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Today's Daf Yomi

January 27, 2020 | א׳ בשבט תש״פ

Berakhot 24

Can you sleep with tefillin under your pillow? Can a man do that if he is in bed with his wife? If two people are sleeping naked in a bed, can they each turn the other way and say shema? Is there a difference if it is one’s wife or someone else? What if it is one’s young children? A hairsbreadth of a woman in a place that is usually covered is considered nakedness – to what is this referring and in what situation? What else is considered nakedness? Is it problematic of one yawns, sneezes or spits during prayer? There are contradictory sources regarding this – how are they resolved? Can one recite shema in a dirty place where there is feces or urine?

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

כל לנטורינהו טפי עדיף והיכא מנח להו אמר רבי ירמיה בין כר לכסת שלא כנגד ראשו

Because whatever offers more protection is preferable even at the cost of deprecation. And where under his head does he place them? Rabbi Yirmeya said: He places them between the pillow and the mattress, not directly aligned with his head but rather a bit to the side.

והא תני רבי חייא מניחן בכובע תחת מראשותיו דמפיק ליה למורשא כובע לבר

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya teach a baraita that in that case he places them in a pouch used for phylacteries, directly under his head? The Gemara replies: He does so in a manner that the bulge in the pouch, where the phylacteries are, protrudes out and is not beneath his head.

בר קפרא צייר להו בכילתא ומפיק למורשהון לבר רב שישא בריה דרב אידי מנח להו אשרשיפא ופריס סודרא עילוייהו

On this note, the Gemara relates that Bar Kappara would tie them in his bed curtain and project their bulge outward. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, would place them on a bench and spread a cloth over them.

אמר רב המנונא בריה דרב יוסף זימנא חדא הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבא ואמר לי זיל אייתי לי תפילין ואשכחתינהו בין כר לכסת שלא כנגד ראשו והוה ידענא דיום טבילה הוה ולאגמורן הלכה למעשה הוא דעבד

Rav Hamnuna, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava and he told me: Go and bring me my phylacteries. And I found them in his bed, between the mattress and the pillow, not aligned with his head. And I knew that it was the day of his wife’s immersion in the ritual bath for purification from the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, and he certainly engaged in marital relations in order to fulfill the mitzva, and he did so, he sent me to bring him his phylacteries, to teach us the practical halakha in that case.

בעי מיניה רב יוסף בריה דרב נחוניא מרב יהודה שנים שישנים במטה אחת מהו שזה יחזיר פניו ויקרא קריאת שמע וזה יחזיר פניו ויקרא קריאת שמע אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל ואפילו אשתו עמו

Rav Yosef, son of Rav Neḥunya, who raised a dilemma above, raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: Two individuals sleeping in a single bed, given that it was standard practice to sleep without clothing, what is the halakha; is it permissible for this one to turn his head aside and recite Shema and for that one turns his head and recites Shema; or is it prohibited because they are unclothed and are considered unfit to recite Shema even though they are covered with a blanket? He said to him: Shmuel said as follows: This is permitted even if his wife is in bed with him.

מתקיף לה רב יוסף אשתו ולא מיבעיא אחר אדרבה אשתו כגופו אחר לאו כגופו

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this response: You say that he is permitted to recite Shema in bed with his wife, and needless to say he is permitted to do so when in bed with another. On the contrary, since his wife is like his own flesh, and he will not have lustful thoughts of her, it is permitted; another is not like his own flesh and it is prohibited.

מיתיבי שנים שישנים במטה אחת זה מחזיר פניו וקורא וזה מחזיר פניו וקורא ותניא אחריתי הישן במטה ובניו ובני ביתו בצדו הרי זה לא יקרא קריאת שמע אלא אם כן היתה טלית מפסקת ביניהן ואם היו בניו ובני ביתו קטנים מותר

The Gemara raises an objection to this from the resolution of an apparent contradiction between two baraitot. It was taught in one baraita: Two unclothed individuals who are sleeping in a single bed, this one turns his head aside and recites Shema and that one turns his head aside and recites Shema. And it was taught in another baraita: One who is sleeping in bed and his unclothed children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them. If his children and the members of his household were minors, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them.

בשלמא לרב יוסף לא קשיא הא אשתו והא באחר אלא לשמואל קשיא

Granted, according to Rav Yosef, the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as this baraita is referring to a case where his wife is in the bed with him, while this other baraita is referring to a case where another person is in bed with him and there is concern lest he will have lustful thoughts. However, according to Shmuel, who permits one to recite Shema regardless of who is in bed with him, it is indeed difficult. How would he interpret the baraita that prohibits?

אמר לך שמואל לרב יוסף מי ניחא והתניא היה ישן במטה ובניו ובני ביתו במטה לא יקרא קריאת שמע אלא אם כן היתה טליתו מפסקת ביניהן אלא מאי אית לך למימר אשתו לרב יוסף תנאי היא לדידי נמי תנאי היא:

The Gemara replies: Shmuel could have said to you: And according to Rav Yosef’s opinion, does it work out well? Wasn’t it taught in that same baraita that one who is sleeping in bed and his children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them? Doesn’t Rav Yosef hold that his wife is like his own flesh and no separation is necessary? Rather, what have you to say in response? Rav Yosef holds that there is a tannaitic dispute in the case of one’s wife; I, too, hold that it is a tannaitic dispute, and I accept the ruling of one of the baraitot.

אמר מר זה מחזיר פניו וקורא קריאת שמע והא איכא עגבות מסייע ליה לרב הונא דאמר רב הונא עגבות אין בהם משום ערוה לימא מסייע ליה לרב הונא האשה יושבת וקוצה לה חלתה ערומה מפני שיכולה לכסות פניה בקרקע אבל לא האיש

The Gemara reverts to clarify something mentioned above. The Master said in a baraita: This one turns his head aside and recites Shema. The Gemara notes a difficulty: Aren’t there bare buttocks? This supports the opinion of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: Buttocks do not constitute nakedness. Let us say that the following mishna supports Rav Huna’s opinion: A woman sits and separates her ḥalla naked, despite the fact that she must recite a blessing over the separation of the ḥalla, because she can cover her face, a euphemism for her genitals, in the ground, but a male, whose genitals are not covered when he sits, may not do so. The mishna teaches that exposed buttocks do not constitute nakedness.

תרגמה רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון שהיו פניה טוחות בקרקע:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak interpreted the mishna as referring to a case where her face, genitals, was completely covered in the ground such that her posterior was covered by the ground. Therefore, proof for Rav Huna’s opinion cannot be brought from this mishna.

אמר מר אם היו בניו ובני ביתו קטנים מותר ועד כמה אמר רב חסדא תינוקת בת שלש שנים ויום אחד ותינוק בן תשע שנים ויום אחד איכא דאמרי תינוקת בת אחת עשרה שנה ויום אחד ותינוק בן שתים עשרה שנה ויום אחד אידי ואידי עד כדי שדים נכנו ושערך צמח

The Master said in a baraita: If his children and the members of his household were minors, even though they are unclothed, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them. The Gemara asks: Until what age is one still considered a minor? Rav Ḥisda said: A girl until she is three years and one day old, and a boy until he is nine years and one day old, for these are the ages from which a sexual act in which they participate is considered a sexual act. Some say: A girl eleven years and one day old and a boy of twelve years and one day old, as that is the age at which they are considered adults in this regard. This age is only approximate, as the age of majority for both this, the boy, and that, the girl, is at the onset of puberty in accordance with the verse: “Your breasts were formed and your hair was grown” (Ezekiel 16:7).

אמר ליה רב כהנא לרב אשי התם אמר רבא אף על גב דתיובתא דשמואל הלכתא כוותיה דשמואל הכא מאי אמר ליה אטו כולהו בחדא מחתא מחתינהו אלא היכא דאיתמר איתמר והיכא דלא איתמר לא איתמר

Rav Kahana said to Rav Ashi: There, with regard to the law of phylacteries, Rava said: Despite a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. Here, what is the ruling? He said to him: Were all of them woven in the same act of weaving? Are there no distinctions between different cases? Rather, where it is stated, it is stated, and where it is not stated, it is not stated, and there is no comparison.

אמר ליה רב מרי לרב פפא שער יוצא בבגדו מהו קרא עליה שער שער:

Rav Mari said to Rav Pappa: Does it constitute nakedness if one’s pubic hair protruded from his garment? Rav Pappa said about him: A hair, a hair. You are splitting hairs and being pedantic over trivialities.

אמר ר׳ יצחק טפח באשה ערוה למאי אילימא לאסתכולי בה והא אמר רב ששת למה מנה הכתוב תכשיטין שבחוץ עם תכשיטין שבפנים לומר לך כל המסתכל באצבע קטנה של אשה כאילו מסתכל במקום התורף

Rabbi Yitzḥak stated: An exposed handbreadth in a woman constitutes nakedness. The Gemara asks: Regarding which halakha was this said? If you say that it comes to prohibit looking at an exposed handbreadth in her, didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Why did the verse enumerate “anklets and bracelets, rings, earrings and girdles” (Numbers 31:50), jewelry that is worn externally, over her clothing, e.g., bracelets, together with jewelry worn internally, beneath her clothing, near her nakedness, e.g., girdles? This was to tell you: Anyone who gazes upon a woman’s little finger is considered as if he gazed upon her naked genitals, for if his intentions are impure, it makes no difference where he looks or how much is exposed; even less than a handbreadth.

אלא באשתו ולקריאת שמע

Rather, it is referring even to his wife, with regard to the recitation of Shema. One may not recite Shema before an exposed handbreadth of his wife.

אמר רב חסדא שוק באשה ערוה שנאמר גלי שוק עברי נהרות וכתיב תגל ערותך וגם תראה חרפתך אמר שמואל קול באשה ערוה שנאמר כי קולך ערב ומראך נאוה אמר רב ששת שער באשה ערוה שנאמר שערך כעדר העזים:

Along these lines, Rav Ḥisda said: Even a woman’s exposed leg is considered nakedness, as it is stated: “Uncover the leg and pass through the rivers” (Isaiah 47:2), and it is written in the following verse: “Your nakedness shall be revealed and your shame shall be seen” (Isaiah 47:3). Shmuel further stated: A woman’s singing voice is considered nakedness, which he derives from the praise accorded a woman’s voice, as it is stated: “Sweet is your voice and your countenance is alluring” (Song of Songs 2:14). Similarly, Rav Sheshet stated: Even a woman’s hair is considered nakedness, for it too is praised, as it is written: “Your hair is like a flock of goats, trailing down from Mount Gilead” (Song of Songs 4:1).

אמר רבי חנינא אני ראיתי את רבי שתלה תפיליו מיתיבי התולה תפיליו יתלו לו חייו

The Gemara resumes its discussion of phylacteries. Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hang his phylacteries. The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita that one who hangs his phylacteries will have his life hang in the balance.

דורשי חמורות אמרו והיו חייך תלאים לך מנגד זה התולה תפיליו

Moreover, the Symbolic Interpreters of the Torah said that the verse: “And your life shall hang in doubt before you [minneged]” (Deuteronomy 28:66), that is the punishment of one who hangs his phylacteries.

לא קשיא הא ברצועה הא בקציצה

The Gemara replies: This apparent contradiction is not difficult, as this baraita, which condemns one who hangs his phylacteries, refers to one who hangs them by the strap, allowing the leather boxes into which the parchment is placed to dangle in a deprecating way, which is certainly prohibited. That baraita, which relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would hang his phylacteries and that it is clearly permitted, refers to when one hangs them from the box with the straps dangling.

ואיבעית אימא לא שנא רצועה ולא שנא קציצה אסור וכי תלה רבי בכיסתא תלה

And if you wish, say another explanation instead: There is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the strap and there is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the box; both are prohibited. And when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hung his phylacteries, he hung them in their pouch.

אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא תיבעי הנחה כספר תורה קא משמע לן:

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose to relate that incident? The Gemara replies: Lest you say that phylacteries would require placement atop a surface, as is the custom with a Torah scroll. Therefore, it teaches us that this is unnecessary.

ואמר רבי חנינא אני ראיתי את רבי שגיהק ופיהק ונתעטש ורק

Since Rabbi Ḥanina related a story involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara cites another such story. Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, while he was praying, belch, yawn, sneeze, spit,

וממשמש בבגדו אבל לא היה מתעטף וכשהוא מפהק היה מניח ידו על סנטרו

and if he was stung by a louse, he may feel for it and remove it with his garment, but he would not wrap himself in his prayer shawl if it fell during prayer. And when he would yawn he would place his hand on his chin so that his open mouth would not be visible.

מיתיבי המשמיע קולו בתפלתו הרי זה מקטני אמנה המגביה קולו בתפלתו הרי זה מנביאי השקר

The Gemara raises an objection based on a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith, as he seems to believe that the Lord cannot hear his prayer when it is uttered silently. One who raises his voice during prayer is considered to be among the false prophets, as they too were wont to cry out and shout to their gods.

מגהק ומפהק הרי זה מגסי הרוח המתעטש בתפלתו סימן רע לו ויש אומרים ניכר שהוא מכוער הרק בתפלתו כאילו רק בפני המלך

Furthermore, one who belches and yawns while praying is surely among the uncouth. One who sneezes during his prayer, for him it is a bad omen. And some say: It is clear that he is repulsive. Also, one who spits during prayer, it is tantamount to spitting in the face of the king. In light of all this, how could Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi have done all that while praying?

בשלמא מגהק ומפהק לא קשיא כאן לאונסו כאן לרצונו אלא מתעטש אמתעטש קשיא

The Gemara explains: Granted, with regard to one who belches and yawns, it is not difficult: Here, in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so, it was involuntary and therefore permissible; here, where it is considered uncouth, is in a case where it is deliberate. However, the contradiction between sneezing in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and sneezing where it is considered a bad omen is difficult.

מתעטש אמתעטש נמי לא קשיא כאן מלמעלה כאן מלמטה דאמר רב זירא הא מילתא אבלעא לי בי רב המנונא ותקילא לי כי כולי תלמודאי המתעטש בתפלתו סימן יפה לו כשם שעושים לו נחת רוח מלמטה כך עושים לו נחת רוח מלמעלה

The Gemara responds: The contradiction between sneezing in one case and sneezing in the other case is also not difficult: Here, in the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, it is referring to sneezing from above, his nose; here, where it is a bad omen, is referring to sneezing from below, flatulence. As Rav Zeira said: In the school of Rav Hamnuna I absorbed this matter in passing, and it is equal in significance to all the rest of my learning: One who sneezes in the midst of prayer, it is a good omen for him. Just as the sneeze soothes his irritation, giving him pleasure below, it is a sign that they are similarly giving him pleasure above. Since Rav Zeira sneezed often, he was extremely pleased to hear this.

אלא רק ארק קשיא רק ארק נמי לא קשיא אפשר כדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה היה עומד בתפילה ונזדמן לו רוק מבליעו בטליתו ואם טלית נאה הוא מבליעו באפרקסותו רבינא הוה קאי אחורי רב אשי נזדמן לו רוק פתקיה לאחוריה אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא רב יהודה מבליעו באפרקסותו אמר ליה אנא אנינא דעתאי:

However, The contradiction between spitting in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and spitting where it is deemed tantamount to spitting in the face of the king is difficult. The Gemara replies: The contradiction between spitting in one case and spitting in the other case is also not difficult, as it is possible to resolve it in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: One who was standing in prayer, and saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, he absorbs it in his garment. And if it was a fine garment and he does not want it to become sullied, he may cover it up in his head covering. That way, one is permitted to spit. The Gemara relates: Ravina was standing behind Rav Ashi during prayer when saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, so he discharged it behind him. Rav Ashi said to him: And does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Yehuda, who said that one absorbs it in his head covering? He said to him: I am delicate, and the mere knowledge that there is spittle in my head covering disturbs my prayer.

המשמיע קולו בתפלתו הרי זה מקטני אמנה אמר רב הונא לא שנו אלא שיכול לכוון את לבו בלחש אבל אין יכול לכוון את לבו בלחש מותר והני מילי ביחיד אבל בציבור אתי למיטרד ציבורא:

It was taught in a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith. Rav Huna said: This was only taught in a case where one is able to focus his heart while praying silently, but if he is unable to focus his heart while praying silently, he is permitted to sound his voice. This applies only to one praying alone, but when he is praying in a congregation his voice will come to disturb the congregation and it is prohibited.

רבי אבא הוה קא משתמיט מיניה דרב יהודה דהוה קא בעי למיסק לארעא דישראל דאמר רב יהודה כל העולה מבבל לארץ ישראל עובר בעשה שנאמר בבלה יובאו ושמה יהיו עד יום פקדי אותם נאם ה׳ אמר איזיל ואשמע מיניה מילתא מבית וועדא והדר אפיק

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Abba was avoiding being seen by his teacher Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Abba sought to ascend to Eretz Yisrael and his teacher disapproved, as Rav Yehuda said: Anyone who ascends from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a positive commandment, as it is stated: “They shall be taken to Babylonia and there they shall remain until the day that I recall them, said the Lord” (Jeremiah 27:22). Rabbi Abba did not want to discuss his desire to emigrate with Rav Yehuda. Nevertheless he said: I will go and hear something from him at the hall where the Sages assemble, without being seen, and afterwards I will leave Babylonia.

אזל אשכחיה לתנא דקתני קמיה דרב יהודה היה עומד בתפלה ונתעטש ממתין עד שיכלה הרוח וחוזר ומתפלל איכא דאמרי היה עומד בתפלה וביקש להתעטש מרחיק לאחריו ארבע אמות ומתעטש וממתין עד שיכלה הרוח וחוזר ומתפלל ואומר רבונו של עולם יצרתנו נקבים נקבים חלולים חלולים גלוי וידוע לפניך חרפתנו וכלימתנו בחיינו ובאחריתנו רמה ותולעה ומתחיל ממקום שפסק

He went and found the tanna, who recites the tannaitic sources before the study hall, reciting the following baraita before Rav Yehuda: One who was standing in prayer and sneezed from below waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. Some say: One who was standing in prayer when he felt the need to sneeze from below, retreats four cubits, sneezes, waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. And before resuming his prayer, he says: Master of the universe, You have formed us with many orifices and cavities; our disgrace and shame in life are clear and evident before You, as is our destiny with maggots and worms, and so we should not be judged harshly. And he resumes his prayer from where he stopped.

אמר ליה אילו לא באתי אלא לשמוע דבר זה דיי:

Rabbi Abba said to him: Had I only come to the assembly of the Sages to hear this teaching, it would have been sufficient for me.

תנו רבנן היה ישן בטליתו ואינו יכול להוציא את ראשו מפני הצנה חוצץ בטליתו על צוארו וקורא קריאת שמע ויש אומרים על לבו

The Sages taught: One who was sleeping unclothed, but was covered with his garment, and he is unable to stick his head out from under the garment because of the cold, may form a barrier with his garment at his neck and recite Shema in bed. And some say: He must form a barrier with his garment at his heart.

ותנא קמא הרי לבו רואה את הערוה קסבר לבו רואה את הערוה מותר

The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, shouldn’t he be prohibited from reciting Shema because his heart sees his nakedness, as there is no barrier between them? The Gemara responds: Indeed, the first tanna holds that when one’s heart sees his nakedness, it is permitted to recite Shema, and a barrier is only necessary to separate between his mouth and his nakedness.

אמר רב הונא אמר רבי יוחנן היה מהלך במבואות המטונפות מניח ידו על פיו וקורא קריאת שמע אמר ליה רב חסדא האלהים אם אמרה לי רבי יוחנן בפומיה לא צייתנא ליה

Rav Huna said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav Ḥisda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yoḥanan had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

איכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי היה מהלך במבואות המטונפות מניח ידו על פיו וקורא קריאת שמע אמר ליה רב חסדא האלהים אם אמרה לי רבי יהושע בן לוי בפומיה לא צייתנא ליה

Some say this halakha: Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav Ḥisda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

ומי אמר רב הונא הכי והאמר רב הונא תלמיד חכם אסור לו לעמוד במקום הטנופת לפי שאי אפשר לו לעמוד בלי הרהור תורה לא קשיא כאן בעומד כאן במהלך

The Gemara challenges this: Did Rav Huna really say that? Didn’t Rav Huna say: A Torah scholar is prohibited from standing in a place of filth, as he is unable to stand without contemplating Torah, and uttering Shema orally is graver than mere contemplation. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult; here, Rav Huna prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing in a place of filth, while here he permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking through a place of filth.

ומי אמר רבי יוחנן הכי והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר בדברי תורה חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא וכי תימא הכא נמי כאן בעומד כאן במהלך איני והא רבי אבהו הוה קא אזיל בתריה דרבי יוחנן והוה קא קרי קריאת שמע כי מטא במבואות המטונפות אשתיק אמר ליה לרבי יוחנן להיכן אהדר אמר ליה אם שהית כדי לגמור את כולה חזור לראש

The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Yoḥanan really say that? Didn’t Rabba bar bar Ḥana say that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except the bathhouse and the bathroom? Consequently, it is prohibited to even contemplate Torah in a place of filth. And if you say: Here, too, there is a distinction between the two cases, here, Rabbi Yoḥanan prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing; here, Rabbi Yoḥanan permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking, is that so? Wasn’t Rabbi Abbahu walking after Rabbi Yoḥanan and reciting Shema, and when he reached a filthy alleyway he fell silent and stopped reciting Shema. When they emerged, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: To where in Shema should I return and resume reciting it? Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: If you delayed continuing Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there. From the fact that Rabbi Yoḥanan did not admonish him for interrupting his recitation, apparently he, too, prohibits reciting Shema while walking through a filthy alleyway.

הכי קאמר ליה לדידי לא סבירא לי לדידך דסבירא לך אם שהית כדי לגמור את כולה חזור לראש

The Gemara responds: This is not a proof, as he says to him as follows: I do not hold that one must interrupt the recitation of Shema in this case, but for you, who holds that one must, if you delayed Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there.

תניא כותיה דרב הונא תניא כותיה דרב חסדא תניא כותיה דרב הונא המהלך במבואות המטונפות מניח ידו על פיו ויקרא קריאת שמע תניא כותיה דרב חסדא היה מהלך במבואות המטונפות לא יקרא קריאת שמע ולא עוד אלא שאם היה קורא ובא פוסק

The Gemara cites tannaitic sources to corroborate both the lenient and the stringent opinions. It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna: One who was walking in filthy alleyways places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Ḥisda: One who was walking in filthy alleyways may not recite Shema. Furthermore, if he was in the course of reciting Shema when he reached a filthy alleyway, he stops his recitation at that point.

לא פסק מאי אמר רבי מיאשה בר בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי עליו הכתוב אומר וגם אני נתתי להם חקים לא טובים ומשפטים לא יחיו בהם

The Gemara asks: If one did not stop, what is his status? Rabbi Meyasha, son of the son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: Of him the verse says: “Moreover, I gave them statutes that were not good and laws by which they could not live” (Ezekiel 20:25), as in this case following these statutes and laws led to sin, not to mitzva.

רב אסי אמר הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא רב אדא בר אהבה אמר מהכא כי דבר ה׳ בזה

Rav Asi said that this is derived from the verse: “Woe to those who draw iniquity with cords of vanity” (Isaiah 5:18), meaning that this man brings sin upon himself for naught. Rav Adda bar Ahava said it is derived from here: “For he has shown contempt for the word of the Lord” (Numbers 15:31), meaning that uttering God’s word in a place of filth shows contempt for the Lord.

ואם פסק מה שכרו אמר רבי אבהו עליו הכתוב אומר ובדבר הזה תאריכו ימים:

The Gemara asks: And if he stopped his recitation, what is his reward? Rabbi Abbahu said: Of him the verse says: “And it is through this matter that you will prolong your days” (Deuteronomy 32:47), meaning that by being careful with one’s speech one merits longevity.

אמר רב הונא היתה טליתו חגורה לו על מתניו מותר לקרות קריאת שמע תניא נמי הכי היתה טליתו של בגד ושל עור ושל שק חגורה על מתניו מותר לקרות קריאת שמע

Rav Huna said: One whose garment was tied around his waist, even if he was bare above the waist, is permitted to recite Shema. Indeed, that opinion was also taught in a baraita: One whose garment made of cloth, of leather, of sack or of any other material was strapped around his waist, he is permitted to recite Shema.

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite ‘Til...

Berakhot 24

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Berakhot 24

כל לנטורינהו טפי עדיף והיכא מנח להו אמר רבי ירמיה בין כר לכסת שלא כנגד ראשו

Because whatever offers more protection is preferable even at the cost of deprecation. And where under his head does he place them? Rabbi Yirmeya said: He places them between the pillow and the mattress, not directly aligned with his head but rather a bit to the side.

והא תני רבי חייא מניחן בכובע תחת מראשותיו דמפיק ליה למורשא כובע לבר

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya teach a baraita that in that case he places them in a pouch used for phylacteries, directly under his head? The Gemara replies: He does so in a manner that the bulge in the pouch, where the phylacteries are, protrudes out and is not beneath his head.

בר קפרא צייר להו בכילתא ומפיק למורשהון לבר רב שישא בריה דרב אידי מנח להו אשרשיפא ופריס סודרא עילוייהו

On this note, the Gemara relates that Bar Kappara would tie them in his bed curtain and project their bulge outward. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, would place them on a bench and spread a cloth over them.

אמר רב המנונא בריה דרב יוסף זימנא חדא הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבא ואמר לי זיל אייתי לי תפילין ואשכחתינהו בין כר לכסת שלא כנגד ראשו והוה ידענא דיום טבילה הוה ולאגמורן הלכה למעשה הוא דעבד

Rav Hamnuna, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava and he told me: Go and bring me my phylacteries. And I found them in his bed, between the mattress and the pillow, not aligned with his head. And I knew that it was the day of his wife’s immersion in the ritual bath for purification from the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, and he certainly engaged in marital relations in order to fulfill the mitzva, and he did so, he sent me to bring him his phylacteries, to teach us the practical halakha in that case.

בעי מיניה רב יוסף בריה דרב נחוניא מרב יהודה שנים שישנים במטה אחת מהו שזה יחזיר פניו ויקרא קריאת שמע וזה יחזיר פניו ויקרא קריאת שמע אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל ואפילו אשתו עמו

Rav Yosef, son of Rav Neḥunya, who raised a dilemma above, raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: Two individuals sleeping in a single bed, given that it was standard practice to sleep without clothing, what is the halakha; is it permissible for this one to turn his head aside and recite Shema and for that one turns his head and recites Shema; or is it prohibited because they are unclothed and are considered unfit to recite Shema even though they are covered with a blanket? He said to him: Shmuel said as follows: This is permitted even if his wife is in bed with him.

מתקיף לה רב יוסף אשתו ולא מיבעיא אחר אדרבה אשתו כגופו אחר לאו כגופו

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this response: You say that he is permitted to recite Shema in bed with his wife, and needless to say he is permitted to do so when in bed with another. On the contrary, since his wife is like his own flesh, and he will not have lustful thoughts of her, it is permitted; another is not like his own flesh and it is prohibited.

מיתיבי שנים שישנים במטה אחת זה מחזיר פניו וקורא וזה מחזיר פניו וקורא ותניא אחריתי הישן במטה ובניו ובני ביתו בצדו הרי זה לא יקרא קריאת שמע אלא אם כן היתה טלית מפסקת ביניהן ואם היו בניו ובני ביתו קטנים מותר

The Gemara raises an objection to this from the resolution of an apparent contradiction between two baraitot. It was taught in one baraita: Two unclothed individuals who are sleeping in a single bed, this one turns his head aside and recites Shema and that one turns his head aside and recites Shema. And it was taught in another baraita: One who is sleeping in bed and his unclothed children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them. If his children and the members of his household were minors, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them.

בשלמא לרב יוסף לא קשיא הא אשתו והא באחר אלא לשמואל קשיא

Granted, according to Rav Yosef, the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as this baraita is referring to a case where his wife is in the bed with him, while this other baraita is referring to a case where another person is in bed with him and there is concern lest he will have lustful thoughts. However, according to Shmuel, who permits one to recite Shema regardless of who is in bed with him, it is indeed difficult. How would he interpret the baraita that prohibits?

אמר לך שמואל לרב יוסף מי ניחא והתניא היה ישן במטה ובניו ובני ביתו במטה לא יקרא קריאת שמע אלא אם כן היתה טליתו מפסקת ביניהן אלא מאי אית לך למימר אשתו לרב יוסף תנאי היא לדידי נמי תנאי היא:

The Gemara replies: Shmuel could have said to you: And according to Rav Yosef’s opinion, does it work out well? Wasn’t it taught in that same baraita that one who is sleeping in bed and his children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite Shema unless a garment separates between them? Doesn’t Rav Yosef hold that his wife is like his own flesh and no separation is necessary? Rather, what have you to say in response? Rav Yosef holds that there is a tannaitic dispute in the case of one’s wife; I, too, hold that it is a tannaitic dispute, and I accept the ruling of one of the baraitot.

אמר מר זה מחזיר פניו וקורא קריאת שמע והא איכא עגבות מסייע ליה לרב הונא דאמר רב הונא עגבות אין בהם משום ערוה לימא מסייע ליה לרב הונא האשה יושבת וקוצה לה חלתה ערומה מפני שיכולה לכסות פניה בקרקע אבל לא האיש

The Gemara reverts to clarify something mentioned above. The Master said in a baraita: This one turns his head aside and recites Shema. The Gemara notes a difficulty: Aren’t there bare buttocks? This supports the opinion of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: Buttocks do not constitute nakedness. Let us say that the following mishna supports Rav Huna’s opinion: A woman sits and separates her ḥalla naked, despite the fact that she must recite a blessing over the separation of the ḥalla, because she can cover her face, a euphemism for her genitals, in the ground, but a male, whose genitals are not covered when he sits, may not do so. The mishna teaches that exposed buttocks do not constitute nakedness.

תרגמה רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון שהיו פניה טוחות בקרקע:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak interpreted the mishna as referring to a case where her face, genitals, was completely covered in the ground such that her posterior was covered by the ground. Therefore, proof for Rav Huna’s opinion cannot be brought from this mishna.

אמר מר אם היו בניו ובני ביתו קטנים מותר ועד כמה אמר רב חסדא תינוקת בת שלש שנים ויום אחד ותינוק בן תשע שנים ויום אחד איכא דאמרי תינוקת בת אחת עשרה שנה ויום אחד ותינוק בן שתים עשרה שנה ויום אחד אידי ואידי עד כדי שדים נכנו ושערך צמח

The Master said in a baraita: If his children and the members of his household were minors, even though they are unclothed, it is permitted to recite Shema even without a garment separating between them. The Gemara asks: Until what age is one still considered a minor? Rav Ḥisda said: A girl until she is three years and one day old, and a boy until he is nine years and one day old, for these are the ages from which a sexual act in which they participate is considered a sexual act. Some say: A girl eleven years and one day old and a boy of twelve years and one day old, as that is the age at which they are considered adults in this regard. This age is only approximate, as the age of majority for both this, the boy, and that, the girl, is at the onset of puberty in accordance with the verse: “Your breasts were formed and your hair was grown” (Ezekiel 16:7).

אמר ליה רב כהנא לרב אשי התם אמר רבא אף על גב דתיובתא דשמואל הלכתא כוותיה דשמואל הכא מאי אמר ליה אטו כולהו בחדא מחתא מחתינהו אלא היכא דאיתמר איתמר והיכא דלא איתמר לא איתמר

Rav Kahana said to Rav Ashi: There, with regard to the law of phylacteries, Rava said: Despite a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. Here, what is the ruling? He said to him: Were all of them woven in the same act of weaving? Are there no distinctions between different cases? Rather, where it is stated, it is stated, and where it is not stated, it is not stated, and there is no comparison.

אמר ליה רב מרי לרב פפא שער יוצא בבגדו מהו קרא עליה שער שער:

Rav Mari said to Rav Pappa: Does it constitute nakedness if one’s pubic hair protruded from his garment? Rav Pappa said about him: A hair, a hair. You are splitting hairs and being pedantic over trivialities.

אמר ר׳ יצחק טפח באשה ערוה למאי אילימא לאסתכולי בה והא אמר רב ששת למה מנה הכתוב תכשיטין שבחוץ עם תכשיטין שבפנים לומר לך כל המסתכל באצבע קטנה של אשה כאילו מסתכל במקום התורף

Rabbi Yitzḥak stated: An exposed handbreadth in a woman constitutes nakedness. The Gemara asks: Regarding which halakha was this said? If you say that it comes to prohibit looking at an exposed handbreadth in her, didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Why did the verse enumerate “anklets and bracelets, rings, earrings and girdles” (Numbers 31:50), jewelry that is worn externally, over her clothing, e.g., bracelets, together with jewelry worn internally, beneath her clothing, near her nakedness, e.g., girdles? This was to tell you: Anyone who gazes upon a woman’s little finger is considered as if he gazed upon her naked genitals, for if his intentions are impure, it makes no difference where he looks or how much is exposed; even less than a handbreadth.

אלא באשתו ולקריאת שמע

Rather, it is referring even to his wife, with regard to the recitation of Shema. One may not recite Shema before an exposed handbreadth of his wife.

אמר רב חסדא שוק באשה ערוה שנאמר גלי שוק עברי נהרות וכתיב תגל ערותך וגם תראה חרפתך אמר שמואל קול באשה ערוה שנאמר כי קולך ערב ומראך נאוה אמר רב ששת שער באשה ערוה שנאמר שערך כעדר העזים:

Along these lines, Rav Ḥisda said: Even a woman’s exposed leg is considered nakedness, as it is stated: “Uncover the leg and pass through the rivers” (Isaiah 47:2), and it is written in the following verse: “Your nakedness shall be revealed and your shame shall be seen” (Isaiah 47:3). Shmuel further stated: A woman’s singing voice is considered nakedness, which he derives from the praise accorded a woman’s voice, as it is stated: “Sweet is your voice and your countenance is alluring” (Song of Songs 2:14). Similarly, Rav Sheshet stated: Even a woman’s hair is considered nakedness, for it too is praised, as it is written: “Your hair is like a flock of goats, trailing down from Mount Gilead” (Song of Songs 4:1).

אמר רבי חנינא אני ראיתי את רבי שתלה תפיליו מיתיבי התולה תפיליו יתלו לו חייו

The Gemara resumes its discussion of phylacteries. Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hang his phylacteries. The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita that one who hangs his phylacteries will have his life hang in the balance.

דורשי חמורות אמרו והיו חייך תלאים לך מנגד זה התולה תפיליו

Moreover, the Symbolic Interpreters of the Torah said that the verse: “And your life shall hang in doubt before you [minneged]” (Deuteronomy 28:66), that is the punishment of one who hangs his phylacteries.

לא קשיא הא ברצועה הא בקציצה

The Gemara replies: This apparent contradiction is not difficult, as this baraita, which condemns one who hangs his phylacteries, refers to one who hangs them by the strap, allowing the leather boxes into which the parchment is placed to dangle in a deprecating way, which is certainly prohibited. That baraita, which relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would hang his phylacteries and that it is clearly permitted, refers to when one hangs them from the box with the straps dangling.

ואיבעית אימא לא שנא רצועה ולא שנא קציצה אסור וכי תלה רבי בכיסתא תלה

And if you wish, say another explanation instead: There is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the strap and there is no difference whether he hangs the phylacteries from the box; both are prohibited. And when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hung his phylacteries, he hung them in their pouch.

אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא תיבעי הנחה כספר תורה קא משמע לן:

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose to relate that incident? The Gemara replies: Lest you say that phylacteries would require placement atop a surface, as is the custom with a Torah scroll. Therefore, it teaches us that this is unnecessary.

ואמר רבי חנינא אני ראיתי את רבי שגיהק ופיהק ונתעטש ורק

Since Rabbi Ḥanina related a story involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara cites another such story. Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, while he was praying, belch, yawn, sneeze, spit,

וממשמש בבגדו אבל לא היה מתעטף וכשהוא מפהק היה מניח ידו על סנטרו

and if he was stung by a louse, he may feel for it and remove it with his garment, but he would not wrap himself in his prayer shawl if it fell during prayer. And when he would yawn he would place his hand on his chin so that his open mouth would not be visible.

מיתיבי המשמיע קולו בתפלתו הרי זה מקטני אמנה המגביה קולו בתפלתו הרי זה מנביאי השקר

The Gemara raises an objection based on a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith, as he seems to believe that the Lord cannot hear his prayer when it is uttered silently. One who raises his voice during prayer is considered to be among the false prophets, as they too were wont to cry out and shout to their gods.

מגהק ומפהק הרי זה מגסי הרוח המתעטש בתפלתו סימן רע לו ויש אומרים ניכר שהוא מכוער הרק בתפלתו כאילו רק בפני המלך

Furthermore, one who belches and yawns while praying is surely among the uncouth. One who sneezes during his prayer, for him it is a bad omen. And some say: It is clear that he is repulsive. Also, one who spits during prayer, it is tantamount to spitting in the face of the king. In light of all this, how could Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi have done all that while praying?

בשלמא מגהק ומפהק לא קשיא כאן לאונסו כאן לרצונו אלא מתעטש אמתעטש קשיא

The Gemara explains: Granted, with regard to one who belches and yawns, it is not difficult: Here, in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so, it was involuntary and therefore permissible; here, where it is considered uncouth, is in a case where it is deliberate. However, the contradiction between sneezing in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and sneezing where it is considered a bad omen is difficult.

מתעטש אמתעטש נמי לא קשיא כאן מלמעלה כאן מלמטה דאמר רב זירא הא מילתא אבלעא לי בי רב המנונא ותקילא לי כי כולי תלמודאי המתעטש בתפלתו סימן יפה לו כשם שעושים לו נחת רוח מלמטה כך עושים לו נחת רוח מלמעלה

The Gemara responds: The contradiction between sneezing in one case and sneezing in the other case is also not difficult: Here, in the case of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, it is referring to sneezing from above, his nose; here, where it is a bad omen, is referring to sneezing from below, flatulence. As Rav Zeira said: In the school of Rav Hamnuna I absorbed this matter in passing, and it is equal in significance to all the rest of my learning: One who sneezes in the midst of prayer, it is a good omen for him. Just as the sneeze soothes his irritation, giving him pleasure below, it is a sign that they are similarly giving him pleasure above. Since Rav Zeira sneezed often, he was extremely pleased to hear this.

אלא רק ארק קשיא רק ארק נמי לא קשיא אפשר כדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה היה עומד בתפילה ונזדמן לו רוק מבליעו בטליתו ואם טלית נאה הוא מבליעו באפרקסותו רבינא הוה קאי אחורי רב אשי נזדמן לו רוק פתקיה לאחוריה אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא רב יהודה מבליעו באפרקסותו אמר ליה אנא אנינא דעתאי:

However, The contradiction between spitting in the case where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so and spitting where it is deemed tantamount to spitting in the face of the king is difficult. The Gemara replies: The contradiction between spitting in one case and spitting in the other case is also not difficult, as it is possible to resolve it in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: One who was standing in prayer, and saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, he absorbs it in his garment. And if it was a fine garment and he does not want it to become sullied, he may cover it up in his head covering. That way, one is permitted to spit. The Gemara relates: Ravina was standing behind Rav Ashi during prayer when saliva happened to accumulate in his mouth, so he discharged it behind him. Rav Ashi said to him: And does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Yehuda, who said that one absorbs it in his head covering? He said to him: I am delicate, and the mere knowledge that there is spittle in my head covering disturbs my prayer.

המשמיע קולו בתפלתו הרי זה מקטני אמנה אמר רב הונא לא שנו אלא שיכול לכוון את לבו בלחש אבל אין יכול לכוון את לבו בלחש מותר והני מילי ביחיד אבל בציבור אתי למיטרד ציבורא:

It was taught in a baraita: One who sounds his voice during his Amida prayer is among those of little faith. Rav Huna said: This was only taught in a case where one is able to focus his heart while praying silently, but if he is unable to focus his heart while praying silently, he is permitted to sound his voice. This applies only to one praying alone, but when he is praying in a congregation his voice will come to disturb the congregation and it is prohibited.

רבי אבא הוה קא משתמיט מיניה דרב יהודה דהוה קא בעי למיסק לארעא דישראל דאמר רב יהודה כל העולה מבבל לארץ ישראל עובר בעשה שנאמר בבלה יובאו ושמה יהיו עד יום פקדי אותם נאם ה׳ אמר איזיל ואשמע מיניה מילתא מבית וועדא והדר אפיק

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Abba was avoiding being seen by his teacher Rav Yehuda, as Rabbi Abba sought to ascend to Eretz Yisrael and his teacher disapproved, as Rav Yehuda said: Anyone who ascends from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a positive commandment, as it is stated: “They shall be taken to Babylonia and there they shall remain until the day that I recall them, said the Lord” (Jeremiah 27:22). Rabbi Abba did not want to discuss his desire to emigrate with Rav Yehuda. Nevertheless he said: I will go and hear something from him at the hall where the Sages assemble, without being seen, and afterwards I will leave Babylonia.

אזל אשכחיה לתנא דקתני קמיה דרב יהודה היה עומד בתפלה ונתעטש ממתין עד שיכלה הרוח וחוזר ומתפלל איכא דאמרי היה עומד בתפלה וביקש להתעטש מרחיק לאחריו ארבע אמות ומתעטש וממתין עד שיכלה הרוח וחוזר ומתפלל ואומר רבונו של עולם יצרתנו נקבים נקבים חלולים חלולים גלוי וידוע לפניך חרפתנו וכלימתנו בחיינו ובאחריתנו רמה ותולעה ומתחיל ממקום שפסק

He went and found the tanna, who recites the tannaitic sources before the study hall, reciting the following baraita before Rav Yehuda: One who was standing in prayer and sneezed from below waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. Some say: One who was standing in prayer when he felt the need to sneeze from below, retreats four cubits, sneezes, waits until the odor dissipates and resumes praying. And before resuming his prayer, he says: Master of the universe, You have formed us with many orifices and cavities; our disgrace and shame in life are clear and evident before You, as is our destiny with maggots and worms, and so we should not be judged harshly. And he resumes his prayer from where he stopped.

אמר ליה אילו לא באתי אלא לשמוע דבר זה דיי:

Rabbi Abba said to him: Had I only come to the assembly of the Sages to hear this teaching, it would have been sufficient for me.

תנו רבנן היה ישן בטליתו ואינו יכול להוציא את ראשו מפני הצנה חוצץ בטליתו על צוארו וקורא קריאת שמע ויש אומרים על לבו

The Sages taught: One who was sleeping unclothed, but was covered with his garment, and he is unable to stick his head out from under the garment because of the cold, may form a barrier with his garment at his neck and recite Shema in bed. And some say: He must form a barrier with his garment at his heart.

ותנא קמא הרי לבו רואה את הערוה קסבר לבו רואה את הערוה מותר

The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, shouldn’t he be prohibited from reciting Shema because his heart sees his nakedness, as there is no barrier between them? The Gemara responds: Indeed, the first tanna holds that when one’s heart sees his nakedness, it is permitted to recite Shema, and a barrier is only necessary to separate between his mouth and his nakedness.

אמר רב הונא אמר רבי יוחנן היה מהלך במבואות המטונפות מניח ידו על פיו וקורא קריאת שמע אמר ליה רב חסדא האלהים אם אמרה לי רבי יוחנן בפומיה לא צייתנא ליה

Rav Huna said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav Ḥisda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yoḥanan had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

איכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי היה מהלך במבואות המטונפות מניח ידו על פיו וקורא קריאת שמע אמר ליה רב חסדא האלהים אם אמרה לי רבי יהושע בן לוי בפומיה לא צייתנא ליה

Some say this halakha: Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who was walking in alleyways filthy with human excrement and he must recite Shema, he places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. Rav Ḥisda said to him: By God! Even if Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi had said it to me directly, with his own mouth, I would not have obeyed him.

ומי אמר רב הונא הכי והאמר רב הונא תלמיד חכם אסור לו לעמוד במקום הטנופת לפי שאי אפשר לו לעמוד בלי הרהור תורה לא קשיא כאן בעומד כאן במהלך

The Gemara challenges this: Did Rav Huna really say that? Didn’t Rav Huna say: A Torah scholar is prohibited from standing in a place of filth, as he is unable to stand without contemplating Torah, and uttering Shema orally is graver than mere contemplation. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult; here, Rav Huna prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing in a place of filth, while here he permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking through a place of filth.

ומי אמר רבי יוחנן הכי והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר בדברי תורה חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא וכי תימא הכא נמי כאן בעומד כאן במהלך איני והא רבי אבהו הוה קא אזיל בתריה דרבי יוחנן והוה קא קרי קריאת שמע כי מטא במבואות המטונפות אשתיק אמר ליה לרבי יוחנן להיכן אהדר אמר ליה אם שהית כדי לגמור את כולה חזור לראש

The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Yoḥanan really say that? Didn’t Rabba bar bar Ḥana say that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except the bathhouse and the bathroom? Consequently, it is prohibited to even contemplate Torah in a place of filth. And if you say: Here, too, there is a distinction between the two cases, here, Rabbi Yoḥanan prohibited contemplating Torah in a case where one is standing; here, Rabbi Yoḥanan permitted to recite Shema in a case where one is walking, is that so? Wasn’t Rabbi Abbahu walking after Rabbi Yoḥanan and reciting Shema, and when he reached a filthy alleyway he fell silent and stopped reciting Shema. When they emerged, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: To where in Shema should I return and resume reciting it? Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: If you delayed continuing Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there. From the fact that Rabbi Yoḥanan did not admonish him for interrupting his recitation, apparently he, too, prohibits reciting Shema while walking through a filthy alleyway.

הכי קאמר ליה לדידי לא סבירא לי לדידך דסבירא לך אם שהית כדי לגמור את כולה חזור לראש

The Gemara responds: This is not a proof, as he says to him as follows: I do not hold that one must interrupt the recitation of Shema in this case, but for you, who holds that one must, if you delayed Shema for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and recite it from there.

תניא כותיה דרב הונא תניא כותיה דרב חסדא תניא כותיה דרב הונא המהלך במבואות המטונפות מניח ידו על פיו ויקרא קריאת שמע תניא כותיה דרב חסדא היה מהלך במבואות המטונפות לא יקרא קריאת שמע ולא עוד אלא שאם היה קורא ובא פוסק

The Gemara cites tannaitic sources to corroborate both the lenient and the stringent opinions. It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna: One who was walking in filthy alleyways places his hand over his mouth and recites Shema. It was taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Ḥisda: One who was walking in filthy alleyways may not recite Shema. Furthermore, if he was in the course of reciting Shema when he reached a filthy alleyway, he stops his recitation at that point.

לא פסק מאי אמר רבי מיאשה בר בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי עליו הכתוב אומר וגם אני נתתי להם חקים לא טובים ומשפטים לא יחיו בהם

The Gemara asks: If one did not stop, what is his status? Rabbi Meyasha, son of the son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: Of him the verse says: “Moreover, I gave them statutes that were not good and laws by which they could not live” (Ezekiel 20:25), as in this case following these statutes and laws led to sin, not to mitzva.

רב אסי אמר הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא רב אדא בר אהבה אמר מהכא כי דבר ה׳ בזה

Rav Asi said that this is derived from the verse: “Woe to those who draw iniquity with cords of vanity” (Isaiah 5:18), meaning that this man brings sin upon himself for naught. Rav Adda bar Ahava said it is derived from here: “For he has shown contempt for the word of the Lord” (Numbers 15:31), meaning that uttering God’s word in a place of filth shows contempt for the Lord.

ואם פסק מה שכרו אמר רבי אבהו עליו הכתוב אומר ובדבר הזה תאריכו ימים:

The Gemara asks: And if he stopped his recitation, what is his reward? Rabbi Abbahu said: Of him the verse says: “And it is through this matter that you will prolong your days” (Deuteronomy 32:47), meaning that by being careful with one’s speech one merits longevity.

אמר רב הונא היתה טליתו חגורה לו על מתניו מותר לקרות קריאת שמע תניא נמי הכי היתה טליתו של בגד ושל עור ושל שק חגורה על מתניו מותר לקרות קריאת שמע

Rav Huna said: One whose garment was tied around his waist, even if he was bare above the waist, is permitted to recite Shema. Indeed, that opinion was also taught in a baraita: One whose garment made of cloth, of leather, of sack or of any other material was strapped around his waist, he is permitted to recite Shema.

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