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January 18, 2022 | 讟状讝 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘 | TODAY'S DAF: Moed Katan 6

Today's Daf Yomi

January 7, 2020 | 讬壮 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

Berakhot 4

Did Moshe and King David really not know when it was midnight? It seems that they did know. If so, why did Moshe say 鈥渁round midnight鈥 and what was the need to David鈥檚 harp? How was David different from other kings? How did he repsond when Mefiboshet corrected him? In what way was his son Caleb special? Why are there dots on the word 鈥渓ulai鈥 in the verse in Psalms? How can sinning affect something that is supposed to happen? Why did the Rabbis say one can say shema until midnight? One who doesn鈥檛 keep to the words of the rabbis on this issue are deserving of death. Why so severe? Does one need to mention redemption right before shmone esrei in maariv 鈥 meaning does one say shema before or after shmone esrei? What is the basis for each opinion? If one says ashrei 3 times a day, one is guaranteed entry in the World to Come. Why? Why is the letter samech missing from ashrei?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 讝讛 住谞讛讚专讬谉 讜讗讘讬转专 讗诇讜 讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐

Benayahu ben Yehoyada corresponds to the Sanhedrin, since he was the head of the Sanhedrin, and Evyatar corresponds to the Urim VeTummim, as Evyatar ben Ahimelekh the priest would oversee inquiries directed to the Urim VeTummim (see I Samuel 23:9).

讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 注诇 讛讻专转讬 讜注诇 讛驻诇转讬 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪诐 讻专转讬 讜驻诇转讬 讻专转讬 砖讻讜专转讬诐 讚讘专讬讛诐 驻诇转讬 砖诪讜驻诇讗讬诐 讘讚讘专讬讛诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 砖专 爪讘讗 诇诪诇讱 讬讜讗讘

And so it says regarding Benayahu ben Yehoyada鈥檚 position as head of the Sanhedrin: 鈥淎nd Benayahu ben Yehoyada was over the Kereti and over the Peleti (II Samuel 20:23). And why was the Sanhedrin called Kereti UPeleti? It was called Kereti because they were decisive [koretim] in their pronouncements. It was called Peleti because their pronouncements and wisdom were wondrous [mufla鈥檌m]. The head of the Kereti UPeleti was the head of the Sanhedrin. According to the order of the verse, upon being instructed by King David to go to war, the Sages first consulted with Ahitophel, then with the Sanhedrin, then they would ask the Urim VeTummim, and only thereafter was the general of the king鈥檚 army, Yoav, given the command to ready the military for battle.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 注讜专讛 讻讘讜讚讬 注讜专讛 讛谞讘诇 讜讻谞讜专 讗注讬专讛 砖讞专

Rav Yitz岣k bar Adda, and some say Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Idi, said: From what verse is it derived that David鈥檚 lyre would wake him at midnight? 鈥淎wake, my glory; awake, harp and lyre; I will wake the dawn鈥 (Psalms 57:9). This means that the playing lyre has already woken, and now I must engage in Torah study until dawn.

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 诪砖讛 诇注讜诇诐 讛讜讛 讬讚注 讜讚讜讚 谞诪讬 讛讜讛 讬讚注

Rabbi Zeira offered a different solution to the question of whether Moses and David knew exactly when it was midnight and said: Moses certainly knew when it was midnight, and David also knew.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚讚讜讚 讛讜讛 讬讚注 讻谞讜专 诇诪讛 诇讬讛 诇讗转注讜专讬 诪砖谞转讬讛

The Gemara asks: If David knew, then why did he need the lyre? The Gemara answers: He needed the lyre to wake him from his sleep.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚诪砖讛 讛讜讛 讬讚注 诇诪讛 诇讬讛 诇诪讬诪专 讻讞爪讜转 诪砖讛 拽住讘专 砖诪讗 讬讟注讜 讗爪讟讙谞讬谞讬 驻专注讛 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪砖讛 讘讚讗讬 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 诪专 诇诪讚 诇砖讜谞讱 诇讜诪专 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 砖诪讗 转转讘讚讛 讜转讗讞讝

Similarly with regard to Moses, since Moses knew the precise moment of midnight, why did he say: About midnight, instead of: At midnight? Moses did so because he maintained: Lest Pharaoh鈥檚 astrologers err and believe midnight to be earlier. Since no disaster would have occurred, they would say: Moses is a liar. Moses spoke in accordance with the principle articulated by the Master: Accustom your tongue to say: I do not know, lest you become entangled in a web of deceit.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讘驻诇讙讗 讗讜专转讗 讚转诇讬住专 谞讙讛讬 讗专讘住专 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诪砖讛 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪讞专 讻讞爪讜转 讛诇讬诇讛 讻讬 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘转讜讱 诪爪专讬诐:

Rav Ashi said: This question is unfounded, as Moses was standing at midnight of the thirteenth, leading into the fourteenth, when he pronounced his prophecy, and Moses told Israel that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said that tomorrow, at the exact time like midnight tonight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt. This indicates that the passage should not be understood to mean about midnight, an approximation; but rather, like midnight, as a comparison, likening midnight tomorrow to midnight tonight.

诇讚讜讚 砖诪专讛 谞驻砖讬 讻讬 讞住讬讚 讗谞讬 诇讜讬 讜专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讞讚 讗诪专 讻讱 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讗 讞住讬讚 讗谞讬 砖讻诇 诪诇讻讬 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讬砖谞讬诐 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转 讜讗谞讬 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讗拽讜诐 诇讛讜讚讜转 诇讱

The Gemara further explores King David鈥檚 character. It is said: 鈥淎 prayer of David鈥eep my soul, for I am pious鈥 (Psalms 86:1鈥2). Levi and Rabbi Yitz岣k debated the meaning of this verse and how David鈥檚 piety is manifest in the fact that he went beyond his fundamental obligations. One said: David鈥檚 declaration of piety referred to his awakening during the night to pray, and so said David before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? As all of the kings of the East and the West sleep until the third hour of the day, but although I am a king like them, 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks鈥 (Psalms 119:62).

讜讗讬讚讱 讻讱 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讗 讞住讬讚 讗谞讬 砖讻诇 诪诇讻讬 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讗讙讜讚讜转 讗讙讜讚讜转 讘讻讘讜讚诐 讜讗谞讬 讬讚讬 诪诇讜讻诇讻讜转 讘讚诐 讜讘砖驻讬专 讜讘砖诇讬讗 讻讚讬 诇讟讛专 讗砖讛 诇讘注诇讛 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讛 砖讗谞讬 注讜砖讛 讗谞讬 谞诪诇讱 讘诪驻讬讘砖转 专讘讬 讜讗讜诪专 诇讜 诪驻讬讘砖转 专讘讬 讬驻讛 讚谞转讬 讬驻讛 讞讬讬讘转讬 讬驻讛 讝讻讬转讬 讬驻讛 讟讛专转讬 讬驻讛 讟诪讗转讬 讜诇讗 讘讜砖转讬

And the other Sage said: David said the following before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? For all of the kings of the East and the West sit in groups befitting their honored status, but I sit as a judge who issues rulings for the people. Women come with questions of ritual impurity and my hands become soiled with their blood as I labor to determine whether or not it is blood of impurity and she has menstruating woman status, and with a fetus that miscarried at a stage of development before it was clear whether or not it is considered a birth, and with placenta, which women sometimes discharge unrelated to the birth of a child (see Leviticus 15:19鈥30 with regard to blood, and 12:1鈥8 with regard to miscarriage and placenta). King David went to all this trouble in order to render a woman ritually pure and consequently permitted to her husband. If, after examination, a Sage declares the woman ritually pure, she is permitted to be with her husband, which leads to increased love and affection, and ultimately to procreation (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). And not only do I engage in activity considered to be beneath the station of a king, but I consult my teacher, Mefivoshet, son of King Saul鈥檚 son, Jonathan, with regard to everything that I do. I say to him: Mefivoshet, my teacher, did I decide properly? Did I convict properly? Did I acquit properly? Did I rule ritually pure properly? Did I rule ritually impure properly? And I was not embarrassed. Forgoing royal dignity should make me worthy to be called pious.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讜讗讚讘专讛 讘注讚转讬讱 谞讙讚 诪诇讻讬诐 讜诇讗 讗讘讜砖

Rav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, said: What verse alludes to this? 鈥淎nd I speak Your testimonies before kings and I will not be ashamed鈥 (Psalms 119:46). This verse alludes both to David鈥檚 commitment to Torah, in contrast to the kings of the East and the West, as well as to the fact that he was not ashamed to discuss matters of Torah with Mefivoshet, a descendant of kings. David was not afraid to have his mistakes corrected by Mefivoshet.

转谞讗 诇讗 诪驻讬讘砖转 砖诪讜 讗诇讗 讗讬砖 讘砖转 砖诪讜 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 诪驻讬讘砖转 砖讛讬讛 诪讘讬讬砖 驻谞讬 讚讜讚 讘讛诇讻讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讝讻讛 讚讜讚 讜讬爪讗 诪诪谞讜 讻诇讗讘

It was taught in a Tosefta from a tannaitic tradition: His name was not Mefivoshet, but rather Ish Boshet was his name. Why was Ish Boshet referred to as Mefivoshet? Because he would embarrass [mevayesh] David in matters of halakha. According to this approach, Mefivoshet is an abbreviation of boshet panim, embarrassment. Because David was not embarrassed to admit his errors, he merited that Kilav, who, according to tradition, was exceedingly wise, would descend from him.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 讻诇讗讘 砖诪讜 讗诇讗 讚谞讬讗诇 砖诪讜 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讻诇讗讘 砖讛讬讛 诪讻诇讬诐 驻谞讬 诪驻讬讘砖转 讘讛诇讻讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: His name was not Kilav; rather, his name was Daniel, as it appears in a different list of David鈥檚 descendants. Why was he called Kilav? Because he would embarrass [makhlim] Mefivoshet, the teacher or authority figure [av] in matters of halakha.

讜注诇讬讜 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讘讞讻诪转讜 讘谞讬 讗诐 讞讻诐 诇讘讱 讬砖诪讞 诇讘讬 讙诐 讗谞讬 讜讗讜诪专 讞讻诐 讘谞讬 讜砖诪讞 诇讘讬 讜讗砖讬讘讛 讞专驻讬 讚讘专

In his book of wisdom, Solomon said about this wise son: 鈥淢y son, if your heart is wise, my heart will be glad, even mine鈥 (Proverbs 23:15), as David enjoyed witnessing his son Kilav develop into a Torah luminary to the extent that Kilav was able to respond to Mefivoshet. And Solomon says about Kilav: 鈥淏e wise, my son, and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me鈥 (Proverbs 27:11).

讜讚讜讚 诪讬 拽专讬 诇谞驻砖讬讛 讞住讬讚 讜讛讻转讬讘 诇讜诇讗 讛讗诪谞转讬 诇专讗讜转 讘讟讜讘 讛壮 讘讗专抓 讞讬讬诐 讜转谞讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诇诪讛 谞拽讜讚 注诇 诇讜诇讗 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讜讘讟讞 讗谞讬 讘讱 砖讗转讛 诪砖诇诐 砖讻专 讟讜讘 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讜讗 讗讘诇 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讗诐 讬砖 诇讬 讞诇拽 讘讬谞讬讛诐 讗诐 诇讗讜

With regard to David鈥檚 statement, 鈥淜eep my soul, for I am pious,鈥 the Gemara asks: Did David call himself pious? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淚f I had not [luleh] believed to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living鈥 (Psalms 27:13). The dots that appear over the word luleh in the text indicate doubt and uncertainty of his piety, and whether he was deserving of a place in the land of the living (see Avot DeRabbi Natan 34). In the name of Rabbi Yosei, it was taught in a Tosefta: Why do dots appear over the word luleh, as if there are some reservations? Because David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. I have every confidence in You that You grant an excellent reward to the righteous in the World-to-Come since God鈥檚 ultimate goodness is manifest in the land of eternal life, but I still harbor uncertainty with regard to myself, and I do not know whether or not I definitely have a portion among them. In any case, apparently David was uncertain whether or not he deserved to receive a portion of God鈥檚 reward for the righteous; how, then, could he characterize himself as pious?

砖诪讗 讬讙专讜诐 讛讞讟讗

The Gemara responds: His concern does not prove anything, as King David knew that he was pious. He was simply concerned lest a transgression that he might commit in the future will cause him to lose his opportunity to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living.

讻讚专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 讚专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜讛谞讛 讗谞讻讬 注诪讱 讜砖诪专转讬讱 讘讻诇 讗砖专 转诇讱 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讬专讗 讬注拽讘 诪讗讚 讗诪专 砖诪讗 讬讙专讜诐 讛讞讟讗

The Gemara cites a proof that there is room for one to fear lest he commit a transgression in the future in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi, as Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi raised a contradiction between two verses. It is written that God told Jacob in his vision of the ladder: 鈥淏ehold, I am with you and I guard you wherever you go鈥 (Genesis 28:15), yet when Jacob returned to Canaan and realized that Esau was coming to greet him, it is written: 鈥淎nd Jacob became very afraid, and he was pained鈥 (Genesis 32:8). Why did Jacob not rely on God鈥檚 promise? Jacob had concerns and said to himself: Lest a transgression that I might have committed after God made His promise to me will cause God to revoke His promise of protection.

讻讚转谞讬讗 注讚 讬注讘专 注诪讱 讛壮 注讚 讬注讘专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转

Apparently, at times, transgression does cause God鈥檚 promise to go unfulfilled, as it was taught explicitly in a baraita with regard to the ostensibly redundant language in a verse in the Song of the Sea: 鈥淯ntil Your people will cross, Lord, until the people You have acquired will cross. You bring them in and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place, Lord, which You made for Your dwelling鈥 (Exodus 15:16鈥17).

注讚 讬注讘专 注诪讱 讛壮 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 注讚 讬注讘专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 砖谞讬讛 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 专讗讜讬诐 讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讬注砖讜转 诇讛诐 谞住 讘讬诪讬 注讝专讗 讻讚专讱 砖谞注砖讛 诇讛诐 讘讬诪讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讗诇讗 砖讙专诐 讛讞讟讗:

The Gemara interprets homiletically that until Your people will cross refers to the first entry into Eretz Yisrael during the time of Joshua, while until the people You have acquired pass over refers to the second entry following the exile in Babylonia. Based on the juxtaposition of these two entries in this single verse, the Sages said: Israel was worthy of having a miracle performed on its behalf in the time of Ezra the scribe, just as one was performed on their behalf in the time of Joshua bin Nun. However, transgression caused the absence of a miracle.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转: 讞讻诪讬诐 讻诪讗谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 诇讬诪专讜 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The Gemara returns to explain what we learned in the mishna: And the Rabbis say: The time for the recitation of the evening Shema is until midnight. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion do they hold in explaining the verse: 鈥淲hen you lie down鈥? If they explain this verse in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who says that 鈥渨hen you lie down鈥 is the time when people customarily go to sleep, then let the Rabbis also say that the time for the recitation of Shema extends, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, until the end of the first watch.

讜讗讬 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 诇讬诪专讜 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

And if they explain this verse in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel who says that 鈥渨hen you lie down鈥 refers to the entire night, then let the Rabbis also say that one may recite the evening Shema until dawn, in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讜讛讗 讚拽讗 讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗转 讛讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛 讻讚转谞讬讗 讞讻诪讬诐 注砖讜 住讬讬讙 诇讚讘专讬讛诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讘讗 诪谉 讛砖讚讛 讘注专讘 讜讗讜诪专 讗诇讱 诇讘讬转讬 讜讗讜讻诇 拽讬诪注讗 讜讗砖转讛 拽讬诪注讗 讜讗讬砖谉 拽讬诪注讗 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讗拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗转驻诇诇 讜讞讜讟驻转讜 砖讬谞讛 讜谞诪爪讗 讬砖谉 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讗讘诇 讗讚诐 讘讗 诪谉 讛砖讚讛 讘注专讘 谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讗诐 专讙讬诇 诇拽专讜转 拽讜专讗 讜讗诐 专讙讬诇 诇砖谞讜转 砖讜谞讛 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪转驻诇诇 讜讗讜讻诇 驻转讜 讜诪讘专讱

The Gemara answers: Actually, the Rabbis hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, and the fact that they say until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression. As it was taught in a baraita, the Rabbis created a 鈥渇ence鈥 for their pronouncements with regard to the recitation of Shema in order to prevent a situation where a person comes home from the field in the evening, tired from his day鈥檚 work, and knowing that he is permitted to recite Shema until dawn says to himself: I will go home, eat a little, drink a little, sleep a little and then I will recite Shema and recite the evening prayer. In the meantime, he is overcome by sleep and ends up sleeping all night. However, since one is concerned lest he fall asleep and fail to wake up before midnight in order to recite Shema at the appropriate time, he will come from the field in the evening, enter the synagogue, and until it is time to pray, he will immerse himself in Torah. If he is accustomed to reading the Bible, he reads. If he is accustomed to learning mishnayot, a more advanced level of study, he learns. And then he recites Shema and prays as he should. When he arrives home, he eats his meal with a contented heart and recites a blessing.

讜讻诇 讛注讜讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛

The baraita concludes with a warning: Anyone who transgresses the pronouncements of the Sages is liable to receive the death penalty.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讘讻诇 讚讜讻转讗 讚诇讗 拽转谞讬 讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛讻讗 讚拽转谞讬 讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛

This is a startling conclusion. What is different in all other places that it is not taught that one is liable to receive the death penalty and what is different here that it is taught that he is liable to receive the death penalty? There is no unique stringency apparent in the rabbinic restriction on the recitation of Shema.

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讜谞住 砖讬谞讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 转驻诇转 注专讘讬转 专砖讜转 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讞讜讘讛:

The Gemara offers two answers, explaining that the conclusion of the baraita essentially stems not from the magnitude of the transgression, but rather from concern that the 鈥渇ence鈥 created around this particular mitzva may be neglected. If you wish, say that one returning from work is quite anxious to go to sleep, and due to the risk that he will be overcome by sleep, he must be particularly vigilant in the recitation of Shema. And if you wish, say instead that strong language is employed here in order to exclude the opinion of he who says that although the morning prayer and the afternoon prayer are mandatory, the evening prayer is optional. Therefore, it teaches us that the evening prayer is mandatory, and anyone who transgresses the pronouncement of the Sages in this regard is liable to receive the death penalty.

讗诪专 诪专 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪转驻诇诇 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 讘谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讝讛 讛住讜诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讜诪专 转驻诇讜转 讘讗诪爪注 转拽谞讜诐

In this baraita, the Master said that when one returns from work in the evening, he enters the synagogue, recites Shema, and prays. From this baraita, we see that at night, just as during the day, one first recites Shema and then prays. This supports the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Who is assured of a place in the World-to-Come? It is one who juxtaposes the blessing of redemption, recited after Shema, to the evening prayer. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The prayers were instituted to be recited between the two recitations of Shema. According to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, one recites the morning Shema, then recites all of the prayers and only after the recitation of the evening prayer does he recite the evening Shema.

讘诪讗讬 拽讗 诪驻诇讙讬

Although the practical difference between these two positions is clear, the Gemara seeks to determine: With regard to what do they disagree? What is the basis of their argument?

讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that they disagree over the interpretation of a verse; if you wish, say instead that they disagree on a point of logic.

讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗

If you say that they disagree on a point of logic, then the argument relates to the redemption recited after Shema, whose focus is the exodus from Egypt, the first redemption. The question is whether that redemption began at night, which would render it appropriate to juxtapose redemption to the blessing of the evening prayers as well, in prayer for immediate redemption. Or, perhaps, the redemption from Egypt only began during the day.

讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 住讘专 讙讗讜诇讛 诪讗讜专转讗 谞诪讬 讛讜讬 讗诇讗 讙讗讜诇讛 诪注诇讬讬转讗 诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讗诇讗 注讚 爪驻专讗 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 住讘专 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讗诇讗 诪爪驻专讗 诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讙讗讜诇讛 诪注诇讬讬转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan holds: Redemption occurred in the evening as well; however, the full-fledged redemption was only in the morning. Since the redemption began in the evening, it is appropriate to juxtapose the blessing of redemption to the daily evening prayer. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, on the other hand, holds: Since full-fledged redemption only occurred in the morning, and the redemption of the previous evening was not a full-fledged redemption, there is no need to juxtapose the blessing of redemption to the evening prayer.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜砖谞讬讛诐 诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 讚专砖讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘砖讻讘讱 讜讘拽讜诪讱

And if you wish, say instead that the dispute between Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is not a difference over a point of logic, but over the interpretation of a verse. Both derived their opinions from the same verse: 鈥淲hen you lie down, and when you rise.鈥 Both interpreted that the juxtaposition in this verse of the recitation of Shema at night and the recitation of Shema in the morning draws a parallel between them.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 住讘专 诪拽讬砖 砖讻讬讘讛 诇拽讬诪讛 诪讛 拽讬诪讛 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗讞专 讻讱 转驻诇讛 讗祝 砖讻讬讘讛 谞诪讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗讞专 讻讱 转驻诇讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 住讘专 诪拽讬砖 砖讻讬讘讛 诇拽讬诪讛 诪讛 拽讬诪讛 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 住诪讜讱 诇诪讟转讜 讗祝 砖讻讬讘讛 谞诪讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 住诪讜讱 诇诪讟转讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan holds: The verse juxtaposes lying down and rising. Just as when one rises, the recitation of Shema is followed by prayer, as everyone agrees that in the morning one juxtaposes redemption to the morning prayer, so too, when one lies down, the recitation of Shema is followed by prayer. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi maintains: The verse juxtaposes lying down and rising in a different sense. Just as when one rises, he recites Shema adjacent to rising from his bed, as the verse, when you rise, means when one awakens, so too when one lies down, he recites Shema adjacent to lying down in his bed. Therefore, the recitation of the evening Shema should be performed as close as possible to the moment when one actually lies down.

诪转讬讘 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬谞讗 讘注专讘 诪讘专讱 砖转讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛 讜砖转讬诐 诇讗讞专讬讛 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 讘注讬 诇住诪讜讱 讛讗 诇讗 拽讗 住诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讚讛讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜

According to Rabbi Yo岣nan, it is a mitzva to recite Shema before the evening prayer. Mar, son of Ravina, raises an objection from a mishna: How can one do that? We learn in a later mishna: In the evening, one recites two blessings prior to the recitation of Shema and two blessings afterward. And if you say that one must juxtapose redemption to prayer, doesn鈥檛 he fail to juxtapose redemption to prayer, as he must recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu], the blessing recited after the blessing of redemption, which constitutes an interruption between redemption and prayer?

讗诪专讬 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讻讙讗讜诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 砖讞专讬转 讛讬讻讬 诪爪讬 住诪讬讱 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘转讞诇讛 讗讜诪专 讛壮 砖驻转讬 转驻转讞 讜诇讘住讜祝 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬讜 诇专爪讜谉 讗诪专讬 驻讬

They say in response: Since the Sages instituted the practice of reciting: Help us lie down, it is considered one extended blessing of redemption, and therefore does not constitute an interruption. As if you fail to say that the sections added by the Sages are considered no less significant than the original prayers, then can one juxtapose redemption to prayer even in the morning? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: Before every prayer one recites the verse: 鈥淟ord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory鈥 (Psalms 51:17) as a prelude to prayer? Afterward, one recites the verse: 鈥淢ay the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable before You鈥 (Psalms 19:15). Doesn鈥檛 the verse: Lord, open my lips, constitute an interruption between redemption and prayer?

讗诇讗 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 讛壮 砖驻转讬 转驻转讞 讻转驻诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讻讙讗讜诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗:

Rather, there, since the Sages instituted that one must recite: Lord, open my lips, it is considered as an extended prayer and not as an interruption. Here, too, with regard to the evening prayer, since the Sages instituted to recite the blessing Help us lie down, it is considered as one extended blessing of redemption.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谞讗 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 转讛诇讛 诇讚讜讚 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖诇砖 驻注诪讬诐 诪讜讘讟讞 诇讜 砖讛讜讗 讘谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

Tangential to Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 statement that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer is assured of a place in the World-to-Come, a similar statement is cited. Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Avina said: Anyone who recites: 鈥淎 Psalm of David鈥 (Psalms 145) three times every day is assured of a place in the World-to-Come.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

This statement extolling the significance of this particular chapter of Psalms, usually referred to as ashrei because its recitation is preceded by recitation of the verse, 鈥淗appy [ashrei] are those who dwell in Your House, they praise You Selah鈥 (Psalms 84:5), raises the question: What is the reason that such significance is ascribed to this particular chapter?

讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗转讬讗 讘讗诇祝 讘讬转 谞讬诪讗 讗砖专讬 转诪讬诪讬 讚专讱 讚讗转讬讗 讘转诪谞讬讗 讗驻讬谉

If you say that it is because it is arranged alphabetically, then let us say: 鈥淗appy are they who are upright in the way鈥 (Psalms 119) where the alphabetical arrangement appears eight times.

讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 驻讜转讞 讗转 讬讚讱 谞讬诪讗 讛诇诇 讛讙讚讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 谞转谉 诇讞诐 诇讻诇 讘砖专

Rather, if you suggest that this particular chapter is recited because it contains praise for God鈥檚 provision of sustenance to all of creation: 鈥淵ou open Your hand and satisfy every living thing with favor鈥 (Psalms 145:16), then let him recite the great hallel (Psalms 136), in which numerous praises are written, including: 鈥淲ho provides food to all flesh, Whose kindness endures forever鈥 (Psalms 136:25).

讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 转专转讬

Rather, the reason why tehilla leDavid is accorded preference is because it contains both an alphabetic acrostic as well as mention of God鈥檚 provision of sustenance to all creation.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 谞讜谉 讘讗砖专讬 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖 讘讛 诪驻诇转谉 砖诇 砖讜谞讗讬 讬砖专讗诇 讚讻转讬讘 谞驻诇讛 诇讗 转讜住讬祝 拽讜诐 讘转讜诇转 讬砖专讗诇

Additionally, with regard to this psalm, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Why is there no verse beginning with the letter nun in ashrei? Because it contains an allusion to the downfall of the enemies of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself. As it is written: 鈥淭he virgin of Israel has fallen and she will rise no more; abandoned in her land, none will raise her up鈥 (Amos 5:2), which begins with the letter nun. Due to this verse, ashrei does not include a verse beginning with the letter nun.

讘诪注专讘讗 诪转专爪讬 诇讛 讛讻讬 谞驻诇讛 讜诇讗 转讜住讬祝 诇谞驻讜诇 注讜讚 拽讜诐 讘转讜诇转 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讞讝专 讚讜讚 讜住诪讻谉 讘专讜讞 讛拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 住讜诪讱 讛壮 诇讻诇 讛谞驻诇讬诐:

In order to ease the harsh meaning of this verse, in the West, in Eretz Yisrael, they interpreted it with a slight adjustment: 鈥淪he has fallen but she shall fall no more; rise, virgin of Israel.鈥 Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k adds: Even so, David went and provided support, through divine inspiration. Although King David did not include a verse beginning with the letter nun alluding to Israel鈥檚 downfall, he foresaw the verse that would be written by Amos through divine inspiration; and the very next verse, which begins with the letter samekh, reads: 鈥淭he Lord upholds the fallen and raises up those who are bowed down鈥 (Psalms 145:14). Therefore, through divine inspiration, David offered hope and encouragement; although the virgin of Israel may have fallen, the Lord upholds the fallen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专 讗讘讬谞讗 讙讚讜诇 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘诪讬讻讗诇 讬讜转专 诪诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讙讘专讬讗诇 讚讗讬诇讜 讘诪讬讻讗诇 讻转讬讘 讜讬注祝 讗诇讬 讗讞讚 诪谉 讛砖专驻讬诐 讜讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 讙讘专讬讗诇 讻转讬讘 讜讛讗讬砖 讙讘专讬讗诇 讗砖专 专讗讬转讬 讘讞讝讜谉 讘转讞诇讛 诪注祝 讘讬注祝 讜讙讜壮

After this discussion of the statement that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Avina said, another statement of Rabbi Elazar is cited. Rabbi Elazar bar Avina said: What was said about the angel Michael is greater than what was said about the angel Gabriel. As about Michael, it is written: 鈥淎nd one of the seraphim flew to me鈥 (Isaiah 6:6), indicating that with a single flight, the seraph arrived and performed his mission, while regarding Gabriel, it is written: 鈥淭he man, Gabriel, whom I had seen at the beginning, in a vision, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering鈥 (Daniel 9:21). The double language used in the phrase 鈥渢o fly swiftly [muaf biaf],鈥 indicates that he did not arrive at his destination in a single flight, but rather, that it took him two flights.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讗讞讚 诪讬讻讗诇 讛讜讗

To Rabbi Elazar bar Avina, it is clear that 鈥渙ne of the seraphim鈥 refers to Michael, and the Gemara asks: From where is it inferred that the one mentioned in the verse is Michael?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗转讬讗 讗讞讚 讗讞讚 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜讬注祝 讗诇讬 讗讞讚 诪谉 讛砖专驻讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜讛谞讛 诪讬讻讗诇 讗讞讚 (诪谉) 讛砖专讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讗 诇注讝专谞讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is derived through a verbal analogy between the words one and one. Here, it is written: 鈥淎nd one of the seraphim flew to me鈥 (Isaiah 6:6), and there, it is written: 鈥淎nd behold, Michael, one of the chief ministers of the king, came to my aid鈥 (Daniel 10:13). Since the verse from Daniel refers to Michael as 鈥渙ne,鈥 which aggadic midrash interprets as 鈥渢he unique one,鈥 so, too, 鈥渙ne of the seraphs鈥 described in Isaiah must also refer to the unique one, Michael.

转谞讗 诪讬讻讗诇 讘讗讞转 讙讘专讬讗诇 讘砖转讬诐 讗诇讬讛讜 讘讗专讘注 讜诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 讘砖诪谞讛 讜讘砖注转 讛诪讙驻讛 讘讗讞转:

This discussion in the Gemara concludes with a Tosefta that arrives at a hierarchy of angels based on the number of flights required by each to arrive at his destination. It was taught in a Tosefta: Michael, as stated above, in one flight; Gabriel, in two flights; Elijah the Prophet, in four flights; and the Angel of Death, in eight flights. During a time of plague, however, when the Angel of Death seems ubiquitous, he arrives everywhere in one flight.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖拽专讗 讗讚诐 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诪爪讜讛 诇拽专讜转讜 注诇 诪讟转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 专讙讝讜 讜讗诇 转讞讟讗讜 讗诪专讜 讘诇讘讘讻诐 注诇 诪砖讻讘讻诐 讜讚诪讜 住诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even though one recited Shema in the synagogue, it is a mitzva to recite it upon his bed in fulfillment of the verse: 鈥淲hen you lie down.鈥 Rabbi Yosei said: What verse alludes to the fact that one must recite Shema in the evening, upon his bed, as well? 鈥淭remble, and do not sin; say to your heart upon your bed and be still, Selah鈥 (Psalms 4:5). This is understood to mean: Recite Shema, about which it is written, 鈥渙n your hearts,鈥 upon your bed, and afterward be still and sleep.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉

With regard to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 statement, Rabbi Na岣an said:

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Berakhot 4

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Berakhot 4

讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 讝讛 住谞讛讚专讬谉 讜讗讘讬转专 讗诇讜 讗讜专讬诐 讜转讜诪讬诐

Benayahu ben Yehoyada corresponds to the Sanhedrin, since he was the head of the Sanhedrin, and Evyatar corresponds to the Urim VeTummim, as Evyatar ben Ahimelekh the priest would oversee inquiries directed to the Urim VeTummim (see I Samuel 23:9).

讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讘谞讬讛讜 讘谉 讬讛讜讬讚注 注诇 讛讻专转讬 讜注诇 讛驻诇转讬 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪诐 讻专转讬 讜驻诇转讬 讻专转讬 砖讻讜专转讬诐 讚讘专讬讛诐 驻诇转讬 砖诪讜驻诇讗讬诐 讘讚讘专讬讛诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 砖专 爪讘讗 诇诪诇讱 讬讜讗讘

And so it says regarding Benayahu ben Yehoyada鈥檚 position as head of the Sanhedrin: 鈥淎nd Benayahu ben Yehoyada was over the Kereti and over the Peleti (II Samuel 20:23). And why was the Sanhedrin called Kereti UPeleti? It was called Kereti because they were decisive [koretim] in their pronouncements. It was called Peleti because their pronouncements and wisdom were wondrous [mufla鈥檌m]. The head of the Kereti UPeleti was the head of the Sanhedrin. According to the order of the verse, upon being instructed by King David to go to war, the Sages first consulted with Ahitophel, then with the Sanhedrin, then they would ask the Urim VeTummim, and only thereafter was the general of the king鈥檚 army, Yoav, given the command to ready the military for battle.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 注讜专讛 讻讘讜讚讬 注讜专讛 讛谞讘诇 讜讻谞讜专 讗注讬专讛 砖讞专

Rav Yitz岣k bar Adda, and some say Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Idi, said: From what verse is it derived that David鈥檚 lyre would wake him at midnight? 鈥淎wake, my glory; awake, harp and lyre; I will wake the dawn鈥 (Psalms 57:9). This means that the playing lyre has already woken, and now I must engage in Torah study until dawn.

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 诪砖讛 诇注讜诇诐 讛讜讛 讬讚注 讜讚讜讚 谞诪讬 讛讜讛 讬讚注

Rabbi Zeira offered a different solution to the question of whether Moses and David knew exactly when it was midnight and said: Moses certainly knew when it was midnight, and David also knew.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚讚讜讚 讛讜讛 讬讚注 讻谞讜专 诇诪讛 诇讬讛 诇讗转注讜专讬 诪砖谞转讬讛

The Gemara asks: If David knew, then why did he need the lyre? The Gemara answers: He needed the lyre to wake him from his sleep.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚诪砖讛 讛讜讛 讬讚注 诇诪讛 诇讬讛 诇诪讬诪专 讻讞爪讜转 诪砖讛 拽住讘专 砖诪讗 讬讟注讜 讗爪讟讙谞讬谞讬 驻专注讛 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪砖讛 讘讚讗讬 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 诪专 诇诪讚 诇砖讜谞讱 诇讜诪专 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 砖诪讗 转转讘讚讛 讜转讗讞讝

Similarly with regard to Moses, since Moses knew the precise moment of midnight, why did he say: About midnight, instead of: At midnight? Moses did so because he maintained: Lest Pharaoh鈥檚 astrologers err and believe midnight to be earlier. Since no disaster would have occurred, they would say: Moses is a liar. Moses spoke in accordance with the principle articulated by the Master: Accustom your tongue to say: I do not know, lest you become entangled in a web of deceit.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讘驻诇讙讗 讗讜专转讗 讚转诇讬住专 谞讙讛讬 讗专讘住专 讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诪砖讛 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪讞专 讻讞爪讜转 讛诇讬诇讛 讻讬 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗谞讬 讬讜爪讗 讘转讜讱 诪爪专讬诐:

Rav Ashi said: This question is unfounded, as Moses was standing at midnight of the thirteenth, leading into the fourteenth, when he pronounced his prophecy, and Moses told Israel that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said that tomorrow, at the exact time like midnight tonight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt. This indicates that the passage should not be understood to mean about midnight, an approximation; but rather, like midnight, as a comparison, likening midnight tomorrow to midnight tonight.

诇讚讜讚 砖诪专讛 谞驻砖讬 讻讬 讞住讬讚 讗谞讬 诇讜讬 讜专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讞讚 讗诪专 讻讱 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讗 讞住讬讚 讗谞讬 砖讻诇 诪诇讻讬 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讬砖谞讬诐 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转 讜讗谞讬 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讗拽讜诐 诇讛讜讚讜转 诇讱

The Gemara further explores King David鈥檚 character. It is said: 鈥淎 prayer of David鈥eep my soul, for I am pious鈥 (Psalms 86:1鈥2). Levi and Rabbi Yitz岣k debated the meaning of this verse and how David鈥檚 piety is manifest in the fact that he went beyond his fundamental obligations. One said: David鈥檚 declaration of piety referred to his awakening during the night to pray, and so said David before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? As all of the kings of the East and the West sleep until the third hour of the day, but although I am a king like them, 鈥淎t midnight I rise to give thanks鈥 (Psalms 119:62).

讜讗讬讚讱 讻讱 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讗 讞住讬讚 讗谞讬 砖讻诇 诪诇讻讬 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讗讙讜讚讜转 讗讙讜讚讜转 讘讻讘讜讚诐 讜讗谞讬 讬讚讬 诪诇讜讻诇讻讜转 讘讚诐 讜讘砖驻讬专 讜讘砖诇讬讗 讻讚讬 诇讟讛专 讗砖讛 诇讘注诇讛 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 讻诇 诪讛 砖讗谞讬 注讜砖讛 讗谞讬 谞诪诇讱 讘诪驻讬讘砖转 专讘讬 讜讗讜诪专 诇讜 诪驻讬讘砖转 专讘讬 讬驻讛 讚谞转讬 讬驻讛 讞讬讬讘转讬 讬驻讛 讝讻讬转讬 讬驻讛 讟讛专转讬 讬驻讛 讟诪讗转讬 讜诇讗 讘讜砖转讬

And the other Sage said: David said the following before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? For all of the kings of the East and the West sit in groups befitting their honored status, but I sit as a judge who issues rulings for the people. Women come with questions of ritual impurity and my hands become soiled with their blood as I labor to determine whether or not it is blood of impurity and she has menstruating woman status, and with a fetus that miscarried at a stage of development before it was clear whether or not it is considered a birth, and with placenta, which women sometimes discharge unrelated to the birth of a child (see Leviticus 15:19鈥30 with regard to blood, and 12:1鈥8 with regard to miscarriage and placenta). King David went to all this trouble in order to render a woman ritually pure and consequently permitted to her husband. If, after examination, a Sage declares the woman ritually pure, she is permitted to be with her husband, which leads to increased love and affection, and ultimately to procreation (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). And not only do I engage in activity considered to be beneath the station of a king, but I consult my teacher, Mefivoshet, son of King Saul鈥檚 son, Jonathan, with regard to everything that I do. I say to him: Mefivoshet, my teacher, did I decide properly? Did I convict properly? Did I acquit properly? Did I rule ritually pure properly? Did I rule ritually impure properly? And I was not embarrassed. Forgoing royal dignity should make me worthy to be called pious.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讜讗讚讘专讛 讘注讚转讬讱 谞讙讚 诪诇讻讬诐 讜诇讗 讗讘讜砖

Rav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, said: What verse alludes to this? 鈥淎nd I speak Your testimonies before kings and I will not be ashamed鈥 (Psalms 119:46). This verse alludes both to David鈥檚 commitment to Torah, in contrast to the kings of the East and the West, as well as to the fact that he was not ashamed to discuss matters of Torah with Mefivoshet, a descendant of kings. David was not afraid to have his mistakes corrected by Mefivoshet.

转谞讗 诇讗 诪驻讬讘砖转 砖诪讜 讗诇讗 讗讬砖 讘砖转 砖诪讜 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 诪驻讬讘砖转 砖讛讬讛 诪讘讬讬砖 驻谞讬 讚讜讚 讘讛诇讻讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讝讻讛 讚讜讚 讜讬爪讗 诪诪谞讜 讻诇讗讘

It was taught in a Tosefta from a tannaitic tradition: His name was not Mefivoshet, but rather Ish Boshet was his name. Why was Ish Boshet referred to as Mefivoshet? Because he would embarrass [mevayesh] David in matters of halakha. According to this approach, Mefivoshet is an abbreviation of boshet panim, embarrassment. Because David was not embarrassed to admit his errors, he merited that Kilav, who, according to tradition, was exceedingly wise, would descend from him.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 讻诇讗讘 砖诪讜 讗诇讗 讚谞讬讗诇 砖诪讜 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讻诇讗讘 砖讛讬讛 诪讻诇讬诐 驻谞讬 诪驻讬讘砖转 讘讛诇讻讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: His name was not Kilav; rather, his name was Daniel, as it appears in a different list of David鈥檚 descendants. Why was he called Kilav? Because he would embarrass [makhlim] Mefivoshet, the teacher or authority figure [av] in matters of halakha.

讜注诇讬讜 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讘讞讻诪转讜 讘谞讬 讗诐 讞讻诐 诇讘讱 讬砖诪讞 诇讘讬 讙诐 讗谞讬 讜讗讜诪专 讞讻诐 讘谞讬 讜砖诪讞 诇讘讬 讜讗砖讬讘讛 讞专驻讬 讚讘专

In his book of wisdom, Solomon said about this wise son: 鈥淢y son, if your heart is wise, my heart will be glad, even mine鈥 (Proverbs 23:15), as David enjoyed witnessing his son Kilav develop into a Torah luminary to the extent that Kilav was able to respond to Mefivoshet. And Solomon says about Kilav: 鈥淏e wise, my son, and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me鈥 (Proverbs 27:11).

讜讚讜讚 诪讬 拽专讬 诇谞驻砖讬讛 讞住讬讚 讜讛讻转讬讘 诇讜诇讗 讛讗诪谞转讬 诇专讗讜转 讘讟讜讘 讛壮 讘讗专抓 讞讬讬诐 讜转谞讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诇诪讛 谞拽讜讚 注诇 诇讜诇讗 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讜讘讟讞 讗谞讬 讘讱 砖讗转讛 诪砖诇诐 砖讻专 讟讜讘 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讜讗 讗讘诇 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讗诐 讬砖 诇讬 讞诇拽 讘讬谞讬讛诐 讗诐 诇讗讜

With regard to David鈥檚 statement, 鈥淜eep my soul, for I am pious,鈥 the Gemara asks: Did David call himself pious? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淚f I had not [luleh] believed to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living鈥 (Psalms 27:13). The dots that appear over the word luleh in the text indicate doubt and uncertainty of his piety, and whether he was deserving of a place in the land of the living (see Avot DeRabbi Natan 34). In the name of Rabbi Yosei, it was taught in a Tosefta: Why do dots appear over the word luleh, as if there are some reservations? Because David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. I have every confidence in You that You grant an excellent reward to the righteous in the World-to-Come since God鈥檚 ultimate goodness is manifest in the land of eternal life, but I still harbor uncertainty with regard to myself, and I do not know whether or not I definitely have a portion among them. In any case, apparently David was uncertain whether or not he deserved to receive a portion of God鈥檚 reward for the righteous; how, then, could he characterize himself as pious?

砖诪讗 讬讙专讜诐 讛讞讟讗

The Gemara responds: His concern does not prove anything, as King David knew that he was pious. He was simply concerned lest a transgression that he might commit in the future will cause him to lose his opportunity to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living.

讻讚专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 讚专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜讛谞讛 讗谞讻讬 注诪讱 讜砖诪专转讬讱 讘讻诇 讗砖专 转诇讱 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讬专讗 讬注拽讘 诪讗讚 讗诪专 砖诪讗 讬讙专讜诐 讛讞讟讗

The Gemara cites a proof that there is room for one to fear lest he commit a transgression in the future in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi, as Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi raised a contradiction between two verses. It is written that God told Jacob in his vision of the ladder: 鈥淏ehold, I am with you and I guard you wherever you go鈥 (Genesis 28:15), yet when Jacob returned to Canaan and realized that Esau was coming to greet him, it is written: 鈥淎nd Jacob became very afraid, and he was pained鈥 (Genesis 32:8). Why did Jacob not rely on God鈥檚 promise? Jacob had concerns and said to himself: Lest a transgression that I might have committed after God made His promise to me will cause God to revoke His promise of protection.

讻讚转谞讬讗 注讚 讬注讘专 注诪讱 讛壮 注讚 讬注讘专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转

Apparently, at times, transgression does cause God鈥檚 promise to go unfulfilled, as it was taught explicitly in a baraita with regard to the ostensibly redundant language in a verse in the Song of the Sea: 鈥淯ntil Your people will cross, Lord, until the people You have acquired will cross. You bring them in and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place, Lord, which You made for Your dwelling鈥 (Exodus 15:16鈥17).

注讚 讬注讘专 注诪讱 讛壮 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 注讚 讬注讘专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 砖谞讬讛 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 专讗讜讬诐 讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讬注砖讜转 诇讛诐 谞住 讘讬诪讬 注讝专讗 讻讚专讱 砖谞注砖讛 诇讛诐 讘讬诪讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讗诇讗 砖讙专诐 讛讞讟讗:

The Gemara interprets homiletically that until Your people will cross refers to the first entry into Eretz Yisrael during the time of Joshua, while until the people You have acquired pass over refers to the second entry following the exile in Babylonia. Based on the juxtaposition of these two entries in this single verse, the Sages said: Israel was worthy of having a miracle performed on its behalf in the time of Ezra the scribe, just as one was performed on their behalf in the time of Joshua bin Nun. However, transgression caused the absence of a miracle.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转: 讞讻诪讬诐 讻诪讗谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 诇讬诪专讜 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The Gemara returns to explain what we learned in the mishna: And the Rabbis say: The time for the recitation of the evening Shema is until midnight. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion do they hold in explaining the verse: 鈥淲hen you lie down鈥? If they explain this verse in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who says that 鈥渨hen you lie down鈥 is the time when people customarily go to sleep, then let the Rabbis also say that the time for the recitation of Shema extends, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, until the end of the first watch.

讜讗讬 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 诇讬诪专讜 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

And if they explain this verse in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel who says that 鈥渨hen you lie down鈥 refers to the entire night, then let the Rabbis also say that one may recite the evening Shema until dawn, in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讜讛讗 讚拽讗 讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗转 讛讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛 讻讚转谞讬讗 讞讻诪讬诐 注砖讜 住讬讬讙 诇讚讘专讬讛诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讘讗 诪谉 讛砖讚讛 讘注专讘 讜讗讜诪专 讗诇讱 诇讘讬转讬 讜讗讜讻诇 拽讬诪注讗 讜讗砖转讛 拽讬诪注讗 讜讗讬砖谉 拽讬诪注讗 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讗拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗转驻诇诇 讜讞讜讟驻转讜 砖讬谞讛 讜谞诪爪讗 讬砖谉 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讗讘诇 讗讚诐 讘讗 诪谉 讛砖讚讛 讘注专讘 谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讗诐 专讙讬诇 诇拽专讜转 拽讜专讗 讜讗诐 专讙讬诇 诇砖谞讜转 砖讜谞讛 讜拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪转驻诇诇 讜讗讜讻诇 驻转讜 讜诪讘专讱

The Gemara answers: Actually, the Rabbis hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, and the fact that they say until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression. As it was taught in a baraita, the Rabbis created a 鈥渇ence鈥 for their pronouncements with regard to the recitation of Shema in order to prevent a situation where a person comes home from the field in the evening, tired from his day鈥檚 work, and knowing that he is permitted to recite Shema until dawn says to himself: I will go home, eat a little, drink a little, sleep a little and then I will recite Shema and recite the evening prayer. In the meantime, he is overcome by sleep and ends up sleeping all night. However, since one is concerned lest he fall asleep and fail to wake up before midnight in order to recite Shema at the appropriate time, he will come from the field in the evening, enter the synagogue, and until it is time to pray, he will immerse himself in Torah. If he is accustomed to reading the Bible, he reads. If he is accustomed to learning mishnayot, a more advanced level of study, he learns. And then he recites Shema and prays as he should. When he arrives home, he eats his meal with a contented heart and recites a blessing.

讜讻诇 讛注讜讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛

The baraita concludes with a warning: Anyone who transgresses the pronouncements of the Sages is liable to receive the death penalty.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讘讻诇 讚讜讻转讗 讚诇讗 拽转谞讬 讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛讻讗 讚拽转谞讬 讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛

This is a startling conclusion. What is different in all other places that it is not taught that one is liable to receive the death penalty and what is different here that it is taught that he is liable to receive the death penalty? There is no unique stringency apparent in the rabbinic restriction on the recitation of Shema.

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讜谞住 砖讬谞讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 转驻诇转 注专讘讬转 专砖讜转 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讞讜讘讛:

The Gemara offers two answers, explaining that the conclusion of the baraita essentially stems not from the magnitude of the transgression, but rather from concern that the 鈥渇ence鈥 created around this particular mitzva may be neglected. If you wish, say that one returning from work is quite anxious to go to sleep, and due to the risk that he will be overcome by sleep, he must be particularly vigilant in the recitation of Shema. And if you wish, say instead that strong language is employed here in order to exclude the opinion of he who says that although the morning prayer and the afternoon prayer are mandatory, the evening prayer is optional. Therefore, it teaches us that the evening prayer is mandatory, and anyone who transgresses the pronouncement of the Sages in this regard is liable to receive the death penalty.

讗诪专 诪专 拽讜专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜诪转驻诇诇 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 讘谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讝讛 讛住讜诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讜诪专 转驻诇讜转 讘讗诪爪注 转拽谞讜诐

In this baraita, the Master said that when one returns from work in the evening, he enters the synagogue, recites Shema, and prays. From this baraita, we see that at night, just as during the day, one first recites Shema and then prays. This supports the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Who is assured of a place in the World-to-Come? It is one who juxtaposes the blessing of redemption, recited after Shema, to the evening prayer. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The prayers were instituted to be recited between the two recitations of Shema. According to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, one recites the morning Shema, then recites all of the prayers and only after the recitation of the evening prayer does he recite the evening Shema.

讘诪讗讬 拽讗 诪驻诇讙讬

Although the practical difference between these two positions is clear, the Gemara seeks to determine: With regard to what do they disagree? What is the basis of their argument?

讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that they disagree over the interpretation of a verse; if you wish, say instead that they disagree on a point of logic.

讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 住讘专讗

If you say that they disagree on a point of logic, then the argument relates to the redemption recited after Shema, whose focus is the exodus from Egypt, the first redemption. The question is whether that redemption began at night, which would render it appropriate to juxtapose redemption to the blessing of the evening prayers as well, in prayer for immediate redemption. Or, perhaps, the redemption from Egypt only began during the day.

讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 住讘专 讙讗讜诇讛 诪讗讜专转讗 谞诪讬 讛讜讬 讗诇讗 讙讗讜诇讛 诪注诇讬讬转讗 诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讗诇讗 注讚 爪驻专讗 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 住讘专 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讗诇讗 诪爪驻专讗 诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讙讗讜诇讛 诪注诇讬讬转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan holds: Redemption occurred in the evening as well; however, the full-fledged redemption was only in the morning. Since the redemption began in the evening, it is appropriate to juxtapose the blessing of redemption to the daily evening prayer. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, on the other hand, holds: Since full-fledged redemption only occurred in the morning, and the redemption of the previous evening was not a full-fledged redemption, there is no need to juxtapose the blessing of redemption to the evening prayer.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜砖谞讬讛诐 诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 讚专砖讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘砖讻讘讱 讜讘拽讜诪讱

And if you wish, say instead that the dispute between Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is not a difference over a point of logic, but over the interpretation of a verse. Both derived their opinions from the same verse: 鈥淲hen you lie down, and when you rise.鈥 Both interpreted that the juxtaposition in this verse of the recitation of Shema at night and the recitation of Shema in the morning draws a parallel between them.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 住讘专 诪拽讬砖 砖讻讬讘讛 诇拽讬诪讛 诪讛 拽讬诪讛 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗讞专 讻讱 转驻诇讛 讗祝 砖讻讬讘讛 谞诪讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讜讗讞专 讻讱 转驻诇讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 住讘专 诪拽讬砖 砖讻讬讘讛 诇拽讬诪讛 诪讛 拽讬诪讛 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 住诪讜讱 诇诪讟转讜 讗祝 砖讻讬讘讛 谞诪讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 住诪讜讱 诇诪讟转讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan holds: The verse juxtaposes lying down and rising. Just as when one rises, the recitation of Shema is followed by prayer, as everyone agrees that in the morning one juxtaposes redemption to the morning prayer, so too, when one lies down, the recitation of Shema is followed by prayer. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi maintains: The verse juxtaposes lying down and rising in a different sense. Just as when one rises, he recites Shema adjacent to rising from his bed, as the verse, when you rise, means when one awakens, so too when one lies down, he recites Shema adjacent to lying down in his bed. Therefore, the recitation of the evening Shema should be performed as close as possible to the moment when one actually lies down.

诪转讬讘 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬谞讗 讘注专讘 诪讘专讱 砖转讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛 讜砖转讬诐 诇讗讞专讬讛 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 讘注讬 诇住诪讜讱 讛讗 诇讗 拽讗 住诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讚讛讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜

According to Rabbi Yo岣nan, it is a mitzva to recite Shema before the evening prayer. Mar, son of Ravina, raises an objection from a mishna: How can one do that? We learn in a later mishna: In the evening, one recites two blessings prior to the recitation of Shema and two blessings afterward. And if you say that one must juxtapose redemption to prayer, doesn鈥檛 he fail to juxtapose redemption to prayer, as he must recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu], the blessing recited after the blessing of redemption, which constitutes an interruption between redemption and prayer?

讗诪专讬 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讻讙讗讜诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 砖讞专讬转 讛讬讻讬 诪爪讬 住诪讬讱 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘转讞诇讛 讗讜诪专 讛壮 砖驻转讬 转驻转讞 讜诇讘住讜祝 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬讜 诇专爪讜谉 讗诪专讬 驻讬

They say in response: Since the Sages instituted the practice of reciting: Help us lie down, it is considered one extended blessing of redemption, and therefore does not constitute an interruption. As if you fail to say that the sections added by the Sages are considered no less significant than the original prayers, then can one juxtapose redemption to prayer even in the morning? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: Before every prayer one recites the verse: 鈥淟ord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory鈥 (Psalms 51:17) as a prelude to prayer? Afterward, one recites the verse: 鈥淢ay the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable before You鈥 (Psalms 19:15). Doesn鈥檛 the verse: Lord, open my lips, constitute an interruption between redemption and prayer?

讗诇讗 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 讛壮 砖驻转讬 转驻转讞 讻转驻诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讻讙讗讜诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗:

Rather, there, since the Sages instituted that one must recite: Lord, open my lips, it is considered as an extended prayer and not as an interruption. Here, too, with regard to the evening prayer, since the Sages instituted to recite the blessing Help us lie down, it is considered as one extended blessing of redemption.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谞讗 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 转讛诇讛 诇讚讜讚 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖诇砖 驻注诪讬诐 诪讜讘讟讞 诇讜 砖讛讜讗 讘谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

Tangential to Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 statement that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer is assured of a place in the World-to-Come, a similar statement is cited. Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Avina said: Anyone who recites: 鈥淎 Psalm of David鈥 (Psalms 145) three times every day is assured of a place in the World-to-Come.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

This statement extolling the significance of this particular chapter of Psalms, usually referred to as ashrei because its recitation is preceded by recitation of the verse, 鈥淗appy [ashrei] are those who dwell in Your House, they praise You Selah鈥 (Psalms 84:5), raises the question: What is the reason that such significance is ascribed to this particular chapter?

讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗转讬讗 讘讗诇祝 讘讬转 谞讬诪讗 讗砖专讬 转诪讬诪讬 讚专讱 讚讗转讬讗 讘转诪谞讬讗 讗驻讬谉

If you say that it is because it is arranged alphabetically, then let us say: 鈥淗appy are they who are upright in the way鈥 (Psalms 119) where the alphabetical arrangement appears eight times.

讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 驻讜转讞 讗转 讬讚讱 谞讬诪讗 讛诇诇 讛讙讚讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 谞转谉 诇讞诐 诇讻诇 讘砖专

Rather, if you suggest that this particular chapter is recited because it contains praise for God鈥檚 provision of sustenance to all of creation: 鈥淵ou open Your hand and satisfy every living thing with favor鈥 (Psalms 145:16), then let him recite the great hallel (Psalms 136), in which numerous praises are written, including: 鈥淲ho provides food to all flesh, Whose kindness endures forever鈥 (Psalms 136:25).

讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 转专转讬

Rather, the reason why tehilla leDavid is accorded preference is because it contains both an alphabetic acrostic as well as mention of God鈥檚 provision of sustenance to all creation.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 谞讜谉 讘讗砖专讬 诪驻谞讬 砖讬砖 讘讛 诪驻诇转谉 砖诇 砖讜谞讗讬 讬砖专讗诇 讚讻转讬讘 谞驻诇讛 诇讗 转讜住讬祝 拽讜诐 讘转讜诇转 讬砖专讗诇

Additionally, with regard to this psalm, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Why is there no verse beginning with the letter nun in ashrei? Because it contains an allusion to the downfall of the enemies of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself. As it is written: 鈥淭he virgin of Israel has fallen and she will rise no more; abandoned in her land, none will raise her up鈥 (Amos 5:2), which begins with the letter nun. Due to this verse, ashrei does not include a verse beginning with the letter nun.

讘诪注专讘讗 诪转专爪讬 诇讛 讛讻讬 谞驻诇讛 讜诇讗 转讜住讬祝 诇谞驻讜诇 注讜讚 拽讜诐 讘转讜诇转 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讞讝专 讚讜讚 讜住诪讻谉 讘专讜讞 讛拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 住讜诪讱 讛壮 诇讻诇 讛谞驻诇讬诐:

In order to ease the harsh meaning of this verse, in the West, in Eretz Yisrael, they interpreted it with a slight adjustment: 鈥淪he has fallen but she shall fall no more; rise, virgin of Israel.鈥 Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k adds: Even so, David went and provided support, through divine inspiration. Although King David did not include a verse beginning with the letter nun alluding to Israel鈥檚 downfall, he foresaw the verse that would be written by Amos through divine inspiration; and the very next verse, which begins with the letter samekh, reads: 鈥淭he Lord upholds the fallen and raises up those who are bowed down鈥 (Psalms 145:14). Therefore, through divine inspiration, David offered hope and encouragement; although the virgin of Israel may have fallen, the Lord upholds the fallen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专 讗讘讬谞讗 讙讚讜诇 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘诪讬讻讗诇 讬讜转专 诪诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讙讘专讬讗诇 讚讗讬诇讜 讘诪讬讻讗诇 讻转讬讘 讜讬注祝 讗诇讬 讗讞讚 诪谉 讛砖专驻讬诐 讜讗讬诇讜 讙讘讬 讙讘专讬讗诇 讻转讬讘 讜讛讗讬砖 讙讘专讬讗诇 讗砖专 专讗讬转讬 讘讞讝讜谉 讘转讞诇讛 诪注祝 讘讬注祝 讜讙讜壮

After this discussion of the statement that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Avina said, another statement of Rabbi Elazar is cited. Rabbi Elazar bar Avina said: What was said about the angel Michael is greater than what was said about the angel Gabriel. As about Michael, it is written: 鈥淎nd one of the seraphim flew to me鈥 (Isaiah 6:6), indicating that with a single flight, the seraph arrived and performed his mission, while regarding Gabriel, it is written: 鈥淭he man, Gabriel, whom I had seen at the beginning, in a vision, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering鈥 (Daniel 9:21). The double language used in the phrase 鈥渢o fly swiftly [muaf biaf],鈥 indicates that he did not arrive at his destination in a single flight, but rather, that it took him two flights.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讗讞讚 诪讬讻讗诇 讛讜讗

To Rabbi Elazar bar Avina, it is clear that 鈥渙ne of the seraphim鈥 refers to Michael, and the Gemara asks: From where is it inferred that the one mentioned in the verse is Michael?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗转讬讗 讗讞讚 讗讞讚 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜讬注祝 讗诇讬 讗讞讚 诪谉 讛砖专驻讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜讛谞讛 诪讬讻讗诇 讗讞讚 (诪谉) 讛砖专讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讘讗 诇注讝专谞讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is derived through a verbal analogy between the words one and one. Here, it is written: 鈥淎nd one of the seraphim flew to me鈥 (Isaiah 6:6), and there, it is written: 鈥淎nd behold, Michael, one of the chief ministers of the king, came to my aid鈥 (Daniel 10:13). Since the verse from Daniel refers to Michael as 鈥渙ne,鈥 which aggadic midrash interprets as 鈥渢he unique one,鈥 so, too, 鈥渙ne of the seraphs鈥 described in Isaiah must also refer to the unique one, Michael.

转谞讗 诪讬讻讗诇 讘讗讞转 讙讘专讬讗诇 讘砖转讬诐 讗诇讬讛讜 讘讗专讘注 讜诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 讘砖诪谞讛 讜讘砖注转 讛诪讙驻讛 讘讗讞转:

This discussion in the Gemara concludes with a Tosefta that arrives at a hierarchy of angels based on the number of flights required by each to arrive at his destination. It was taught in a Tosefta: Michael, as stated above, in one flight; Gabriel, in two flights; Elijah the Prophet, in four flights; and the Angel of Death, in eight flights. During a time of plague, however, when the Angel of Death seems ubiquitous, he arrives everywhere in one flight.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖拽专讗 讗讚诐 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诪爪讜讛 诇拽专讜转讜 注诇 诪讟转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 专讙讝讜 讜讗诇 转讞讟讗讜 讗诪专讜 讘诇讘讘讻诐 注诇 诪砖讻讘讻诐 讜讚诪讜 住诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even though one recited Shema in the synagogue, it is a mitzva to recite it upon his bed in fulfillment of the verse: 鈥淲hen you lie down.鈥 Rabbi Yosei said: What verse alludes to the fact that one must recite Shema in the evening, upon his bed, as well? 鈥淭remble, and do not sin; say to your heart upon your bed and be still, Selah鈥 (Psalms 4:5). This is understood to mean: Recite Shema, about which it is written, 鈥渙n your hearts,鈥 upon your bed, and afterward be still and sleep.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉

With regard to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 statement, Rabbi Na岣an said:

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