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Today's Daf Yomi

January 31, 2020 | ื”ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืดืค

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua vโ€™ Elana Malka. "ื” ื ืชืŸ ื•ื” ืœืงื—. ื™ื”ื™ ืฉื ื” ืžื‘ื•ืจืš"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Berakhot 28

The story continues with Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria being chosen – he consults with his wife who warns against taking the job for two reasons. The second one (of being too young and may not be resopected) is no longer an issue when he magically grows 18 rows of white hairs. He accepts the job. He opens the doors to the Beit Midrash as Rabban Gamliel had a guard who would only let in people whose insides wewre like their outsides. On that day, so much Torah was learned, include masechet eduyot, and many halachic issues were resolved. Rabban Gamliel feels like he may ahve been wrong, especially after he loses and argument to Rabbi Yehoshua regarding accepting a convert from Amon. He makes peace with RabbืŸ Yehoshua and then they need to convince the rabbis to take Rabban Gamliele back and they eventually agree to let him be in charge three weeks and keep Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria for one week so as not to demote him entirely. If one needs to pray mincha and musaf, which comes first? What is said about one who doesn’t pray within the time frame alloted by Rabbi Yehuda? Can one eat before musaf? Before mincha? Rabbi Nechunia ben HaKane would say a prayer on entering and on leaving the beit midrash – what would he say? The gemara tells of the last words of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai before their deaths. What does one say daily – all 18 blessings of shmone esreh or a shortened version or does it depend (on what?)? There is a debate regarding this issue. Rabbi Eliezer says that one must make sure not to make prayer too set and static. In which direction does one face? What if one is traveling and can’t? Why 18 blessings? One needs to bow in prayer- how far down? Why 18 – isn’t it 19?

 

ืชื•ื›ืŸ ื–ื” ืชื•ืจื’ื ื’ื ืœ: ืขื‘ืจื™ืช

ื“ืœืžื ืžืขื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœืฉืชืžืฉ ืื™ื ืฉ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ื ื‘ื›ืกื ื“ืžื•ืงืจื ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ืœื™ืชื‘ืจ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืœื™ืช ืœืš ื—ื™ื•ืจืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ืจ ืชืžื ื™ ืกืจื™ ืฉื ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ืœื™ื” ื ื™ืกื ื•ืื”ื“ืจื• ืœื™ื” ืชืžื ื™ ืกืจื™ ื“ืจื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจืชื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ืจื™ ืื ื™ ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื”

There is room for concern. Perhaps they will remove you from office just as they removed Rabban Gamliel. He said to her, based on the folk saying: Let a person use an expensive goblet one day and let it break tomorrow. In other words, one should take advantage of an opportunity that presents itself and he need not concern himself whether or not it will last. She said to him: You have no white hair, and it is inappropriate for one so young to head the Sages. The Gemara relates: That day, he was eighteen years old, a miracle transpired for him and eighteen rows of hair turned white. The Gemara comments: That explains that which Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: I am as one who is seventy years old and he did not say: I am seventy years old, because he looked older than he actually was.

ืชื ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืกืœืงื•ื”ื• ืœืฉื•ืžืจ ื”ืคืชื— ื•ื ืชื ื” ืœื”ื ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืœื™ื›ื ืก ืฉื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžื›ืจื™ื– ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชื•ื›ื• ื›ื‘ืจื• ืœื ื™ื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ

It was taught: On that day that they removed Rabban Gamliel from his position and appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya in his place, there was also a fundamental change in the general approach of the study hall as they dismissed the guard at the door and permission was granted to the students to enter. Instead of Rabban Gamlielโ€™s selective approach that asserted that the students must be screened before accepting them into the study hall, the new approach asserted that anyone who seeks to study should be given opportunity to do so. As Rabban Gamliel would proclaim and say: Any student whose inside, his thoughts and feelings, are not like his outside, i.e., his conduct and his character traits are lacking, will not enter the study hall.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ืืชื•ืกืคื• ื›ืžื” ืกืคืกืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืื‘ื ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืกืชืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืืชื•ืกืคื• ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื” ืกืคืกืœื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืžืื” ืกืคืกืœื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื—ืœืฉื” ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืืžืจ ื“ืœืžื ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ืžื ืขืชื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื—ื–ื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ืœืžื™ื” ื—ืฆื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื™ ื“ืžืœื™ื™ืŸ ืงื˜ืžื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืœื™ืชื•ื‘ื™ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืื—ื–ื• ืœื™ื”

The Gemara relates: On that day several benches were added to the study hall to accommodate the numerous students. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Abba Yosef ben Dostai and the Rabbis disputed this matter. One said: Four hundred benches were added to the study hall. And one said: Seven hundred benches were added to the study hall. When he saw the tremendous growth in the number of students, Rabban Gamliel was disheartened. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I prevented Israel from engaging in Torah study. They showed him in his dream white jugs filled with ashes alluding to the fact that the additional students were worthless idlers. The Gemara comments: That is not the case, but that dream was shown to him to ease his mind so that he would not feel bad.

ืชื ื ืขื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื ืฉื ื™ืช ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ืœื›ื” ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืชืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจืฉื•ื” ื•ืืฃ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื ืžื ืข ืขืฆืžื• ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช

It was taught: There is a tradition that tractate Eduyyot was taught that day. And everywhere in the Mishna or in a baraita that they say: On that day, it is referring to that day. There was no halakha whose ruling was pending in the study hall that they did not explain and arrive at a practical halakhic conclusion. And even Rabban Gamliel did not avoid the study hall for even one moment, as he held no grudge against those who removed him from office and he participated in the halakhic discourse in the study hall as one of the Sages.

ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื’ืจ ืขืžื•ื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ

As we learned in a mishna: On that day, Yehuda, the Ammonite convert, came before the students in the study hall and he said to them: What is my legal status in terms of entering into the congregation of Israel, i.e., to marry a Jewish woman?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืืชื” ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžื•ืชืจ ืืชื” ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ืœื ื™ื‘ื ืขืžื•ื ื™ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ื™ ื‘ืงื”ืœ ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื›ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžืŸ ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื‘ืจ ืขืœื” ืกื ื—ืจื™ื‘ ืžืœืš ืืฉื•ืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืกื™ืจ ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขืžื™ื ื•ืขืชื•ื“ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉื•ืฉืชื™ ื•ืื•ืจื™ื“ ื›ื‘ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ื“ืคืจื™ืฉ ืžืจื•ื‘ื ืคืจื™ืฉ

Rabban Gamliel said to him: You are forbidden to enter into the congregation. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You are permitted to enter into the congregation. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: Wasnโ€™t it already stated: โ€œAn Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the congregation of the Lord foreverโ€ (Deuteronomy 23:4)? How can you permit him to enter the congregation? Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: Do Ammon and Moab reside in their place? Sennacherib already came and, through his policy of population transfer, scrambled all the nations and settled other nations in place of Ammon. Consequently, the current residents of Ammon and Moab are not ethnic Ammonites and Moabites, as it is stated in reference to Sennacherib: โ€œI have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitantsโ€ (Isaiah 10:13). And although it is conceivable that this particular convert is an ethnic Ammonite, nevertheless, there is no need for concern due to the halakhic principle: Anything that parts from a group parts from the majority, and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the congregation.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืืช ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื ืื ื”ืณ ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ื•

Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: But wasnโ€™t it already stated: โ€œBut afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon, says the Lordโ€ (Jeremiah 49:6) and they have already returned to their land? Therefore, he is an ethnic Ammonite and he may not convert.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื”ืœื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื‘ืชื™ ืืช ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืขืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ืฉื‘ื• ืžื™ื“ ื”ืชื™ืจื•ื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ

Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: That is no proof. Wasnโ€™t it already stated in another prophecy: โ€œAnd I will turn the captivity of My people Israel and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of themโ€ (Amos 9:14), and they have not yet returned? In rendering the ruling, only proven facts may be taken into consideration. They immediately permitted him to enter the congregation. This proves that Rabban Gamliel did not absent himself from the study hall that day and participated in the halakhic discourse.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ื•ืืคื™ื™ืกื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื—ื–ื™ื ื”ื• ืœืืฉื™ืชื ื“ื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื“ืžืฉื—ืจืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœื™ ื‘ื™ืชืš ืืชื” ื ื™ื›ืจ ืฉืคื—ืžื™ ืืชื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื“ื•ืจ ืฉืืชื” ืคืจื ืกื• ืฉืื™ ืืชื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืฆืขืจืŸ ืฉืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืžื” ื”ื ืžืชืคืจื ืกื™ื ื•ื‘ืžื” ื”ื ื ื–ื•ื ื™ื

Rabban Gamliel said to himself: Since this is the situation, that the people are following Rabbi Yehoshua, apparently he was right. Therefore, it would be appropriate for me to go and appease Rabbi Yehoshua. When he reached Rabbi Yehoshuaโ€™s house, he saw that the walls of his house were black. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua in wonderment: From the walls of your house it is apparent that you are a blacksmith, as until then he had no idea that Rabbi Yehoshua was forced to engage in that arduous trade in order to make a living. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Woe unto a generation that you are its leader as you are unaware of the difficulties of Torah scholars, how they make a living and how they feed themselves.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื ืขื ื™ืชื™ ืœืš ืžื—ื•ืœ ืœื™ ืœื ืืฉื’ื— ื‘ื™ื” ืขืฉื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื‘ื ืคื™ื™ืก

Rabban Gamliel said to him: I insulted you, forgive me. Rabbi Yehoshua paid him no attention and did not forgive him. He asked him again: Do it in deference to my father, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who was one of the leaders of Israel at the time of the destruction of the Temple. He was appeased.

ืืžืจื• ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื–ื™ืœ ื•ืœื™ืžื ืœื”ื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื‘ืก ืื ื ืื–ื™ืœื ื ืฉืœื— ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื“ื ื™ืœื‘ืฉ ืžื“ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื“ื ื™ื™ืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื“ื ืฉืœื— ืžื“ืš ื•ืื ื ืืœื‘ืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื˜ืจื•ืงื• ื’ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืชื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืœืฆืขืจื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ

Now that Rabbi Yehoshua was no longer offended, it was only natural that Rabban Gamliel would be restored to his position. They said: Who will go and inform the Sages? Apparently, they were not eager to carry out the mission that would undo the previous actions and remove Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya from his position as Nasi. This launderer said to them: I will go. Rabbi Yehoshua sent to the Sages to the study hall: The one who wears the uniform will continue to wear the uniform, the original Nasi will remain in his position so that the one who did not wear the uniform will not say to the one who wears the uniform, remove your uniform and I will wear it. Apparently, the Sages believed that this emissary was dispatched at the initiative of Rabban Gamliel and they ignored him. Rabbi Akiva said to the Sages: Lock the gates so that Rabban Gamlielโ€™s servants will not come and disturb the Sages.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื“ืื™ืงื•ื ื•ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืื ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ื™ื”ื• ืืชื ื˜ืจืฃ ืื‘ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืžื–ื” ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื” ื™ื–ื” ื•ืฉืื™ื ื• ืœื ืžื–ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื” ื™ืืžืจ ืœืžื–ื” ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื” ืžื™ืžื™ืš ืžื™ ืžืขืจื” ื•ืืคืจืš ืืคืจ ืžืงืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื ืชืคื™ื™ืกืช ื›ืœื•ื ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ืš ืœืžื—ืจ ืื ื™ ื•ืืชื” ื ืฉื›ื™ื ืœืคืชื—ื•

When he heard what happened, Rabbi Yehoshua said: It is best if I go to them. He came and knocked on the door. He said to them with a slight variation: One who sprinkles pure water on those who are ritually impure, son of one who sprinkles water shall continue to sprinkle water. And it is inappropriate that he who is neither one who sprinkles nor son of one who sprinkles will say to one who sprinkles son of one who sprinkles: Your water is cave water and not the running water required to purify one exposed to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse and your ashes are burnt ashes and not the ashes of a red heifer. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Rabbi Yehoshua, have you been appeased? Everything we did was to defend your honor. If you have forgiven him, none of us is opposed. Early tomorrow you and I will go to Rabban Gamlielโ€™s doorway and offer to restore him to his position as Nasi.

ืืžืจื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืžืจ ื—ื“ื ืฉื‘ืชื ื•ืžืจ ื—ื“ื ืฉื‘ืชื ืืชื™ ืœืงื ืื•ื™ื™ ืืœื ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืชืœืชื ืฉื‘ืชื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื—ื“ื ืฉื‘ืชื ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืžื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืื•ืชื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ืื™ ื”ื•ื”:

The question arose what to do with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya? They said: What shall we do? Remove him from his position. That is inappropriate as we learned a halakha through tradition: One elevates to a higher level of sanctity and does not downgrade. Therefore, one who was the Nasi of the Sanhedrin cannot be demoted. Let one Sage lecture one week and the other Sage one week, they will come to be jealous one of another, as they will be forced to appoint one as the acting head of the Sanhedrin. Rather, Rabban Gamliel will lecture three weeks and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya will lecture as head of the yeshiva one week. That arrangement was adopted and that is the explanation of the exchange in tractate แธคagiga: Whose week was it? It was the week of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. One final detail: That student who asked the original question that sparked this entire incident was Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai.

ื•ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื: ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ื ืงืจื ืคื•ืฉืข

We learned in the mishna: And the additional prayer may be recited all day. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Nevertheless, one who postpones his prayer excessively is called negligent.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ืฉืชื™ ืชืคืœื•ืช ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ืฉื–ื• ืชื“ื™ืจื” ื•ื–ื• ืื™ื ื” ืชื“ื™ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ืฉื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื•ื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ

The Rabbis taught in a baraita: If the obligation to recite two prayers was before him, one, the afternoon prayer and one, the additional prayer, he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, because this, the afternoon prayer, is recited on a frequent basis, and this one, the additional prayer, is recited on a relatively infrequent basis. Rabbi Yehuda says: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter, because this, the additional prayer, is a mitzva whose time soon elapses, as it may only be recited until the seventh hour and this, the afternoon prayer, is a mitzva whose time does not soon elapse as one may recite it until the midpoint of the afternoon. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The halakha is that he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื—ืœื™ืฉ ืžื’ื™ืจืกื™ื” ื”ื•ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืืคืชื—ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื—ืœืคื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื– ืื™ืงื•ื ืžืงืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืืงื‘ืœ ืื’ืจื ื ืคืง ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืื“ื ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื”

The Gemara cites additional sources relating to this issue: When Rabbi Zeira would tire of his studies, he would go and sit in the doorway of Rabbi Natan bar Toviโ€™s study hall. He said to himself: When the entering and exiting Sages pass, I will rise before them and be rewarded for the mitzva of honoring Torah scholars. Rabbi Natan bar Tovi himself emerged and came to where Rabbi Zeira was seated. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Who just stated a halakha in the study hall? Rabbi Natan bar Tovi said to him: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan just said as follows: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืชื ื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืจื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ืœืš ืื• ื—ื“ืช ื”ื™ื ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื“ืช ื”ื™ื ืœื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืกืคืงื ืœื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™:

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Did Rabbi Yoแธฅanan himself say this halakha? Rabbi Natan said to him: Yes. He learned this statement from him forty times, etching it into his memory. Rabbi Natan said to him: Is this halakha so dear to you because it is singular for you, as it is the only halakha that you learned in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, or is it new to you, as you were previously unaware of this ruling? Rabbi Zeira said to him: It is somewhat new to me, as I was uncertain whether this halakha was said in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan or in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Now it is clear to me that this halakha is in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœื” ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืžืžื•ืขื“ ืืกืคืชื™ ืžืžืš ื”ื™ื• ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื“ื”ืื™ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืชื‘ืจื ื”ื•ื ื›ื“ืžืชืจื’ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืชื‘ืจื ืืชื™ ืขืœ ืฉื ืื™ื”ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœ ื“ืื—ืจื• ื–ืžื ื™ ืžื•ืขื“ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: With regard to anyone who recites the additional prayer after seven hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: โ€œThose who are destroyed [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insultโ€ (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of destruction? As Rav Yosef translated the verse into Aramaic: Destruction comes upon the enemies of the house of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself, for they have delayed the times of the Festivals in Jerusalem. This proves both that nugei means destruction and that destruction comes upon those who fail to fulfill a mitzva at its appointed time.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœื” ืฉืœ ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืžืžื•ืขื“ ืืกืคืชื™ ืžืžืš ื”ื™ื• ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื“ื”ืื™ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืฆืขืจื ื”ื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ืœืคื” ื ืคืฉื™ ืžืชื•ื’ื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ื‘ืชื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ื ื•ื’ื•ืช ื•ื”ื™ื ืžืจ ืœื”

Similarly, Rabbi Elazar said: Regarding anyone who recites the morning prayer after four hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: โ€œThose who are in sorrow [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insultโ€ (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of sorrow? As it is written: โ€œMy soul drips in sorrow [tuga]โ€ (Psalms 119:28). Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: The proof that nugei indicates suffering is from here: โ€œHer virgins are sorrowed [nugot] and she is embitteredโ€ (Lamentations 1:4).

ืจื‘ ืื•ื™ื ื—ืœืฉ ื•ืœื ืืชื ืœืคืจืงื ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื—ืจ ื›ื™ ืืชื ื‘ืขื ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืื ื•ื—ื™ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืชื ืžืจ ืœืคืจืงื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ื—ืœื™ืฉ ืœื‘ืื™ ื•ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืื™ ืœื ื˜ืขืžืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ืืชื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืกื•ืจ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ื˜ืขื•ื ื›ืœื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืžืจ ืœืฆืœื•ื™ื™ ืฆืœื•ืชื ื“ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ืœื˜ืขื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ืงื“ื™ื ืชืคืœืชื• ืœืชืคืœืช ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืืชืžืจ ืขืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื ื•

After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosefโ€™s Shabbat lecture. When Rav Avya came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avyaโ€™s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef.
To this end, he asked him: Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture?
Rav Avya said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable to attend.
Abaye said to him: Why did you not eat something and come?
Rav Avya said to him: Does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer.
Abaye said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and then come to the lecture.
Rav Avya said to him: Does my Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: A person may not recite his individual prayer prior to the communal prayer?
Abaye said to him: Was it not stated regarding this halakha, Rabbi Abba said: They taught this in a communal setting?
In other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion.

ื•ืœื™ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœื ื›ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ืชืคืœืช ืžื ื—ื” ืืกื•ืจ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ื˜ืขื•ื ื›ืœื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื ื—ื”:

And the Gemara summarizes: The halakha is neither in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna nor in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara explains: It is not in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as we said above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time to recite the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืŸ ื”ืงื ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืชืคืœืœ ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืชื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ืชืคืœื” ืงืฆืจื” ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืžื” ืžืงื•ื ืœืชืคืœื” ื–ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืชื™ ืื ื™ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœื ื™ืืจืข ื“ื‘ืจ ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื™ ืื ื™ ื ื•ืชืŸ ื”ื•ื“ืื” ืขืœ ื—ืœืงื™:

MISHNA: In addition to the halakhot relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Neแธฅunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire caused by me in the study hall. And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืชื• ืžื”ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืžืœืคื ื™ืš ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืืจืข ื“ื‘ืจ ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื•ืœื ืื›ืฉืœ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื™ืฉืžื—ื• ื‘ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื˜ืžื ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืœื ืขืœ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื˜ืžื ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืฉืœื• ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ืืฉืžื— ื‘ื”ื

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita the complete formula of Rabbi Neแธฅunya ben Hakanaโ€™s prayer: Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap in determining the halakha transpires caused by me, and that I not fail in any matter of halakha, and that my colleagues, who together with me engage in clarifying the halakha, will rejoice in me. He specified: And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor declare impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of halakha, and that I will rejoice in them.

ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ืžื”ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืžื•ื“ื” ืื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ืš ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ ืฉืฉืžืช ื—ืœืงื™ ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื•ืœื ืฉืžืช ื—ืœืงื™ ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืงืจื ื•ืช ืฉืื ื™ ืžืฉื›ื™ื ื•ื”ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ื ืื ื™ ืžืฉื›ื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ื”ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื˜ืœื™ื ืื ื™ ืขืžืœ ื•ื”ื ืขืžืœื™ื ืื ื™ ืขืžืœ ื•ืžืงื‘ืœ ืฉื›ืจ ื•ื”ื ืขืžืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืฉื›ืจ ืื ื™ ืจืฅ ื•ื”ื ืจืฆื™ื ืื ื™ ืจืฅ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ื”ื ืจืฆื™ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื—ืช:

Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit idly on street corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to pursue matters of Torah, and they rise early to pursue frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืฉื—ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื ื›ื ืกื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืœื‘ืงืจื• ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืœืžื“ื ื• ืื•ืจื—ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื ื–ื›ื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, guidelines by which to live, and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื›ื ื•ืžื ืขื• ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื›ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ื›ืฉืืชื ืžืชืคืœืœื™ื ื“ืขื• ืœืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืืชื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื›ืš ืชื–ื›ื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic when studying verses that tend toward heresy (geโ€™onim), and place your children, while they are still young, between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For doing that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come.

ื•ื›ืฉื—ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ื ื›ื ืกื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืœื‘ืงืจื• ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืจืื” ืื•ืชื ื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืœื‘ื›ื•ืช ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ื ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื™ ืคื˜ื™ืฉ ื”ื—ื–ืง ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืืชื” ื‘ื•ื›ื”

A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezerโ€™s mentor, Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai: When Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, the man whose lifeโ€™s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, for what reason are you crying? With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื™ืœื• ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœืš ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื™ ืฉื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืืŸ ื•ืžื—ืจ ื‘ืงื‘ืจ ืฉืื ื›ื•ืขืก ืขืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ื›ืขืกื• ื›ืขืก ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืื•ืกืจื ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจื• ืื™ืกื•ืจ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืžืžื™ืชื ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืžื™ืชืชื• ืžื™ืชืช ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื™ื™ืกื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืœืฉื—ื“ื• ื‘ืžืžื•ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ื ืื•ืชื™ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœืš ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ืงื™ื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื•ืœืขื•ืœืžื™ ืขื•ืœืžื™ื ืฉืื ื›ื•ืขืก ืขืœื™ ื›ืขืกื• ื›ืขืก ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืื•ืกืจื ื™ ืื™ืกื•ืจื• ืื™ืกื•ืจ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืžืžื™ืชื ื™ ืžื™ืชืชื• ืžื™ืชืช ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื™ื™ืกื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืœื ืœืฉื—ื“ื• ื‘ืžืžื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื’ืŸ ืขื“ืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื’ื™ื”ื ื ื•ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ื ืื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืื‘ื›ื”

He said to them: I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king whose life is temporal, who is here today and dead in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, I am able to appease him with words and even bribe him with money, and even so I would cry when standing before royal judgment. Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry?

ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืจื›ื ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉืชื”ื ืžื•ืจื ืฉืžื™ื ืขืœื™ื›ื ื›ืžื•ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื•ืœื•ืื™ ืชื“ืขื• ื›ืฉืื“ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœื ื™ืจืื ื™ ืื“ื

His students said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be His will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students were puzzled and said: To that point and not beyond? Shouldnโ€™t one fear God more? He said to them: Would that a person achieve that level of fear. Know that when one commits a transgression, he says to himself: I hope that no man will see me. If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.

ื‘ืฉืขืช ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืคื ื• ื›ืœื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ื ื• ื›ืกื ืœื—ื–ืงื™ื”ื• ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ื:

The Gemara relates that at the time of his death, immediately beforehand, he said to them: Remove the vessels from the house and take them outside due to the ritual impurity that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming from the upper world to accompany me.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ื™ื•ื ืžืชืคืœืœ ืื“ื ืฉืžื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื ืฉื’ื•ืจื” ืชืคืœืชื• ื‘ืคื™ื• ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื•ืื ืœืื• ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื”

MISHNA: The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the Amida prayer, also known as Shemoneh Esreh, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as tefilla, prayer. Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says an intermediate opinion: If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the prayer of eighteen blessings, and if not, he need only recite an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืชืคืœืชื• ืงื‘ืข ืื™ืŸ ืชืคืœืชื• ืชื—ื ื•ื ื™ื

Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื”ื•ืœืš ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืกื›ื ื” ืžืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœื” ืงืฆืจื” ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ืณ ืืช ืขืžืš ืืช ืฉืืจื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืคืจืฉืช ื”ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืฆืจื›ื™ื”ื ืœืคื ื™ืš ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ื”ืณ ืฉื•ืžืข ืชืคืœื”

Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who cannot recite a complete prayer because he is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remnant of Israel, at every transition [parashat haโ€™ibur], the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer.

ื”ื™ื” ืจื•ื›ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื™ืจื“ ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ืจื“ ื™ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ืคื ื™ื• ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ืคื ื™ื• ื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ืœื‘ื• ื›ื ื’ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืกืคื™ื ื” ืื• ื‘ืืกื“ื ื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ืœื‘ื• ื›ื ื’ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉื™ื:

While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray calmly. If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face toward the direction of the Temple. If he is unable to turn his face, it is sufficient that he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. Similarly, one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [asda] and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.

ื’ืžืณ ื”ื ื™ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื™

GEMARA: Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the Amida prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. Corresponding to what were these eighteen blessings instituted? When the Shemoneh Esreh was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืฉืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ื‘ื”ื‘ื• ืœื”ืณ ื‘ื ื™ ืืœื™ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืจื”

Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name that King David said in the psalm: โ€œGive unto the Lord, O you sons of mightโ€ (Psalms 29). Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name in Shema. Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine beneath the ribs.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื”ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื›ืจืข ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชืคืงืงื• ื›ืœ ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืจื”

Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviโ€™s opinion based the Amida prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In those blessings where one is required to bow, one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude.

ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืจืื” ืื™ืกืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืœื‘ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื ืขื ืข ืจืืฉื• ืฉื•ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืžืฆืขืจ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื™ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ื›ืจืข

Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, Ulla said: Until he can see a small coin [issar], on the ground before him opposite his heart (Rav Hai Gaon). Rabbi แธคanina said: There is room for leniency; once he moves his head forward, he need not bow any further. Rava said: But that applies only if he is exerting himself when doing so, and he appears like one who is bowing. However, if he is able, he should bow further.

ื”ื ื™ ืชืžื ื™ ืกืจื™ ืชืฉืกืจื™ ื”ื•ื•ื™ืŸ

Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are these eighteen blessings? They are nineteen.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื•ื™ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื‘ื ื” ืชืงื ื•ื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื™ ืชืงื ื•ื”

Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, which curses informers, was instituted in Yavne and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: Corresponding to what was this nineteenth blessing instituted?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื•ื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื”ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืจืขื™ื ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืื—ื“ ืฉื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ืœืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ื—ื•ืœื™ื ืงื˜ื ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืจื”:

Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing corresponds to a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: โ€œThe God of glory thundersโ€ (Psalms 29:3). According to Rav Yosef, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name in Shema, the additional blessing corresponds to the word one that is in Shema. Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. According to what Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing corresponds to the small vertebra that is at the bottom of the spine.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ืคืงื•ืœื™ ื”ืกื“ื™ืจ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื‘ื™ื‘ื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ืื“ื ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืชืงืŸ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ื ืขืžื“ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ืชืงื ื”

In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings, already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, before Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in order in Yavne. Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, a blessing directed against the Sadducees? Shmuel HaKatan, who was one of the most pious men of that generation, stood and instituted it.

ืœืฉื ื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉื›ื—ื”

The Gemara relates: The next year, when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, he forgot that blessing,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua vโ€™ Elana Malka. "ื” ื ืชืŸ ื•ื” ืœืงื—. ื™ื”ื™ ืฉื ื” ืžื‘ื•ืจืš"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

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Berakhot 28

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Berakhot 28

ื“ืœืžื ืžืขื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœืฉืชืžืฉ ืื™ื ืฉ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ื ื‘ื›ืกื ื“ืžื•ืงืจื ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ืœื™ืชื‘ืจ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืœื™ืช ืœืš ื—ื™ื•ืจืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ืจ ืชืžื ื™ ืกืจื™ ืฉื ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ืœื™ื” ื ื™ืกื ื•ืื”ื“ืจื• ืœื™ื” ืชืžื ื™ ืกืจื™ ื“ืจื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจืชื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ืจื™ ืื ื™ ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื”

There is room for concern. Perhaps they will remove you from office just as they removed Rabban Gamliel. He said to her, based on the folk saying: Let a person use an expensive goblet one day and let it break tomorrow. In other words, one should take advantage of an opportunity that presents itself and he need not concern himself whether or not it will last. She said to him: You have no white hair, and it is inappropriate for one so young to head the Sages. The Gemara relates: That day, he was eighteen years old, a miracle transpired for him and eighteen rows of hair turned white. The Gemara comments: That explains that which Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: I am as one who is seventy years old and he did not say: I am seventy years old, because he looked older than he actually was.

ืชื ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืกืœืงื•ื”ื• ืœืฉื•ืžืจ ื”ืคืชื— ื•ื ืชื ื” ืœื”ื ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ืœื™ื›ื ืก ืฉื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžื›ืจื™ื– ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชื•ื›ื• ื›ื‘ืจื• ืœื ื™ื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ

It was taught: On that day that they removed Rabban Gamliel from his position and appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya in his place, there was also a fundamental change in the general approach of the study hall as they dismissed the guard at the door and permission was granted to the students to enter. Instead of Rabban Gamlielโ€™s selective approach that asserted that the students must be screened before accepting them into the study hall, the new approach asserted that anyone who seeks to study should be given opportunity to do so. As Rabban Gamliel would proclaim and say: Any student whose inside, his thoughts and feelings, are not like his outside, i.e., his conduct and his character traits are lacking, will not enter the study hall.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ืืชื•ืกืคื• ื›ืžื” ืกืคืกืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืื‘ื ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืกืชืื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืืชื•ืกืคื• ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื” ืกืคืกืœื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืžืื” ืกืคืกืœื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื—ืœืฉื” ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืืžืจ ื“ืœืžื ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ืžื ืขืชื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื—ื–ื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ืœืžื™ื” ื—ืฆื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื™ ื“ืžืœื™ื™ืŸ ืงื˜ืžื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืœื™ืชื•ื‘ื™ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืื—ื–ื• ืœื™ื”

The Gemara relates: On that day several benches were added to the study hall to accommodate the numerous students. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Abba Yosef ben Dostai and the Rabbis disputed this matter. One said: Four hundred benches were added to the study hall. And one said: Seven hundred benches were added to the study hall. When he saw the tremendous growth in the number of students, Rabban Gamliel was disheartened. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I prevented Israel from engaging in Torah study. They showed him in his dream white jugs filled with ashes alluding to the fact that the additional students were worthless idlers. The Gemara comments: That is not the case, but that dream was shown to him to ease his mind so that he would not feel bad.

ืชื ื ืขื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื ืฉื ื™ืช ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ืœื›ื” ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืชืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจืฉื•ื” ื•ืืฃ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื ืžื ืข ืขืฆืžื• ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช

It was taught: There is a tradition that tractate Eduyyot was taught that day. And everywhere in the Mishna or in a baraita that they say: On that day, it is referring to that day. There was no halakha whose ruling was pending in the study hall that they did not explain and arrive at a practical halakhic conclusion. And even Rabban Gamliel did not avoid the study hall for even one moment, as he held no grudge against those who removed him from office and he participated in the halakhic discourse in the study hall as one of the Sages.

ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื’ืจ ืขืžื•ื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ

As we learned in a mishna: On that day, Yehuda, the Ammonite convert, came before the students in the study hall and he said to them: What is my legal status in terms of entering into the congregation of Israel, i.e., to marry a Jewish woman?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืืชื” ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžื•ืชืจ ืืชื” ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ืœื ื™ื‘ื ืขืžื•ื ื™ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ื™ ื‘ืงื”ืœ ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื›ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžืŸ ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื‘ืจ ืขืœื” ืกื ื—ืจื™ื‘ ืžืœืš ืืฉื•ืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืกื™ืจ ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขืžื™ื ื•ืขืชื•ื“ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉื•ืฉืชื™ ื•ืื•ืจื™ื“ ื›ื‘ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ื“ืคืจื™ืฉ ืžืจื•ื‘ื ืคืจื™ืฉ

Rabban Gamliel said to him: You are forbidden to enter into the congregation. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You are permitted to enter into the congregation. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: Wasnโ€™t it already stated: โ€œAn Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the congregation of the Lord foreverโ€ (Deuteronomy 23:4)? How can you permit him to enter the congregation? Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: Do Ammon and Moab reside in their place? Sennacherib already came and, through his policy of population transfer, scrambled all the nations and settled other nations in place of Ammon. Consequently, the current residents of Ammon and Moab are not ethnic Ammonites and Moabites, as it is stated in reference to Sennacherib: โ€œI have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitantsโ€ (Isaiah 10:13). And although it is conceivable that this particular convert is an ethnic Ammonite, nevertheless, there is no need for concern due to the halakhic principle: Anything that parts from a group parts from the majority, and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the congregation.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืืช ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื ืื ื”ืณ ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ื•

Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: But wasnโ€™t it already stated: โ€œBut afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon, says the Lordโ€ (Jeremiah 49:6) and they have already returned to their land? Therefore, he is an ethnic Ammonite and he may not convert.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื”ืœื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื‘ืชื™ ืืช ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืขืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ืฉื‘ื• ืžื™ื“ ื”ืชื™ืจื•ื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื‘ืงื”ืœ

Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: That is no proof. Wasnโ€™t it already stated in another prophecy: โ€œAnd I will turn the captivity of My people Israel and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of themโ€ (Amos 9:14), and they have not yet returned? In rendering the ruling, only proven facts may be taken into consideration. They immediately permitted him to enter the congregation. This proves that Rabban Gamliel did not absent himself from the study hall that day and participated in the halakhic discourse.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ื•ืืคื™ื™ืกื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื—ื–ื™ื ื”ื• ืœืืฉื™ืชื ื“ื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื“ืžืฉื—ืจืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื›ื•ืชืœื™ ื‘ื™ืชืš ืืชื” ื ื™ื›ืจ ืฉืคื—ืžื™ ืืชื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื“ื•ืจ ืฉืืชื” ืคืจื ืกื• ืฉืื™ ืืชื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืฆืขืจืŸ ืฉืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืžื” ื”ื ืžืชืคืจื ืกื™ื ื•ื‘ืžื” ื”ื ื ื–ื•ื ื™ื

Rabban Gamliel said to himself: Since this is the situation, that the people are following Rabbi Yehoshua, apparently he was right. Therefore, it would be appropriate for me to go and appease Rabbi Yehoshua. When he reached Rabbi Yehoshuaโ€™s house, he saw that the walls of his house were black. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua in wonderment: From the walls of your house it is apparent that you are a blacksmith, as until then he had no idea that Rabbi Yehoshua was forced to engage in that arduous trade in order to make a living. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Woe unto a generation that you are its leader as you are unaware of the difficulties of Torah scholars, how they make a living and how they feed themselves.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื ืขื ื™ืชื™ ืœืš ืžื—ื•ืœ ืœื™ ืœื ืืฉื’ื— ื‘ื™ื” ืขืฉื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื‘ื ืคื™ื™ืก

Rabban Gamliel said to him: I insulted you, forgive me. Rabbi Yehoshua paid him no attention and did not forgive him. He asked him again: Do it in deference to my father, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who was one of the leaders of Israel at the time of the destruction of the Temple. He was appeased.

ืืžืจื• ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื–ื™ืœ ื•ืœื™ืžื ืœื”ื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื‘ืก ืื ื ืื–ื™ืœื ื ืฉืœื— ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื“ื ื™ืœื‘ืฉ ืžื“ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื“ื ื™ื™ืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื“ื ืฉืœื— ืžื“ืš ื•ืื ื ืืœื‘ืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื˜ืจื•ืงื• ื’ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืชื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืœืฆืขืจื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ

Now that Rabbi Yehoshua was no longer offended, it was only natural that Rabban Gamliel would be restored to his position. They said: Who will go and inform the Sages? Apparently, they were not eager to carry out the mission that would undo the previous actions and remove Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya from his position as Nasi. This launderer said to them: I will go. Rabbi Yehoshua sent to the Sages to the study hall: The one who wears the uniform will continue to wear the uniform, the original Nasi will remain in his position so that the one who did not wear the uniform will not say to the one who wears the uniform, remove your uniform and I will wear it. Apparently, the Sages believed that this emissary was dispatched at the initiative of Rabban Gamliel and they ignored him. Rabbi Akiva said to the Sages: Lock the gates so that Rabban Gamlielโ€™s servants will not come and disturb the Sages.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื“ืื™ืงื•ื ื•ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืื ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ื™ื”ื• ืืชื ื˜ืจืฃ ืื‘ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืžื–ื” ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื” ื™ื–ื” ื•ืฉืื™ื ื• ืœื ืžื–ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื” ื™ืืžืจ ืœืžื–ื” ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื” ืžื™ืžื™ืš ืžื™ ืžืขืจื” ื•ืืคืจืš ืืคืจ ืžืงืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื ืชืคื™ื™ืกืช ื›ืœื•ื ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ืš ืœืžื—ืจ ืื ื™ ื•ืืชื” ื ืฉื›ื™ื ืœืคืชื—ื•

When he heard what happened, Rabbi Yehoshua said: It is best if I go to them. He came and knocked on the door. He said to them with a slight variation: One who sprinkles pure water on those who are ritually impure, son of one who sprinkles water shall continue to sprinkle water. And it is inappropriate that he who is neither one who sprinkles nor son of one who sprinkles will say to one who sprinkles son of one who sprinkles: Your water is cave water and not the running water required to purify one exposed to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse and your ashes are burnt ashes and not the ashes of a red heifer. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Rabbi Yehoshua, have you been appeased? Everything we did was to defend your honor. If you have forgiven him, none of us is opposed. Early tomorrow you and I will go to Rabban Gamlielโ€™s doorway and offer to restore him to his position as Nasi.

ืืžืจื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืžืจ ื—ื“ื ืฉื‘ืชื ื•ืžืจ ื—ื“ื ืฉื‘ืชื ืืชื™ ืœืงื ืื•ื™ื™ ืืœื ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืชืœืชื ืฉื‘ืชื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื—ื“ื ืฉื‘ืชื ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืžื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืื•ืชื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ืื™ ื”ื•ื”:

The question arose what to do with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya? They said: What shall we do? Remove him from his position. That is inappropriate as we learned a halakha through tradition: One elevates to a higher level of sanctity and does not downgrade. Therefore, one who was the Nasi of the Sanhedrin cannot be demoted. Let one Sage lecture one week and the other Sage one week, they will come to be jealous one of another, as they will be forced to appoint one as the acting head of the Sanhedrin. Rather, Rabban Gamliel will lecture three weeks and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya will lecture as head of the yeshiva one week. That arrangement was adopted and that is the explanation of the exchange in tractate แธคagiga: Whose week was it? It was the week of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. One final detail: That student who asked the original question that sparked this entire incident was Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai.

ื•ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื: ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ื ืงืจื ืคื•ืฉืข

We learned in the mishna: And the additional prayer may be recited all day. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Nevertheless, one who postpones his prayer excessively is called negligent.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ืฉืชื™ ืชืคืœื•ืช ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ืฉื–ื• ืชื“ื™ืจื” ื•ื–ื• ืื™ื ื” ืชื“ื™ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ืฉื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื•ื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ

The Rabbis taught in a baraita: If the obligation to recite two prayers was before him, one, the afternoon prayer and one, the additional prayer, he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, because this, the afternoon prayer, is recited on a frequent basis, and this one, the additional prayer, is recited on a relatively infrequent basis. Rabbi Yehuda says: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter, because this, the additional prayer, is a mitzva whose time soon elapses, as it may only be recited until the seventh hour and this, the afternoon prayer, is a mitzva whose time does not soon elapse as one may recite it until the midpoint of the afternoon. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The halakha is that he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื—ืœื™ืฉ ืžื’ื™ืจืกื™ื” ื”ื•ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืืคืชื—ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื—ืœืคื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื– ืื™ืงื•ื ืžืงืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืืงื‘ืœ ืื’ืจื ื ืคืง ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืื“ื ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœ ืžื ื—ื”

The Gemara cites additional sources relating to this issue: When Rabbi Zeira would tire of his studies, he would go and sit in the doorway of Rabbi Natan bar Toviโ€™s study hall. He said to himself: When the entering and exiting Sages pass, I will rise before them and be rewarded for the mitzva of honoring Torah scholars. Rabbi Natan bar Tovi himself emerged and came to where Rabbi Zeira was seated. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Who just stated a halakha in the study hall? Rabbi Natan bar Tovi said to him: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan just said as follows: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืชื ื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืจื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ืœืš ืื• ื—ื“ืช ื”ื™ื ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื“ืช ื”ื™ื ืœื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืกืคืงื ืœื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™:

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Did Rabbi Yoแธฅanan himself say this halakha? Rabbi Natan said to him: Yes. He learned this statement from him forty times, etching it into his memory. Rabbi Natan said to him: Is this halakha so dear to you because it is singular for you, as it is the only halakha that you learned in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, or is it new to you, as you were previously unaware of this ruling? Rabbi Zeira said to him: It is somewhat new to me, as I was uncertain whether this halakha was said in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan or in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Now it is clear to me that this halakha is in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœื” ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืžืžื•ืขื“ ืืกืคืชื™ ืžืžืš ื”ื™ื• ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื“ื”ืื™ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืชื‘ืจื ื”ื•ื ื›ื“ืžืชืจื’ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืชื‘ืจื ืืชื™ ืขืœ ืฉื ืื™ื”ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœ ื“ืื—ืจื• ื–ืžื ื™ ืžื•ืขื“ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: With regard to anyone who recites the additional prayer after seven hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: โ€œThose who are destroyed [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insultโ€ (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of destruction? As Rav Yosef translated the verse into Aramaic: Destruction comes upon the enemies of the house of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself, for they have delayed the times of the Festivals in Jerusalem. This proves both that nugei means destruction and that destruction comes upon those who fail to fulfill a mitzva at its appointed time.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœื” ืฉืœ ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืžืžื•ืขื“ ืืกืคืชื™ ืžืžืš ื”ื™ื• ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื“ื”ืื™ ื ื•ื’ื™ ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืฆืขืจื ื”ื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ืœืคื” ื ืคืฉื™ ืžืชื•ื’ื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ื‘ืชื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ื ื•ื’ื•ืช ื•ื”ื™ื ืžืจ ืœื”

Similarly, Rabbi Elazar said: Regarding anyone who recites the morning prayer after four hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: โ€œThose who are in sorrow [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insultโ€ (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of sorrow? As it is written: โ€œMy soul drips in sorrow [tuga]โ€ (Psalms 119:28). Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: The proof that nugei indicates suffering is from here: โ€œHer virgins are sorrowed [nugot] and she is embitteredโ€ (Lamentations 1:4).

ืจื‘ ืื•ื™ื ื—ืœืฉ ื•ืœื ืืชื ืœืคืจืงื ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื—ืจ ื›ื™ ืืชื ื‘ืขื ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืื ื•ื—ื™ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืชื ืžืจ ืœืคืจืงื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ื—ืœื™ืฉ ืœื‘ืื™ ื•ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืื™ ืœื ื˜ืขืžืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ืืชื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืกื•ืจ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ื˜ืขื•ื ื›ืœื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืžืจ ืœืฆืœื•ื™ื™ ืฆืœื•ืชื ื“ืžื•ืกืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ืœื˜ืขื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ืงื“ื™ื ืชืคืœืชื• ืœืชืคืœืช ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืืชืžืจ ืขืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื ื•

After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosefโ€™s Shabbat lecture. When Rav Avya came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avyaโ€™s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef.
To this end, he asked him: Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture?
Rav Avya said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable to attend.
Abaye said to him: Why did you not eat something and come?
Rav Avya said to him: Does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer.
Abaye said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and then come to the lecture.
Rav Avya said to him: Does my Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: A person may not recite his individual prayer prior to the communal prayer?
Abaye said to him: Was it not stated regarding this halakha, Rabbi Abba said: They taught this in a communal setting?
In other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion.

ื•ืœื™ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœื ื›ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ืชืคืœืช ืžื ื—ื” ืืกื•ืจ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ื˜ืขื•ื ื›ืœื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœืช ื”ืžื ื—ื”:

And the Gemara summarizes: The halakha is neither in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna nor in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara explains: It is not in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as we said above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time to recite the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืŸ ื”ืงื ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืชืคืœืœ ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืชื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ืชืคืœื” ืงืฆืจื” ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืžื” ืžืงื•ื ืœืชืคืœื” ื–ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืชื™ ืื ื™ ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืœื ื™ืืจืข ื“ื‘ืจ ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื™ ืื ื™ ื ื•ืชืŸ ื”ื•ื“ืื” ืขืœ ื—ืœืงื™:

MISHNA: In addition to the halakhot relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Neแธฅunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire caused by me in the study hall. And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืชื• ืžื”ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืžืœืคื ื™ืš ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืืจืข ื“ื‘ืจ ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื•ืœื ืื›ืฉืœ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื™ืฉืžื—ื• ื‘ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื˜ืžื ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืœื ืขืœ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื˜ืžื ื•ืœื ื™ื›ืฉืœื• ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ืืฉืžื— ื‘ื”ื

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita the complete formula of Rabbi Neแธฅunya ben Hakanaโ€™s prayer: Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap in determining the halakha transpires caused by me, and that I not fail in any matter of halakha, and that my colleagues, who together with me engage in clarifying the halakha, will rejoice in me. He specified: And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor declare impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of halakha, and that I will rejoice in them.

ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ืžื”ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืžื•ื“ื” ืื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ืš ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ ืฉืฉืžืช ื—ืœืงื™ ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื•ืœื ืฉืžืช ื—ืœืงื™ ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืงืจื ื•ืช ืฉืื ื™ ืžืฉื›ื™ื ื•ื”ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ื ืื ื™ ืžืฉื›ื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ื”ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื˜ืœื™ื ืื ื™ ืขืžืœ ื•ื”ื ืขืžืœื™ื ืื ื™ ืขืžืœ ื•ืžืงื‘ืœ ืฉื›ืจ ื•ื”ื ืขืžืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืฉื›ืจ ืื ื™ ืจืฅ ื•ื”ื ืจืฆื™ื ืื ื™ ืจืฅ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ื”ื ืจืฆื™ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื—ืช:

Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit idly on street corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to pursue matters of Torah, and they rise early to pursue frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืฉื—ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื ื›ื ืกื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืœื‘ืงืจื• ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืœืžื“ื ื• ืื•ืจื—ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื ื–ื›ื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, guidelines by which to live, and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื›ื ื•ืžื ืขื• ื‘ื ื™ื›ื ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื›ื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ื›ืฉืืชื ืžืชืคืœืœื™ื ื“ืขื• ืœืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืืชื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื›ืš ืชื–ื›ื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic when studying verses that tend toward heresy (geโ€™onim), and place your children, while they are still young, between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For doing that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come.

ื•ื›ืฉื—ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ื ื›ื ืกื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืœื‘ืงืจื• ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืจืื” ืื•ืชื ื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืœื‘ื›ื•ืช ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ื ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื™ ืคื˜ื™ืฉ ื”ื—ื–ืง ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืืชื” ื‘ื•ื›ื”

A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezerโ€™s mentor, Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai: When Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, the man whose lifeโ€™s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, for what reason are you crying? With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื™ืœื• ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœืš ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื™ ืฉื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืืŸ ื•ืžื—ืจ ื‘ืงื‘ืจ ืฉืื ื›ื•ืขืก ืขืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ื›ืขืกื• ื›ืขืก ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืื•ืกืจื ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจื• ืื™ืกื•ืจ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืžืžื™ืชื ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืžื™ืชืชื• ืžื™ืชืช ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื™ื™ืกื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืœืฉื—ื“ื• ื‘ืžืžื•ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ื ืื•ืชื™ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœืš ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ืงื™ื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื•ืœืขื•ืœืžื™ ืขื•ืœืžื™ื ืฉืื ื›ื•ืขืก ืขืœื™ ื›ืขืกื• ื›ืขืก ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืื•ืกืจื ื™ ืื™ืกื•ืจื• ืื™ืกื•ืจ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ืžืžื™ืชื ื™ ืžื™ืชืชื• ืžื™ืชืช ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื™ื™ืกื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืœื ืœืฉื—ื“ื• ื‘ืžืžื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื’ืŸ ืขื“ืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื’ื™ื”ื ื ื•ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ื ืื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืื‘ื›ื”

He said to them: I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king whose life is temporal, who is here today and dead in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, I am able to appease him with words and even bribe him with money, and even so I would cry when standing before royal judgment. Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry?

ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืจื›ื ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉืชื”ื ืžื•ืจื ืฉืžื™ื ืขืœื™ื›ื ื›ืžื•ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื•ืœื•ืื™ ืชื“ืขื• ื›ืฉืื“ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœื ื™ืจืื ื™ ืื“ื

His students said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be His will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students were puzzled and said: To that point and not beyond? Shouldnโ€™t one fear God more? He said to them: Would that a person achieve that level of fear. Know that when one commits a transgression, he says to himself: I hope that no man will see me. If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.

ื‘ืฉืขืช ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืคื ื• ื›ืœื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ื ื• ื›ืกื ืœื—ื–ืงื™ื”ื• ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ื:

The Gemara relates that at the time of his death, immediately beforehand, he said to them: Remove the vessels from the house and take them outside due to the ritual impurity that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming from the upper world to accompany me.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ื™ื•ื ืžืชืคืœืœ ืื“ื ืฉืžื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื ืฉื’ื•ืจื” ืชืคืœืชื• ื‘ืคื™ื• ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื•ืื ืœืื• ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื”

MISHNA: The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the Amida prayer, also known as Shemoneh Esreh, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as tefilla, prayer. Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says an intermediate opinion: If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the prayer of eighteen blessings, and if not, he need only recite an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืชืคืœืชื• ืงื‘ืข ืื™ืŸ ืชืคืœืชื• ืชื—ื ื•ื ื™ื

Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื”ื•ืœืš ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืกื›ื ื” ืžืชืคืœืœ ืชืคืœื” ืงืฆืจื” ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ืณ ืืช ืขืžืš ืืช ืฉืืจื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืคืจืฉืช ื”ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืฆืจื›ื™ื”ื ืœืคื ื™ืš ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ื”ืณ ืฉื•ืžืข ืชืคืœื”

Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who cannot recite a complete prayer because he is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remnant of Israel, at every transition [parashat haโ€™ibur], the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer.

ื”ื™ื” ืจื•ื›ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ื™ืจื“ ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ืจื“ ื™ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ืคื ื™ื• ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ืคื ื™ื• ื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ืœื‘ื• ื›ื ื’ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืกืคื™ื ื” ืื• ื‘ืืกื“ื ื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ืœื‘ื• ื›ื ื’ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉื™ื:

While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray calmly. If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face toward the direction of the Temple. If he is unable to turn his face, it is sufficient that he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. Similarly, one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [asda] and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.

ื’ืžืณ ื”ื ื™ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื™

GEMARA: Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the Amida prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. Corresponding to what were these eighteen blessings instituted? When the Shemoneh Esreh was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืฉืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ื‘ื”ื‘ื• ืœื”ืณ ื‘ื ื™ ืืœื™ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืจื”

Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name that King David said in the psalm: โ€œGive unto the Lord, O you sons of mightโ€ (Psalms 29). Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name in Shema. Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine beneath the ribs.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื”ืžืชืคืœืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื›ืจืข ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชืคืงืงื• ื›ืœ ื—ื•ืœื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืจื”

Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviโ€™s opinion based the Amida prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In those blessings where one is required to bow, one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude.

ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืจืื” ืื™ืกืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืœื‘ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื ืขื ืข ืจืืฉื• ืฉื•ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืžืฆืขืจ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื™ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ื›ืจืข

Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, Ulla said: Until he can see a small coin [issar], on the ground before him opposite his heart (Rav Hai Gaon). Rabbi แธคanina said: There is room for leniency; once he moves his head forward, he need not bow any further. Rava said: But that applies only if he is exerting himself when doing so, and he appears like one who is bowing. However, if he is able, he should bow further.

ื”ื ื™ ืชืžื ื™ ืกืจื™ ืชืฉืกืจื™ ื”ื•ื•ื™ืŸ

Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are these eighteen blessings? They are nineteen.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื•ื™ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื‘ื ื” ืชืงื ื•ื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื™ ืชืงื ื•ื”

Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, which curses informers, was instituted in Yavne and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: Corresponding to what was this nineteenth blessing instituted?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื•ื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื”ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืจืขื™ื ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืื—ื“ ืฉื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ืœืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ื—ื•ืœื™ื ืงื˜ื ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืจื”:

Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing corresponds to a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: โ€œThe God of glory thundersโ€ (Psalms 29:3). According to Rav Yosef, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of Godโ€™s name in Shema, the additional blessing corresponds to the word one that is in Shema. Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. According to what Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing corresponds to the small vertebra that is at the bottom of the spine.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ืคืงื•ืœื™ ื”ืกื“ื™ืจ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื‘ื™ื‘ื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ืื“ื ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืชืงืŸ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ื ืขืžื“ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ืชืงื ื”

In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings, already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, before Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in order in Yavne. Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, a blessing directed against the Sadducees? Shmuel HaKatan, who was one of the most pious men of that generation, stood and instituted it.

ืœืฉื ื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉื›ื—ื”

The Gemara relates: The next year, when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, he forgot that blessing,

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