it would have been simpler to say that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema begins with the emergence of the stars, but the particular expression used by the tanna teaches us another matter in passing: When do priests partake of their teruma? From the time of the emergence of the stars. And the tanna teaches us a new halakha parenthetically: failure to bring an atonement offering does not prevent a priest from eating teruma. In cases where an impure priest is required to immerse himself in a ritual bath and bring an atonement offering, even if he already immersed himself, he is not completely ritually pure until he brings the atonement offering. Nevertheless, he is still permitted to partake of teruma. Taught in passing in our mishna, this is articulated fully in a baraita, based on a close reading of the biblical passages. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of ritual impurity, it is said: 鈥淥ne who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. And the sun sets and it is purified. Afterwards, he may eat from the teruma, for it is his bread鈥 (Leviticus 22:6鈥7). From the passage: 鈥淎nd the sun sets and it is purified,鈥 that the absence of the setting of his sun prevents him from partaking of teruma, but failure to bring the atonement offering does not prevent him from partaking of teruma, may be inferred.

讜诪诪讗讬 讚讛讗讬 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 讘讬讗转 讛砖诪砖 讜讛讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗

The Gemara discusses the proof offered in the baraita: From where do we know that the phrase: 鈥淎nd the sun sets鈥 refers to the complete setting of the sun, and therefore, 鈥渁nd it is purified鈥 refers to the fact that the day is pure, i.e., and the sun sets and it is purified is one phrase meaning that the sun will set, the air will clear, and the stars will emerge (Rav Hai Gaon)?

讚讬诇诪讗 讘讬讗转 讗讜专讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讙讘专讗

Perhaps the expression: 鈥淎nd the sun sets and it is purified鈥 refers to the very beginning of sunset, the setting of the sun鈥檚 light. According to that explanation, what does the expression and it is purified mean? It means that the person will become purified. After immersing, he will wait until the beginning of sunset, and only then will he be able to eat of his teruma (Tosafot).

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜讬讟讛专 诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗 讻讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗讬注专讘 砖诪砖讗 讜讗讚讻讬 讬讜诪讗

Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: If so, that: And it is purified, means that the priest goes and purifies himself, then let the verse say unambiguously: And he will become purified. Since the Torah does not employ that language, the conclusion is: What is the meaning of the expression: And it is purified? It means the day is pure, no residue of day remains, as people say colloquially: The sun has set and the day is purified.

讘诪注专讘讗 讛讗 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 诇讗 砖诪讬注 诇讛讜 讜讘注讜 诇讛 诪讬讘注讬讗 讛讗讬 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 讘讬讗转 砖诪砖讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讘讬讗转 讗讜专讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讙讘专讗

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they did not hear this explanation given by Rabba bar Rav Sheila. They raised the dilemma: Does the expression: And the sun sets, refer to the actual setting of the sun, and does: And it is purified, mean the day clears away? Or perhaps it refers to the setting of its light at sunset, in which case what is the meaning of: And it is purified? It refers to the purification of the person. In other words, in Eretz Yisrael, they attempted to clarify the halakha based on the biblical passage, but were unable to do so.

讜讛讚专 驻砖讟讜 诇讛 诪讘专讬讬转讗 诪讚拽转谞讬 讘讘专讬讬转讗 住讬诪谉 诇讚讘专 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘讬讗转 砖诪砖讜 讛讜讗 讜诪讗讬 讜讟讛专 讟讛专 讬讜诪讗:

Ultimately they resolved this dilemma from a baraita. It was taught in a baraita that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema corresponds to the time when priests are permitted to eat of their teruma, a sign for which is the emergence of the stars. Therefore, derive from here that 鈥渁nd the sun sets鈥 refers to the complete sunset, and the expression 鈥渁nd it is purified鈥 means the day clears away, as the Sages in Babylonia concluded.

讗诪专 诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪讗讬诪转讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬谉 诪砖讛注谞讬 谞讻谞住 诇讗讻讜诇 驻转讜 讘诪诇讞 注讚 砖注讛 砖注讜诪讚 诇讬驻讟专 诪转讜讱 住注讜讚转讜

In our mishna, the Master said: The beginning of the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their teruma. The Gemara raises a contradiction to this opinion from a baraita that states that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema is: From when a poor person enters to eat his bread with salt until he rises from his meal.

住讬驻讗 讜讚讗讬 驻诇讬讙讗 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉 专讬砖讗 诪讬 诇讬诪讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉

The Gemara begins its analysis by clarifying whether there is an actual contradiction here, or whether different expressions are being employed to describe the same time. The latter clause of the baraita, which established that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema ends when a poor person rises from his meal, certainly disagrees with our mishna. Since the poor person clearly does not continue eating until the end of the first watch, this baraita certainly contradicts our mishna. With regard to the first clause of the baraita, however, which establishes the beginning of the time for the recitation of the evening Shema, shall we say that it disagrees with our mishna?

诇讗 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara immediately rejects this idea: No, the time when the poor person eats and the time when the priest is purified and permitted to partake of his teruma are one and the same time.

讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪讗讬诪转讬 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬转 诪砖注讛 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 驻转谉 讘注专讘讬 砖讘转讜转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 讝讻讗讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 住讬诪谉 诇讚讘专 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诇讚讘专 讝讻专 诇讚讘专 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗谞讞谞讜 注砖讬诐 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讞爪讬诐 诪讞讝讬拽讬诐 讘专诪讞讬诐 诪注诇讜转 讛砖讞专 注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 讜讛讬讜 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 诪砖诪专 讜讛讬讜诐 诪诇讗讻讛

The Gemara raises a contradiction from the Tosefta: From when does one begin to recite Shema in the evening? From the time when people enter to eat their bread on Shabbat eve. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. As they do in our mishna, the Rabbis say: From the time when the priests are eligible to partake of their teruma, a sign for which is the emergence of the stars. And although there is no explicit proof that the emergence of the stars is when one may begin to recite the evening Shema, there is an allusion in the book of Nehemiah to the fact that the emergence of the stars is generally considered the beginning of the night. As it is stated with regard to the building of the walls of Jerusalem: 鈥淎nd we perform the work, and half of them grasp their spears from dawn until the emergence of the stars鈥 (Nehemiah 4:15). And it says: 鈥淭hat in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labor in the day鈥 (Nehemiah 4:16). From here we ascertain that the day ends with the emergence of the stars.

诪讗讬 讜讗讜诪专

Even before analyzing these sources, the Gemara seeks to clarify a confusing element in the Tosefta. In their biblical proof, the Rabbis do not suffice with one verse, but rather they say: And it says鈥nd they cite an additional verse. What is added by this use of: And it says? It seems superfluous, as the entire proof appears in the first verse.

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诪讻讬 注专讘讗 砖诪砖讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讗 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讚诪讞砖讻讬 讜诪拽讚诪讬 转讗 砖诪注 讜讛讬讜 诇谞讜 讛诇讬诇讛 诪砖诪专 讜讛讬讜诐 诪诇讗讻讛

The Gemara answers that the first verse was not sufficient. As, if you say that night begins when the sun sets, but the workers stayed late and arrived early; i.e., due to the importance of their task they worked even into the night. In anticipation of this objection, the second verse was cited to teach: Come and hear, as it is stated: 鈥淭hat in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labor in the day,鈥 the time between dawn and the emergence of the stars is explicitly referred to as 鈥渄ay,鈥 proving that night begins with the emergence of the stars.

拽讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚注谞讬 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

In analyzing the three opinions regarding the beginning of the period for the recitation of the evening Shema, the Gemara begins with the supposition: It might enter your mind to say that the time when the poor person typically eats his meal and the time when ordinary people eat their Shabbat evening meal are one and the same time, since in both cases those eating would seek to begin their meals as early as possible, as, for different reasons, they are unable to kindle additional lights to illuminate their meal. And, if you say that the time of the poor person鈥檚 meal and the time when the priest is purified and permitted to partake of his teruma are one and the same time, then the opinion of the Rabbis is identical to that of Rabbi Meir. What is their disagreement?

讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 注谞讬 砖注讜专讗 诇讞讜讚 讜讻讛谉 砖注讜专讗 诇讞讜讚 诇讗 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讜注谞讬 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诇讗讜 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗

Rather, what we said previously must be rejected, and instead learn from this that there is a separate time for the poor person and a separate time for the priest. However, this conclusion is based on the assumption that the time of the poor person and the time of people are the same. That too can be rejected with the assertion that, no, the time of the poor person and the priest are one and the same time, and the time of the poor person and people are not the same. Accordingly, the opinion expressed by the tanna in our baraita is identical to that of the other tanna鈥檌m, and only Rabbi Meir disagrees with them.

讜注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 诪讗讬诪转讬 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诇拽专讜转 砖诪注 讘注专讘讬谉 诪砖注讛 砖拽讚砖 讛讬讜诐 讘注专讘讬 砖讘转讜转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 诪讟讜讛专讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讛讻讛谞讬诐 讟讜讘诇讬谉 诇讗讻讜诇 讘转专讜诪转谉 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讛诇讗 讻讛谞讬诐 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 讛诐 讟讜讘诇讬诐 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖注谞讬 谞讻谞住 诇讗讻讜诇 驻转讜 讘诪诇讞 专讘讬 讗讞讗讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讗讜诪专 诪砖注讛 砖专讜讘 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讛住讘

And is the time of the poor person and the priest the same? The Gemara raises a contradiction to this approach from another baraita, in which other opinions regarding the time for the recitation of the evening Shema are cited: From when does one begin to recite the evening Shema?
From the time when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat, this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, who established an earlier time for Shema.
Rabbi Yehoshua, like our mishna, says: From the time when the priests are eligible to partake of their teruma.
Rabbi Meir says: The time for the recitation of Shema begins before the priests were purified, from when the priests immerse themselves in order to partake of their teruma.
Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: How is it possible that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema corresponds to the time of the priests鈥 immersion? Do the priests not immerse themselves during the day, so that with nightfall and the onset of a new day they will be purified? If so, how can that time be called night?
Rabbi 岣nina says that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema begins when the poor person enters to eat his bread with salt.
But Rabbi A岣i, and some say Rabbi A岣, says: From the time when most people enter to recline at their meal during the week.

讜讗讬 讗诪专转 注谞讬 讜讻讛谉 讞讚 砖注讜专讗 讛讜讗 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

The preceding was the text of the baraita. Returning to our question, if you say that the time of the poor person and the priest are one and the same time, then the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina is identical to that of Rabbi Yehoshua. However, the fact that they are cited together indicates that they are not, in fact, the same.

讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖注讜专讗 讚注谞讬 诇讞讜讚 讜砖注讜专讗 讚讻讛谉 诇讞讜讚 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

Rather, must one not conclude from this the time for the poor person is separate and the time for the priest is separate? Since no objection is raised, the Gemara concedes: Indeed, conclude from this.

讛讬 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 诪讗讜讞专 诪住转讘专讗 讚注谞讬 诪讗讜讞专 讚讗讬 讗诪专转 讚注谞讬 诪讜拽讚诐 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讚注谞讬 诪讗讜讞专 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:

Having established that the time of the poor person and that of the priest are different, the Gemara seeks to determine: which one is later? The Gemara suggests that it is reasonable to conclude that the time of the poor person is later. As if you say that the poor person is earlier, it would be impossible to establish a time earlier than that established by Rabbi Yehoshua, unless we hold that night begins with sunset, in which case the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina is identical to that of Rabbi Eliezer. Rather, must one not conclude from this that the poor person is later? The Gemara notes: Indeed, conclude from this.

讗诪专 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讛诇讗 讻讛谞讬诐 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 讛诐 讟讜讘诇讬诐

We learned that the Master said in a baraita that the time for the recitation of the evening Shema according to Rabbi Meir begins with the time of the immersion of the priests. Regarding this, Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: Do the priests not immerse themselves during the day?

砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara notes: What Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir seems correct, and how can Rabbi Meir respond? Rabbi Meir鈥檚 response is connected to the fundamental dispute over when night begins. After sunset, a period begins which is neither day nor night. The tanna鈥檌m disagree over the precise duration of this period known as twilight [bein hashemashot]. Rabbi Yehuda holds that twilight extends a full hour after sunset. Rabbi Ne岣mya agrees in principle, though he disagrees over the specifics. Rabbi Yosei maintains that twilight is very brief, and occurs immediately before the emergence of the stars, which marks the beginning of the night. Regarding Rabbi Meir鈥檚 argument, Rabbi Yehuda asks that since the priests immerse themselves before twilight, they have a long wait until nightfall; clearly their immersion takes place while it is still day.

讜专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬 住讘专转 讚讗谞讗 讗讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讚讬讚讱 拽讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讗谞讗 讗讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 拽讗 讗诪讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讻讛专祝 注讬谉 讝讛 谞讻谞住 讜讝讛 讬讜爪讗 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注诪讜讚 注诇讬讜

The Gemara answers that Rabbi Meir said to Rabbi Yehuda as follows: Do you maintain that I am speaking of your definition of twilight? I am speaking of Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 definition of twilight, as Rabbi Yosei said: Twilight is like the blink of an eye; night begins and day ends and the time between them is so brief, it is impossible to quantify. According to this opinion, the priests immerse themselves just before the emergence of the stars, when it is already considered night.

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