Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

January 21, 2022 | 讬状讟 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘 | TODAY'S DAF: Moed Katan 10 - Shabbat January 22

Today's Daf Yomi

January 31, 2020 | 讛壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖状驻

Berakhot 28

The story continues with Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria being chosen – he consults with his wife who warns against taking the job for two reasons. The second one (of being too young and may not be resopected) is no longer an issue when he magically grows 18 rows of white hairs. He accepts the job. He opens the doors to the Beit Midrash as Rabban Gamliel had a guard who would only let in people whose insides wewre like their outsides. On that day, so much Torah was learned, include masechet eduyot, and many halachic issues were resolved. Rabban Gamliel feels like he may ahve been wrong, especially after he loses and argument to Rabbi Yehoshua regarding accepting a convert from Amon. He makes peace with Rabb谉 Yehoshua and then they need to convince the rabbis to take Rabban Gamliele back and they eventually agree to let him be in charge three weeks and keep Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria for one week so as not to demote him entirely. If one needs to pray mincha and musaf, which comes first? What is said about one who doesn’t pray within the time frame alloted by Rabbi Yehuda? Can one eat before musaf? Before mincha? Rabbi Nechunia ben HaKane would say a prayer on entering and on leaving the beit midrash – what would he say? The gemara tells of the last words of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai before their deaths. What does one say daily – all 18 blessings of shmone esreh or a shortened version or does it depend (on what?)? There is a debate regarding this issue. Rabbi Eliezer says that one must make sure not to make prayer too set and static. In which direction does one face? What if one is traveling and can’t? Why 18 blessings? One needs to bow in prayer- how far down? Why 18 – isn’t it 19?

 

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讚诇诪讗 诪注讘专讬谉 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讛 诇砖转诪砖 讗讬谞砖 讬讜诪讗 讞讚讗 讘讻住讗 讚诪讜拽专讗 讜诇诪讞专 诇讬转讘专 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诇讬转 诇讱 讞讬讜专转讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讘专 转诪谞讬 住专讬 砖谞讬 讛讜讛 讗转专讞讬砖 诇讬讛 谞讬住讗 讜讗讛讚专讜 诇讬讛 转诪谞讬 住专讬 讚专讬 讞讬讜专转讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛专讬 讗谞讬 讻讘谉 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讜诇讗 讘谉 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛

There is room for concern. Perhaps they will remove you from office just as they removed Rabban Gamliel. He said to her, based on the folk saying: Let a person use an expensive goblet one day and let it break tomorrow. In other words, one should take advantage of an opportunity that presents itself and he need not concern himself whether or not it will last. She said to him: You have no white hair, and it is inappropriate for one so young to head the Sages. The Gemara relates: That day, he was eighteen years old, a miracle transpired for him and eighteen rows of hair turned white. The Gemara comments: That explains that which Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: I am as one who is seventy years old and he did not say: I am seventy years old, because he looked older than he actually was.

转谞讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 住诇拽讜讛讜 诇砖讜诪专 讛驻转讞 讜谞转谞讛 诇讛诐 专砖讜转 诇转诇诪讬讚讬诐 诇讬讻谞住 砖讛讬讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讻专讬讝 讜讗讜诪专 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 砖讗讬谉 转讜讻讜 讻讘专讜 诇讗 讬讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖

It was taught: On that day that they removed Rabban Gamliel from his position and appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya in his place, there was also a fundamental change in the general approach of the study hall as they dismissed the guard at the door and permission was granted to the students to enter. Instead of Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 selective approach that asserted that the students must be screened before accepting them into the study hall, the new approach asserted that anyone who seeks to study should be given opportunity to do so. As Rabban Gamliel would proclaim and say: Any student whose inside, his thoughts and feelings, are not like his outside, i.e., his conduct and his character traits are lacking, will not enter the study hall.

讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讗转讜住驻讜 讻诪讛 住驻住诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 讗讘讗 讬讜住祝 讘谉 讚讜住转讗讬 讜专讘谞谉 讞讚 讗诪专 讗转讜住驻讜 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 住驻住诇讬 讜讞讚 讗诪专 砖讘注 诪讗讛 住驻住诇讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇砖讛 讚注转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 讚诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 诪谞注转讬 转讜专讛 诪讬砖专讗诇 讗讞讝讜 诇讬讛 讘讞诇诪讬讛 讞爪讘讬 讞讬讜专讬 讚诪诇讬讬谉 拽讟诪讗 讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讬转讜讘讬 讚注转讬讛 讛讜讗 讚讗讞讝讜 诇讬讛

The Gemara relates: On that day several benches were added to the study hall to accommodate the numerous students. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Abba Yosef ben Dostai and the Rabbis disputed this matter. One said: Four hundred benches were added to the study hall. And one said: Seven hundred benches were added to the study hall. When he saw the tremendous growth in the number of students, Rabban Gamliel was disheartened. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I prevented Israel from engaging in Torah study. They showed him in his dream white jugs filled with ashes alluding to the fact that the additional students were worthless idlers. The Gemara comments: That is not the case, but that dream was shown to him to ease his mind so that he would not feel bad.

转谞讗 注讚讬讜转 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 谞砖谞讬转 讜讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 讜诇讗 讛讬转讛 讛诇讻讛 砖讛讬转讛 转诇讜讬讛 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 砖诇讗 驻讬专砖讜讛 讜讗祝 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 诪谞注 注爪诪讜 诪讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转

It was taught: There is a tradition that tractate Eduyyot was taught that day. And everywhere in the Mishna or in a baraita that they say: On that day, it is referring to that day. There was no halakha whose ruling was pending in the study hall that they did not explain and arrive at a practical halakhic conclusion. And even Rabban Gamliel did not avoid the study hall for even one moment, as he held no grudge against those who removed him from office and he participated in the halakhic discourse in the study hall as one of the Sages.

讚转谞谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讘讗 讬讛讜讚讛 讙专 注诪讜谞讬 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛 讗谞讬 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇

As we learned in a mishna: On that day, Yehuda, the Ammonite convert, came before the students in the study hall and he said to them: What is my legal status in terms of entering into the congregation of Israel, i.e., to marry a Jewish woman?

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗住讜专 讗转讛 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讜转专 讗转讛 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 诇讗 讬讘讗 注诪讜谞讬 讜诪讜讗讘讬 讘拽讛诇 讛壮 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜讻讬 注诪讜谉 讜诪讜讗讘 讘诪拽讜诪谉 讛谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉 讻讘专 注诇讛 住谞讞专讬讘 诪诇讱 讗砖讜专 讜讘诇讘诇 讗转 讻诇 讛讗讜诪讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗住讬专 讙讘诇讜转 注诪讬诐 讜注转讜讚讜转讬讛诐 砖讜砖转讬 讜讗讜专讬讚 讻讘讬专 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讜讻诇 讚驻专讬砖 诪专讜讘讗 驻专讬砖

Rabban Gamliel said to him: You are forbidden to enter into the congregation. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You are permitted to enter into the congregation. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: Wasn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淎n Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the congregation of the Lord forever鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:4)? How can you permit him to enter the congregation? Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: Do Ammon and Moab reside in their place? Sennacherib already came and, through his policy of population transfer, scrambled all the nations and settled other nations in place of Ammon. Consequently, the current residents of Ammon and Moab are not ethnic Ammonites and Moabites, as it is stated in reference to Sennacherib: 鈥淚 have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants鈥 (Isaiah 10:13). And although it is conceivable that this particular convert is an ethnic Ammonite, nevertheless, there is no need for concern due to the halakhic principle: Anything that parts from a group parts from the majority, and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the congregation.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讜讗讞专讬 讻谉 讗砖讬讘 讗转 砖讘讜转 讘谞讬 注诪讜谉 谞讗诐 讛壮 讜讻讘专 砖讘讜

Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: But wasn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淏ut afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon, says the Lord鈥 (Jeremiah 49:6) and they have already returned to their land? Therefore, he is an ethnic Ammonite and he may not convert.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讜砖讘转讬 讗转 砖讘讜转 注诪讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜注讚讬讬谉 诇讗 砖讘讜 诪讬讚 讛转讬专讜讛讜 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇

Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: That is no proof. Wasn鈥檛 it already stated in another prophecy: 鈥淎nd I will turn the captivity of My people Israel and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them鈥 (Amos 9:14), and they have not yet returned? In rendering the ruling, only proven facts may be taken into consideration. They immediately permitted him to enter the congregation. This proves that Rabban Gamliel did not absent himself from the study hall that day and participated in the halakhic discourse.

讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讛讻讬 讛讜讛 讗讬讝讬诇 讜讗驻讬讬住讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讘讬转讬讛 讞讝讬谞讛讜 诇讗砖讬转讗 讚讘讬转讬讛 讚诪砖讞专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讻讜转诇讬 讘讬转讱 讗转讛 谞讬讻专 砖驻讞诪讬 讗转讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇讚讜专 砖讗转讛 驻专谞住讜 砖讗讬 讗转讛 讬讜讚注 讘爪注专谉 砖诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讘诪讛 讛诐 诪转驻专谞住讬诐 讜讘诪讛 讛诐 谞讝讜谞讬诐

Rabban Gamliel said to himself: Since this is the situation, that the people are following Rabbi Yehoshua, apparently he was right. Therefore, it would be appropriate for me to go and appease Rabbi Yehoshua. When he reached Rabbi Yehoshua鈥檚 house, he saw that the walls of his house were black. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua in wonderment: From the walls of your house it is apparent that you are a blacksmith, as until then he had no idea that Rabbi Yehoshua was forced to engage in that arduous trade in order to make a living. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Woe unto a generation that you are its leader as you are unaware of the difficulties of Torah scholars, how they make a living and how they feed themselves.

讗诪专 诇讜 谞注谞讬转讬 诇讱 诪讞讜诇 诇讬 诇讗 讗砖讙讞 讘讬讛 注砖讛 讘砖讘讬诇 讻讘讜讚 讗讘讗 驻讬讬住

Rabban Gamliel said to him: I insulted you, forgive me. Rabbi Yehoshua paid him no attention and did not forgive him. He asked him again: Do it in deference to my father, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who was one of the leaders of Israel at the time of the destruction of the Temple. He was appeased.

讗诪专讜 诪讗谉 谞讬讝讬诇 讜诇讬诪讗 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛讛讜讗 讻讜讘住 讗谞讗 讗讝讬诇谞讗 砖诇讞 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 诪讗谉 讚诇讘讬砖 诪讚讗 讬诇讘砖 诪讚讗 讜诪讗谉 讚诇讗 诇讘讬砖 诪讚讗 讬讬诪专 诇讬讛 诇诪讗谉 讚诇讘讬砖 诪讚讗 砖诇讞 诪讚讱 讜讗谞讗 讗诇讘砖讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讟专讜拽讜 讙诇讬 讚诇讗 诇讬转讜 注讘讚讬 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜诇爪注专讜 诇专讘谞谉

Now that Rabbi Yehoshua was no longer offended, it was only natural that Rabban Gamliel would be restored to his position. They said: Who will go and inform the Sages? Apparently, they were not eager to carry out the mission that would undo the previous actions and remove Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya from his position as Nasi. This launderer said to them: I will go. Rabbi Yehoshua sent to the Sages to the study hall: The one who wears the uniform will continue to wear the uniform, the original Nasi will remain in his position so that the one who did not wear the uniform will not say to the one who wears the uniform, remove your uniform and I will wear it. Apparently, the Sages believed that this emissary was dispatched at the initiative of Rabban Gamliel and they ignored him. Rabbi Akiva said to the Sages: Lock the gates so that Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 servants will not come and disturb the Sages.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讜讟讘 讚讗讬拽讜诐 讜讗讬讝讬诇 讗谞讗 诇讙讘讬讬讛讜 讗转讗 讟专祝 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讝讛 讘谉 诪讝讛 讬讝讛 讜砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 诪讝讛 讜诇讗 讘谉 诪讝讛 讬讗诪专 诇诪讝讛 讘谉 诪讝讛 诪讬诪讬讱 诪讬 诪注专讛 讜讗驻专讱 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 谞转驻讬讬住转 讻诇讜诐 注砖讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讻讘讜讚讱 诇诪讞专 讗谞讬 讜讗转讛 谞砖讻讬诐 诇驻转讞讜

When he heard what happened, Rabbi Yehoshua said: It is best if I go to them. He came and knocked on the door. He said to them with a slight variation: One who sprinkles pure water on those who are ritually impure, son of one who sprinkles water shall continue to sprinkle water. And it is inappropriate that he who is neither one who sprinkles nor son of one who sprinkles will say to one who sprinkles son of one who sprinkles: Your water is cave water and not the running water required to purify one exposed to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse and your ashes are burnt ashes and not the ashes of a red heifer. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Rabbi Yehoshua, have you been appeased? Everything we did was to defend your honor. If you have forgiven him, none of us is opposed. Early tomorrow you and I will go to Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 doorway and offer to restore him to his position as Nasi.

讗诪专讬 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚 谞注讘专讬讛 讙诪讬专讬 诪注诇讬谉 讘拽讚砖 讜讗讬谉 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 谞讚专讜砖 诪专 讞讚讗 砖讘转讗 讜诪专 讞讚讗 砖讘转讗 讗转讬 诇拽谞讗讜讬讬 讗诇讗 诇讚专讜砖 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 转诇转讗 砖讘转讬 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讞讚讗 砖讘转讗 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 诪专 砖讘转 砖诇 诪讬 讛讬转讛 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讬转讛 讜讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 讛讜讛:

The question arose what to do with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya? They said: What shall we do? Remove him from his position. That is inappropriate as we learned a halakha through tradition: One elevates to a higher level of sanctity and does not downgrade. Therefore, one who was the Nasi of the Sanhedrin cannot be demoted. Let one Sage lecture one week and the other Sage one week, they will come to be jealous one of another, as they will be forced to appoint one as the acting head of the Sanhedrin. Rather, Rabban Gamliel will lecture three weeks and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya will lecture as head of the yeshiva one week. That arrangement was adopted and that is the explanation of the exchange in tractate 岣giga: Whose week was it? It was the week of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. One final detail: That student who asked the original question that sparked this entire incident was Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i.

讜砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐: 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜谞拽专讗 驻讜砖注

We learned in the mishna: And the additional prayer may be recited all day. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Nevertheless, one who postpones his prayer excessively is called negligent.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 砖转讬 转驻诇讜转 讗讞转 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诪讜住祝 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪讜住祝 砖讝讜 转讚讬专讛 讜讝讜 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪讜住祝 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 砖讝讜 诪爪讜讛 注讜讘专转 讜讝讜 诪爪讜讛 砖讗讬谞讛 注讜讘专转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪讜住祝

The Rabbis taught in a baraita: If the obligation to recite two prayers was before him, one, the afternoon prayer and one, the additional prayer, he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, because this, the afternoon prayer, is recited on a frequent basis, and this one, the additional prayer, is recited on a relatively infrequent basis. Rabbi Yehuda says: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter, because this, the additional prayer, is a mitzva whose time soon elapses, as it may only be recited until the seventh hour and this, the afternoon prayer, is a mitzva whose time does not soon elapse as one may recite it until the midpoint of the afternoon. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is that he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讻讬 讛讜讛 讞诇讬砖 诪讙讬专住讬讛 讛讜讛 讗讝讬诇 讜讬转讬讘 讗驻转讞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗诪专 讻讬 讞诇驻讬 专讘谞谉 讗讝 讗讬拽讜诐 诪拽诪讬讬讛讜 讜讗拽讘诇 讗讙专讗 谞驻拽 讗转讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 诪转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 砖诇 诪讜住祝 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛

The Gemara cites additional sources relating to this issue: When Rabbi Zeira would tire of his studies, he would go and sit in the doorway of Rabbi Natan bar Tovi鈥檚 study hall. He said to himself: When the entering and exiting Sages pass, I will rise before them and be rewarded for the mitzva of honoring Torah scholars. Rabbi Natan bar Tovi himself emerged and came to where Rabbi Zeira was seated. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Who just stated a halakha in the study hall? Rabbi Natan bar Tovi said to him: Rabbi Yo岣nan just said as follows: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 转谞讗 诪讬谞讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讝诪谞讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讛讬讗 诇讱 讗讜 讞讚转 讛讬讗 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚转 讛讬讗 诇讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诪住驻拽讗 诇讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬:

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Did Rabbi Yo岣nan himself say this halakha? Rabbi Natan said to him: Yes. He learned this statement from him forty times, etching it into his memory. Rabbi Natan said to him: Is this halakha so dear to you because it is singular for you, as it is the only halakha that you learned in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan, or is it new to you, as you were previously unaware of this ruling? Rabbi Zeira said to him: It is somewhat new to me, as I was uncertain whether this halakha was said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan or in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Now it is clear to me that this halakha is in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 诇讗讞专 砖讘注 砖注讜转 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 谞讜讙讬 诪诪讜注讚 讗住驻转讬 诪诪讱 讛讬讜 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 谞讜讙讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚转讘专讗 讛讜讗 讻讚诪转专讙诐 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讘专讗 讗转讬 注诇 砖谞讗讬讛讜谉 讚讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 注诇 讚讗讞专讜 讝诪谞讬 诪讜注讚讬讗 讚讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: With regard to anyone who recites the additional prayer after seven hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: 鈥淭hose who are destroyed [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insult鈥 (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of destruction? As Rav Yosef translated the verse into Aramaic: Destruction comes upon the enemies of the house of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself, for they have delayed the times of the Festivals in Jerusalem. This proves both that nugei means destruction and that destruction comes upon those who fail to fulfill a mitzva at its appointed time.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇 砖讞专讬转 诇讗讞专 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 谞讜讙讬 诪诪讜注讚 讗住驻转讬 诪诪讱 讛讬讜 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 谞讜讙讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚爪注专讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讚诇驻讛 谞驻砖讬 诪转讜讙讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讘转讜诇讜转讬讛 谞讜讙讜转 讜讛讬讗 诪专 诇讛

Similarly, Rabbi Elazar said: Regarding anyone who recites the morning prayer after four hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: 鈥淭hose who are in sorrow [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insult鈥 (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of sorrow? As it is written: 鈥淢y soul drips in sorrow [tuga]鈥 (Psalms 119:28). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The proof that nugei indicates suffering is from here: 鈥淗er virgins are sorrowed [nugot] and she is embittered鈥 (Lamentations 1:4).

专讘 讗讜讬讗 讞诇砖 讜诇讗 讗转讗 诇驻专拽讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讞专 讻讬 讗转讗 讘注讗 讗讘讬讬 诇讗谞讜讞讬 讚注转讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗转讗 诪专 诇驻专拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讛讜讛 讞诇讬砖 诇讘讗讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讟注诪转 诪讬讚讬 讜讗转讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讟注讜诐 讻诇讜诐 拽讜讚诐 砖讬转驻诇诇 转驻诇转 讛诪讜住驻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪专 诇爪诇讜讬讬 爪诇讜转讗 讚诪讜住驻讬谉 讘讬讞讬讚 讜诇讟注讜诐 诪讬讚讬 讜诇诪讬转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬拽讚讬诐 转驻诇转讜 诇转驻诇转 讛爪讘讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗转诪专 注诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘爪讘讜专 砖谞讜

After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef鈥檚 Shabbat lecture. When Rav Avya came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya鈥檚 failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef.
To this end, he asked him: Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture?
Rav Avya said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable to attend.
Abaye said to him: Why did you not eat something and come?
Rav Avya said to him: Does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer.
Abaye said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and then come to the lecture.
Rav Avya said to him: Does my Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan: A person may not recite his individual prayer prior to the communal prayer?
Abaye said to him: Was it not stated regarding this halakha, Rabbi Abba said: They taught this in a communal setting?
In other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion.

讜诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 诇讗 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 转驻诇转 诪谞讞讛 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讟注讜诐 讻诇讜诐 拽讜讚诐 砖讬转驻诇诇 转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛:

And the Gemara summarizes: The halakha is neither in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna nor in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara explains: It is not in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as we said above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time to recite the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 谞讞讜谞讬讗 讘谉 讛拽谞讛 讛讬讛 诪转驻诇诇 讘讻谞讬住转讜 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜讘讬爪讬讗转讜 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛 诪拽讜诐 诇转驻诇讛 讝讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘讻谞讬住转讬 讗谞讬 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇讗 讬讗专注 讚讘专 转拽诇讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讜讘讬爪讬讗转讬 讗谞讬 谞讜转谉 讛讜讚讗讛 注诇 讞诇拽讬:

MISHNA: In addition to the halakhot relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Ne岣nya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire caused by me in the study hall. And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讻谞讬住转讜 诪讛讜 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 诪诇驻谞讬讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬 砖诇讗 讬讗专注 讚讘专 转拽诇讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讜诇讗 讗讻砖诇 讘讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讬砖诪讞讜 讘讬 讞讘专讬 讜诇讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 讟诪讗 讟讛讜专 讜诇讗 注诇 讟讛讜专 讟诪讗 讜诇讗 讬讻砖诇讜 讞讘专讬 讘讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讗砖诪讞 讘讛诐

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita the complete formula of Rabbi Ne岣nya ben Hakana鈥檚 prayer: Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap in determining the halakha transpires caused by me, and that I not fail in any matter of halakha, and that my colleagues, who together with me engage in clarifying the halakha, will rejoice in me. He specified: And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor declare impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of halakha, and that I will rejoice in them.

讘讬爪讬讗转讜 诪讛讜 讗讜诪专 诪讜讚讛 讗谞讬 诇驻谞讬讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬 砖砖诪转 讞诇拽讬 诪讬讜砖讘讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜诇讗 砖诪转 讞诇拽讬 诪讬讜砖讘讬 拽专谞讜转 砖讗谞讬 诪砖讻讬诐 讜讛诐 诪砖讻讬诪讬诐 讗谞讬 诪砖讻讬诐 诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜讛诐 诪砖讻讬诪讬诐 诇讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 讗谞讬 注诪诇 讜讛诐 注诪诇讬诐 讗谞讬 注诪诇 讜诪拽讘诇 砖讻专 讜讛诐 注诪诇讬诐 讜讗讬谞诐 诪拽讘诇讬诐 砖讻专 讗谞讬 专抓 讜讛诐 专爪讬诐 讗谞讬 专抓 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜讛诐 专爪讬诐 诇讘讗专 砖讞转:

Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit idly on street corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to pursue matters of Torah, and they rise early to pursue frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖讞诇讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞讻谞住讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 诇讘拽专讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜 讗讜专讞讜转 讞讬讬诐 讜谞讝讻讛 讘讛谉 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, guidelines by which to live, and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛讝讛专讜 讘讻讘讜讚 讞讘专讬讻诐 讜诪谞注讜 讘谞讬讻诐 诪谉 讛讛讙讬讜谉 讜讛讜砖讬讘讜诐 讘讬谉 讘专讻讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讻砖讗转诐 诪转驻诇诇讬诐 讚注讜 诇驻谞讬 诪讬 讗转诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 讜讘砖讘讬诇 讻讱 转讝讻讜 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic when studying verses that tend toward heresy (geonim), and place your children, while they are still young, between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For doing that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come.

讜讻砖讞诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 谞讻谞住讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 诇讘拽专讜 讻讬讜谉 砖专讗讛 讗讜转诐 讛转讞讬诇 诇讘讻讜转 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 谞专 讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜讚 讛讬诪讬谞讬 驻讟讬砖 讛讞讝拽 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 讘讜讻讛

A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 mentor, Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: When Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, the man whose life鈥檚 work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, for what reason are you crying? With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗讬诇讜 诇驻谞讬 诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讛讬讜 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讗讜转讬 砖讛讬讜诐 讻讗谉 讜诪讞专 讘拽讘专 砖讗诐 讻讜注住 注诇讬 讗讬谉 讻注住讜 讻注住 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 讗讜住专谞讬 讗讬谉 讗讬住讜专讜 讗讬住讜专 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 诪诪讬转谞讬 讗讬谉 诪讬转转讜 诪讬转转 注讜诇诐 讜讗谞讬 讬讻讜诇 诇驻讬讬住讜 讘讚讘专讬诐 讜诇砖讞讚讜 讘诪诪讜谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讛讬讬转讬 讘讜讻讛 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖诪讜诇讬讻讬诐 讗讜转讬 诇驻谞讬 诪诇讱 诪诇讻讬 讛诪诇讻讬诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讛讜讗 讞讬 讜拽讬讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜诇注讜诇诪讬 注讜诇诪讬诐 砖讗诐 讻讜注住 注诇讬 讻注住讜 讻注住 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 讗讜住专谞讬 讗讬住讜专讜 讗讬住讜专 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 诪诪讬转谞讬 诪讬转转讜 诪讬转转 注讜诇诐 讜讗讬谞讬 讬讻讜诇 诇驻讬讬住讜 讘讚讘专讬诐 讜诇讗 诇砖讞讚讜 讘诪诪讜谉 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讬砖 诇驻谞讬 砖谞讬 讚专讻讬诐 讗讞转 砖诇 讙谉 注讚谉 讜讗讞转 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐 讜讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讘讗讬讝讜 诪讜诇讬讻讬诐 讗讜转讬 讜诇讗 讗讘讻讛

He said to them: I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king whose life is temporal, who is here today and dead in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, I am able to appease him with words and even bribe him with money, and even so I would cry when standing before royal judgment. Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry?

讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬谞讜 讘专讻谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖转讛讗 诪讜专讗 砖诪讬诐 注诇讬讻诐 讻诪讜专讗 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 注讚 讻讗谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讜诇讜讗讬 转讚注讜 讻砖讗讚诐 注讜讘专 注讘讬专讛 讗讜诪专 砖诇讗 讬专讗谞讬 讗讚诐

His students said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be His will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students were puzzled and said: To that point and not beyond? Shouldn鈥檛 one fear God more? He said to them: Would that a person achieve that level of fear. Know that when one commits a transgression, he says to himself: I hope that no man will see me. If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.

讘砖注转 驻讟讬专转讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 驻谞讜 讻诇讬诐 诪驻谞讬 讛讟讜诪讗讛 讜讛讻讬谞讜 讻住讗 诇讞讝拽讬讛讜 诪诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讘讗:

The Gemara relates that at the time of his death, immediately beforehand, he said to them: Remove the vessels from the house and take them outside due to the ritual impurity that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming from the upper world to accompany me.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 诪转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 砖诪谞讛 注砖专讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪注讬谉 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讗诐 砖讙讜专讛 转驻诇转讜 讘驻讬讜 诪转驻诇诇 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诪注讬谉 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛

MISHNA: The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the Amida prayer, also known as Shemoneh Esreh, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as tefilla, prayer. Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says an intermediate opinion: If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the prayer of eighteen blessings, and if not, he need only recite an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讛注讜砖讛 转驻诇转讜 拽讘注 讗讬谉 转驻诇转讜 转讞谞讜谞讬诐

Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw.

专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讛讛讜诇讱 讘诪拽讜诐 住讻谞讛 诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛 讜讗讜诪专 讛讜砖注 讛壮 讗转 注诪讱 讗转 砖讗专讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讘讻诇 驻专砖转 讛注讘讜专 讬讛讬讜 爪专讻讬讛诐 诇驻谞讬讱 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who cannot recite a complete prayer because he is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remnant of Israel, at every transition [parashat ha鈥檌bur], the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer.

讛讬讛 专讜讻讘 注诇 讛讞诪讜专 讬专讚 讜讬转驻诇诇 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讬专讚 讬讞讝讬专 讗转 驻谞讬讜 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讞讝讬专 讗转 驻谞讬讜 讬讻讜讬谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘住驻讬谞讛 讗讜 讘讗住讚讗 讬讻讜讬谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐:

While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray calmly. If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face toward the direction of the Temple. If he is unable to turn his face, it is sufficient that he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. Similarly, one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [asda] and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.

讙诪壮 讛谞讬 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬

GEMARA: Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the Amida prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. Corresponding to what were these eighteen blessings instituted? When the Shemoneh Esreh was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讛诇诇 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讗讝讻专讜转 砖讗诪专 讚讜讚 讘讛讘讜 诇讛壮 讘谞讬 讗诇讬诐 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讗讝讻专讜转 砖讘拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讞讜诇讬讜转 砖讘砖讚专讛

Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name that King David said in the psalm: 鈥淕ive unto the Lord, O you sons of might鈥 (Psalms 29). Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name in Shema. Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine beneath the ribs.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诪转驻诇诇 爪专讬讱 砖讬讻专注 注讚 砖讬转驻拽拽讜 讻诇 讞讜诇讬讜转 砖讘砖讚专讛

Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 opinion based the Amida prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In those blessings where one is required to bow, one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 注讚 讻讚讬 砖讬专讗讛 讗讬住专 讻谞讙讚 诇讘讜 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖谞注谞注 专讗砖讜 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讛讜讗 讚诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛 讜诪讞讝讬 讻诪讗谉 讚讻专注

Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, Ulla said: Until he can see a small coin [issar], on the ground before him opposite his heart (Rav Hai Gaon). Rabbi 岣nina said: There is room for leniency; once he moves his head forward, he need not bow any further. Rava said: But that applies only if he is exerting himself when doing so, and he appears like one who is bowing. However, if he is able, he should bow further.

讛谞讬 转诪谞讬 住专讬 转砖住专讬 讛讜讜讬谉

Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are these eighteen blessings? They are nineteen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 讘专讻转 讛诪讬谞讬诐 讘讬讘谞讛 转拽谞讜讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 转拽谞讜讛

Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, which curses informers, was instituted in Yavne and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: Corresponding to what was this nineteenth blessing instituted?

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 诇专讘讬 讛诇诇 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讻谞讙讚 讗诇 讛讻讘讜讚 讛专注讬诐 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 讻谞讙讚 讗讞讚 砖讘拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 诇专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻谞讙讚 讞讜诇讬讗 拽讟谞讛 砖讘砖讚专讛:

Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing corresponds to a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: 鈥淭he God of glory thunders鈥 (Psalms 29:3). According to Rav Yosef, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name in Shema, the additional blessing corresponds to the word one that is in Shema. Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. According to what Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing corresponds to the small vertebra that is at the bottom of the spine.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪注讜谉 讛驻拽讜诇讬 讛住讚讬专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讘专讻讜转 诇驻谞讬 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 注诇 讛住讚专 讘讬讘谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讞讻诪讬诐 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 讗讚诐 砖讬讜讚注 诇转拽谉 讘专讻转 讛诪讬谞讬诐 注诪讚 砖诪讜讗诇 讛拽讟谉 讜转拽谞讛

In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings, already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, before Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in order in Yavne. Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, a blessing directed against the Sadducees? Shmuel HaKatan, who was one of the most pious men of that generation, stood and instituted it.

诇砖谞讛 讗讞专转 砖讻讞讛

The Gemara relates: The next year, when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, he forgot that blessing,

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

talking talmud_square

Leadership and the Value of Machloket

In which the Gemara gets at the heart and head of leadership, the nature of Judaism in the absence of...

Berakhot 28

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Berakhot 28

讚诇诪讗 诪注讘专讬谉 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讛 诇砖转诪砖 讗讬谞砖 讬讜诪讗 讞讚讗 讘讻住讗 讚诪讜拽专讗 讜诇诪讞专 诇讬转讘专 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诇讬转 诇讱 讞讬讜专转讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讘专 转诪谞讬 住专讬 砖谞讬 讛讜讛 讗转专讞讬砖 诇讬讛 谞讬住讗 讜讗讛讚专讜 诇讬讛 转诪谞讬 住专讬 讚专讬 讞讬讜专转讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛专讬 讗谞讬 讻讘谉 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讜诇讗 讘谉 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛

There is room for concern. Perhaps they will remove you from office just as they removed Rabban Gamliel. He said to her, based on the folk saying: Let a person use an expensive goblet one day and let it break tomorrow. In other words, one should take advantage of an opportunity that presents itself and he need not concern himself whether or not it will last. She said to him: You have no white hair, and it is inappropriate for one so young to head the Sages. The Gemara relates: That day, he was eighteen years old, a miracle transpired for him and eighteen rows of hair turned white. The Gemara comments: That explains that which Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: I am as one who is seventy years old and he did not say: I am seventy years old, because he looked older than he actually was.

转谞讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 住诇拽讜讛讜 诇砖讜诪专 讛驻转讞 讜谞转谞讛 诇讛诐 专砖讜转 诇转诇诪讬讚讬诐 诇讬讻谞住 砖讛讬讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讻专讬讝 讜讗讜诪专 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 砖讗讬谉 转讜讻讜 讻讘专讜 诇讗 讬讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖

It was taught: On that day that they removed Rabban Gamliel from his position and appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya in his place, there was also a fundamental change in the general approach of the study hall as they dismissed the guard at the door and permission was granted to the students to enter. Instead of Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 selective approach that asserted that the students must be screened before accepting them into the study hall, the new approach asserted that anyone who seeks to study should be given opportunity to do so. As Rabban Gamliel would proclaim and say: Any student whose inside, his thoughts and feelings, are not like his outside, i.e., his conduct and his character traits are lacking, will not enter the study hall.

讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讗转讜住驻讜 讻诪讛 住驻住诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 讗讘讗 讬讜住祝 讘谉 讚讜住转讗讬 讜专讘谞谉 讞讚 讗诪专 讗转讜住驻讜 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 住驻住诇讬 讜讞讚 讗诪专 砖讘注 诪讗讛 住驻住诇讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇砖讛 讚注转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 讚诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 诪谞注转讬 转讜专讛 诪讬砖专讗诇 讗讞讝讜 诇讬讛 讘讞诇诪讬讛 讞爪讘讬 讞讬讜专讬 讚诪诇讬讬谉 拽讟诪讗 讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讬转讜讘讬 讚注转讬讛 讛讜讗 讚讗讞讝讜 诇讬讛

The Gemara relates: On that day several benches were added to the study hall to accommodate the numerous students. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Abba Yosef ben Dostai and the Rabbis disputed this matter. One said: Four hundred benches were added to the study hall. And one said: Seven hundred benches were added to the study hall. When he saw the tremendous growth in the number of students, Rabban Gamliel was disheartened. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I prevented Israel from engaging in Torah study. They showed him in his dream white jugs filled with ashes alluding to the fact that the additional students were worthless idlers. The Gemara comments: That is not the case, but that dream was shown to him to ease his mind so that he would not feel bad.

转谞讗 注讚讬讜转 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 谞砖谞讬转 讜讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 讜诇讗 讛讬转讛 讛诇讻讛 砖讛讬转讛 转诇讜讬讛 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 砖诇讗 驻讬专砖讜讛 讜讗祝 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 诪谞注 注爪诪讜 诪讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转

It was taught: There is a tradition that tractate Eduyyot was taught that day. And everywhere in the Mishna or in a baraita that they say: On that day, it is referring to that day. There was no halakha whose ruling was pending in the study hall that they did not explain and arrive at a practical halakhic conclusion. And even Rabban Gamliel did not avoid the study hall for even one moment, as he held no grudge against those who removed him from office and he participated in the halakhic discourse in the study hall as one of the Sages.

讚转谞谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讘讗 讬讛讜讚讛 讙专 注诪讜谞讬 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讘讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛 讗谞讬 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇

As we learned in a mishna: On that day, Yehuda, the Ammonite convert, came before the students in the study hall and he said to them: What is my legal status in terms of entering into the congregation of Israel, i.e., to marry a Jewish woman?

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗住讜专 讗转讛 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讜转专 讗转讛 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 诇讗 讬讘讗 注诪讜谞讬 讜诪讜讗讘讬 讘拽讛诇 讛壮 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜讻讬 注诪讜谉 讜诪讜讗讘 讘诪拽讜诪谉 讛谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉 讻讘专 注诇讛 住谞讞专讬讘 诪诇讱 讗砖讜专 讜讘诇讘诇 讗转 讻诇 讛讗讜诪讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗住讬专 讙讘诇讜转 注诪讬诐 讜注转讜讚讜转讬讛诐 砖讜砖转讬 讜讗讜专讬讚 讻讘讬专 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讜讻诇 讚驻专讬砖 诪专讜讘讗 驻专讬砖

Rabban Gamliel said to him: You are forbidden to enter into the congregation. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You are permitted to enter into the congregation. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: Wasn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淎n Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the congregation of the Lord forever鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:4)? How can you permit him to enter the congregation? Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: Do Ammon and Moab reside in their place? Sennacherib already came and, through his policy of population transfer, scrambled all the nations and settled other nations in place of Ammon. Consequently, the current residents of Ammon and Moab are not ethnic Ammonites and Moabites, as it is stated in reference to Sennacherib: 鈥淚 have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants鈥 (Isaiah 10:13). And although it is conceivable that this particular convert is an ethnic Ammonite, nevertheless, there is no need for concern due to the halakhic principle: Anything that parts from a group parts from the majority, and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the congregation.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讜讗讞专讬 讻谉 讗砖讬讘 讗转 砖讘讜转 讘谞讬 注诪讜谉 谞讗诐 讛壮 讜讻讘专 砖讘讜

Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua: But wasn鈥檛 it already stated: 鈥淏ut afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon, says the Lord鈥 (Jeremiah 49:6) and they have already returned to their land? Therefore, he is an ethnic Ammonite and he may not convert.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讜砖讘转讬 讗转 砖讘讜转 注诪讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜注讚讬讬谉 诇讗 砖讘讜 诪讬讚 讛转讬专讜讛讜 诇讘讗 讘拽讛诇

Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabban Gamliel: That is no proof. Wasn鈥檛 it already stated in another prophecy: 鈥淎nd I will turn the captivity of My people Israel and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them鈥 (Amos 9:14), and they have not yet returned? In rendering the ruling, only proven facts may be taken into consideration. They immediately permitted him to enter the congregation. This proves that Rabban Gamliel did not absent himself from the study hall that day and participated in the halakhic discourse.

讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讛讻讬 讛讜讛 讗讬讝讬诇 讜讗驻讬讬住讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讘讬转讬讛 讞讝讬谞讛讜 诇讗砖讬转讗 讚讘讬转讬讛 讚诪砖讞专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讻讜转诇讬 讘讬转讱 讗转讛 谞讬讻专 砖驻讞诪讬 讗转讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇讚讜专 砖讗转讛 驻专谞住讜 砖讗讬 讗转讛 讬讜讚注 讘爪注专谉 砖诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讘诪讛 讛诐 诪转驻专谞住讬诐 讜讘诪讛 讛诐 谞讝讜谞讬诐

Rabban Gamliel said to himself: Since this is the situation, that the people are following Rabbi Yehoshua, apparently he was right. Therefore, it would be appropriate for me to go and appease Rabbi Yehoshua. When he reached Rabbi Yehoshua鈥檚 house, he saw that the walls of his house were black. Rabban Gamliel said to Rabbi Yehoshua in wonderment: From the walls of your house it is apparent that you are a blacksmith, as until then he had no idea that Rabbi Yehoshua was forced to engage in that arduous trade in order to make a living. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Woe unto a generation that you are its leader as you are unaware of the difficulties of Torah scholars, how they make a living and how they feed themselves.

讗诪专 诇讜 谞注谞讬转讬 诇讱 诪讞讜诇 诇讬 诇讗 讗砖讙讞 讘讬讛 注砖讛 讘砖讘讬诇 讻讘讜讚 讗讘讗 驻讬讬住

Rabban Gamliel said to him: I insulted you, forgive me. Rabbi Yehoshua paid him no attention and did not forgive him. He asked him again: Do it in deference to my father, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who was one of the leaders of Israel at the time of the destruction of the Temple. He was appeased.

讗诪专讜 诪讗谉 谞讬讝讬诇 讜诇讬诪讗 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛讛讜讗 讻讜讘住 讗谞讗 讗讝讬诇谞讗 砖诇讞 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 诪讗谉 讚诇讘讬砖 诪讚讗 讬诇讘砖 诪讚讗 讜诪讗谉 讚诇讗 诇讘讬砖 诪讚讗 讬讬诪专 诇讬讛 诇诪讗谉 讚诇讘讬砖 诪讚讗 砖诇讞 诪讚讱 讜讗谞讗 讗诇讘砖讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讟专讜拽讜 讙诇讬 讚诇讗 诇讬转讜 注讘讚讬 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜诇爪注专讜 诇专讘谞谉

Now that Rabbi Yehoshua was no longer offended, it was only natural that Rabban Gamliel would be restored to his position. They said: Who will go and inform the Sages? Apparently, they were not eager to carry out the mission that would undo the previous actions and remove Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya from his position as Nasi. This launderer said to them: I will go. Rabbi Yehoshua sent to the Sages to the study hall: The one who wears the uniform will continue to wear the uniform, the original Nasi will remain in his position so that the one who did not wear the uniform will not say to the one who wears the uniform, remove your uniform and I will wear it. Apparently, the Sages believed that this emissary was dispatched at the initiative of Rabban Gamliel and they ignored him. Rabbi Akiva said to the Sages: Lock the gates so that Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 servants will not come and disturb the Sages.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讜讟讘 讚讗讬拽讜诐 讜讗讬讝讬诇 讗谞讗 诇讙讘讬讬讛讜 讗转讗 讟专祝 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讝讛 讘谉 诪讝讛 讬讝讛 讜砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 诪讝讛 讜诇讗 讘谉 诪讝讛 讬讗诪专 诇诪讝讛 讘谉 诪讝讛 诪讬诪讬讱 诪讬 诪注专讛 讜讗驻专讱 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 谞转驻讬讬住转 讻诇讜诐 注砖讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讻讘讜讚讱 诇诪讞专 讗谞讬 讜讗转讛 谞砖讻讬诐 诇驻转讞讜

When he heard what happened, Rabbi Yehoshua said: It is best if I go to them. He came and knocked on the door. He said to them with a slight variation: One who sprinkles pure water on those who are ritually impure, son of one who sprinkles water shall continue to sprinkle water. And it is inappropriate that he who is neither one who sprinkles nor son of one who sprinkles will say to one who sprinkles son of one who sprinkles: Your water is cave water and not the running water required to purify one exposed to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse and your ashes are burnt ashes and not the ashes of a red heifer. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Rabbi Yehoshua, have you been appeased? Everything we did was to defend your honor. If you have forgiven him, none of us is opposed. Early tomorrow you and I will go to Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 doorway and offer to restore him to his position as Nasi.

讗诪专讬 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚 谞注讘专讬讛 讙诪讬专讬 诪注诇讬谉 讘拽讚砖 讜讗讬谉 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 谞讚专讜砖 诪专 讞讚讗 砖讘转讗 讜诪专 讞讚讗 砖讘转讗 讗转讬 诇拽谞讗讜讬讬 讗诇讗 诇讚专讜砖 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 转诇转讗 砖讘转讬 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讞讚讗 砖讘转讗 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 诪专 砖讘转 砖诇 诪讬 讛讬转讛 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讬转讛 讜讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 讛讜讛:

The question arose what to do with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya? They said: What shall we do? Remove him from his position. That is inappropriate as we learned a halakha through tradition: One elevates to a higher level of sanctity and does not downgrade. Therefore, one who was the Nasi of the Sanhedrin cannot be demoted. Let one Sage lecture one week and the other Sage one week, they will come to be jealous one of another, as they will be forced to appoint one as the acting head of the Sanhedrin. Rather, Rabban Gamliel will lecture three weeks and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya will lecture as head of the yeshiva one week. That arrangement was adopted and that is the explanation of the exchange in tractate 岣giga: Whose week was it? It was the week of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. One final detail: That student who asked the original question that sparked this entire incident was Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i.

讜砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 讻诇 讛讬讜诐: 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜谞拽专讗 驻讜砖注

We learned in the mishna: And the additional prayer may be recited all day. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Nevertheless, one who postpones his prayer excessively is called negligent.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 砖转讬 转驻诇讜转 讗讞转 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 讜讗讞转 砖诇 诪讜住祝 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪讜住祝 砖讝讜 转讚讬专讛 讜讝讜 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪讜住祝 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 砖讝讜 诪爪讜讛 注讜讘专转 讜讝讜 诪爪讜讛 砖讗讬谞讛 注讜讘专转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪讜住祝

The Rabbis taught in a baraita: If the obligation to recite two prayers was before him, one, the afternoon prayer and one, the additional prayer, he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, because this, the afternoon prayer, is recited on a frequent basis, and this one, the additional prayer, is recited on a relatively infrequent basis. Rabbi Yehuda says: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter, because this, the additional prayer, is a mitzva whose time soon elapses, as it may only be recited until the seventh hour and this, the afternoon prayer, is a mitzva whose time does not soon elapse as one may recite it until the midpoint of the afternoon. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is that he recites the afternoon prayer first and the additional prayer thereafter, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讻讬 讛讜讛 讞诇讬砖 诪讙讬专住讬讛 讛讜讛 讗讝讬诇 讜讬转讬讘 讗驻转讞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗诪专 讻讬 讞诇驻讬 专讘谞谉 讗讝 讗讬拽讜诐 诪拽诪讬讬讛讜 讜讗拽讘诇 讗讙专讗 谞驻拽 讗转讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 诪转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 砖诇 诪讜住祝 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇 诪谞讞讛

The Gemara cites additional sources relating to this issue: When Rabbi Zeira would tire of his studies, he would go and sit in the doorway of Rabbi Natan bar Tovi鈥檚 study hall. He said to himself: When the entering and exiting Sages pass, I will rise before them and be rewarded for the mitzva of honoring Torah scholars. Rabbi Natan bar Tovi himself emerged and came to where Rabbi Zeira was seated. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Who just stated a halakha in the study hall? Rabbi Natan bar Tovi said to him: Rabbi Yo岣nan just said as follows: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said: He recites the additional prayer first and the afternoon prayer thereafter.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 转谞讗 诪讬谞讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讝诪谞讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讛讬讗 诇讱 讗讜 讞讚转 讛讬讗 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚转 讛讬讗 诇讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诪住驻拽讗 诇讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬:

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Did Rabbi Yo岣nan himself say this halakha? Rabbi Natan said to him: Yes. He learned this statement from him forty times, etching it into his memory. Rabbi Natan said to him: Is this halakha so dear to you because it is singular for you, as it is the only halakha that you learned in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan, or is it new to you, as you were previously unaware of this ruling? Rabbi Zeira said to him: It is somewhat new to me, as I was uncertain whether this halakha was said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan or in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Now it is clear to me that this halakha is in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇 诪讜住驻讬谉 诇讗讞专 砖讘注 砖注讜转 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 谞讜讙讬 诪诪讜注讚 讗住驻转讬 诪诪讱 讛讬讜 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 谞讜讙讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚转讘专讗 讛讜讗 讻讚诪转专讙诐 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讘专讗 讗转讬 注诇 砖谞讗讬讛讜谉 讚讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 注诇 讚讗讞专讜 讝诪谞讬 诪讜注讚讬讗 讚讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: With regard to anyone who recites the additional prayer after seven hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: 鈥淭hose who are destroyed [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insult鈥 (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of destruction? As Rav Yosef translated the verse into Aramaic: Destruction comes upon the enemies of the house of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself, for they have delayed the times of the Festivals in Jerusalem. This proves both that nugei means destruction and that destruction comes upon those who fail to fulfill a mitzva at its appointed time.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇 砖讞专讬转 诇讗讞专 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 谞讜讙讬 诪诪讜注讚 讗住驻转讬 诪诪讱 讛讬讜 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 谞讜讙讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚爪注专讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讚诇驻讛 谞驻砖讬 诪转讜讙讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讘转讜诇讜转讬讛 谞讜讙讜转 讜讛讬讗 诪专 诇讛

Similarly, Rabbi Elazar said: Regarding anyone who recites the morning prayer after four hours of the day, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the verse states: 鈥淭hose who are in sorrow [nugei] far from the Festivals, I shall gather from you, they who carried for you the burden of insult鈥 (Zephaniah 3:18). From where may it be inferred that nugei is an expression of sorrow? As it is written: 鈥淢y soul drips in sorrow [tuga]鈥 (Psalms 119:28). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The proof that nugei indicates suffering is from here: 鈥淗er virgins are sorrowed [nugot] and she is embittered鈥 (Lamentations 1:4).

专讘 讗讜讬讗 讞诇砖 讜诇讗 讗转讗 诇驻专拽讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诇诪讞专 讻讬 讗转讗 讘注讗 讗讘讬讬 诇讗谞讜讞讬 讚注转讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗转讗 诪专 诇驻专拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讛讜讛 讞诇讬砖 诇讘讗讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 讟注诪转 诪讬讚讬 讜讗转讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讟注讜诐 讻诇讜诐 拽讜讚诐 砖讬转驻诇诇 转驻诇转 讛诪讜住驻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪专 诇爪诇讜讬讬 爪诇讜转讗 讚诪讜住驻讬谉 讘讬讞讬讚 讜诇讟注讜诐 诪讬讚讬 讜诇诪讬转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 住讘专 诇讛 诪专 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬拽讚讬诐 转驻诇转讜 诇转驻诇转 讛爪讘讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗转诪专 注诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘爪讘讜专 砖谞讜

After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef鈥檚 Shabbat lecture. When Rav Avya came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya鈥檚 failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef.
To this end, he asked him: Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture?
Rav Avya said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable to attend.
Abaye said to him: Why did you not eat something and come?
Rav Avya said to him: Does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer.
Abaye said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and then come to the lecture.
Rav Avya said to him: Does my Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan: A person may not recite his individual prayer prior to the communal prayer?
Abaye said to him: Was it not stated regarding this halakha, Rabbi Abba said: They taught this in a communal setting?
In other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion.

讜诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 诇讗 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 转驻诇转 诪谞讞讛 讗住讜专 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬讟注讜诐 讻诇讜诐 拽讜讚诐 砖讬转驻诇诇 转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛:

And the Gemara summarizes: The halakha is neither in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna nor in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara explains: It is not in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as we said above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time to recite the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 谞讞讜谞讬讗 讘谉 讛拽谞讛 讛讬讛 诪转驻诇诇 讘讻谞讬住转讜 诇讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜讘讬爪讬讗转讜 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛 诪拽讜诐 诇转驻诇讛 讝讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘讻谞讬住转讬 讗谞讬 诪转驻诇诇 砖诇讗 讬讗专注 讚讘专 转拽诇讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讜讘讬爪讬讗转讬 讗谞讬 谞讜转谉 讛讜讚讗讛 注诇 讞诇拽讬:

MISHNA: In addition to the halakhot relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Ne岣nya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire caused by me in the study hall. And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讻谞讬住转讜 诪讛讜 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 诪诇驻谞讬讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬 砖诇讗 讬讗专注 讚讘专 转拽诇讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讜诇讗 讗讻砖诇 讘讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讬砖诪讞讜 讘讬 讞讘专讬 讜诇讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 讟诪讗 讟讛讜专 讜诇讗 注诇 讟讛讜专 讟诪讗 讜诇讗 讬讻砖诇讜 讞讘专讬 讘讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讗砖诪讞 讘讛诐

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita the complete formula of Rabbi Ne岣nya ben Hakana鈥檚 prayer: Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap in determining the halakha transpires caused by me, and that I not fail in any matter of halakha, and that my colleagues, who together with me engage in clarifying the halakha, will rejoice in me. He specified: And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor declare impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of halakha, and that I will rejoice in them.

讘讬爪讬讗转讜 诪讛讜 讗讜诪专 诪讜讚讛 讗谞讬 诇驻谞讬讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬 砖砖诪转 讞诇拽讬 诪讬讜砖讘讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜诇讗 砖诪转 讞诇拽讬 诪讬讜砖讘讬 拽专谞讜转 砖讗谞讬 诪砖讻讬诐 讜讛诐 诪砖讻讬诪讬诐 讗谞讬 诪砖讻讬诐 诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜讛诐 诪砖讻讬诪讬诐 诇讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 讗谞讬 注诪诇 讜讛诐 注诪诇讬诐 讗谞讬 注诪诇 讜诪拽讘诇 砖讻专 讜讛诐 注诪诇讬诐 讜讗讬谞诐 诪拽讘诇讬诐 砖讻专 讗谞讬 专抓 讜讛诐 专爪讬诐 讗谞讬 专抓 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜讛诐 专爪讬诐 诇讘讗专 砖讞转:

Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit idly on street corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to pursue matters of Torah, and they rise early to pursue frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖讞诇讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞讻谞住讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 诇讘拽专讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜 讗讜专讞讜转 讞讬讬诐 讜谞讝讻讛 讘讛谉 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, guidelines by which to live, and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛讝讛专讜 讘讻讘讜讚 讞讘专讬讻诐 讜诪谞注讜 讘谞讬讻诐 诪谉 讛讛讙讬讜谉 讜讛讜砖讬讘讜诐 讘讬谉 讘专讻讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讻砖讗转诐 诪转驻诇诇讬诐 讚注讜 诇驻谞讬 诪讬 讗转诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 讜讘砖讘讬诇 讻讱 转讝讻讜 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic when studying verses that tend toward heresy (geonim), and place your children, while they are still young, between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For doing that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come.

讜讻砖讞诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 谞讻谞住讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 诇讘拽专讜 讻讬讜谉 砖专讗讛 讗讜转诐 讛转讞讬诇 诇讘讻讜转 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 谞专 讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜讚 讛讬诪讬谞讬 驻讟讬砖 讛讞讝拽 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 讘讜讻讛

A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 mentor, Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai: When Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, the man whose life鈥檚 work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, for what reason are you crying? With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗讬诇讜 诇驻谞讬 诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讛讬讜 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讗讜转讬 砖讛讬讜诐 讻讗谉 讜诪讞专 讘拽讘专 砖讗诐 讻讜注住 注诇讬 讗讬谉 讻注住讜 讻注住 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 讗讜住专谞讬 讗讬谉 讗讬住讜专讜 讗讬住讜专 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 诪诪讬转谞讬 讗讬谉 诪讬转转讜 诪讬转转 注讜诇诐 讜讗谞讬 讬讻讜诇 诇驻讬讬住讜 讘讚讘专讬诐 讜诇砖讞讚讜 讘诪诪讜谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讛讬讬转讬 讘讜讻讛 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖诪讜诇讬讻讬诐 讗讜转讬 诇驻谞讬 诪诇讱 诪诇讻讬 讛诪诇讻讬诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讛讜讗 讞讬 讜拽讬讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜诇注讜诇诪讬 注讜诇诪讬诐 砖讗诐 讻讜注住 注诇讬 讻注住讜 讻注住 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 讗讜住专谞讬 讗讬住讜专讜 讗讬住讜专 注讜诇诐 讜讗诐 诪诪讬转谞讬 诪讬转转讜 诪讬转转 注讜诇诐 讜讗讬谞讬 讬讻讜诇 诇驻讬讬住讜 讘讚讘专讬诐 讜诇讗 诇砖讞讚讜 讘诪诪讜谉 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讬砖 诇驻谞讬 砖谞讬 讚专讻讬诐 讗讞转 砖诇 讙谉 注讚谉 讜讗讞转 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐 讜讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讘讗讬讝讜 诪讜诇讬讻讬诐 讗讜转讬 讜诇讗 讗讘讻讛

He said to them: I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king whose life is temporal, who is here today and dead in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, I am able to appease him with words and even bribe him with money, and even so I would cry when standing before royal judgment. Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry?

讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬谞讜 讘专讻谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖转讛讗 诪讜专讗 砖诪讬诐 注诇讬讻诐 讻诪讜专讗 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 注讚 讻讗谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讜诇讜讗讬 转讚注讜 讻砖讗讚诐 注讜讘专 注讘讬专讛 讗讜诪专 砖诇讗 讬专讗谞讬 讗讚诐

His students said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be His will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students were puzzled and said: To that point and not beyond? Shouldn鈥檛 one fear God more? He said to them: Would that a person achieve that level of fear. Know that when one commits a transgression, he says to himself: I hope that no man will see me. If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.

讘砖注转 驻讟讬专转讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 驻谞讜 讻诇讬诐 诪驻谞讬 讛讟讜诪讗讛 讜讛讻讬谞讜 讻住讗 诇讞讝拽讬讛讜 诪诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讘讗:

The Gemara relates that at the time of his death, immediately beforehand, he said to them: Remove the vessels from the house and take them outside due to the ritual impurity that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming from the upper world to accompany me.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 诪转驻诇诇 讗讚诐 砖诪谞讛 注砖专讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪注讬谉 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讗诐 砖讙讜专讛 转驻诇转讜 讘驻讬讜 诪转驻诇诇 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诪注讬谉 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛

MISHNA: The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the Amida prayer, also known as Shemoneh Esreh, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as tefilla, prayer. Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says an intermediate opinion: If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the prayer of eighteen blessings, and if not, he need only recite an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讛注讜砖讛 转驻诇转讜 拽讘注 讗讬谉 转驻诇转讜 转讞谞讜谞讬诐

Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw.

专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讛讛讜诇讱 讘诪拽讜诐 住讻谞讛 诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛 讜讗讜诪专 讛讜砖注 讛壮 讗转 注诪讱 讗转 砖讗专讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讘讻诇 驻专砖转 讛注讘讜专 讬讛讬讜 爪专讻讬讛诐 诇驻谞讬讱 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who cannot recite a complete prayer because he is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remnant of Israel, at every transition [parashat ha鈥檌bur], the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer.

讛讬讛 专讜讻讘 注诇 讛讞诪讜专 讬专讚 讜讬转驻诇诇 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讬专讚 讬讞讝讬专 讗转 驻谞讬讜 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讞讝讬专 讗转 驻谞讬讜 讬讻讜讬谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘住驻讬谞讛 讗讜 讘讗住讚讗 讬讻讜讬谉 讗转 诇讘讜 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐:

While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray calmly. If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face toward the direction of the Temple. If he is unable to turn his face, it is sufficient that he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. Similarly, one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [asda] and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.

讙诪壮 讛谞讬 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬

GEMARA: Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the Amida prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. Corresponding to what were these eighteen blessings instituted? When the Shemoneh Esreh was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讛诇诇 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讗讝讻专讜转 砖讗诪专 讚讜讚 讘讛讘讜 诇讛壮 讘谞讬 讗诇讬诐 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讗讝讻专讜转 砖讘拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讞讜诇讬讜转 砖讘砖讚专讛

Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name that King David said in the psalm: 鈥淕ive unto the Lord, O you sons of might鈥 (Psalms 29). Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name in Shema. Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine beneath the ribs.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诪转驻诇诇 爪专讬讱 砖讬讻专注 注讚 砖讬转驻拽拽讜 讻诇 讞讜诇讬讜转 砖讘砖讚专讛

Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 opinion based the Amida prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In those blessings where one is required to bow, one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 注讚 讻讚讬 砖讬专讗讛 讗讬住专 讻谞讙讚 诇讘讜 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖谞注谞注 专讗砖讜 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讛讜讗 讚诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛 讜诪讞讝讬 讻诪讗谉 讚讻专注

Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, Ulla said: Until he can see a small coin [issar], on the ground before him opposite his heart (Rav Hai Gaon). Rabbi 岣nina said: There is room for leniency; once he moves his head forward, he need not bow any further. Rava said: But that applies only if he is exerting himself when doing so, and he appears like one who is bowing. However, if he is able, he should bow further.

讛谞讬 转诪谞讬 住专讬 转砖住专讬 讛讜讜讬谉

Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are these eighteen blessings? They are nineteen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 讘专讻转 讛诪讬谞讬诐 讘讬讘谞讛 转拽谞讜讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 转拽谞讜讛

Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, which curses informers, was instituted in Yavne and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: Corresponding to what was this nineteenth blessing instituted?

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 诇专讘讬 讛诇诇 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讻谞讙讚 讗诇 讛讻讘讜讚 讛专注讬诐 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 讻谞讙讚 讗讞讚 砖讘拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 诇专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻谞讙讚 讞讜诇讬讗 拽讟谞讛 砖讘砖讚专讛:

Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing corresponds to a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: 鈥淭he God of glory thunders鈥 (Psalms 29:3). According to Rav Yosef, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God鈥檚 name in Shema, the additional blessing corresponds to the word one that is in Shema. Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. According to what Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing corresponds to the small vertebra that is at the bottom of the spine.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪注讜谉 讛驻拽讜诇讬 讛住讚讬专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讘专讻讜转 诇驻谞讬 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 注诇 讛住讚专 讘讬讘谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讞讻诪讬诐 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 讗讚诐 砖讬讜讚注 诇转拽谉 讘专讻转 讛诪讬谞讬诐 注诪讚 砖诪讜讗诇 讛拽讟谉 讜转拽谞讛

In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings, already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, before Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in order in Yavne. Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, a blessing directed against the Sadducees? Shmuel HaKatan, who was one of the most pious men of that generation, stood and instituted it.

诇砖谞讛 讗讞专转 砖讻讞讛

The Gemara relates: The next year, when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, he forgot that blessing,

Scroll To Top