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Today's Daf Yomi

January 27, 2020 | 讗壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Berakhot 24

Can you sleep with tefillin under your pillow? Can a man do that if he is in bed with his wife? If two people are sleeping naked in a bed, can they each turn the other way and say shema? Is there a difference if it is one’s wife or someone else? What if it is one’s young children? A hairsbreadth of a woman in a place that is usually covered is considered nakedness – to what is this referring and in what situation? What else is considered nakedness? Is it problematic of one yawns, sneezes or spits during prayer? There are contradictory sources regarding this – how are they resolved? Can one recite shema in a dirty place where there is feces or urine?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讻诇 诇谞讟讜专讬谞讛讜 讟驻讬 注讚讬祝 讜讛讬讻讗 诪谞讞 诇讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘讬谉 讻专 诇讻住转 砖诇讗 讻谞讙讚 专讗砖讜

Because whatever offers more protection is preferable even at the cost of deprecation. And where under his head does he place them? Rabbi Yirmeya said: He places them between the pillow and the mattress, not directly aligned with his head but rather a bit to the side.

讜讛讗 转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诪谞讬讞谉 讘讻讜讘注 转讞转 诪专讗砖讜转讬讜 讚诪驻讬拽 诇讬讛 诇诪讜专砖讗 讻讜讘注 诇讘专

The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣yya teach a baraita that in that case he places them in a pouch used for phylacteries, directly under his head? The Gemara replies: He does so in a manner that the bulge in the pouch, where the phylacteries are, protrudes out and is not beneath his head.

讘专 拽驻专讗 爪讬讬专 诇讛讜 讘讻讬诇转讗 讜诪驻讬拽 诇诪讜专砖讛讜谉 诇讘专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪谞讞 诇讛讜 讗砖专砖讬驻讗 讜驻专讬住 住讜讚专讗 注讬诇讜讬讬讛讜

On this note, the Gemara relates that Bar Kappara would tie them in his bed curtain and project their bulge outward. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, would place them on a bench and spread a cloth over them.

讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗砖讻讞转讬谞讛讜 讘讬谉 讻专 诇讻住转 砖诇讗 讻谞讙讚 专讗砖讜 讜讛讜讛 讬讚注谞讗 讚讬讜诐 讟讘讬诇讛 讛讜讛 讜诇讗讙诪讜专谉 讛诇讻讛 诇诪注砖讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚

Rav Hamnuna, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava and he told me: Go and bring me my phylacteries. And I found them in his bed, between the mattress and the pillow, not aligned with his head. And I knew that it was the day of his wife鈥檚 immersion in the ritual bath for purification from the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, and he certainly engaged in marital relations in order to fulfill the mitzva, and he did so, he sent me to bring him his phylacteries, to teach us the practical halakha in that case.

讘注讬 诪讬谞讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞讜谞讬讗 诪专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖谞讬诐 砖讬砖谞讬诐 讘诪讟讛 讗讞转 诪讛讜 砖讝讛 讬讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讝讛 讬讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讗砖转讜 注诪讜

Rav Yosef, son of Rav Ne岣nya, who raised a dilemma above, raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: Two individuals sleeping in a single bed, given that it was standard practice to sleep without clothing, what is the halakha; is it permissible for this one to turn his head aside and recite Shema and for that one turns his head and recites Shema; or is it prohibited because they are unclothed and are considered unfit to recite Shema even though they are covered with a blanket? He said to him: Shmuel said as follows: This is permitted even if his wife is in bed with him.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗砖转讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 讗讞专 讗讚专讘讛 讗砖转讜 讻讙讜驻讜 讗讞专 诇讗讜 讻讙讜驻讜

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this response: You say that he is permitted to recite Shema in bed with his wife, and needless to say he is permitted to do so when in bed with another. On the contrary, since his wife is like his own flesh, and he will not have lustful thoughts of her, it is permitted; another is not like his own flesh and it is prohibited.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖谞讬诐 砖讬砖谞讬诐 讘诪讟讛 讗讞转 讝讛 诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 讜讝讛 诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 讜转谞讬讗 讗讞专讬转讬 讛讬砖谉 讘诪讟讛 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讘爪讚讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讗诐 讛讬讜 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 拽讟谞讬诐 诪讜转专

The Gemara raises an objection to this from the resolution of an apparent contradiction between two baraitot. It was taught in one baraita: Two unclothed individuals who are sleeping in a single bed, this one turns his head aside and recites Shema and that one turns his head aside and recites Shema. And it was taught in another baraita: One who is sleeping in bed and his unclothed children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them. If his children and the members of his household were minors, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讗砖转讜 讜讛讗 讘讗讞专 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜讗诇 拽砖讬讗

Granted, according to Rav Yosef, the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as this baraita is referring to a case where his wife is in the bed with him, while this other baraita is referring to a case where another person is in bed with him and there is concern lest he will have lustful thoughts. However, according to Shmuel, who permits one to recite Shema regardless of who is in bed with him, it is indeed difficult. How would he interpret the baraita that prohibits?

讗诪专 诇讱 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讬 谞讬讞讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 讘诪讟讛 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讘诪讟讛 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转讜 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬转 诇讱 诇诪讬诪专 讗砖转讜 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 诇讚讬讚讬 谞诪讬 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗:

The Gemara replies: Shmuel could have said to you: And according to Rav Yosef鈥檚 opinion, does it work out well? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in that same baraita that one who is sleeping in bed and his children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them? Doesn鈥檛 Rav Yosef hold that his wife is like his own flesh and no separation is necessary? Rather, what have you to say in response? Rav Yosef holds that there is a tannaitic dispute in the case of one鈥檚 wife; I, too, hold that it is a tannaitic dispute, and I accept the ruling of one of the baraitot.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讛 诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 注讙讘讜转 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注讙讘讜转 讗讬谉 讘讛诐 诪砖讜诐 注专讜讛 诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讗砖讛 讬讜砖讘转 讜拽讜爪讛 诇讛 讞诇转讛 注专讜诪讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讻讜诇讛 诇讻住讜转 驻谞讬讛 讘拽专拽注 讗讘诇 诇讗 讛讗讬砖

The Gemara reverts to clarify something mentioned above. The Master said in a baraita: This one turns his head aside and recites Shema. The Gemara notes a difficulty: Aren鈥檛 there bare buttocks? This supports the opinion of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: Buttocks do not constitute nakedness. Let us say that the following mishna supports Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion: A woman sits and separates her 岣lla naked, despite the fact that she must recite a blessing over the separation of the 岣lla, because she can cover her face, a euphemism for her genitals, in the ground, but a male, whose genitals are not covered when he sits, may not do so. The mishna teaches that exposed buttocks do not constitute nakedness.

转专讙诪讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬讜 驻谞讬讛 讟讜讞讜转 讘拽专拽注:

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k interpreted the mishna as referring to a case where her face, genitals, was completely covered in the ground such that her posterior was covered by the ground. Therefore, proof for Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion cannot be brought from this mishna.

讗诪专 诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 拽讟谞讬诐 诪讜转专 讜注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 转讬谞讜拽转 讘转 砖诇砖 砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜转讬谞讜拽 讘谉 转砖注 砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 转讬谞讜拽转 讘转 讗讞转 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜转讬谞讜拽 讘谉 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 注讚 讻讚讬 砖讚讬诐 谞讻谞讜 讜砖注专讱 爪诪讞

The Master said in a baraita: If his children and the members of his household were minors, even though they are unclothed, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them. The Gemara asks: Until what age is one still considered a minor? Rav 岣sda said: A girl until she is three years and one day old, and a boy until he is nine years and one day old, for these are the ages from which a sexual act in which they participate is considered a sexual act. Some say: A girl eleven years and one day old and a boy of twelve years and one day old, as that is the age at which they are considered adults in this regard. This age is only approximate, as the age of majority for both this, the boy, and that, the girl, is at the onset of puberty in accordance with the verse: 鈥淵our breasts were formed and your hair was grown鈥 (Ezekiel 16:7).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讛转诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚转讬讜讘转讗 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻讗 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讟讜 讻讜诇讛讜 讘讞讚讗 诪讞转讗 诪讞转讬谞讛讜 讗诇讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬转诪专 讗讬转诪专 讜讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗讬转诪专 诇讗 讗讬转诪专

Rav Kahana said to Rav Ashi: There, with regard to the law of phylacteries, Rava said: Despite a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. Here, what is the ruling? He said to him: Were all of them woven in the same act of weaving? Are there no distinctions between different cases? Rather, where it is stated, it is stated, and where it is not stated, it is not stated, and there is no comparison.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诪专讬 诇专讘 驻驻讗 砖注专 讬讜爪讗 讘讘讙讚讜 诪讛讜 拽专讗 注诇讬讛 砖注专 砖注专:

Rav Mari said to Rav Pappa: Does it constitute nakedness if one鈥檚 pubic hair protruded from his garment? Rav Pappa said about him: A hair, a hair. You are splitting hairs and being pedantic over trivialities.

讗诪专 专壮 讬爪讞拽 讟驻讞 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 诇诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诇讗住转讻讜诇讬 讘讛 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诇诪讛 诪谞讛 讛讻转讜讘 转讻砖讬讟讬谉 砖讘讞讜抓 注诐 转讻砖讬讟讬谉 砖讘驻谞讬诐 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讛诪住转讻诇 讘讗爪讘注 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 讻讗讬诇讜 诪住转讻诇 讘诪拽讜诐 讛转讜专祝

Rabbi Yitz岣k stated: An exposed handbreadth in a woman constitutes nakedness. The Gemara asks: Regarding which halakha was this said? If you say that it comes to prohibit looking at an exposed handbreadth in her, didn鈥檛 Rav Sheshet say: Why did the verse enumerate 鈥渁nklets and bracelets, rings, earrings and girdles鈥 (Numbers 31:50), jewelry that is worn externally, over her clothing, e.g., bracelets, together with jewelry worn internally, beneath her clothing, near her nakedness, e.g., girdles? This was to tell you: Anyone who gazes upon a woman鈥檚 little finger is considered as if he gazed upon her naked genitals, for if his intentions are impure, it makes no difference where he looks or how much is exposed; even less than a handbreadth.

讗诇讗 讘讗砖转讜 讜诇拽专讬讗转 砖诪注

Rather, it is referring even to his wife, with regard to the recitation of Shema. One may not recite Shema before an exposed handbreadth of his wife.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 砖讜拽 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讙诇讬 砖讜拽 注讘专讬 谞讛专讜转 讜讻转讬讘 转讙诇 注专讜转讱 讜讙诐 转专讗讛 讞专驻转讱 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 拽讜诇 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 拽讜诇讱 注专讘 讜诪专讗讱 谞讗讜讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 砖注专 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖注专讱 讻注讚专 讛注讝讬诐:

Along these lines, Rav 岣sda said: Even a woman鈥檚 exposed leg is considered nakedness, as it is stated: 鈥淯ncover the leg and pass through the rivers鈥 (Isaiah 47:2), and it is written in the following verse: 鈥淵our nakedness shall be revealed and your shame shall be seen鈥 (Isaiah 47:3). Shmuel further stated: A woman鈥檚 singing voice is considered nakedness, which he derives from the praise accorded a woman鈥檚 voice, as it is stated: 鈥淪weet is your voice and your countenance is alluring鈥 (Song of Songs 2:14). Similarly, Rav Sheshet stated: Even a woman鈥檚 hair is considered nakedness, for it too is praised, as it is written: 鈥淵our hair is like a flock of goats, trailing down from Mount Gilead鈥 (Song of Songs 4:1).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗谞讬 专讗讬转讬 讗转 专讘讬 砖转诇讛 转驻讬诇讬讜 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛转讜诇讛 转驻讬诇讬讜 讬转诇讜 诇讜 讞讬讬讜

The Gemara resumes its discussion of phylacteries. Rabbi 岣nina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hang his phylacteries. The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita that one who hangs his phylacteries will have his life hang in the balance.

讚讜专砖讬 讞诪讜专讜转 讗诪专讜 讜讛讬讜 讞讬讬讱 转诇讗讬诐 诇讱 诪谞讙讚 讝讛 讛转讜诇讛 转驻讬诇讬讜

Moreover, the Symbolic Interpreters of the Torah said that the verse: 鈥淎nd your life shall hang in doubt before you [minneged]鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:66), that is the punishment of one who hangs his phylacteries.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘专爪讜注讛 讛讗 讘拽爪讬爪讛

The Gemara replies: This apparent contradiction is not difficult, as this baraita, which condemns one who hangs his phylacteries, refers to one who hangs them by the strap, allowing the leather boxes into which the parchment is placed to dangle in a deprecating way, which is certainly prohibited. That baraita, which relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would hang his phylacteries and that it is clearly permitted, refers to when one hangs them from the box with the straps dangling.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗 砖谞讗 专爪讜注讛 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 拽爪讬爪讛 讗住讜专 讜讻讬 转诇讛 专讘讬 讘讻讬住转讗 转诇讛

And if you wish, say another explanation instead: There is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the strap and there is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the box; both are prohibited. And when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hung his phylacteries, he hung them in their pouch.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诪讗讬 诇诪讬诪专讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 转讬讘注讬 讛谞讞讛 讻住驻专 转讜专讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉:

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose to relate that incident? The Gemara replies: Lest you say that phylacteries would require placement atop a surface, as is the custom with a Torah scroll. Therefore, it teaches us that this is unnecessary.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗谞讬 专讗讬转讬 讗转 专讘讬 砖讙讬讛拽 讜驻讬讛拽 讜谞转注讟砖 讜专拽

Since Rabbi 岣nina related a story involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara cites another such story. Rabbi 岣nina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, while he was praying, belch, yawn, sneeze, spit,

讜诪诪砖诪砖 讘讘讙讚讜 讗讘诇 诇讗 讛讬讛 诪转注讟祝 讜讻砖讛讜讗 诪驻讛拽 讛讬讛 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 住谞讟专讜

and if he was stung by a louse, he may feel for it and remove it with his garment, but he would not wrap himself in his prayer shawl if it fell during prayer. And when he would yawn he would place his hand on his chin so that his open mouth would not be visible.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诪砖诪讬注 拽讜诇讜 讘转驻诇转讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诪拽讟谞讬 讗诪谞讛 讛诪讙讘讬讛 拽讜诇讜 讘转驻诇转讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诪谞讘讬讗讬 讛砖拽专

The Gemara raises an objection based on a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith, as he seems to believe that the Lord cannot hear his prayer when it is uttered silently. One who raises his voice during prayer is considered to be among the false prophets, as they too were wont to cry out and shout to their gods.

诪讙讛拽 讜诪驻讛拽 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讙住讬 讛专讜讞 讛诪转注讟砖 讘转驻诇转讜 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讜 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讬讻专 砖讛讜讗 诪讻讜注专 讛专拽 讘转驻诇转讜 讻讗讬诇讜 专拽 讘驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱

Furthermore, one who belches and yawns while praying is surely among the uncouth. One who sneezes during his prayer, for him it is a bad omen. And some say: It is clear that he is repulsive. Also, one who spits during prayer, it is tantamount to spitting in the face of the king. In light of all this, how could Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi have done all that while praying?

讘砖诇诪讗 诪讙讛拽 讜诪驻讛拽 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇讗讜谞住讜 讻讗谉 诇专爪讜谞讜 讗诇讗 诪转注讟砖 讗诪转注讟砖 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara explains: Granted, with regard to one who belches and yawns, it is not difficult: Here, in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so, it was involuntary and therefore permissible; here, where it is considered uncouth, is in a case where it is deliberate. However, the contradiction between sneezing in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and sneezing where it is considered a bad omen is difficult.

诪转注讟砖 讗诪转注讟砖 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诪诇诪注诇讛 讻讗谉 诪诇诪讟讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讝讬专讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讗讘诇注讗 诇讬 讘讬 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讜转拽讬诇讗 诇讬 讻讬 讻讜诇讬 转诇诪讜讚讗讬 讛诪转注讟砖 讘转驻诇转讜 住讬诪谉 讬驻讛 诇讜 讻砖诐 砖注讜砖讬诐 诇讜 谞讞转 专讜讞 诪诇诪讟讛 讻讱 注讜砖讬诐 诇讜 谞讞转 专讜讞 诪诇诪注诇讛

The Gemara responds: The contradiction between sneezing in one case and sneezing in the other case is also not difficult: Here, in the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, it is referring to sneezing from above, his nose; here, where it is a bad omen, is referring to sneezing from below, flatulence. As Rav Zeira said: In the school of Rav Hamnuna I absorbed this matter in passing, and it is equal in significance to all the rest of my learning: One who sneezes in the midst of prayer, it is a good omen for him. Just as the sneeze soothes his irritation, giving him pleasure below, it is a sign that they are similarly giving him pleasure above. Since Rav Zeira sneezed often, he was extremely pleased to hear this.

讗诇讗 专拽 讗专拽 拽砖讬讗 专拽 讗专拽 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讗驻砖专 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘转驻讬诇讛 讜谞讝讚诪谉 诇讜 专讜拽 诪讘诇讬注讜 讘讟诇讬转讜 讜讗诐 讟诇讬转 谞讗讛 讛讜讗 诪讘诇讬注讜 讘讗驻专拽住讜转讜 专讘讬谞讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讗讞讜专讬 专讘 讗砖讬 谞讝讚诪谉 诇讜 专讜拽 驻转拽讬讛 诇讗讞讜专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讘诇讬注讜 讘讗驻专拽住讜转讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讗谞讬谞讗 讚注转讗讬:

However, The contradiction between spitting in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and spitting where it is deemed tantamount to spitting in the face of the king is difficult. The Gemara replies: The contradiction between spitting in one case and spitting in the other case is also not difficult, as it is possible to resolve it in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: One who was standing in prayer, and saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, he absorbs it in his garment. And if it was a fine garment and he does not want it to become sullied, he may cover it up in his head covering. That way, one is permitted to spit. The Gemara relates: Ravina was standing behind Rav Ashi during prayer when saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, so he discharged it behind him. Rav Ashi said to him: And does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Yehuda, who said that one absorbs it in his head covering? He said to him: I am delicate, and the mere knowledge that there is spittle in my head covering disturbs my prayer.

讛诪砖诪讬注 拽讜诇讜 讘转驻诇转讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诪拽讟谞讬 讗诪谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讻讜讜谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讘诇讞砖 讗讘诇 讗讬谉 讬讻讜诇 诇讻讜讜谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讘诇讞砖 诪讜转专 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讬讞讬讚 讗讘诇 讘爪讬讘讜专 讗转讬 诇诪讬讟专讚 爪讬讘讜专讗:

It was taught in a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith. Rav Huna said: This was only taught in a case where one is able to focus his heart while praying silently, but if he is unable to focus his heart while praying silently, he is permitted to sound his voice. This applies only to one praying alone, but when he is praying in a congregation his voice will come to disturb the congregation and it is prohibited.

专讘讬 讗讘讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪砖转诪讬讟 诪讬谞讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬住拽 诇讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讻诇 讛注讜诇讛 诪讘讘诇 诇讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘诇讛 讬讜讘讗讜 讜砖诪讛 讬讛讬讜 注讚 讬讜诐 驻拽讚讬 讗讜转诐 谞讗诐 讛壮 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讜讗砖诪注 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 诪讘讬转 讜讜注讚讗 讜讛讚专 讗驻讬拽

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Abba was avoiding being seen by his teacher Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Abba sought to ascend to Eretz Yisrael and his teacher disapproved, as Rav Yehuda said: Anyone who ascends from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a positive commandment, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey shall be taken to Babylonia and there they shall remain until the day that I recall them, said the Lord鈥 (Jeremiah 27:22). Rabbi Abba did not want to discuss his desire to emigrate with Rav Yehuda. Nevertheless he said: I will go and hear something from him at the hall where the Sages assemble, without being seen, and afterwards I will leave Babylonia.

讗讝诇 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇转谞讗 讚拽转谞讬 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘转驻诇讛 讜谞转注讟砖 诪诪转讬谉 注讚 砖讬讻诇讛 讛专讜讞 讜讞讜讝专 讜诪转驻诇诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘转驻诇讛 讜讘讬拽砖 诇讛转注讟砖 诪专讞讬拽 诇讗讞专讬讜 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讜诪转注讟砖 讜诪诪转讬谉 注讚 砖讬讻诇讛 讛专讜讞 讜讞讜讝专 讜诪转驻诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讬爪专转谞讜 谞拽讘讬诐 谞拽讘讬诐 讞诇讜诇讬诐 讞诇讜诇讬诐 讙诇讜讬 讜讬讚讜注 诇驻谞讬讱 讞专驻转谞讜 讜讻诇讬诪转谞讜 讘讞讬讬谞讜 讜讘讗讞专讬转谞讜 专诪讛 讜转讜诇注讛 讜诪转讞讬诇 诪诪拽讜诐 砖驻住拽

He went and found the tanna, who recites the tannaitic sources before the study hall, reciting the following baraita before Rav Yehuda: One who was standing in prayer and sneezed from below waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. Some say: One who was standing in prayer when he felt the need to sneeze from below, retreats four cubits, sneezes, waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. And before resuming his prayer, he says: Master of the universe, You have formed us with many orifices and cavities; our disgrace and shame in life are clear and evident before You, as is our destiny with maggots and worms, and so we should not be judged harshly. And he resumes his prayer from where he stopped.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诇讜 诇讗 讘讗转讬 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜注 讚讘专 讝讛 讚讬讬:

Rabbi Abba said to him: Had I only come to the assembly of the Sages to hear this teaching, it would have been sufficient for me.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 讘讟诇讬转讜 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 专讗砖讜 诪驻谞讬 讛爪谞讛 讞讜爪抓 讘讟诇讬转讜 注诇 爪讜讗专讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 诇讘讜

The Sages taught: One who was sleeping unclothed, but was covered with his garment, and he is unable to stick his head out from under the garment because of the cold, may form a barrier with his garment at his neck and recite Shema in bed. And some say: He must form a barrier with his garment at his heart.

讜转谞讗 拽诪讗 讛专讬 诇讘讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 讛注专讜讛 拽住讘专 诇讘讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 讛注专讜讛 诪讜转专

The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, shouldn鈥檛 he be prohibited from reciting Shema because his heart sees his nakedness, as there is no barrier between them? The Gemara responds: Indeed, the first tanna holds that when one鈥檚 heart sees his nakedness, it is permitted to recite Shema, and a barrier is only necessary to separate between his mouth and his nakedness.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗诐 讗诪专讛 诇讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘驻讜诪讬讛 诇讗 爪讬讬转谞讗 诇讬讛

Rav Huna said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav 岣sda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yo岣nan had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗诐 讗诪专讛 诇讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘驻讜诪讬讛 诇讗 爪讬讬转谞讗 诇讬讛

Some say this halakha: Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav 岣sda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇注诪讜讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讟谞讜驻转 诇驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜 诇注诪讜讚 讘诇讬 讛专讛讜专 转讜专讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘注讜诪讚 讻讗谉 讘诪讛诇讱

The Gemara challenges this: Did Rav Huna really say that? Didn鈥檛 Rav Huna say: A Torah scholar is prohibited from standing in a place of filth, as he is unable to stand without contemplating Torah, and uttering Shema orally is graver than mere contemplation. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult; here, Rav Huna prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing in a place of filth, while here he permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking through a place of filth.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 诪讜转专 诇讛专讛专 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讞讜抓 诪讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 讜诪讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讗谉 讘注讜诪讚 讻讗谉 讘诪讛诇讱 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛讜讛 拽讗 讗讝讬诇 讘转专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讛 拽讗 拽专讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讻讬 诪讟讗 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 讗砖转讬拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讛讬讻谉 讗讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诐 砖讛讬转 讻讚讬 诇讙诪讜专 讗转 讻讜诇讛 讞讝讜专 诇专讗砖

The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Yo岣nan really say that? Didn鈥檛 Rabba bar bar 岣na say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except the bathhouse and the bathroom? Consequently, it is prohibited to even contemplate Torah in a place of filth. And if you say: Here, too, there is a distinction between the two cases, here, Rabbi Yo岣nan prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing; here, Rabbi Yo岣nan permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking, is that so? Wasn鈥檛 Rabbi Abbahu walking after Rabbi Yo岣nan and reciting Shema, and when he reached a filthy alleyway he fell silent and stopped reciting Shema. When they emerged, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: To where in Shema should I return and resume reciting it? Rabbi Yo岣nan said to him: If you delayed continuing Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there. From the fact that Rabbi Yo岣nan did not admonish him for interrupting his recitation, apparently he, too, prohibits reciting Shema while walking through a filthy alleyway.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬 诇讗 住讘讬专讗 诇讬 诇讚讬讚讱 讚住讘讬专讗 诇讱 讗诐 砖讛讬转 讻讚讬 诇讙诪讜专 讗转 讻讜诇讛 讞讝讜专 诇专讗砖

The Gemara responds: This is not a proof, as he says to him as follows: I do not hold that one must interrupt the recitation of Shema in this case, but for you, who holds that one must, if you delayed Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there.

转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讗诐 讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 讜讘讗 驻讜住拽

The Gemara cites tannaitic sources to corroborate both the lenient and the stringent opinions. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, and it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna: One who was walking in filthy alleyways places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda: One who was walking in filthy alleyways may not recite Shema. Furthermore, if he was in the course of reciting Shema when he reached a filthy alleyway, he stops his recitation at that point.

诇讗 驻住拽 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讬讗砖讛 讘专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讙诐 讗谞讬 谞转转讬 诇讛诐 讞拽讬诐 诇讗 讟讜讘讬诐 讜诪砖驻讟讬诐 诇讗 讬讞讬讜 讘讛诐

The Gemara asks: If one did not stop, what is his status? Rabbi Meyasha, son of the son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: Of him the verse says: 鈥淢oreover, I gave them statutes that were not good and laws by which they could not live鈥 (Ezekiel 20:25), as in this case following these statutes and laws led to sin, not to mitzva.

专讘 讗住讬 讗诪专 讛讜讬 诪讜砖讻讬 讛注讜谉 讘讞讘诇讬 讛砖讜讗 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讻讬 讚讘专 讛壮 讘讝讛

Rav Asi said that this is derived from the verse: 鈥淲oe to those who draw iniquity with cords of vanity鈥 (Isaiah 5:18), meaning that this man brings sin upon himself for naught. Rav Adda bar Ahava said it is derived from here: 鈥淔or he has shown contempt for the word of the Lord鈥 (Numbers 15:31), meaning that uttering God鈥檚 word in a place of filth shows contempt for the Lord.

讜讗诐 驻住拽 诪讛 砖讻专讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讘讚讘专 讛讝讛 转讗专讬讻讜 讬诪讬诐:

The Gemara asks: And if he stopped his recitation, what is his reward? Rabbi Abbahu said: Of him the verse says: 鈥淎nd it is through this matter that you will prolong your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:47), meaning that by being careful with one鈥檚 speech one merits longevity.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转讜 讞讙讜专讛 诇讜 注诇 诪转谞讬讜 诪讜转专 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转讜 砖诇 讘讙讚 讜砖诇 注讜专 讜砖诇 砖拽 讞讙讜专讛 注诇 诪转谞讬讜 诪讜转专 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注

Rav Huna said: One whose garment was tied around his waist, even if he was bare above the waist, is permitted to recite Shema. Indeed, that opinion was also taught in a baraita: One whose garment made of cloth, of leather, of sack or of any other material was strapped around his waist, he is permitted to recite Shema.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 24

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Berakhot 24

讻诇 诇谞讟讜专讬谞讛讜 讟驻讬 注讚讬祝 讜讛讬讻讗 诪谞讞 诇讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘讬谉 讻专 诇讻住转 砖诇讗 讻谞讙讚 专讗砖讜

Because whatever offers more protection is preferable even at the cost of deprecation. And where under his head does he place them? Rabbi Yirmeya said: He places them between the pillow and the mattress, not directly aligned with his head but rather a bit to the side.

讜讛讗 转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诪谞讬讞谉 讘讻讜讘注 转讞转 诪专讗砖讜转讬讜 讚诪驻讬拽 诇讬讛 诇诪讜专砖讗 讻讜讘注 诇讘专

The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣yya teach a baraita that in that case he places them in a pouch used for phylacteries, directly under his head? The Gemara replies: He does so in a manner that the bulge in the pouch, where the phylacteries are, protrudes out and is not beneath his head.

讘专 拽驻专讗 爪讬讬专 诇讛讜 讘讻讬诇转讗 讜诪驻讬拽 诇诪讜专砖讛讜谉 诇讘专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪谞讞 诇讛讜 讗砖专砖讬驻讗 讜驻专讬住 住讜讚专讗 注讬诇讜讬讬讛讜

On this note, the Gemara relates that Bar Kappara would tie them in his bed curtain and project their bulge outward. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, would place them on a bench and spread a cloth over them.

讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讝讬诇 讗讬讬转讬 诇讬 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜讗砖讻讞转讬谞讛讜 讘讬谉 讻专 诇讻住转 砖诇讗 讻谞讙讚 专讗砖讜 讜讛讜讛 讬讚注谞讗 讚讬讜诐 讟讘讬诇讛 讛讜讛 讜诇讗讙诪讜专谉 讛诇讻讛 诇诪注砖讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚

Rav Hamnuna, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava and he told me: Go and bring me my phylacteries. And I found them in his bed, between the mattress and the pillow, not aligned with his head. And I knew that it was the day of his wife鈥檚 immersion in the ritual bath for purification from the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, and he certainly engaged in marital relations in order to fulfill the mitzva, and he did so, he sent me to bring him his phylacteries, to teach us the practical halakha in that case.

讘注讬 诪讬谞讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞讜谞讬讗 诪专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖谞讬诐 砖讬砖谞讬诐 讘诪讟讛 讗讞转 诪讛讜 砖讝讛 讬讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讝讛 讬讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讗砖转讜 注诪讜

Rav Yosef, son of Rav Ne岣nya, who raised a dilemma above, raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: Two individuals sleeping in a single bed, given that it was standard practice to sleep without clothing, what is the halakha; is it permissible for this one to turn his head aside and recite Shema and for that one turns his head and recites Shema; or is it prohibited because they are unclothed and are considered unfit to recite Shema even though they are covered with a blanket? He said to him: Shmuel said as follows: This is permitted even if his wife is in bed with him.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗砖转讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 讗讞专 讗讚专讘讛 讗砖转讜 讻讙讜驻讜 讗讞专 诇讗讜 讻讙讜驻讜

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this response: You say that he is permitted to recite Shema in bed with his wife, and needless to say he is permitted to do so when in bed with another. On the contrary, since his wife is like his own flesh, and he will not have lustful thoughts of her, it is permitted; another is not like his own flesh and it is prohibited.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖谞讬诐 砖讬砖谞讬诐 讘诪讟讛 讗讞转 讝讛 诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 讜讝讛 诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 讜转谞讬讗 讗讞专讬转讬 讛讬砖谉 讘诪讟讛 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讘爪讚讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讗诐 讛讬讜 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 拽讟谞讬诐 诪讜转专

The Gemara raises an objection to this from the resolution of an apparent contradiction between two baraitot. It was taught in one baraita: Two unclothed individuals who are sleeping in a single bed, this one turns his head aside and recites Shema and that one turns his head aside and recites Shema. And it was taught in another baraita: One who is sleeping in bed and his unclothed children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them. If his children and the members of his household were minors, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讗砖转讜 讜讛讗 讘讗讞专 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜讗诇 拽砖讬讗

Granted, according to Rav Yosef, the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as this baraita is referring to a case where his wife is in the bed with him, while this other baraita is referring to a case where another person is in bed with him and there is concern lest he will have lustful thoughts. However, according to Shmuel, who permits one to recite Shema regardless of who is in bed with him, it is indeed difficult. How would he interpret the baraita that prohibits?

讗诪专 诇讱 砖诪讜讗诇 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讬 谞讬讞讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 讘诪讟讛 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 讘诪讟讛 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转讜 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讬转 诇讱 诇诪讬诪专 讗砖转讜 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 诇讚讬讚讬 谞诪讬 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗:

The Gemara replies: Shmuel could have said to you: And according to Rav Yosef鈥檚 opinion, does it work out well? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in that same baraita that one who is sleeping in bed and his children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them? Doesn鈥檛 Rav Yosef hold that his wife is like his own flesh and no separation is necessary? Rather, what have you to say in response? Rav Yosef holds that there is a tannaitic dispute in the case of one鈥檚 wife; I, too, hold that it is a tannaitic dispute, and I accept the ruling of one of the baraitot.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讛 诪讞讝讬专 驻谞讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 注讙讘讜转 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注讙讘讜转 讗讬谉 讘讛诐 诪砖讜诐 注专讜讛 诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讗砖讛 讬讜砖讘转 讜拽讜爪讛 诇讛 讞诇转讛 注专讜诪讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讻讜诇讛 诇讻住讜转 驻谞讬讛 讘拽专拽注 讗讘诇 诇讗 讛讗讬砖

The Gemara reverts to clarify something mentioned above. The Master said in a baraita: This one turns his head aside and recites Shema. The Gemara notes a difficulty: Aren鈥檛 there bare buttocks? This supports the opinion of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: Buttocks do not constitute nakedness. Let us say that the following mishna supports Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion: A woman sits and separates her 岣lla naked, despite the fact that she must recite a blessing over the separation of the 岣lla, because she can cover her face, a euphemism for her genitals, in the ground, but a male, whose genitals are not covered when he sits, may not do so. The mishna teaches that exposed buttocks do not constitute nakedness.

转专讙诪讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬讜 驻谞讬讛 讟讜讞讜转 讘拽专拽注:

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k interpreted the mishna as referring to a case where her face, genitals, was completely covered in the ground such that her posterior was covered by the ground. Therefore, proof for Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion cannot be brought from this mishna.

讗诪专 诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讬 讘讬转讜 拽讟谞讬诐 诪讜转专 讜注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 转讬谞讜拽转 讘转 砖诇砖 砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜转讬谞讜拽 讘谉 转砖注 砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 转讬谞讜拽转 讘转 讗讞转 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜转讬谞讜拽 讘谉 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 注讚 讻讚讬 砖讚讬诐 谞讻谞讜 讜砖注专讱 爪诪讞

The Master said in a baraita: If his children and the members of his household were minors, even though they are unclothed, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them. The Gemara asks: Until what age is one still considered a minor? Rav 岣sda said: A girl until she is three years and one day old, and a boy until he is nine years and one day old, for these are the ages from which a sexual act in which they participate is considered a sexual act. Some say: A girl eleven years and one day old and a boy of twelve years and one day old, as that is the age at which they are considered adults in this regard. This age is only approximate, as the age of majority for both this, the boy, and that, the girl, is at the onset of puberty in accordance with the verse: 鈥淵our breasts were formed and your hair was grown鈥 (Ezekiel 16:7).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讛转诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚转讬讜讘转讗 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻讗 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讟讜 讻讜诇讛讜 讘讞讚讗 诪讞转讗 诪讞转讬谞讛讜 讗诇讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬转诪专 讗讬转诪专 讜讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗讬转诪专 诇讗 讗讬转诪专

Rav Kahana said to Rav Ashi: There, with regard to the law of phylacteries, Rava said: Despite a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. Here, what is the ruling? He said to him: Were all of them woven in the same act of weaving? Are there no distinctions between different cases? Rather, where it is stated, it is stated, and where it is not stated, it is not stated, and there is no comparison.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诪专讬 诇专讘 驻驻讗 砖注专 讬讜爪讗 讘讘讙讚讜 诪讛讜 拽专讗 注诇讬讛 砖注专 砖注专:

Rav Mari said to Rav Pappa: Does it constitute nakedness if one鈥檚 pubic hair protruded from his garment? Rav Pappa said about him: A hair, a hair. You are splitting hairs and being pedantic over trivialities.

讗诪专 专壮 讬爪讞拽 讟驻讞 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 诇诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诇讗住转讻讜诇讬 讘讛 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诇诪讛 诪谞讛 讛讻转讜讘 转讻砖讬讟讬谉 砖讘讞讜抓 注诐 转讻砖讬讟讬谉 砖讘驻谞讬诐 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讛诪住转讻诇 讘讗爪讘注 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 讻讗讬诇讜 诪住转讻诇 讘诪拽讜诐 讛转讜专祝

Rabbi Yitz岣k stated: An exposed handbreadth in a woman constitutes nakedness. The Gemara asks: Regarding which halakha was this said? If you say that it comes to prohibit looking at an exposed handbreadth in her, didn鈥檛 Rav Sheshet say: Why did the verse enumerate 鈥渁nklets and bracelets, rings, earrings and girdles鈥 (Numbers 31:50), jewelry that is worn externally, over her clothing, e.g., bracelets, together with jewelry worn internally, beneath her clothing, near her nakedness, e.g., girdles? This was to tell you: Anyone who gazes upon a woman鈥檚 little finger is considered as if he gazed upon her naked genitals, for if his intentions are impure, it makes no difference where he looks or how much is exposed; even less than a handbreadth.

讗诇讗 讘讗砖转讜 讜诇拽专讬讗转 砖诪注

Rather, it is referring even to his wife, with regard to the recitation of Shema. One may not recite Shema before an exposed handbreadth of his wife.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 砖讜拽 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讙诇讬 砖讜拽 注讘专讬 谞讛专讜转 讜讻转讬讘 转讙诇 注专讜转讱 讜讙诐 转专讗讛 讞专驻转讱 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 拽讜诇 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 拽讜诇讱 注专讘 讜诪专讗讱 谞讗讜讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 砖注专 讘讗砖讛 注专讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖注专讱 讻注讚专 讛注讝讬诐:

Along these lines, Rav 岣sda said: Even a woman鈥檚 exposed leg is considered nakedness, as it is stated: 鈥淯ncover the leg and pass through the rivers鈥 (Isaiah 47:2), and it is written in the following verse: 鈥淵our nakedness shall be revealed and your shame shall be seen鈥 (Isaiah 47:3). Shmuel further stated: A woman鈥檚 singing voice is considered nakedness, which he derives from the praise accorded a woman鈥檚 voice, as it is stated: 鈥淪weet is your voice and your countenance is alluring鈥 (Song of Songs 2:14). Similarly, Rav Sheshet stated: Even a woman鈥檚 hair is considered nakedness, for it too is praised, as it is written: 鈥淵our hair is like a flock of goats, trailing down from Mount Gilead鈥 (Song of Songs 4:1).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗谞讬 专讗讬转讬 讗转 专讘讬 砖转诇讛 转驻讬诇讬讜 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛转讜诇讛 转驻讬诇讬讜 讬转诇讜 诇讜 讞讬讬讜

The Gemara resumes its discussion of phylacteries. Rabbi 岣nina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hang his phylacteries. The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita that one who hangs his phylacteries will have his life hang in the balance.

讚讜专砖讬 讞诪讜专讜转 讗诪专讜 讜讛讬讜 讞讬讬讱 转诇讗讬诐 诇讱 诪谞讙讚 讝讛 讛转讜诇讛 转驻讬诇讬讜

Moreover, the Symbolic Interpreters of the Torah said that the verse: 鈥淎nd your life shall hang in doubt before you [minneged]鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:66), that is the punishment of one who hangs his phylacteries.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘专爪讜注讛 讛讗 讘拽爪讬爪讛

The Gemara replies: This apparent contradiction is not difficult, as this baraita, which condemns one who hangs his phylacteries, refers to one who hangs them by the strap, allowing the leather boxes into which the parchment is placed to dangle in a deprecating way, which is certainly prohibited. That baraita, which relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would hang his phylacteries and that it is clearly permitted, refers to when one hangs them from the box with the straps dangling.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗 砖谞讗 专爪讜注讛 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 拽爪讬爪讛 讗住讜专 讜讻讬 转诇讛 专讘讬 讘讻讬住转讗 转诇讛

And if you wish, say another explanation instead: There is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the strap and there is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the box; both are prohibited. And when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hung his phylacteries, he hung them in their pouch.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诪讗讬 诇诪讬诪专讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 转讬讘注讬 讛谞讞讛 讻住驻专 转讜专讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉:

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose to relate that incident? The Gemara replies: Lest you say that phylacteries would require placement atop a surface, as is the custom with a Torah scroll. Therefore, it teaches us that this is unnecessary.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗谞讬 专讗讬转讬 讗转 专讘讬 砖讙讬讛拽 讜驻讬讛拽 讜谞转注讟砖 讜专拽

Since Rabbi 岣nina related a story involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara cites another such story. Rabbi 岣nina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, while he was praying, belch, yawn, sneeze, spit,

讜诪诪砖诪砖 讘讘讙讚讜 讗讘诇 诇讗 讛讬讛 诪转注讟祝 讜讻砖讛讜讗 诪驻讛拽 讛讬讛 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 住谞讟专讜

and if he was stung by a louse, he may feel for it and remove it with his garment, but he would not wrap himself in his prayer shawl if it fell during prayer. And when he would yawn he would place his hand on his chin so that his open mouth would not be visible.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诪砖诪讬注 拽讜诇讜 讘转驻诇转讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诪拽讟谞讬 讗诪谞讛 讛诪讙讘讬讛 拽讜诇讜 讘转驻诇转讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诪谞讘讬讗讬 讛砖拽专

The Gemara raises an objection based on a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith, as he seems to believe that the Lord cannot hear his prayer when it is uttered silently. One who raises his voice during prayer is considered to be among the false prophets, as they too were wont to cry out and shout to their gods.

诪讙讛拽 讜诪驻讛拽 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讙住讬 讛专讜讞 讛诪转注讟砖 讘转驻诇转讜 住讬诪谉 专注 诇讜 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讬讻专 砖讛讜讗 诪讻讜注专 讛专拽 讘转驻诇转讜 讻讗讬诇讜 专拽 讘驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱

Furthermore, one who belches and yawns while praying is surely among the uncouth. One who sneezes during his prayer, for him it is a bad omen. And some say: It is clear that he is repulsive. Also, one who spits during prayer, it is tantamount to spitting in the face of the king. In light of all this, how could Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi have done all that while praying?

讘砖诇诪讗 诪讙讛拽 讜诪驻讛拽 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇讗讜谞住讜 讻讗谉 诇专爪讜谞讜 讗诇讗 诪转注讟砖 讗诪转注讟砖 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara explains: Granted, with regard to one who belches and yawns, it is not difficult: Here, in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so, it was involuntary and therefore permissible; here, where it is considered uncouth, is in a case where it is deliberate. However, the contradiction between sneezing in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and sneezing where it is considered a bad omen is difficult.

诪转注讟砖 讗诪转注讟砖 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诪诇诪注诇讛 讻讗谉 诪诇诪讟讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讝讬专讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讗讘诇注讗 诇讬 讘讬 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讜转拽讬诇讗 诇讬 讻讬 讻讜诇讬 转诇诪讜讚讗讬 讛诪转注讟砖 讘转驻诇转讜 住讬诪谉 讬驻讛 诇讜 讻砖诐 砖注讜砖讬诐 诇讜 谞讞转 专讜讞 诪诇诪讟讛 讻讱 注讜砖讬诐 诇讜 谞讞转 专讜讞 诪诇诪注诇讛

The Gemara responds: The contradiction between sneezing in one case and sneezing in the other case is also not difficult: Here, in the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, it is referring to sneezing from above, his nose; here, where it is a bad omen, is referring to sneezing from below, flatulence. As Rav Zeira said: In the school of Rav Hamnuna I absorbed this matter in passing, and it is equal in significance to all the rest of my learning: One who sneezes in the midst of prayer, it is a good omen for him. Just as the sneeze soothes his irritation, giving him pleasure below, it is a sign that they are similarly giving him pleasure above. Since Rav Zeira sneezed often, he was extremely pleased to hear this.

讗诇讗 专拽 讗专拽 拽砖讬讗 专拽 讗专拽 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讗驻砖专 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘转驻讬诇讛 讜谞讝讚诪谉 诇讜 专讜拽 诪讘诇讬注讜 讘讟诇讬转讜 讜讗诐 讟诇讬转 谞讗讛 讛讜讗 诪讘诇讬注讜 讘讗驻专拽住讜转讜 专讘讬谞讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讗讞讜专讬 专讘 讗砖讬 谞讝讚诪谉 诇讜 专讜拽 驻转拽讬讛 诇讗讞讜专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讘诇讬注讜 讘讗驻专拽住讜转讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讗谞讬谞讗 讚注转讗讬:

However, The contradiction between spitting in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and spitting where it is deemed tantamount to spitting in the face of the king is difficult. The Gemara replies: The contradiction between spitting in one case and spitting in the other case is also not difficult, as it is possible to resolve it in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: One who was standing in prayer, and saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, he absorbs it in his garment. And if it was a fine garment and he does not want it to become sullied, he may cover it up in his head covering. That way, one is permitted to spit. The Gemara relates: Ravina was standing behind Rav Ashi during prayer when saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, so he discharged it behind him. Rav Ashi said to him: And does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Yehuda, who said that one absorbs it in his head covering? He said to him: I am delicate, and the mere knowledge that there is spittle in my head covering disturbs my prayer.

讛诪砖诪讬注 拽讜诇讜 讘转驻诇转讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诪拽讟谞讬 讗诪谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讻讜讜谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讘诇讞砖 讗讘诇 讗讬谉 讬讻讜诇 诇讻讜讜谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讘诇讞砖 诪讜转专 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讬讞讬讚 讗讘诇 讘爪讬讘讜专 讗转讬 诇诪讬讟专讚 爪讬讘讜专讗:

It was taught in a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith. Rav Huna said: This was only taught in a case where one is able to focus his heart while praying silently, but if he is unable to focus his heart while praying silently, he is permitted to sound his voice. This applies only to one praying alone, but when he is praying in a congregation his voice will come to disturb the congregation and it is prohibited.

专讘讬 讗讘讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪砖转诪讬讟 诪讬谞讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬住拽 诇讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讻诇 讛注讜诇讛 诪讘讘诇 诇讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘诇讛 讬讜讘讗讜 讜砖诪讛 讬讛讬讜 注讚 讬讜诐 驻拽讚讬 讗讜转诐 谞讗诐 讛壮 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讜讗砖诪注 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 诪讘讬转 讜讜注讚讗 讜讛讚专 讗驻讬拽

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Abba was avoiding being seen by his teacher Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Abba sought to ascend to Eretz Yisrael and his teacher disapproved, as Rav Yehuda said: Anyone who ascends from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a positive commandment, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey shall be taken to Babylonia and there they shall remain until the day that I recall them, said the Lord鈥 (Jeremiah 27:22). Rabbi Abba did not want to discuss his desire to emigrate with Rav Yehuda. Nevertheless he said: I will go and hear something from him at the hall where the Sages assemble, without being seen, and afterwards I will leave Babylonia.

讗讝诇 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇转谞讗 讚拽转谞讬 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘转驻诇讛 讜谞转注讟砖 诪诪转讬谉 注讚 砖讬讻诇讛 讛专讜讞 讜讞讜讝专 讜诪转驻诇诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘转驻诇讛 讜讘讬拽砖 诇讛转注讟砖 诪专讞讬拽 诇讗讞专讬讜 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讜诪转注讟砖 讜诪诪转讬谉 注讚 砖讬讻诇讛 讛专讜讞 讜讞讜讝专 讜诪转驻诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讬爪专转谞讜 谞拽讘讬诐 谞拽讘讬诐 讞诇讜诇讬诐 讞诇讜诇讬诐 讙诇讜讬 讜讬讚讜注 诇驻谞讬讱 讞专驻转谞讜 讜讻诇讬诪转谞讜 讘讞讬讬谞讜 讜讘讗讞专讬转谞讜 专诪讛 讜转讜诇注讛 讜诪转讞讬诇 诪诪拽讜诐 砖驻住拽

He went and found the tanna, who recites the tannaitic sources before the study hall, reciting the following baraita before Rav Yehuda: One who was standing in prayer and sneezed from below waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. Some say: One who was standing in prayer when he felt the need to sneeze from below, retreats four cubits, sneezes, waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. And before resuming his prayer, he says: Master of the universe, You have formed us with many orifices and cavities; our disgrace and shame in life are clear and evident before You, as is our destiny with maggots and worms, and so we should not be judged harshly. And he resumes his prayer from where he stopped.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诇讜 诇讗 讘讗转讬 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜注 讚讘专 讝讛 讚讬讬:

Rabbi Abba said to him: Had I only come to the assembly of the Sages to hear this teaching, it would have been sufficient for me.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 讘讟诇讬转讜 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 专讗砖讜 诪驻谞讬 讛爪谞讛 讞讜爪抓 讘讟诇讬转讜 注诇 爪讜讗专讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 诇讘讜

The Sages taught: One who was sleeping unclothed, but was covered with his garment, and he is unable to stick his head out from under the garment because of the cold, may form a barrier with his garment at his neck and recite Shema in bed. And some say: He must form a barrier with his garment at his heart.

讜转谞讗 拽诪讗 讛专讬 诇讘讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 讛注专讜讛 拽住讘专 诇讘讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 讛注专讜讛 诪讜转专

The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, shouldn鈥檛 he be prohibited from reciting Shema because his heart sees his nakedness, as there is no barrier between them? The Gemara responds: Indeed, the first tanna holds that when one鈥檚 heart sees his nakedness, it is permitted to recite Shema, and a barrier is only necessary to separate between his mouth and his nakedness.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗诐 讗诪专讛 诇讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘驻讜诪讬讛 诇讗 爪讬讬转谞讗 诇讬讛

Rav Huna said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav 岣sda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yo岣nan had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗诐 讗诪专讛 诇讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘驻讜诪讬讛 诇讗 爪讬讬转谞讗 诇讬讛

Some say this halakha: Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav 岣sda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇注诪讜讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讟谞讜驻转 诇驻讬 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜 诇注诪讜讚 讘诇讬 讛专讛讜专 转讜专讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘注讜诪讚 讻讗谉 讘诪讛诇讱

The Gemara challenges this: Did Rav Huna really say that? Didn鈥檛 Rav Huna say: A Torah scholar is prohibited from standing in a place of filth, as he is unable to stand without contemplating Torah, and uttering Shema orally is graver than mere contemplation. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult; here, Rav Huna prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing in a place of filth, while here he permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking through a place of filth.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 诪讜转专 诇讛专讛专 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讞讜抓 诪讘讬转 讛诪专讞抓 讜诪讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讗谉 讘注讜诪讚 讻讗谉 讘诪讛诇讱 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛讜讛 拽讗 讗讝讬诇 讘转专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讛 拽讗 拽专讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讻讬 诪讟讗 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 讗砖转讬拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讛讬讻谉 讗讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诐 砖讛讬转 讻讚讬 诇讙诪讜专 讗转 讻讜诇讛 讞讝讜专 诇专讗砖

The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Yo岣nan really say that? Didn鈥檛 Rabba bar bar 岣na say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except the bathhouse and the bathroom? Consequently, it is prohibited to even contemplate Torah in a place of filth. And if you say: Here, too, there is a distinction between the two cases, here, Rabbi Yo岣nan prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing; here, Rabbi Yo岣nan permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking, is that so? Wasn鈥檛 Rabbi Abbahu walking after Rabbi Yo岣nan and reciting Shema, and when he reached a filthy alleyway he fell silent and stopped reciting Shema. When they emerged, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: To where in Shema should I return and resume reciting it? Rabbi Yo岣nan said to him: If you delayed continuing Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there. From the fact that Rabbi Yo岣nan did not admonish him for interrupting his recitation, apparently he, too, prohibits reciting Shema while walking through a filthy alleyway.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬 诇讗 住讘讬专讗 诇讬 诇讚讬讚讱 讚住讘讬专讗 诇讱 讗诐 砖讛讬转 讻讚讬 诇讙诪讜专 讗转 讻讜诇讛 讞讝讜专 诇专讗砖

The Gemara responds: This is not a proof, as he says to him as follows: I do not hold that one must interrupt the recitation of Shema in this case, but for you, who holds that one must, if you delayed Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there.

转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诪谞讬讞 讬讚讜 注诇 驻讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘诪讘讜讗讜转 讛诪讟讜谞驻讜转 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讗诐 讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 讜讘讗 驻讜住拽

The Gemara cites tannaitic sources to corroborate both the lenient and the stringent opinions. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, and it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna: One who was walking in filthy alleyways places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda: One who was walking in filthy alleyways may not recite Shema. Furthermore, if he was in the course of reciting Shema when he reached a filthy alleyway, he stops his recitation at that point.

诇讗 驻住拽 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讬讗砖讛 讘专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讙诐 讗谞讬 谞转转讬 诇讛诐 讞拽讬诐 诇讗 讟讜讘讬诐 讜诪砖驻讟讬诐 诇讗 讬讞讬讜 讘讛诐

The Gemara asks: If one did not stop, what is his status? Rabbi Meyasha, son of the son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: Of him the verse says: 鈥淢oreover, I gave them statutes that were not good and laws by which they could not live鈥 (Ezekiel 20:25), as in this case following these statutes and laws led to sin, not to mitzva.

专讘 讗住讬 讗诪专 讛讜讬 诪讜砖讻讬 讛注讜谉 讘讞讘诇讬 讛砖讜讗 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讻讬 讚讘专 讛壮 讘讝讛

Rav Asi said that this is derived from the verse: 鈥淲oe to those who draw iniquity with cords of vanity鈥 (Isaiah 5:18), meaning that this man brings sin upon himself for naught. Rav Adda bar Ahava said it is derived from here: 鈥淔or he has shown contempt for the word of the Lord鈥 (Numbers 15:31), meaning that uttering God鈥檚 word in a place of filth shows contempt for the Lord.

讜讗诐 驻住拽 诪讛 砖讻专讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讘讚讘专 讛讝讛 转讗专讬讻讜 讬诪讬诐:

The Gemara asks: And if he stopped his recitation, what is his reward? Rabbi Abbahu said: Of him the verse says: 鈥淎nd it is through this matter that you will prolong your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:47), meaning that by being careful with one鈥檚 speech one merits longevity.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转讜 讞讙讜专讛 诇讜 注诇 诪转谞讬讜 诪讜转专 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛讬转讛 讟诇讬转讜 砖诇 讘讙讚 讜砖诇 注讜专 讜砖诇 砖拽 讞讙讜专讛 注诇 诪转谞讬讜 诪讜转专 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注

Rav Huna said: One whose garment was tied around his waist, even if he was bare above the waist, is permitted to recite Shema. Indeed, that opinion was also taught in a baraita: One whose garment made of cloth, of leather, of sack or of any other material was strapped around his waist, he is permitted to recite Shema.

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