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December 8, 2021 | ד׳ בטבת תשפ״ב | TODAY'S DAF: Taanit 26

Today's Daf Yomi

February 16, 2020 | כ״א בשבט תש״פ

Berakhot 44

Today’s shiur is sponsored in memory of the Hon. Judge Miriam Altman z”l by Gabrielle and Daniel Altman. If one eats a bread secondary to a salty dish, one only makes a blessing on the salt dish. In what kind of situation would one’s bread be secondary? The gemara explains that one who ate fruits from Ginosar would eat a lot of salt and would then need bread to wash away the salt. The gemara brings several statements about the special nature of the fruits of Ginosar and other praises of Israel. What blessing does one make after eating the seven species? What blessing does one make before drinking water? The details regarding the blessing after grains and fruit of the seven species are discussed. After eating which foods does one say “boreh nefashot”? Are there foods upon which one does not make a blessing after eating? In Israel people would make a blessing after removing their tefillin. The gemara talks about more foods that are healthy or unhealthy. One should not eat vegetables early in the day because it causes bad breath. Eggs are very healthy. Can one eat turnips?

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

מתני׳ הביאו לפניו מליח תחלה ופת עמו מברך על המליח ופוטר את הפת שהפת טפלה לו זה הכלל כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה:

MISHNA: If they brought salted food before him to eat first and bread with it, he recites a blessing over the salted food and thereby exempts the bread, because the salted food is primary while the bread is secondary to it. This is the principle: Any food that is primary and a secondary food is with it, one recites a blessing over the primary and, in so doing, exempts the secondary from its own blessing.

גמ׳ ומי איכא מידי דהוי מליח עיקר ופת טפלה אמר רב אחא בריה דרב עוירא אמר רב אשי באוכלי פירות גנוסר שנו

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: And is there a circumstance where salted food is primary and bread is secondary? Generally, no meal has a salted food item as its primary component. Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Avira, said that Rav Ashi said: This halakha was taught with regard to those who eat fruits of Genosar, which are extremely sweet and which would be eaten along with salted foods in order to temper this sweetness. They would eat bread along with those salted foods.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן למיכל פירות גנוסר כי הוינן בי מאה מנקטינן ליה לכל חד וחד עשרה עשרה וכי הוינן בי עשרה מנקטינן ליה כל חד וחד מאה מאה וכל מאה מינייהו הוה מחזיק להו צנא בר תלתא סאוי ואכיל להו ומשתבע דלא טעים זיונא זיונא סלקא דעתך אלא אימא מזונא

On a related note, the Gemara employs hyperbole in praising the fruits of Genosar. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would go after Rabbi Yoḥanan to eat fruits of Genosar, when we were one hundred people together, each and every one of us would bring him ten fruits, and when we were ten people together, each and every one of us would bring him one hundred fruits, and every hundred of the fruits would require a basket of three se’a to hold them. Rabbi Yoḥanan would eat them all, and was prepared to swear that he had not tasted any food. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that he claimed that he had not tasted any food? Rather, say that he had not tasted any sustenance. Due to their delicious taste, he was still not satiated.

רבי אבהו אכיל עד דהוה שריק ליה דודבא מאפותיה ורב אמי ורב אסי הוו אכלי עד דנתור מזייהו רבי שמעון בן לקיש הוה אכיל עד דמריד ואמר להו רבי יוחנן לדבי נשיאה והוה משדר ליה רבי יהודה נשיאה באלושי אבתריה ומייתי ליה לביתיה

The Gemara continues to wax hyperbolic: Rabbi Abbahu ate fruits of Genosar until the sweet, lush fruits made his skin so slippery that a fly would slip from his forehead. And Rav Ami and Rav Asi would eat them until their hair fell out. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish would eat them until he became confused. And then Rabbi Yoḥanan would tell the household of the Nasi about his condition and Rabbi Yehuda Nesia would send the authorities after him and they would take him to his house.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר עיר אחת היתה לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך שהיו מוציאים ממנה ששים רבוא ספלי טרית לקוצצי תאנים מערב שבת לערב שבת

On a similar note, the Gemara relates: When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: King Yannai had a city on the King’s Mountain, from which they would take six-hundred thousand bowls of sardines for those cutting figs off the trees during the course of the week from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. There were so many workers, and the fruit was so sweet, that they needed such a vast quantity of salted fish to enable them to continue with their work.

כי אתא רבין אמר אילן אחד היה לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך שהיו מורידים ממנו ארבעים סאה גוזלות משלש בריכות בחדש כי אתא רבי יצחק אמר עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל וגופנית שמה שהיו בה שמנים זוגות אחים כהנים נשואים לשמנים זוגות אחיות כהנות ובדקו רבנן מסורא ועד נהרדעא ולא אשכחו בר מבנתיה דרב חסדא דהוו נסיבן לרמי בר חמא ולמר עוקבא בר חמא ואף על גב דאינהי הוו כהנתא אינהו לא הוו כהני

On the subject of the King’s Mountain and Eretz Yisrael, when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: King Yannai had a tree on the King’s Mountain from which they would remove forty se’a of pigeons from three broods each month. When Rabbi Yitzḥak came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: There was a city in Eretz Yisrael named Gufnit, in which there were eighty pairs of brothers who were priests, married to eighty pairs of sisters, who were all from priestly families. And to assess the frequency of that phenomenon, the Gemara relates: The Sages checked from Sura to Neharde’a, and with the exception of the daughters of Rav Ḥisda, who were married to Rami bar Ḥama and his brother Mar Ukva bar Ḥama, they could not find a similar case. And, even in the case that they found, although they, the sisters, were the daughters of a priest, they, the brothers were not priests. Throughout virtually the entire country of Babylonia, they could not find a similar circumstance.

אמר רב כל סעודה שאין בה מלח אינה סעודה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל סעודה שאין בה שריף אינה סעודה:

On the topic of salted food, Rav said: Any meal in which there is no salt is not considered a meal. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Any meal in which there is no cooked item with gravy (Rashi) is not considered a meal.

מתני׳ אכל ענבים ותאנים ורמונים מברך אחריהם שלש ברכות דברי רבן גמליאל וחכמים אומרים ברכה אחת מעין שלש רבי עקיבא אומר אפילו אכל שלק והוא מזונו מברך עליו שלש ברכות השותה מים לצמאו מברך שהכל נהיה בדברו רבי טרפון אומר בורא נפשות רבות וחסרונן:

MISHNA: One who ate from the fruit for which Eretz Yisrael was praised, grapes and figs and pomegranates, recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals, as he would after eating bread; this is the statement of Rabban Gamliel. And the Rabbis say: One need only recite one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals. Rabbi Akiva says: The three blessings of Grace after Meals are not restricted to bread; rather, even if one ate boiled vegetables, but it is his primary sustenance, he recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals. Additionally: One who drinks water to quench his thirst recites: By whose word all things came to be. Rabbi Tarfon says: He recites: Who creates the many forms of life and their needs.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא דרבן גמליאל דכתיב ארץ חטה ושערה וגו׳ וכתיב ארץ אשר לא במסכנת תאכל בה לחם וגו׳ וכתיב ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה׳ אלהיך

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabban Gamliel? The Gemara responds: As it is written in the verse that deals in praise of Eretz Yisrael: “A land of wheat and barley, vines, figs, and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey” (Deuteronomy 8:8), and it is written: “A land in which you will eat bread without scarcity” (Deuteronomy 8:9), and it is written: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless the Lord your God for the good land He has given you” (Deuteronomy 8:10). Rabban Gamliel concludes from here that the fruits for which Eretz Yisrael was praised are included in the mitzva to recite a blessing after eating. Since that Torah portion alludes to three blessings, fruit also requires three blessings.

ורבנן ארץ הפסיק הענין ורבן גמליאל נמי ארץ הפסיק הענין ההוא מבעי ליה למעוטי הכוסס את החטה

And what do the Rabbis hold? The verse: “A land in which you will eat bread without scarcity,” concluded discussion of that matter, and the mitzva: “You will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless,” applies only to bread. And if so, according to Rabban Gamliel as well, doesn’t “land” conclude discussion of that matter? Rather, that verse is necessary in order to exclude one who chews raw wheat from the obligation to recite Grace after Meals. Even according to Rabban Gamliel, it does not have the legal status of bread.

אמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי חנינא כל שהוא מחמשת המינין בתחלה מברך עליו בורא מיני מזונות ולבסוף ברכה אחת מעין שלש

Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: Anything that is from the five species of grain, at the start, one recites over it: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end, one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

אמר רבה בר מרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל שהוא משבעת המינין בתחלה מברך בורא פרי העץ ולבסוף ברכה אחת מעין שלש

Rabba bar Mari said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anything that is from the seven species for which the Eretz Yisrael was praised, at the start, one recites over it: Who creates fruit of the tree, and afterward and at the end, one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

אמר ליה אביי לרב דימי מאי ניהו ברכה אחת מעין שלש אמר ליה אפירי דעץ על העץ ועל פרי העץ ועל תנובת השדה ועל ארץ חמדה טובה ורחבה שהנחלת לאבותינו לאכול מפריה ולשבוע מטובה רחם ה׳ אלהינו על ישראל עמך ועל ירושלים עירך ועל מקדשך ועל מזבחך ותבנה ירושלים עיר קדשך במהרה בימינו והעלנו לתוכה ושמחנו בה כי אתה טוב ומטיב לכל

Abaye said to Rav Dimi: What is the formula of one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals? He said to him: Over fruits of a tree one recites:
For the tree and the fruit of the tree,
and for the produce of the field,
and for the desirable, good and spacious land that you gave as a heritage to our ancestors
that they might eat of its fruit and be satisfied with its goodness.
Have compassion, Lord our God,
upon Israel Your people and upon Jerusalem Your city,
and upon Your Temple and upon Your altar.
May You rebuild Jerusalem, Your holy city, swiftly in our time,
and may You bring us back there rejoicing in it
as You are good and do good to all.

דחמשת המינין על המחיה ועל הכלכלה ועל תנובת השדה כו׳ וחותם על הארץ ועל המחיה

After eating products baked from one of the five species of grain, one recites: For the nourishment and sustenance and for the produce of the field, and he concludes: For the land and for the nourishment.

מיחתם במאי חתים כי אתא רב דימי אמר רב חתים בראש חדש ברוך מקדש ישראל וראשי חדשים הכא מאי

However, the question was raised: In terms of conclusion, with what does he conclude the blessing? As one does not conclude a blessing with two themes, with which of the themes should he conclude the blessing? When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: Rav would conclude the blessing on the New Moon: Blessed…Who sanctifies Israel and the New Moons. Apparently, one can conclude a blessing with two themes. What does one recite here?

רב חסדא אמר על הארץ ועל פירותיה ורבי יוחנן אמר על הארץ ועל הפירות אמר רב עמרם ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו

Rav Ḥisda said: For the land and for its fruits. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: For the land and for the fruits. Rav Amram said: They do not disagree; rather, this blessing, for its fruits, is for us, in Babylonia, and this blessing, for the fruits, is for them, in Eretz Yisrael.

מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אינהו אכלי ואנן מברכין אלא איפוך רב חסדא אמר על הארץ ועל הפירות רבי יוחנן אמר על הארץ ועל פירותיה

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects: They, in Eretz Yisrael, eat and we, in Babylonia, recite a blessing? How can we, residents of Babylonia, recite a blessing for the fruits of Eretz Yisrael while eating the fruits of Babylonia? Rather, reverse the opinions: Rav Ḥisda said: For the land and for the fruits, and Rabbi Yoḥanan said: For the land and for its fruits.

אמר רב יצחק בר אבדימי משום רבינו על הביעא ועל מיני קופרא בתחלה מברך שהכל ולבסוף בורא נפשות רבות וכו׳ אבל ירקא לא ורבי יצחק אמר אפילו ירקא אבל מיא לא ורב פפא אמר אפילו מיא

Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said in the name of Rabbeinu, Rav: Over the egg and types of meat [kupra], at the start, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be, and at the end: Who creates the many forms of life. However, after eating vegetables, no, one does not recite a blessing at all. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Even after eating vegetables one recites a blessing; but after drinking water, no, one does not recite a blessing at all. And Rav Pappa said: Even after drinking water one must recite a blessing.

מר זוטרא עביד כרב יצחק בר אבדימי ורב שימי בר אשי עביד כרבי יצחק וסימנך חד כתרי ותרי כחד

Mar Zutra acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi and did not recite a blessing after eating vegetables, while Rav Shimi bar Ashi acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak and recited a blessing after eating vegetables. And a mnemonic by which to remember which Sage acted in accordance with which: One like two, and two like one. In other words, Mar Zutra, who is known only by his name and not by his patronymic, acted in accordance with Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi who is known by both his name and his patronymic. Rav Shimi bar Ashi, who is known by both his names, followed the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak, who is known only by his first name.

אמר רב אשי אנא זמנא דכי מדכרנא עבידנא ככולהו

On this topic, Rav Ashi said: At times when I remember, I act in accordance with the opinions of all of them and recite a blessing even after drinking water.

תנן כל שטעון ברכה לאחריו טעון ברכה לפניו ויש שטעון ברכה לפניו ואין טעון ברכה לאחריו בשלמא לרב יצחק בר אבדימי לאפוקי ירקא לרבי יצחק לאפוקי מיא אלא לרב פפא לאפוקי מאי

We learned in a mishna: Anything that requires a blessing thereafter requires a blessing beforehand; and there are items that require a blessing beforehand and do not require a blessing thereafter. If so, granted, according to Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s opinion, it excludes vegetables from the requirement to recite a blessing thereafter. And, granted, according to Rabbi Yitzḥak’s opinion as well, it excludes water from the requirement to recite a blessing thereafter. However, according to Rav Pappa’s opinion, what does it exclude? What food requires a blessing before eating but does not require a blessing after eating?

לאפוקי מצות

The Gemara answers: It comes to exclude mitzvot, as one recites a blessing before performing a mitzva, but not thereafter.

ולבני מערבא דבתר דמסלקי תפילייהו מברכי אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לשמור חקיו לאפוקי מאי

The Gemara challenges: And for the residents of the West, Eretz Yisrael, who, after they remove their phylacteries, recite: Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and commanded us to keep His laws, what does the halakha in the mishna come to exclude?

לאפוקי ריחני

The Gemara responds: It serves to exclude types of fragrances. Everyone agrees that no blessing is recited after smelling them.

אמר רבי ינאי אמר רבי כל שהוא כביצה ביצה טובה ממנו כי אתא רבין אמר טבא ביעתא מגולגלתא משיתא קייסי סולתא כי אתא רב דימי אמר טבא ביעתא מגולגלתא משיתא מטויתא מארבע מבושלתא כל שהוא כביצה ביצה טובה הימנו לבר מבשרא:

Since the blessing recited over an egg was mentioned, the Gemara cites what Rabbi Yannai said that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Anything that is an egg’s equivalent in volume, an egg is superior to it. Similarly, when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: A lightly cooked egg is better than six log of fine flour. Similarly, when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: A lightly cooked egg is better than six log of fine flour, a roasted egg is better than four, and with regard to a cooked egg, they said: Anything that is an egg’s equivalent, an egg is superior to it except for meat.

רבי עקיבא אומר אפילו אכל שלק כו׳: ומי איכא מידי דהוה שלק מזוני אמר רב אשי בקלח של כרוב שנו

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Akiva says: Even if one ate boiled vegetables, but it is his primary sustenance, he recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals, as he would after eating bread. The Gemara asks: And is there a vegetable where in its boiled state it is primary sustenance? Rav Ashi said: This was taught with regard to a cabbage stalk, which is nourishing.

תנו רבנן טחול יפה לשינים וקשה לבני מעים כרישין קשין לשינים ויפין לבני מעים כל ירק חי מוריק וכל קטן מקטין וכל נפש משיב את הנפש וכל קרוב לנפש משיב את הנפש כרוב למזון ותרדין לרפואה אוי לו לבית שהלפת עוברת בתוכו:

Similarly, the Sages taught in a baraita dealing with types of sustenance: Meat of the spleen is beneficial for the teeth and harmful for the intestines. Leeks, however, are harmful for the teeth and beneficial for the intestines. They also said that all raw vegetables turn one’s face pale. Generally speaking, anything small that has not yet reached its full size is harmful and impedes growth, and any living creature eaten whole, e.g., a fully grown fish, restores the soul. And anything close to the soul restores the soul. Cabbage is for nourishment and beets for healing. Woe unto the house through which the turnip passes, for it is extremely harmful.

אמר מר טחול יפה לשינים וקשה לבני מעים מאי תקנתיה נלעסיה ונשדייה

The Master said in a baraita: The spleen is beneficial for the teeth and harmful for the intestines. The Gemara asks: What is its remedy? The Gemara responds: One should chew it, spit it out, and throw it away.

כרישין קשין לשינים ויפין לבני מעים מאי תקנתיה לשלקינהו ונבלעינהו

Leeks are harmful for the teeth and beneficial for the intestines. The Gemara asks: What is its remedy? The Gemara responds: One should boil them and swallow them without chewing.

כל ירק חי מוריק אמר רבי יצחק בסעודה ראשונה של אחר הקזה

All raw vegetables turn one’s face pale. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It refers here to the first meal after bloodletting, when a person should eat more substantial food.

ואמר רבי יצחק כל האוכל ירק קודם ארבע שעות אסור לספר הימנו מאי טעמא משום ריחא ואמר רבי יצחק אסור לאדם שיאכל ירק חי קודם ארבע שעות

And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eats vegetables before four hours of the day, it is forbidden to speak with him. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? The Gemara explains: This is because the smell of vegetables from his mouth bothers others who have not yet eaten. And in general, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It is forbidden to eat raw vegetables before four hours of the day.

אמימר ומר זוטרא ורב אשי הוו יתבי אייתו קמייהו ירק חי קודם ארבע שעות אמימר ורב אשי אכול ומר זוטרא לא אכל אמרו ליה מאי דעתיך דאמר רבי יצחק כל האוכל ירק קודם ארבע שעות אסור לספר הימנו משום ריחא והא אנן דקא אכלינן וקא משתעית בהדן

The Gemara relates that Ameimar, Mar Zutra, and Rav Ashi were sitting. They brought raw vegetables before them before four hours of the day. Ameimar and Rav Ashi ate and Mar Zutra did not eat. They said to him: What is your thinking that led you not to eat? Was it because Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eats vegetables before four hours of the day, it is forbidden to speak with him because of the smell? Aren’t we eating and you are nevertheless speaking with us?

אמר להו אנא כאידך דרבי יצחק סבירא לי דאמר רבי יצחק אסור לאדם שיאכל ירק חי קודם ארבע שעות

He said to them: I hold in accordance with the other halakha of Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said simply: It is forbidden to eat raw vegetables before four hours of the day.

כל קטן מקטין אמר רב חסדא אפילו גדיא בר זוזא ולא אמרן אלא דלית ביה רבעא אבל אית ביה רבעא לית לן בה

Anything small impedes growth. Rav Ḥisda said: This applies even to a small goat, worth a zuz. Although the goat is worth a zuz, it is still small. And we only said this with regard to a goat that has not reached one fourth of its ultimate size. But if it has reached one fourth of its ultimate size, we need not be concerned.

כל נפש משיב נפש אמר רב פפא אפילו גילדני דבי גילי

And any living creature eaten whole restores the soul. Rav Pappa said: This includes even small fish that grow among the reeds, as even a small creature is beneficial if it reached its full size.

כל הקרוב לנפש משיב את הנפש אמר רב אחא בר יעקב עונקא אמר ליה רבא לשמעיה כי מייתית לי אומצא דבשרא טרח ואייתי לי מהיכא דמקרב לבי ברוך

Anything close to the soul restores the soul. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: This refers to the neck, which is close to the animal’s vital organs. The Gemara relates that Rava said to his servant: When you bring me a piece of meat, make an effort to bring me a piece from the place of the blessing, the neck, where the animal was slaughtered and the slaughterer recited a blessing over the ritual slaughter.

כרוב למזון ותרדין לרפואה כרוב למזון אין ולרפואה לא והא תניא ששה דברים מרפאין את החולה מחליו ורפואתן רפואה ואלו הן כרוב ותרדין ומי סיסין דבש וקיבה והרת ויותרת הכבד אלא אימא כרוב אף למזון

Cabbage for nourishment and beets for healing. The Gemara asks: Is cabbage good for nourishment and not for healing? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Six things cure the ill person of his disease and their cure is an effective cure, and these are: Cabbage, beets, chamomile water, honey, stomach, heret, and liver. Evidently, cabbage is also good for healing. The Gemara responds: Rather, say: Cabbage is even for sustenance and all the more so for healing, which is not the case with beets.

אוי לו לבית שהלפת עוברת בתוכו איני והא אמר ליה רבא לשמעיה כי חזית ליפתא בשוקא לא תימא לי במאי כרכת ריפתא

Woe unto the house through which the turnip passes, as it is extremely damaging. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rava say to his servant: When you see a turnip in the market, do not ask me with what will you eat your bread today? Buy the turnip and bring it for the meal. Apparently, the turnip is a significant and appropriate food.

אמר אביי מבלי בשר ורבא אמר מבלי יין איתמר רב אמר מבלי בשר ושמואל אמר מבלי עצים ורבי יוחנן אמר מבלי יין

Abaye said: The turnip is harmful only when it is eaten without meat. And Rava said: Without wine. It was stated that Rav said: The turnip is harmful when it is eaten without meat. And Shmuel said: Without wood, meaning when it is not properly cooked. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Without wine.

אמר ליה רבא לרב פפא סודני אנן תברינן לה בבשרא וחמרא אתון דלא נפיש לכו חמרא במאי תבריתו לה אמר ליה בציבי כי הא דביתהו דרב פפא בתר דמבשלא לה תברא לה בתמנן אופי פרסייתא

Along the same lines, Rava said to Rav Pappa: Farmer (ge’onim) we break the harmful aspects of the turnip with meat and wine. You, who do not have a lot of wine, with what do you break its harmful aspects? Rav Pappa said to him: With wood. As that is what Rav Pappa’s wife would do. After she cooked the turnip, she would break it with eighty pieces of wood from a palm tree.

תנו רבנן דג קטן מליח פעמים שהוא ממית בשבעה בשבעה עשר ובעשרים ושבעה ואמרי לה בעשרים ושלשה ולא אמרן אלא במטוי ולא מטוי אבל מטוי שפיר לית לן בה ודלא מטוי שפיר לא אמרן אלא דלא שתה בתריה שכרא אבל שתה בתריה שכרא לית לן בה:

On the topic of foods, the Gemara cites what the Sages taught in a baraita: A small salted fish sometimes kills, specifically seven days, seventeen days, and twenty-seven days after it was salted. And some say: Twenty-three. And we only said this when it is roasted and not roasted well, but when it is roasted well, we need not be concerned. And when it is not roasted well, we only said this when one does not drink beer thereafter; however, when one drinks beer thereafter, we need not be concerned.

והשותה מים לצמאו וכו׳ לאפוקי מאי אמר רב אידי בר אבין לאפוקי למאן

We learned in the mishna that the tanna’im disagreed with regard to one who drinks water to quench his thirst. The Gemara asks: What does this emphasis on his thirst come to exclude? Rav Idi bar Avin said: It comes to exclude one

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Berakhot 44

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Berakhot 44

מתני׳ הביאו לפניו מליח תחלה ופת עמו מברך על המליח ופוטר את הפת שהפת טפלה לו זה הכלל כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה:

MISHNA: If they brought salted food before him to eat first and bread with it, he recites a blessing over the salted food and thereby exempts the bread, because the salted food is primary while the bread is secondary to it. This is the principle: Any food that is primary and a secondary food is with it, one recites a blessing over the primary and, in so doing, exempts the secondary from its own blessing.

גמ׳ ומי איכא מידי דהוי מליח עיקר ופת טפלה אמר רב אחא בריה דרב עוירא אמר רב אשי באוכלי פירות גנוסר שנו

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: And is there a circumstance where salted food is primary and bread is secondary? Generally, no meal has a salted food item as its primary component. Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Avira, said that Rav Ashi said: This halakha was taught with regard to those who eat fruits of Genosar, which are extremely sweet and which would be eaten along with salted foods in order to temper this sweetness. They would eat bread along with those salted foods.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן למיכל פירות גנוסר כי הוינן בי מאה מנקטינן ליה לכל חד וחד עשרה עשרה וכי הוינן בי עשרה מנקטינן ליה כל חד וחד מאה מאה וכל מאה מינייהו הוה מחזיק להו צנא בר תלתא סאוי ואכיל להו ומשתבע דלא טעים זיונא זיונא סלקא דעתך אלא אימא מזונא

On a related note, the Gemara employs hyperbole in praising the fruits of Genosar. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would go after Rabbi Yoḥanan to eat fruits of Genosar, when we were one hundred people together, each and every one of us would bring him ten fruits, and when we were ten people together, each and every one of us would bring him one hundred fruits, and every hundred of the fruits would require a basket of three se’a to hold them. Rabbi Yoḥanan would eat them all, and was prepared to swear that he had not tasted any food. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that he claimed that he had not tasted any food? Rather, say that he had not tasted any sustenance. Due to their delicious taste, he was still not satiated.

רבי אבהו אכיל עד דהוה שריק ליה דודבא מאפותיה ורב אמי ורב אסי הוו אכלי עד דנתור מזייהו רבי שמעון בן לקיש הוה אכיל עד דמריד ואמר להו רבי יוחנן לדבי נשיאה והוה משדר ליה רבי יהודה נשיאה באלושי אבתריה ומייתי ליה לביתיה

The Gemara continues to wax hyperbolic: Rabbi Abbahu ate fruits of Genosar until the sweet, lush fruits made his skin so slippery that a fly would slip from his forehead. And Rav Ami and Rav Asi would eat them until their hair fell out. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish would eat them until he became confused. And then Rabbi Yoḥanan would tell the household of the Nasi about his condition and Rabbi Yehuda Nesia would send the authorities after him and they would take him to his house.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר עיר אחת היתה לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך שהיו מוציאים ממנה ששים רבוא ספלי טרית לקוצצי תאנים מערב שבת לערב שבת

On a similar note, the Gemara relates: When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: King Yannai had a city on the King’s Mountain, from which they would take six-hundred thousand bowls of sardines for those cutting figs off the trees during the course of the week from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. There were so many workers, and the fruit was so sweet, that they needed such a vast quantity of salted fish to enable them to continue with their work.

כי אתא רבין אמר אילן אחד היה לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך שהיו מורידים ממנו ארבעים סאה גוזלות משלש בריכות בחדש כי אתא רבי יצחק אמר עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל וגופנית שמה שהיו בה שמנים זוגות אחים כהנים נשואים לשמנים זוגות אחיות כהנות ובדקו רבנן מסורא ועד נהרדעא ולא אשכחו בר מבנתיה דרב חסדא דהוו נסיבן לרמי בר חמא ולמר עוקבא בר חמא ואף על גב דאינהי הוו כהנתא אינהו לא הוו כהני

On the subject of the King’s Mountain and Eretz Yisrael, when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: King Yannai had a tree on the King’s Mountain from which they would remove forty se’a of pigeons from three broods each month. When Rabbi Yitzḥak came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: There was a city in Eretz Yisrael named Gufnit, in which there were eighty pairs of brothers who were priests, married to eighty pairs of sisters, who were all from priestly families. And to assess the frequency of that phenomenon, the Gemara relates: The Sages checked from Sura to Neharde’a, and with the exception of the daughters of Rav Ḥisda, who were married to Rami bar Ḥama and his brother Mar Ukva bar Ḥama, they could not find a similar case. And, even in the case that they found, although they, the sisters, were the daughters of a priest, they, the brothers were not priests. Throughout virtually the entire country of Babylonia, they could not find a similar circumstance.

אמר רב כל סעודה שאין בה מלח אינה סעודה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל סעודה שאין בה שריף אינה סעודה:

On the topic of salted food, Rav said: Any meal in which there is no salt is not considered a meal. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Any meal in which there is no cooked item with gravy (Rashi) is not considered a meal.

מתני׳ אכל ענבים ותאנים ורמונים מברך אחריהם שלש ברכות דברי רבן גמליאל וחכמים אומרים ברכה אחת מעין שלש רבי עקיבא אומר אפילו אכל שלק והוא מזונו מברך עליו שלש ברכות השותה מים לצמאו מברך שהכל נהיה בדברו רבי טרפון אומר בורא נפשות רבות וחסרונן:

MISHNA: One who ate from the fruit for which Eretz Yisrael was praised, grapes and figs and pomegranates, recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals, as he would after eating bread; this is the statement of Rabban Gamliel. And the Rabbis say: One need only recite one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals. Rabbi Akiva says: The three blessings of Grace after Meals are not restricted to bread; rather, even if one ate boiled vegetables, but it is his primary sustenance, he recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals. Additionally: One who drinks water to quench his thirst recites: By whose word all things came to be. Rabbi Tarfon says: He recites: Who creates the many forms of life and their needs.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא דרבן גמליאל דכתיב ארץ חטה ושערה וגו׳ וכתיב ארץ אשר לא במסכנת תאכל בה לחם וגו׳ וכתיב ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה׳ אלהיך

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabban Gamliel? The Gemara responds: As it is written in the verse that deals in praise of Eretz Yisrael: “A land of wheat and barley, vines, figs, and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey” (Deuteronomy 8:8), and it is written: “A land in which you will eat bread without scarcity” (Deuteronomy 8:9), and it is written: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless the Lord your God for the good land He has given you” (Deuteronomy 8:10). Rabban Gamliel concludes from here that the fruits for which Eretz Yisrael was praised are included in the mitzva to recite a blessing after eating. Since that Torah portion alludes to three blessings, fruit also requires three blessings.

ורבנן ארץ הפסיק הענין ורבן גמליאל נמי ארץ הפסיק הענין ההוא מבעי ליה למעוטי הכוסס את החטה

And what do the Rabbis hold? The verse: “A land in which you will eat bread without scarcity,” concluded discussion of that matter, and the mitzva: “You will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless,” applies only to bread. And if so, according to Rabban Gamliel as well, doesn’t “land” conclude discussion of that matter? Rather, that verse is necessary in order to exclude one who chews raw wheat from the obligation to recite Grace after Meals. Even according to Rabban Gamliel, it does not have the legal status of bread.

אמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי חנינא כל שהוא מחמשת המינין בתחלה מברך עליו בורא מיני מזונות ולבסוף ברכה אחת מעין שלש

Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: Anything that is from the five species of grain, at the start, one recites over it: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end, one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

אמר רבה בר מרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל שהוא משבעת המינין בתחלה מברך בורא פרי העץ ולבסוף ברכה אחת מעין שלש

Rabba bar Mari said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anything that is from the seven species for which the Eretz Yisrael was praised, at the start, one recites over it: Who creates fruit of the tree, and afterward and at the end, one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals.

אמר ליה אביי לרב דימי מאי ניהו ברכה אחת מעין שלש אמר ליה אפירי דעץ על העץ ועל פרי העץ ועל תנובת השדה ועל ארץ חמדה טובה ורחבה שהנחלת לאבותינו לאכול מפריה ולשבוע מטובה רחם ה׳ אלהינו על ישראל עמך ועל ירושלים עירך ועל מקדשך ועל מזבחך ותבנה ירושלים עיר קדשך במהרה בימינו והעלנו לתוכה ושמחנו בה כי אתה טוב ומטיב לכל

Abaye said to Rav Dimi: What is the formula of one blessing abridged from the three blessings of Grace after Meals? He said to him: Over fruits of a tree one recites:
For the tree and the fruit of the tree,
and for the produce of the field,
and for the desirable, good and spacious land that you gave as a heritage to our ancestors
that they might eat of its fruit and be satisfied with its goodness.
Have compassion, Lord our God,
upon Israel Your people and upon Jerusalem Your city,
and upon Your Temple and upon Your altar.
May You rebuild Jerusalem, Your holy city, swiftly in our time,
and may You bring us back there rejoicing in it
as You are good and do good to all.

דחמשת המינין על המחיה ועל הכלכלה ועל תנובת השדה כו׳ וחותם על הארץ ועל המחיה

After eating products baked from one of the five species of grain, one recites: For the nourishment and sustenance and for the produce of the field, and he concludes: For the land and for the nourishment.

מיחתם במאי חתים כי אתא רב דימי אמר רב חתים בראש חדש ברוך מקדש ישראל וראשי חדשים הכא מאי

However, the question was raised: In terms of conclusion, with what does he conclude the blessing? As one does not conclude a blessing with two themes, with which of the themes should he conclude the blessing? When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: Rav would conclude the blessing on the New Moon: Blessed…Who sanctifies Israel and the New Moons. Apparently, one can conclude a blessing with two themes. What does one recite here?

רב חסדא אמר על הארץ ועל פירותיה ורבי יוחנן אמר על הארץ ועל הפירות אמר רב עמרם ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו

Rav Ḥisda said: For the land and for its fruits. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: For the land and for the fruits. Rav Amram said: They do not disagree; rather, this blessing, for its fruits, is for us, in Babylonia, and this blessing, for the fruits, is for them, in Eretz Yisrael.

מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אינהו אכלי ואנן מברכין אלא איפוך רב חסדא אמר על הארץ ועל הפירות רבי יוחנן אמר על הארץ ועל פירותיה

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects: They, in Eretz Yisrael, eat and we, in Babylonia, recite a blessing? How can we, residents of Babylonia, recite a blessing for the fruits of Eretz Yisrael while eating the fruits of Babylonia? Rather, reverse the opinions: Rav Ḥisda said: For the land and for the fruits, and Rabbi Yoḥanan said: For the land and for its fruits.

אמר רב יצחק בר אבדימי משום רבינו על הביעא ועל מיני קופרא בתחלה מברך שהכל ולבסוף בורא נפשות רבות וכו׳ אבל ירקא לא ורבי יצחק אמר אפילו ירקא אבל מיא לא ורב פפא אמר אפילו מיא

Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said in the name of Rabbeinu, Rav: Over the egg and types of meat [kupra], at the start, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be, and at the end: Who creates the many forms of life. However, after eating vegetables, no, one does not recite a blessing at all. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Even after eating vegetables one recites a blessing; but after drinking water, no, one does not recite a blessing at all. And Rav Pappa said: Even after drinking water one must recite a blessing.

מר זוטרא עביד כרב יצחק בר אבדימי ורב שימי בר אשי עביד כרבי יצחק וסימנך חד כתרי ותרי כחד

Mar Zutra acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi and did not recite a blessing after eating vegetables, while Rav Shimi bar Ashi acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak and recited a blessing after eating vegetables. And a mnemonic by which to remember which Sage acted in accordance with which: One like two, and two like one. In other words, Mar Zutra, who is known only by his name and not by his patronymic, acted in accordance with Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi who is known by both his name and his patronymic. Rav Shimi bar Ashi, who is known by both his names, followed the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak, who is known only by his first name.

אמר רב אשי אנא זמנא דכי מדכרנא עבידנא ככולהו

On this topic, Rav Ashi said: At times when I remember, I act in accordance with the opinions of all of them and recite a blessing even after drinking water.

תנן כל שטעון ברכה לאחריו טעון ברכה לפניו ויש שטעון ברכה לפניו ואין טעון ברכה לאחריו בשלמא לרב יצחק בר אבדימי לאפוקי ירקא לרבי יצחק לאפוקי מיא אלא לרב פפא לאפוקי מאי

We learned in a mishna: Anything that requires a blessing thereafter requires a blessing beforehand; and there are items that require a blessing beforehand and do not require a blessing thereafter. If so, granted, according to Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s opinion, it excludes vegetables from the requirement to recite a blessing thereafter. And, granted, according to Rabbi Yitzḥak’s opinion as well, it excludes water from the requirement to recite a blessing thereafter. However, according to Rav Pappa’s opinion, what does it exclude? What food requires a blessing before eating but does not require a blessing after eating?

לאפוקי מצות

The Gemara answers: It comes to exclude mitzvot, as one recites a blessing before performing a mitzva, but not thereafter.

ולבני מערבא דבתר דמסלקי תפילייהו מברכי אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לשמור חקיו לאפוקי מאי

The Gemara challenges: And for the residents of the West, Eretz Yisrael, who, after they remove their phylacteries, recite: Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and commanded us to keep His laws, what does the halakha in the mishna come to exclude?

לאפוקי ריחני

The Gemara responds: It serves to exclude types of fragrances. Everyone agrees that no blessing is recited after smelling them.

אמר רבי ינאי אמר רבי כל שהוא כביצה ביצה טובה ממנו כי אתא רבין אמר טבא ביעתא מגולגלתא משיתא קייסי סולתא כי אתא רב דימי אמר טבא ביעתא מגולגלתא משיתא מטויתא מארבע מבושלתא כל שהוא כביצה ביצה טובה הימנו לבר מבשרא:

Since the blessing recited over an egg was mentioned, the Gemara cites what Rabbi Yannai said that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Anything that is an egg’s equivalent in volume, an egg is superior to it. Similarly, when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: A lightly cooked egg is better than six log of fine flour. Similarly, when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: A lightly cooked egg is better than six log of fine flour, a roasted egg is better than four, and with regard to a cooked egg, they said: Anything that is an egg’s equivalent, an egg is superior to it except for meat.

רבי עקיבא אומר אפילו אכל שלק כו׳: ומי איכא מידי דהוה שלק מזוני אמר רב אשי בקלח של כרוב שנו

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Akiva says: Even if one ate boiled vegetables, but it is his primary sustenance, he recites the three blessings of Grace after Meals, as he would after eating bread. The Gemara asks: And is there a vegetable where in its boiled state it is primary sustenance? Rav Ashi said: This was taught with regard to a cabbage stalk, which is nourishing.

תנו רבנן טחול יפה לשינים וקשה לבני מעים כרישין קשין לשינים ויפין לבני מעים כל ירק חי מוריק וכל קטן מקטין וכל נפש משיב את הנפש וכל קרוב לנפש משיב את הנפש כרוב למזון ותרדין לרפואה אוי לו לבית שהלפת עוברת בתוכו:

Similarly, the Sages taught in a baraita dealing with types of sustenance: Meat of the spleen is beneficial for the teeth and harmful for the intestines. Leeks, however, are harmful for the teeth and beneficial for the intestines. They also said that all raw vegetables turn one’s face pale. Generally speaking, anything small that has not yet reached its full size is harmful and impedes growth, and any living creature eaten whole, e.g., a fully grown fish, restores the soul. And anything close to the soul restores the soul. Cabbage is for nourishment and beets for healing. Woe unto the house through which the turnip passes, for it is extremely harmful.

אמר מר טחול יפה לשינים וקשה לבני מעים מאי תקנתיה נלעסיה ונשדייה

The Master said in a baraita: The spleen is beneficial for the teeth and harmful for the intestines. The Gemara asks: What is its remedy? The Gemara responds: One should chew it, spit it out, and throw it away.

כרישין קשין לשינים ויפין לבני מעים מאי תקנתיה לשלקינהו ונבלעינהו

Leeks are harmful for the teeth and beneficial for the intestines. The Gemara asks: What is its remedy? The Gemara responds: One should boil them and swallow them without chewing.

כל ירק חי מוריק אמר רבי יצחק בסעודה ראשונה של אחר הקזה

All raw vegetables turn one’s face pale. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It refers here to the first meal after bloodletting, when a person should eat more substantial food.

ואמר רבי יצחק כל האוכל ירק קודם ארבע שעות אסור לספר הימנו מאי טעמא משום ריחא ואמר רבי יצחק אסור לאדם שיאכל ירק חי קודם ארבע שעות

And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eats vegetables before four hours of the day, it is forbidden to speak with him. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? The Gemara explains: This is because the smell of vegetables from his mouth bothers others who have not yet eaten. And in general, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It is forbidden to eat raw vegetables before four hours of the day.

אמימר ומר זוטרא ורב אשי הוו יתבי אייתו קמייהו ירק חי קודם ארבע שעות אמימר ורב אשי אכול ומר זוטרא לא אכל אמרו ליה מאי דעתיך דאמר רבי יצחק כל האוכל ירק קודם ארבע שעות אסור לספר הימנו משום ריחא והא אנן דקא אכלינן וקא משתעית בהדן

The Gemara relates that Ameimar, Mar Zutra, and Rav Ashi were sitting. They brought raw vegetables before them before four hours of the day. Ameimar and Rav Ashi ate and Mar Zutra did not eat. They said to him: What is your thinking that led you not to eat? Was it because Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eats vegetables before four hours of the day, it is forbidden to speak with him because of the smell? Aren’t we eating and you are nevertheless speaking with us?

אמר להו אנא כאידך דרבי יצחק סבירא לי דאמר רבי יצחק אסור לאדם שיאכל ירק חי קודם ארבע שעות

He said to them: I hold in accordance with the other halakha of Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said simply: It is forbidden to eat raw vegetables before four hours of the day.

כל קטן מקטין אמר רב חסדא אפילו גדיא בר זוזא ולא אמרן אלא דלית ביה רבעא אבל אית ביה רבעא לית לן בה

Anything small impedes growth. Rav Ḥisda said: This applies even to a small goat, worth a zuz. Although the goat is worth a zuz, it is still small. And we only said this with regard to a goat that has not reached one fourth of its ultimate size. But if it has reached one fourth of its ultimate size, we need not be concerned.

כל נפש משיב נפש אמר רב פפא אפילו גילדני דבי גילי

And any living creature eaten whole restores the soul. Rav Pappa said: This includes even small fish that grow among the reeds, as even a small creature is beneficial if it reached its full size.

כל הקרוב לנפש משיב את הנפש אמר רב אחא בר יעקב עונקא אמר ליה רבא לשמעיה כי מייתית לי אומצא דבשרא טרח ואייתי לי מהיכא דמקרב לבי ברוך

Anything close to the soul restores the soul. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: This refers to the neck, which is close to the animal’s vital organs. The Gemara relates that Rava said to his servant: When you bring me a piece of meat, make an effort to bring me a piece from the place of the blessing, the neck, where the animal was slaughtered and the slaughterer recited a blessing over the ritual slaughter.

כרוב למזון ותרדין לרפואה כרוב למזון אין ולרפואה לא והא תניא ששה דברים מרפאין את החולה מחליו ורפואתן רפואה ואלו הן כרוב ותרדין ומי סיסין דבש וקיבה והרת ויותרת הכבד אלא אימא כרוב אף למזון

Cabbage for nourishment and beets for healing. The Gemara asks: Is cabbage good for nourishment and not for healing? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Six things cure the ill person of his disease and their cure is an effective cure, and these are: Cabbage, beets, chamomile water, honey, stomach, heret, and liver. Evidently, cabbage is also good for healing. The Gemara responds: Rather, say: Cabbage is even for sustenance and all the more so for healing, which is not the case with beets.

אוי לו לבית שהלפת עוברת בתוכו איני והא אמר ליה רבא לשמעיה כי חזית ליפתא בשוקא לא תימא לי במאי כרכת ריפתא

Woe unto the house through which the turnip passes, as it is extremely damaging. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rava say to his servant: When you see a turnip in the market, do not ask me with what will you eat your bread today? Buy the turnip and bring it for the meal. Apparently, the turnip is a significant and appropriate food.

אמר אביי מבלי בשר ורבא אמר מבלי יין איתמר רב אמר מבלי בשר ושמואל אמר מבלי עצים ורבי יוחנן אמר מבלי יין

Abaye said: The turnip is harmful only when it is eaten without meat. And Rava said: Without wine. It was stated that Rav said: The turnip is harmful when it is eaten without meat. And Shmuel said: Without wood, meaning when it is not properly cooked. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Without wine.

אמר ליה רבא לרב פפא סודני אנן תברינן לה בבשרא וחמרא אתון דלא נפיש לכו חמרא במאי תבריתו לה אמר ליה בציבי כי הא דביתהו דרב פפא בתר דמבשלא לה תברא לה בתמנן אופי פרסייתא

Along the same lines, Rava said to Rav Pappa: Farmer (ge’onim) we break the harmful aspects of the turnip with meat and wine. You, who do not have a lot of wine, with what do you break its harmful aspects? Rav Pappa said to him: With wood. As that is what Rav Pappa’s wife would do. After she cooked the turnip, she would break it with eighty pieces of wood from a palm tree.

תנו רבנן דג קטן מליח פעמים שהוא ממית בשבעה בשבעה עשר ובעשרים ושבעה ואמרי לה בעשרים ושלשה ולא אמרן אלא במטוי ולא מטוי אבל מטוי שפיר לית לן בה ודלא מטוי שפיר לא אמרן אלא דלא שתה בתריה שכרא אבל שתה בתריה שכרא לית לן בה:

On the topic of foods, the Gemara cites what the Sages taught in a baraita: A small salted fish sometimes kills, specifically seven days, seventeen days, and twenty-seven days after it was salted. And some say: Twenty-three. And we only said this when it is roasted and not roasted well, but when it is roasted well, we need not be concerned. And when it is not roasted well, we only said this when one does not drink beer thereafter; however, when one drinks beer thereafter, we need not be concerned.

והשותה מים לצמאו וכו׳ לאפוקי מאי אמר רב אידי בר אבין לאפוקי למאן

We learned in the mishna that the tanna’im disagreed with regard to one who drinks water to quench his thirst. The Gemara asks: What does this emphasis on his thirst come to exclude? Rav Idi bar Avin said: It comes to exclude one

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