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Today's Daf Yomi

January 6, 2020 | 讟壮 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Berakhot 3

Rabbi Eliezer says one can say shema until the end of the first watch. How many watches were there? Three or four? What are signs of each watch? Rabbi Yosi went into a ruin and prayed. Eliyahu Hanavi rebukes him for doing that. What are the three reasons why people can’t go into a ruin? Did King David wake up at midnight? Or before? How did he know even when midnight was if even Moshe Rabeinu didn’t know?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

拽砖讬讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 转专讬 转谞讗讬 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专

There is a contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Meir and the other statement of Rabbi Meir. The Gemara responds: Two tanna鈥檌m, students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions in accordance with Rabbi Meir鈥檚 opinion.

拽砖讬讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

So too, the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in the mishna contradicts the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in the baraita. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of Shema begins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their teruma, while in the baraita, he states that the time for the recitation of Shema begins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.

转专讬 转谞讗讬 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讬砖讗 诇讗讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讬讗:

The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion. Either two tanna鈥檌m expressed different opinions in accordance with Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion, or if you wish, say instead that the first clause of the mishna, according to which we begin to recite Shema when the priests enter to partake of their teruma, is not actually Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.

注讚 住讜祝 讛讗砖诪讜专讛:

In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening Shema until the end of the first watch. These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time (Tosefot HaRosh)?

诪讗讬 拽住讘专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讬 拽住讘专 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 诇讬诪讗 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 讜讗讬 拽住讘专 讗专讘注 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 诇讬诪讗 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转

What does Rabbi Eliezer actually hold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him say explicitly that one recites the evening Shema until the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him say explicitly until the third hour.

诇注讜诇诐 拽住讘专 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讛讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗讬讻讗 诪砖诪专讜转 讘专拽讬注 讜讗讬讻讗 诪砖诪专讜转 讘讗专注讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讜注诇 讻诇 诪砖诪专 讜诪砖诪专 讬讜砖讘 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜砖讜讗讙 讻讗专讬 砖谞讗诪专 讛壮 诪诪专讜诐 讬砖讗讙 讜诪诪注讜谉 拽讚砖讜 讬转谉 拽讜诇讜 砖讗讙 讬砖讗讙 注诇 谞讜讛讜

The Gemara responds: Actually, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the night consists of three watches, and he employs this particular language of watches in order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth; just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lion in pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord roars [yishag] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily [shaog yishag] over His dwelling place, He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth鈥 (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root shin-alef-gimmel in this verse correspond to the three watches of the night.

讜住讬诪谉 诇讚讘专 诪砖诪专讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讞诪讜专 谞讜注专 砖谞讬讛 讻诇讘讬诐 爪讜注拽讬诐 砖诇讬砖讬转 转讬谞讜拽 讬讜谞拽 诪砖讚讬 讗诪讜 讜讗砖讛 诪住驻专转 注诐 讘注诇讛

And signs of the transition between each of these watches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In the first watch, the donkey brays; in the second, dogs bark; and in the third people begin to rise, a baby nurses from its mother鈥檚 breast and a wife converses with her husband.

诪讗讬 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讬 转讞诇转 诪砖诪专讜转 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 转讞诇转 诪砖诪专讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 住讬诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讗讬 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讜转 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 住讬诪谞讗 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗

With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the baraita, the Gemara asks: What did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? If he enumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It is when evening begins; an additional sign is superfluous. If he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It is when day begins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.

讗诇讗 讞砖讬讘 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜转讞诇转 诪砖诪专讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 讜讗诪爪注讬转 讚讗诪爪注讬转讗 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讜诇讛讜 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讜转 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讗讞专讜谞讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱

The Gemara answers: Rather, he enumerated the signs for the end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch, both of which require a sign, as well as the middle of the middle watch. And if you wish, say instead: He enumerated the ends of all of the watches. And if you say that a sign indicating the end of the final watch is unnecessary because it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪讬拽专讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 诇诪讗谉 讚讙谞讬 讘讘讬转 讗驻诇 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讝诪谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗讬诪转 讻讬讜谉 讚讗砖讛 诪住驻专转 注诐 讘注诇讛 讜转讬谞讜拽 讬讜谞拽 诪砖讚讬 讗诪讜 诇讬拽讜诐 讜诇讬拽专讬

What is the practical ramification of this sign? It is relevant to one who recites Shema while lying in a dark house, who cannot see the dawn and who does not know when the time for reciting Shema arrives. That person is provided with a sign that when a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother鈥檚 breast, the final watch of the night has ended and he must rise and recite Shema.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讜注诇 讻诇 诪砖诪专 讜诪砖诪专 讬讜砖讘 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜砖讜讗讙 讻讗专讬 讜讗讜诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖讘注讜谞讜转讬讛诐 讛讞专讘转讬 讗转 讘讬转讬 讜砖专驻转讬 讗转 讛讬讻诇讬 讜讛讙诇讬转讬诐 诇讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐:

Rav Yitz岣k bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion, because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches (Tosefot HaRosh), and says: 鈥淲oe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.鈥

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讬转讬 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讜谞讻谞住转讬 诇讞讜专讘讛 讗讞转 诪讞讜专讘讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讛转驻诇诇 讘讗 讗诇讬讛讜 讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 讜砖诪专 诇讬 注诇 讛驻转讞 (讜讛诪转讬谉 诇讬) 注讚 砖住讬讬诪转讬 转驻诇转讬 诇讗讞专 砖住讬讬诪转讬 转驻诇转讬 讗诪专 诇讬 砖诇讜诐 注诇讬讱 专讘讬 讜讗诪专转讬 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 注诇讬讱 专讘讬 讜诪讜专讬 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讘谞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞讻谞住转 诇讞讜专讘讛 讝讜 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诇讛转驻诇诇 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讛讬讛 诇讱 诇讛转驻诇诇 讘讚专讱 讜讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诪转讬专讗 讛讬讬转讬 砖诪讗 讬驻住讬拽讜 讘讬 注讜讘专讬 讚专讻讬诐 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讛讬讛 诇讱 诇讛转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛

Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I entered the ruins of an old, abandoned building among the ruins of Jerusalem in order to pray. I noticed that Elijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished praying and exited the ruin, Elijah said to me, deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: Greetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. And Elijah said to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him: In order to pray. And Elijah said to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him: I was unable to pray along the road, because I was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelers and would be unable to focus. Elijah said to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayer instituted for just such circumstances.

讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 诇诪讚转讬 诪诪谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讞讜专讘讛 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讘讚专讱 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讛诪转驻诇诇 讘讚专讱 诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛

Rabbi Yosei concluded: At that time, from that brief exchange, I learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learned that one need not enter a building to pray, but he may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayer so that he may maintain his focus.

讜讗诪专 诇讬 讘谞讬 诪讛 拽讜诇 砖诪注转 讘讞讜专讘讛 讝讜 讜讗诪专转讬 诇讜 砖诪注转讬 讘转 拽讜诇 砖诪谞讛诪转 讻讬讜谞讛 讜讗讜诪专转 讗讜讬 诇讘谞讬诐 砖讘注讜谞讜转讬讛诐 讛讞专讘转讬 讗转 讘讬转讬 讜砖专驻转讬 讗转 讛讬讻诇讬 讜讛讙诇讬转讬诐 诇讘讬谉 讛讗讜诪讜转 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讞讬讬讱 讜讞讬讬 专讗砖讱 诇讗 砖注讛 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗讜诪专转 讻讱 讗诇讗 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 砖诇砖 驻注诪讬诐 讗讜诪专转 讻讱 讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诇讗 讘砖注讛 砖讬砖专讗诇 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜诇讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转 讜注讜谞讬谉 讬讛讗 砖诪讬讛 讛讙讚讜诇 诪讘讜专讱 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪谞注谞注 专讗砖讜 讜讗讜诪专 讗砖专讬 讛诪诇讱 砖诪拽诇住讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讘讬转讜 讻讱 诪讛 诇讜 诇讗讘 砖讛讙诇讛 讗转 讘谞讬讜 讜讗讜讬 诇讛诐 诇讘谞讬诐 砖讙诇讜 诪注诇 砖讜诇讞谉 讗讘讬讛诐:

And after this introduction, Elijah said to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin?
I responded: I heard a Heavenly voice, like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), cooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.
And Elijah said to me: By your life and by your head, not only did that voice cry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover, any time that God鈥檚 greatness is evoked, such as when Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answers in the kaddish prayer, May His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house. When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: How great is the pain of the father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father鈥檚 table, as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讞讜专讘讛 诪驻谞讬 讞砖讚 诪驻谞讬 讛诪驻讜诇转 讜诪驻谞讬 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讞砖讚 讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 诪驻讜诇转

The Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicion of prostitution, because the ruin is liable to collapse, and because of demons. Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason because of suspicion necessary? Let this halakha be derived because of collapse.

讘讞讚转讬

The Gemara answers: This halakha applies even in the case of a new, sturdy ruin, where there is no danger of collapse. Therefore, the reason because of suspicion is cited in order to warn one not to enter a new ruin as well.

讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 诪讝讬拽讬谉 讘转专讬

The Gemara continues to object: And let this halakha be derived because of demons? The Gemara answers: Demons are only a threat to individuals, so because of demons would not apply to a case where two people enter a ruin together.

讗讬 讘转专讬 讞砖讚 谞诪讬 诇讬讻讗 讘转专讬 讜驻专讬爪讬

The Gemara objects: But if there are two people entering a ruin together, then there is no suspicion either. There is no prohibition against two men to be alone with a woman as, in that case, there is no suspicion of untoward behavior. Consequently, if two men enter a ruin together, there is no room for suspicion. The Gemara answers: If two individuals known to be immoral enter together, there is suspicion even though there are two of them.

诪驻谞讬 讛诪驻讜诇转 讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讞砖讚 讜诪讝讬拽讬谉

The Gemara considers why because of collapse is necessary. Let the prohibition be derived from suspicion and demons.

讘转专讬 讜讻砖专讬

The Gemara responds: There are times when this reason is necessary, e.g., when two upstanding individuals enter a ruin together. Although there is neither concern of suspicion nor of demons, there remains concern lest the ruin collapse.

诪驻谞讬 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪驻谞讬 讞砖讚 讜诪驻讜诇转

The Gemara considers the third reason, because of demons. Why is it necessary to include: Because of demons? Let the prohibition be derived from suspicion and collapse.

讘讞讜专讘讛 讞讚转讬 讜讘转专讬 讜讻砖专讬

The Gemara responds: There are cases where this is the only concern, for example where it is a new ruin into which two upstanding individuals enter, so there is neither concern lest it collapse nor of suspicion.

讗讬 讘转专讬 诪讝讬拽讬谉 谞诪讬 诇讬讻讗

The Gemara points out, however, that if there are two people, there is also no concern of demons. As such, the question remains: In what case can demons be the sole cause not to enter a ruin?

讘诪拽讜诪谉 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讘讞讚 讜讘讞讜专讘讛 讞讚转讬 讚拽讗讬 讘讚讘专讗 讚讛转诐 诪砖讜诐 讞砖讚 诇讬讻讗 讚讛讗 讗砖讛 讘讚讘专讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讜诪砖讜诐 诪讝讬拽讬谉 讗讬讻讗:

The Gemara responds: Generally speaking, two individuals need not be concerned about demons; but, if they are in their place, i.e., a place known to be haunted by demons (see Isaiah 13:21), we are concerned about demons even with two people. And if you wish, say instead: Actually, this refers to the case of an individual entering a new ruin located in a field. There, there is no suspicion, as finding a woman in the field is uncommon; and since it is a new ruin, there is no danger of collapse. However, there is still concern of demons.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讘注 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 砖诇砖

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The night is comprised of four watches; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Natan says: The night is comprised of three watches.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讙讚注讜谉 讜诪讗讛 讗讬砖 讗砖专 讗转讜 讘拽爪讛 讛诪讞谞讛 专讗砖 讛讗砖诪专转 讛转讬讻讜谞讛 转谞讗 讗讬谉 转讬讻讜谞讛 讗诇讗 砖讬砖 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

The Gemara explains: What is Rabbi Natan鈥檚 reasoning? As it is written: 鈥淎nd Gideon, and the one hundred men who were with him, came to the edge of camp at the beginning of the middle watch鈥 (Judges 7:19). It was taught in the Tosefta: Middle means nothing other than that there is one before it and one after it. From the fact that the verse refers to a middle watch, the fact that the night is comprised of three watches may be inferred.

讜专讘讬 诪讗讬 转讬讻讜谞讛 讗讞转 诪谉 讛转讬讻讜谞讛 砖讘转讬讻讜谞讜转

And what does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi say about this proof? He argues that it is inconclusive, as one could say: To what does middle refer? It refers to one of the two middle watches.

讜专讘讬 谞转谉 诪讬 讻转讬讘 转讬讻讜谞讛 砖讘转讬讻讜谞讜转 转讬讻讜谞讛 讻转讬讘

And how would Rabbi Natan respond? He would say: Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 objection, is: One of the middle watches, written in the verse? The middle watch is written. This indicates that the night is comprised of only three watches.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝专讬拽讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讗拽讜诐 诇讛讜讚讜转 诇讱 注诇 诪砖驻讟讬 爪讚拽讱 讜讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 拽讚诪讜 注讬谞讬 讗砖诪讜专讜转 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讗专讘注 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛

What is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 reasoning? Rabbi Zerika said that Rabbi Ami said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 opinion is based on a comparison of two verses. One verse says: 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws鈥 (Psalms 119:62), and the other verse says: 鈥淢y eyes forestall the watches, that I will speak of Your word鈥 (Psalms 119:148). Taken together, these verses indicate that their author, King David, rose at midnight, two watches before dawn, in order to study Torah. How is it possible to reconcile these two verses? Only if there are four watches in the night does one who rises two watches before dawn rise at midnight.

讜专讘讬 谞转谉 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转 砖讻谉 讚专讱 诪诇讻讬诐 诇注诪讜讚 讘砖诇砖 砖注讜转 砖讬转 讚诇讬诇讬讗 讜转专转讬 讚讬诪诪讗 讛讜讜 诇讛讜 砖转讬 诪砖诪专讜转

And how does Rabbi Natan reconcile these two verses? He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, for we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehoshua says: One is permitted to recite the morning Shema during the time when people rise, until the third hour of the day, as it is the custom of kings to rise during the third hour. Since it is customary for kings to rise during the third hour of the day, if David rose at midnight, he would be awake for six hours of the night and two hours of the day, which amounts to two watches. Therefore King David could say that he 鈥渇orestalls the watches,鈥 as he rose two watches before the rest of the kings in the world.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诪砖诪专讛 讜驻诇讙讗 谞诪讬 诪砖诪专讜转 拽专讜 诇讛讜:

Rav Ashi said that the verses can be reconciled in accordance with Rabbi Natan鈥檚 opinion in another way: One and one-half watches are still called watches in plural. Therefore King David could rise at midnight yet maintain that he 鈥渇orestalls the watches.鈥

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讝专讬拽讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬谉 讘驻谞讬 讛诪转 讗诇讗 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 诪转

Following this discussion, another halakha that Rabbi Zerika said that Rabbi Ami said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said is cited: Before the dead, one may speak only of matters relating to the dead, as speaking of other matters appears to be contemptuous of the deceased, underscoring that he is unable to talk while those around him can. Therefore, one must remain fully engaged in matters relating to him.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讻讛谞讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗讘诇 诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛

Two traditions exist with regard to the details of this halakha in the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana. According to one version, Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: This halakha was only said with regard to matters of Torah. Speaking of other matters, however, is not prohibited, since no contempt is expressed for the deceased by the fact that he is unable to speak of such topics.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讻讛谞讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 [讗驻讬诇讜] 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗:

Others say another version of this halakha in the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: This halakha was said even with regard to matters of Torah, and all the more so with regard to other matters. If one must refrain from speaking of matters of Torah, regarding which one is commanded to speak, and limit himself to matters concerning the deceased, all the more so should he refrain from speaking of other matters, regarding which one is not commanded to speak.

讜讚讜讚 讘驻诇讙讗 讚诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 拽讚诪转讬 讘谞砖祝 讜讗砖讜注讛 讜诪诪讗讬 讚讛讗讬 谞砖祝 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘谞砖祝 讘注专讘 讬讜诐 讘讗讬砖讜谉 诇讬诇讛 讜讗驻诇讛

Incidental to the Gemara鈥檚 mention of King David, other sources are cited that describe his actions. Regarding that which was cited above, that he would rise in the middle of the night in order to serve his Creator, the Gemara asks: Did David rise at midnight? He rose in the evening. As it is written: 鈥淚 rose with the neshef and cried, I hoped for Your word鈥 (Psalms 119:147). And how do we know that this neshef is the evening? As it is written: 鈥淚n the neshef, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness鈥 (Proverbs 7:9). Apparently, King David did indeed rise when it was still evening.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 (讚讜讚) 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 注讘专 注诇讬 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讘砖讬谞讛

The Gemara suggests several ways to resolve this contradiction. Rabbi Oshaya said that Rabbi A岣 said: David said as follows: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep. Sometimes I fulfilled the verse, 鈥淚 rose with the neshef and cried,鈥 but I always, at least, fulfilled the verse, 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws.鈥

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讛讬讛 诪转谞诪谞诐 讻住讜住 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讛讬讛 诪转讙讘专 讻讗专讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讛讬讛 注讜住拽 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讘砖讬专讜转 讜转砖讘讞讜转

Rabbi Zeira said: Until midnight, David would doze like a horse, as a horse dozes, but never sleeps deeply. From midnight on, he would gain the strength of a lion. Rav Ashi said: Until midnight, he would study Torah, as it is written: 鈥淚 rose with the neshef and cried, I hoped for Your word,鈥 and from midnight on, he would engage in songs and praise, as it is written: 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks.鈥

讜谞砖祝 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讛讗 谞砖祝 爪驻专讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讻诐 讚讜讚 诪讛谞砖祝 讜注讚 讛注专讘 诇诪讞专转诐 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诪爪驻专讗 讜注讚 诇讬诇讬讗

To this point, the discussion has been based on the assumption that neshef means evening. The Gemara asks: Does neshef really mean evening? Doesn鈥檛 neshef mean morning? As it is written: 鈥淎nd David slew them from the neshef until the evening of the next day鈥 (I Samuel 30:17). Doesn鈥檛 this verse mean from the morning until the night, in which case neshef must mean morning?

诇讗 诪讗讜专转讗 讜注讚 讗讜专转讗

The Gemara responds: No, this verse means that David slew them from one evening until the next evening.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诇讻转讜讘 诪讛谞砖祝 讜注讚 讛谞砖祝 讗讜 诪讛注专讘 讜注讚 讛注专讘

The Gemara rejects this response: If so, let the verse be written: From the neshef until the neshef, or from the evening until the evening. Why would the verse employ two different terms for a single concept?

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 转专讬 谞砖驻讬 讛讜讜 谞砖祝 诇讬诇讬讗 讜讗转讬 讬诪诪讗 谞砖祝 讬诪诪讗 讜讗转讬 诇讬诇讬讗

Rather, Rava said: There are two times referred to as neshef, and the word can refer to either evening or morning. Neshef must be understood in accordance with its Aramaic root: The night moves past [neshaf ] and the day arrives, and the day moves past [neshaf ] and the night arrives.

讜讚讜讚 诪讬 讛讜讛 讬讚注 驻诇讙讗 讚诇讬诇讬讗 讗讬诪转 讛砖转讗 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注 讚讻转讬讘 讻讞爪讜转 讛诇讬诇讛 讗谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘转讜讱 诪爪专讬诐

When King David said: At midnight I rise, the assumption is that he rose precisely at midnight. The Gemara asks: Did David know exactly when it was midnight? Even Moses our teacher did not know exactly when it was midnight. How do we know this about Moses? As it is written that he said to Pharaoh: 鈥淭hus said the Lord: About midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt鈥 (Exodus 11:4). The word about indicates that it was only an approximation.

诪讗讬 讻讞爪讜转 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讻讞爪讜转 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 住驻讬拽讗 拽诪讬 砖诪讬讗 讗诇讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 (诇诪讞专) 讘讞爪讜转 (讻讬 讛砖转讗) 讜讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 讻讞爪讜转 讗诇诪讗 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛 讜讚讜讚 讛讜讛 讬讚注

The Gemara clarifies: What is the meaning of the expression: About midnight? Did Moses say it or did God say it? If we say that the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, said: About midnight, to Moses, is there doubt before God in heaven? Rather, this must be understood as follows: God told Moses: At midnight, but from the fact that when Moses came to Pharaoh he said: About midnight; apparently, Moses was uncertain about the exact moment of midnight. Moses, the greatest of all the prophets, was uncertain, and David knew?

讚讜讚 住讬诪谞讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讻谞讜专 讛讬讛 转诇讜讬 诇诪注诇讛 诪诪讟转讜 砖诇 讚讜讚 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讘讗 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 讜谞讜砖讘转 讘讜 讜诪谞讙谉 诪讗诇讬讜 诪讬讚 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 注讚 砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻讬讜谉 砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 谞讻谞住讜 讞讻诪讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗爪诇讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讚讜谞讬谞讜 讛诪诇讱 注诪讱 讬砖专讗诇 爪专讬讻讬谉 驻专谞住讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诇讻讜 讜讛转驻专谞住讜 讝讛 诪讝讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 讛拽讜诪抓 诪砖讘讬注 讗转 讛讗专讬 讜讗讬谉 讛讘讜专 诪转诪诇讗 诪讞讜诇讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诇讻讜 讜驻砖讟讜 讬讚讬讻诐 讘讙讚讜讚

The Gemara offers several answers to this question:
David had a sign indicating when it was midnight. As Rav A岣 bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida said: A lyre hung over David鈥檚 bed, and once midnight arrived, the northern midnight wind would come and cause the lyre to play on its own. David would immediately rise from his bed and study Torah until the first rays of dawn.
Once dawn arrived, the Sages of Israel entered to advise him with regard to the various concerns of the nation and the economy. They said to him: Our master, the king, your nation requires sustenance.
He said: Go and sustain one another, provide each other with whatever is lacking.
The Sages of Israel responded to him with a parable: A single handful of food does not satisfy a lion, and a pit will not be filled merely from the rain that falls directly into its mouth, but other water must be piped in (ge鈥檕nim). So too, the nation cannot sustain itself using its own resources.
King David told them: Go and take up arms with the troops in battle in order to expand our borders and provide our people with the opportunity to earn a livelihood.

诪讬讚 讬讜注爪讬诐 讘讗讞讬转讜驻诇 讜谞诪诇讻讬谉 讘住谞讛讚专讬谉 讜砖讜讗诇讬谉 讘讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐

The Sages immediately seek advice from Ahitophel to determine whether or not it was appropriate to go to war at that time and how they should conduct themselves, and they consult the Sanhedrin in order to receive the requisite license to wage a war under those circumstances (Tosefot HaRosh). And they ask the Urim VeTummim whether or not they should go to war, and whether or not they would be successful.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讞专讬 讗讞讬转驻诇 讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 讜讗讘讬转专 讜砖专 爪讘讗 诇诪诇讱 讬讜讗讘

Rav Yosef said: Upon what verse is this aggada based? As it is written: 鈥淎nd after Ahitophel was Yehoyada son of Benayahu and Evyatar, and the general of the king鈥檚 army, Yoav鈥 (I Chronicles 27:34).

讗讞讬转讜驻诇 讝讛 讬讜注抓 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注爪转 讗讞讬转驻诇 讗砖专 讬注抓 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诐 讻讗砖专 讬砖讗诇 讗讬砖 讘讚讘专 讛讗诇讛讬诐

The individuals named in this verse correspond with the roles in the aggada as follows: Ahitophel is the adviser whose advice they sought first with regard to going to war, and so it says: 鈥淣ow the counsel of Ahitophel, which he counseled in those days, was as a man who inquires of the word of God; so was the counsel of Ahitophel both with David and with Absalom鈥 (II Samuel 16:23).

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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At Tara in this Fateful Hour (Berakhot 2a-5b)

The first tractate of the Babylonian Talmud begins, rather surprisingly, with an extended discussion of the architectonics of the night....
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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 3

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Berakhot 3

拽砖讬讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 转专讬 转谞讗讬 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专

There is a contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Meir and the other statement of Rabbi Meir. The Gemara responds: Two tanna鈥檌m, students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions in accordance with Rabbi Meir鈥檚 opinion.

拽砖讬讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

So too, the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in the mishna contradicts the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in the baraita. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of Shema begins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their teruma, while in the baraita, he states that the time for the recitation of Shema begins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.

转专讬 转谞讗讬 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讬砖讗 诇讗讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讬讗:

The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion. Either two tanna鈥檌m expressed different opinions in accordance with Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion, or if you wish, say instead that the first clause of the mishna, according to which we begin to recite Shema when the priests enter to partake of their teruma, is not actually Rabbi Eliezer鈥檚 opinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.

注讚 住讜祝 讛讗砖诪讜专讛:

In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening Shema until the end of the first watch. These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time (Tosefot HaRosh)?

诪讗讬 拽住讘专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讬 拽住讘专 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 诇讬诪讗 注讚 讗专讘注 砖注讜转 讜讗讬 拽住讘专 讗专讘注 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 诇讬诪讗 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转

What does Rabbi Eliezer actually hold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him say explicitly that one recites the evening Shema until the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him say explicitly until the third hour.

诇注讜诇诐 拽住讘专 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讛讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗讬讻讗 诪砖诪专讜转 讘专拽讬注 讜讗讬讻讗 诪砖诪专讜转 讘讗专注讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讜注诇 讻诇 诪砖诪专 讜诪砖诪专 讬讜砖讘 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜砖讜讗讙 讻讗专讬 砖谞讗诪专 讛壮 诪诪专讜诐 讬砖讗讙 讜诪诪注讜谉 拽讚砖讜 讬转谉 拽讜诇讜 砖讗讙 讬砖讗讙 注诇 谞讜讛讜

The Gemara responds: Actually, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the night consists of three watches, and he employs this particular language of watches in order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth; just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lion in pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord roars [yishag] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily [shaog yishag] over His dwelling place, He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth鈥 (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root shin-alef-gimmel in this verse correspond to the three watches of the night.

讜住讬诪谉 诇讚讘专 诪砖诪专讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讞诪讜专 谞讜注专 砖谞讬讛 讻诇讘讬诐 爪讜注拽讬诐 砖诇讬砖讬转 转讬谞讜拽 讬讜谞拽 诪砖讚讬 讗诪讜 讜讗砖讛 诪住驻专转 注诐 讘注诇讛

And signs of the transition between each of these watches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In the first watch, the donkey brays; in the second, dogs bark; and in the third people begin to rise, a baby nurses from its mother鈥檚 breast and a wife converses with her husband.

诪讗讬 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讬 转讞诇转 诪砖诪专讜转 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 转讞诇转 诪砖诪专讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 住讬诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讗讬 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讜转 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 住讬诪谞讗 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗

With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the baraita, the Gemara asks: What did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? If he enumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It is when evening begins; an additional sign is superfluous. If he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It is when day begins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.

讗诇讗 讞砖讬讘 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜转讞诇转 诪砖诪专讛 讗讞专讜谞讛 讜讗诪爪注讬转 讚讗诪爪注讬转讗 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讜诇讛讜 住讜祝 诪砖诪专讜转 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讗讞专讜谞讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱

The Gemara answers: Rather, he enumerated the signs for the end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch, both of which require a sign, as well as the middle of the middle watch. And if you wish, say instead: He enumerated the ends of all of the watches. And if you say that a sign indicating the end of the final watch is unnecessary because it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪讬拽专讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 诇诪讗谉 讚讙谞讬 讘讘讬转 讗驻诇 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讝诪谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讗讬诪转 讻讬讜谉 讚讗砖讛 诪住驻专转 注诐 讘注诇讛 讜转讬谞讜拽 讬讜谞拽 诪砖讚讬 讗诪讜 诇讬拽讜诐 讜诇讬拽专讬

What is the practical ramification of this sign? It is relevant to one who recites Shema while lying in a dark house, who cannot see the dawn and who does not know when the time for reciting Shema arrives. That person is provided with a sign that when a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother鈥檚 breast, the final watch of the night has ended and he must rise and recite Shema.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 砖诇砖 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讜注诇 讻诇 诪砖诪专 讜诪砖诪专 讬讜砖讘 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜砖讜讗讙 讻讗专讬 讜讗讜诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖讘注讜谞讜转讬讛诐 讛讞专讘转讬 讗转 讘讬转讬 讜砖专驻转讬 讗转 讛讬讻诇讬 讜讛讙诇讬转讬诐 诇讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐:

Rav Yitz岣k bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion, because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches (Tosefot HaRosh), and says: 鈥淲oe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.鈥

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讬转讬 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讜谞讻谞住转讬 诇讞讜专讘讛 讗讞转 诪讞讜专讘讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讛转驻诇诇 讘讗 讗诇讬讛讜 讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 讜砖诪专 诇讬 注诇 讛驻转讞 (讜讛诪转讬谉 诇讬) 注讚 砖住讬讬诪转讬 转驻诇转讬 诇讗讞专 砖住讬讬诪转讬 转驻诇转讬 讗诪专 诇讬 砖诇讜诐 注诇讬讱 专讘讬 讜讗诪专转讬 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 注诇讬讱 专讘讬 讜诪讜专讬 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讘谞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞讻谞住转 诇讞讜专讘讛 讝讜 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诇讛转驻诇诇 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讛讬讛 诇讱 诇讛转驻诇诇 讘讚专讱 讜讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诪转讬专讗 讛讬讬转讬 砖诪讗 讬驻住讬拽讜 讘讬 注讜讘专讬 讚专讻讬诐 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讛讬讛 诇讱 诇讛转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛

Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I entered the ruins of an old, abandoned building among the ruins of Jerusalem in order to pray. I noticed that Elijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished praying and exited the ruin, Elijah said to me, deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: Greetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. And Elijah said to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him: In order to pray. And Elijah said to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him: I was unable to pray along the road, because I was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelers and would be unable to focus. Elijah said to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayer instituted for just such circumstances.

讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 诇诪讚转讬 诪诪谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讞讜专讘讛 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讘讚专讱 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讛诪转驻诇诇 讘讚专讱 诪转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 拽爪专讛

Rabbi Yosei concluded: At that time, from that brief exchange, I learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learned that one need not enter a building to pray, but he may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayer so that he may maintain his focus.

讜讗诪专 诇讬 讘谞讬 诪讛 拽讜诇 砖诪注转 讘讞讜专讘讛 讝讜 讜讗诪专转讬 诇讜 砖诪注转讬 讘转 拽讜诇 砖诪谞讛诪转 讻讬讜谞讛 讜讗讜诪专转 讗讜讬 诇讘谞讬诐 砖讘注讜谞讜转讬讛诐 讛讞专讘转讬 讗转 讘讬转讬 讜砖专驻转讬 讗转 讛讬讻诇讬 讜讛讙诇讬转讬诐 诇讘讬谉 讛讗讜诪讜转 讜讗诪专 诇讬 讞讬讬讱 讜讞讬讬 专讗砖讱 诇讗 砖注讛 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗讜诪专转 讻讱 讗诇讗 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 砖诇砖 驻注诪讬诐 讗讜诪专转 讻讱 讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诇讗 讘砖注讛 砖讬砖专讗诇 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜诇讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转 讜注讜谞讬谉 讬讛讗 砖诪讬讛 讛讙讚讜诇 诪讘讜专讱 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪谞注谞注 专讗砖讜 讜讗讜诪专 讗砖专讬 讛诪诇讱 砖诪拽诇住讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讘讬转讜 讻讱 诪讛 诇讜 诇讗讘 砖讛讙诇讛 讗转 讘谞讬讜 讜讗讜讬 诇讛诐 诇讘谞讬诐 砖讙诇讜 诪注诇 砖讜诇讞谉 讗讘讬讛诐:

And after this introduction, Elijah said to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin?
I responded: I heard a Heavenly voice, like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), cooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.
And Elijah said to me: By your life and by your head, not only did that voice cry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover, any time that God鈥檚 greatness is evoked, such as when Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answers in the kaddish prayer, May His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house. When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: How great is the pain of the father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father鈥檚 table, as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪驻谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讞讜专讘讛 诪驻谞讬 讞砖讚 诪驻谞讬 讛诪驻讜诇转 讜诪驻谞讬 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讞砖讚 讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 诪驻讜诇转

The Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicion of prostitution, because the ruin is liable to collapse, and because of demons. Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason because of suspicion necessary? Let this halakha be derived because of collapse.

讘讞讚转讬

The Gemara answers: This halakha applies even in the case of a new, sturdy ruin, where there is no danger of collapse. Therefore, the reason because of suspicion is cited in order to warn one not to enter a new ruin as well.

讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 诪讝讬拽讬谉 讘转专讬

The Gemara continues to object: And let this halakha be derived because of demons? The Gemara answers: Demons are only a threat to individuals, so because of demons would not apply to a case where two people enter a ruin together.

讗讬 讘转专讬 讞砖讚 谞诪讬 诇讬讻讗 讘转专讬 讜驻专讬爪讬

The Gemara objects: But if there are two people entering a ruin together, then there is no suspicion either. There is no prohibition against two men to be alone with a woman as, in that case, there is no suspicion of untoward behavior. Consequently, if two men enter a ruin together, there is no room for suspicion. The Gemara answers: If two individuals known to be immoral enter together, there is suspicion even though there are two of them.

诪驻谞讬 讛诪驻讜诇转 讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讞砖讚 讜诪讝讬拽讬谉

The Gemara considers why because of collapse is necessary. Let the prohibition be derived from suspicion and demons.

讘转专讬 讜讻砖专讬

The Gemara responds: There are times when this reason is necessary, e.g., when two upstanding individuals enter a ruin together. Although there is neither concern of suspicion nor of demons, there remains concern lest the ruin collapse.

诪驻谞讬 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪驻谞讬 讞砖讚 讜诪驻讜诇转

The Gemara considers the third reason, because of demons. Why is it necessary to include: Because of demons? Let the prohibition be derived from suspicion and collapse.

讘讞讜专讘讛 讞讚转讬 讜讘转专讬 讜讻砖专讬

The Gemara responds: There are cases where this is the only concern, for example where it is a new ruin into which two upstanding individuals enter, so there is neither concern lest it collapse nor of suspicion.

讗讬 讘转专讬 诪讝讬拽讬谉 谞诪讬 诇讬讻讗

The Gemara points out, however, that if there are two people, there is also no concern of demons. As such, the question remains: In what case can demons be the sole cause not to enter a ruin?

讘诪拽讜诪谉 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讘讞讚 讜讘讞讜专讘讛 讞讚转讬 讚拽讗讬 讘讚讘专讗 讚讛转诐 诪砖讜诐 讞砖讚 诇讬讻讗 讚讛讗 讗砖讛 讘讚讘专讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讗 讜诪砖讜诐 诪讝讬拽讬谉 讗讬讻讗:

The Gemara responds: Generally speaking, two individuals need not be concerned about demons; but, if they are in their place, i.e., a place known to be haunted by demons (see Isaiah 13:21), we are concerned about demons even with two people. And if you wish, say instead: Actually, this refers to the case of an individual entering a new ruin located in a field. There, there is no suspicion, as finding a woman in the field is uncommon; and since it is a new ruin, there is no danger of collapse. However, there is still concern of demons.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讘注 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 砖诇砖

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The night is comprised of four watches; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Natan says: The night is comprised of three watches.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讙讚注讜谉 讜诪讗讛 讗讬砖 讗砖专 讗转讜 讘拽爪讛 讛诪讞谞讛 专讗砖 讛讗砖诪专转 讛转讬讻讜谞讛 转谞讗 讗讬谉 转讬讻讜谞讛 讗诇讗 砖讬砖 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

The Gemara explains: What is Rabbi Natan鈥檚 reasoning? As it is written: 鈥淎nd Gideon, and the one hundred men who were with him, came to the edge of camp at the beginning of the middle watch鈥 (Judges 7:19). It was taught in the Tosefta: Middle means nothing other than that there is one before it and one after it. From the fact that the verse refers to a middle watch, the fact that the night is comprised of three watches may be inferred.

讜专讘讬 诪讗讬 转讬讻讜谞讛 讗讞转 诪谉 讛转讬讻讜谞讛 砖讘转讬讻讜谞讜转

And what does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi say about this proof? He argues that it is inconclusive, as one could say: To what does middle refer? It refers to one of the two middle watches.

讜专讘讬 谞转谉 诪讬 讻转讬讘 转讬讻讜谞讛 砖讘转讬讻讜谞讜转 转讬讻讜谞讛 讻转讬讘

And how would Rabbi Natan respond? He would say: Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 objection, is: One of the middle watches, written in the verse? The middle watch is written. This indicates that the night is comprised of only three watches.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝专讬拽讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讗拽讜诐 诇讛讜讚讜转 诇讱 注诇 诪砖驻讟讬 爪讚拽讱 讜讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 拽讚诪讜 注讬谞讬 讗砖诪讜专讜转 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讗专讘注 诪砖诪专讜转 讛讜讬 讛诇讬诇讛

What is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 reasoning? Rabbi Zerika said that Rabbi Ami said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 opinion is based on a comparison of two verses. One verse says: 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws鈥 (Psalms 119:62), and the other verse says: 鈥淢y eyes forestall the watches, that I will speak of Your word鈥 (Psalms 119:148). Taken together, these verses indicate that their author, King David, rose at midnight, two watches before dawn, in order to study Torah. How is it possible to reconcile these two verses? Only if there are four watches in the night does one who rises two watches before dawn rise at midnight.

讜专讘讬 谞转谉 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转 砖讻谉 讚专讱 诪诇讻讬诐 诇注诪讜讚 讘砖诇砖 砖注讜转 砖讬转 讚诇讬诇讬讗 讜转专转讬 讚讬诪诪讗 讛讜讜 诇讛讜 砖转讬 诪砖诪专讜转

And how does Rabbi Natan reconcile these two verses? He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, for we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehoshua says: One is permitted to recite the morning Shema during the time when people rise, until the third hour of the day, as it is the custom of kings to rise during the third hour. Since it is customary for kings to rise during the third hour of the day, if David rose at midnight, he would be awake for six hours of the night and two hours of the day, which amounts to two watches. Therefore King David could say that he 鈥渇orestalls the watches,鈥 as he rose two watches before the rest of the kings in the world.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诪砖诪专讛 讜驻诇讙讗 谞诪讬 诪砖诪专讜转 拽专讜 诇讛讜:

Rav Ashi said that the verses can be reconciled in accordance with Rabbi Natan鈥檚 opinion in another way: One and one-half watches are still called watches in plural. Therefore King David could rise at midnight yet maintain that he 鈥渇orestalls the watches.鈥

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讝专讬拽讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 讗讜诪专讬谉 讘驻谞讬 讛诪转 讗诇讗 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 诪转

Following this discussion, another halakha that Rabbi Zerika said that Rabbi Ami said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said is cited: Before the dead, one may speak only of matters relating to the dead, as speaking of other matters appears to be contemptuous of the deceased, underscoring that he is unable to talk while those around him can. Therefore, one must remain fully engaged in matters relating to him.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讻讛谞讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗讘诇 诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛

Two traditions exist with regard to the details of this halakha in the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana. According to one version, Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: This halakha was only said with regard to matters of Torah. Speaking of other matters, however, is not prohibited, since no contempt is expressed for the deceased by the fact that he is unable to speak of such topics.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讻讛谞讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 [讗驻讬诇讜] 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗:

Others say another version of this halakha in the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: This halakha was said even with regard to matters of Torah, and all the more so with regard to other matters. If one must refrain from speaking of matters of Torah, regarding which one is commanded to speak, and limit himself to matters concerning the deceased, all the more so should he refrain from speaking of other matters, regarding which one is not commanded to speak.

讜讚讜讚 讘驻诇讙讗 讚诇讬诇讬讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 拽讚诪转讬 讘谞砖祝 讜讗砖讜注讛 讜诪诪讗讬 讚讛讗讬 谞砖祝 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘谞砖祝 讘注专讘 讬讜诐 讘讗讬砖讜谉 诇讬诇讛 讜讗驻诇讛

Incidental to the Gemara鈥檚 mention of King David, other sources are cited that describe his actions. Regarding that which was cited above, that he would rise in the middle of the night in order to serve his Creator, the Gemara asks: Did David rise at midnight? He rose in the evening. As it is written: 鈥淚 rose with the neshef and cried, I hoped for Your word鈥 (Psalms 119:147). And how do we know that this neshef is the evening? As it is written: 鈥淚n the neshef, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness鈥 (Proverbs 7:9). Apparently, King David did indeed rise when it was still evening.

讗诪专 专讘 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 (讚讜讚) 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 注讘专 注诇讬 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讘砖讬谞讛

The Gemara suggests several ways to resolve this contradiction. Rabbi Oshaya said that Rabbi A岣 said: David said as follows: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep. Sometimes I fulfilled the verse, 鈥淚 rose with the neshef and cried,鈥 but I always, at least, fulfilled the verse, 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws.鈥

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讛讬讛 诪转谞诪谞诐 讻住讜住 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讛讬讛 诪转讙讘专 讻讗专讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讛讬讛 注讜住拽 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讘砖讬专讜转 讜转砖讘讞讜转

Rabbi Zeira said: Until midnight, David would doze like a horse, as a horse dozes, but never sleeps deeply. From midnight on, he would gain the strength of a lion. Rav Ashi said: Until midnight, he would study Torah, as it is written: 鈥淚 rose with the neshef and cried, I hoped for Your word,鈥 and from midnight on, he would engage in songs and praise, as it is written: 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks.鈥

讜谞砖祝 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讛讗 谞砖祝 爪驻专讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讻诐 讚讜讚 诪讛谞砖祝 讜注讚 讛注专讘 诇诪讞专转诐 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诪爪驻专讗 讜注讚 诇讬诇讬讗

To this point, the discussion has been based on the assumption that neshef means evening. The Gemara asks: Does neshef really mean evening? Doesn鈥檛 neshef mean morning? As it is written: 鈥淎nd David slew them from the neshef until the evening of the next day鈥 (I Samuel 30:17). Doesn鈥檛 this verse mean from the morning until the night, in which case neshef must mean morning?

诇讗 诪讗讜专转讗 讜注讚 讗讜专转讗

The Gemara responds: No, this verse means that David slew them from one evening until the next evening.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诇讻转讜讘 诪讛谞砖祝 讜注讚 讛谞砖祝 讗讜 诪讛注专讘 讜注讚 讛注专讘

The Gemara rejects this response: If so, let the verse be written: From the neshef until the neshef, or from the evening until the evening. Why would the verse employ two different terms for a single concept?

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 转专讬 谞砖驻讬 讛讜讜 谞砖祝 诇讬诇讬讗 讜讗转讬 讬诪诪讗 谞砖祝 讬诪诪讗 讜讗转讬 诇讬诇讬讗

Rather, Rava said: There are two times referred to as neshef, and the word can refer to either evening or morning. Neshef must be understood in accordance with its Aramaic root: The night moves past [neshaf ] and the day arrives, and the day moves past [neshaf ] and the night arrives.

讜讚讜讚 诪讬 讛讜讛 讬讚注 驻诇讙讗 讚诇讬诇讬讗 讗讬诪转 讛砖转讗 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注 讚讻转讬讘 讻讞爪讜转 讛诇讬诇讛 讗谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘转讜讱 诪爪专讬诐

When King David said: At midnight I rise, the assumption is that he rose precisely at midnight. The Gemara asks: Did David know exactly when it was midnight? Even Moses our teacher did not know exactly when it was midnight. How do we know this about Moses? As it is written that he said to Pharaoh: 鈥淭hus said the Lord: About midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt鈥 (Exodus 11:4). The word about indicates that it was only an approximation.

诪讗讬 讻讞爪讜转 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讻讞爪讜转 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 住驻讬拽讗 拽诪讬 砖诪讬讗 讗诇讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 (诇诪讞专) 讘讞爪讜转 (讻讬 讛砖转讗) 讜讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 讻讞爪讜转 讗诇诪讗 诪住驻拽讗 诇讬讛 讜讚讜讚 讛讜讛 讬讚注

The Gemara clarifies: What is the meaning of the expression: About midnight? Did Moses say it or did God say it? If we say that the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, said: About midnight, to Moses, is there doubt before God in heaven? Rather, this must be understood as follows: God told Moses: At midnight, but from the fact that when Moses came to Pharaoh he said: About midnight; apparently, Moses was uncertain about the exact moment of midnight. Moses, the greatest of all the prophets, was uncertain, and David knew?

讚讜讚 住讬诪谞讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讻谞讜专 讛讬讛 转诇讜讬 诇诪注诇讛 诪诪讟转讜 砖诇 讚讜讚 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讘讗 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 讜谞讜砖讘转 讘讜 讜诪谞讙谉 诪讗诇讬讜 诪讬讚 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 注讚 砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻讬讜谉 砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 谞讻谞住讜 讞讻诪讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗爪诇讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讚讜谞讬谞讜 讛诪诇讱 注诪讱 讬砖专讗诇 爪专讬讻讬谉 驻专谞住讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诇讻讜 讜讛转驻专谞住讜 讝讛 诪讝讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬谉 讛拽讜诪抓 诪砖讘讬注 讗转 讛讗专讬 讜讗讬谉 讛讘讜专 诪转诪诇讗 诪讞讜诇讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诇讻讜 讜驻砖讟讜 讬讚讬讻诐 讘讙讚讜讚

The Gemara offers several answers to this question:
David had a sign indicating when it was midnight. As Rav A岣 bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida said: A lyre hung over David鈥檚 bed, and once midnight arrived, the northern midnight wind would come and cause the lyre to play on its own. David would immediately rise from his bed and study Torah until the first rays of dawn.
Once dawn arrived, the Sages of Israel entered to advise him with regard to the various concerns of the nation and the economy. They said to him: Our master, the king, your nation requires sustenance.
He said: Go and sustain one another, provide each other with whatever is lacking.
The Sages of Israel responded to him with a parable: A single handful of food does not satisfy a lion, and a pit will not be filled merely from the rain that falls directly into its mouth, but other water must be piped in (ge鈥檕nim). So too, the nation cannot sustain itself using its own resources.
King David told them: Go and take up arms with the troops in battle in order to expand our borders and provide our people with the opportunity to earn a livelihood.

诪讬讚 讬讜注爪讬诐 讘讗讞讬转讜驻诇 讜谞诪诇讻讬谉 讘住谞讛讚专讬谉 讜砖讜讗诇讬谉 讘讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐

The Sages immediately seek advice from Ahitophel to determine whether or not it was appropriate to go to war at that time and how they should conduct themselves, and they consult the Sanhedrin in order to receive the requisite license to wage a war under those circumstances (Tosefot HaRosh). And they ask the Urim VeTummim whether or not they should go to war, and whether or not they would be successful.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讞专讬 讗讞讬转驻诇 讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 讜讗讘讬转专 讜砖专 爪讘讗 诇诪诇讱 讬讜讗讘

Rav Yosef said: Upon what verse is this aggada based? As it is written: 鈥淎nd after Ahitophel was Yehoyada son of Benayahu and Evyatar, and the general of the king鈥檚 army, Yoav鈥 (I Chronicles 27:34).

讗讞讬转讜驻诇 讝讛 讬讜注抓 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注爪转 讗讞讬转驻诇 讗砖专 讬注抓 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诐 讻讗砖专 讬砖讗诇 讗讬砖 讘讚讘专 讛讗诇讛讬诐

The individuals named in this verse correspond with the roles in the aggada as follows: Ahitophel is the adviser whose advice they sought first with regard to going to war, and so it says: 鈥淣ow the counsel of Ahitophel, which he counseled in those days, was as a man who inquires of the word of God; so was the counsel of Ahitophel both with David and with Absalom鈥 (II Samuel 16:23).

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