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Today's Daf Yomi

March 4, 2020 | 讞壮 讘讗讚专 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Berakhot 61

Today’s daf is sponsored by the Tannenbaum family in memory of Miriam’s father, Mr. Jack Zemsky who championed womens learning – 诇注讬诇讜讬 谞砖诪转 讬注拽讘 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 诪砖讛 谞讞讜诐 讛诇讜讬 讝”诇.

Everything that happens is for the good. What does one derive from the word “vayitzer” and God created – why does it have 2 yuds? How was woman created – did God create at first two images – male and female together – or was woman created from an appendage of man? One should love God with all his/her soul and money. Why are both mentioned? How did Rabbi Akiva die ? Even though he was torutured, he was happy to be able to fulfill the verse to love God and accept the yoke of God with all of one’s soul. Laws of respect of the Temple are discussed. How far away can one be and still be obligated? When one goes to the bathroom, one needs to make sure not to face the Temple. Is this everywhere and at all times or only when the Temple is standing?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讛讻诇 诇讟讜讘讛:

He does for the best.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讬讜 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转讘讛诇 注诇 驻讬讱 讜诇讘讱 讗诇 讬诪讛专 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讚讘专 诇驻谞讬 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讻讬 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讘砖诪讬诐 讜讗转讛 注诇 讛讗专抓 注诇 讻谉 讬讛讬讜 讚讘专讬讱 诪注讟讬诐:

And Rav Huna said that Rav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One鈥檚 words should always be few before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: 鈥淏e not rash with your mouth and let not your heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and you upon earth. Therefore, let your words be few鈥 (Ecclesiastes 5:1).

讚专砖 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讬爪专 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讘砖谞讬 讬讜讚讬谉 砖谞讬 讬爪专讬诐 讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讞讚 讬爪专 讟讜讘 讜讗讞讚 讬爪专 专注

Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hen the Lord God formed [vayyitzer] man鈥 (Genesis 2:7), with a double yod? This double yod alludes to that fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created two inclinations; one a good inclination and one an evil inclination.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讘讛诪讛 讚诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讜讬讬爪专 诇讬转 诇讛 讬爪专讗 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 讚诪讝拽讗 讜谞砖讻讗 讜讘注讟讗 讗诇讗 讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬讜爪专讬 讜讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬爪专讬

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k strongly objects to this: If that is so, does an animal, with regard to whom vayyitzer is not written with a double yod, not have an inclination? Don鈥檛 we see that it causes damage and bites and kicks? Rather, interpret the double yod homiletically, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: This alludes to the difficulty of human life; woe unto me from my Creator [yotzri] and woe unto me from my inclination [yitzri]. If one opts to follow either his Creator or his inclination, woe unto him from the other.

讗讬 谞诪讬 讻讚专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讚讜 驻专爪讜驻讬谉 讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬:

Alternatively, this duplication in the language of creation can be explained in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar, as Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, created two faces [du partzufin] on Adam the first man; he was created both male and female in a single body, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou have formed me [tzartani] behind and before鈥 (Psalms 139:5); tzartani is derived from the word tzura [face]. God formed two faces on a single creation, back and front.

讜讬讘谉 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讛爪诇注

It is stated: 鈥淎nd the tzela which the Lord, God, had taken from the man, He made a woman, and brought her unto the man鈥 (Genesis 2:22).

专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讝谞讘

Rav and Shmuel disagree over the meaning of the word tzela: One said: It means face. Eve was originally one face or side of Adam. And one said: It means tail, which he explains to mean that the tzela was an appendage, i.e., one of the ribs in Adam鈥檚 chest.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬 讻讚专讘讬 讗诪讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗讞讜专 诇诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜拽讚诐 诇驻讜专注谞讜转

The Gemara analyzes this dispute: Granted, according to the one who said that tzela means face; that is why it is written: 鈥淵ou have formed me [tzartani] behind and before.鈥 However, according to the one who said that tzela means tail, what is meant by the verse: 鈥淵ou have formed me [tzartani] behind and before鈥? The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behind means Adam was created at the end of the act of creation; and before means that he was first for punishment.

讘砖诇诪讗 讗讞讜专 诇诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讚诇讗 讗讘专讬 注讚 诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讗诇讗 讜拽讚诐 诇驻讜专注谞讜转 驻讜专注谞讜转 讚诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 驻讜专注谞讜转 讚谞讞砖 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

The Gemara asks: Granted, Adam was behind, or last, in the act of creation, meaning that he was not created until the sixth day, Shabbat eve; however, before, or first, for punishment, to what punishment does this refer? If you say that he was first for punishment in the wake of the episode with the snake, wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that, with regard to punishment, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: In conferring honor, one begins with the greatest; in cursing, one begins with the least significant.

讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讚讘专 诪砖讛 讗诇 讗讛专谉 讜讗诇 讗诇注讝专 讜讗诇 讗讬转诪专 讘谞讬讜 讛谞讜转专讬诐 拽讞讜 讜讙讜壮 讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 讘转讞诇讛 谞转拽诇诇 谞讞砖 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞转拽诇诇讛 讞讜讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞转拽诇诇 讗讚诐

The Gemara explains: In conferring honor, one begins with the greatest, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Moses said unto Aaron, and Elazar and Itamar, his remaining sons: Take the meal-offering that remains鈥 (Leviticus 10:12). Aaron, who was the greatest among those involved, is mentioned first. And in cursing, one begins with the least significant, as first the snake was cursed, then Eve was cursed, and ultimately Adam himself was cursed. The punishment did not begin with Adam.

讗诇讗 驻讜专注谞讜转 讚诪讘讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬诪讞 讗转 讻诇 讛讬拽讜诐 讗砖专 注诇 驻谞讬 讛讗讚诪讛 诪讗讚诐 讜注讚 讘讛诪讛 讘专讬砖讗 讗讚诐 讜讛讚专 讘讛诪讛

Rather, this refers to the punishment of the flood, as it is written: 鈥淎nd He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle, creeping things and fowl of the heaven鈥 (Genesis 7:23); the punishment began with man, then the animals, and ultimately all the other creatures.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讬爪专 讘砖谞讬 讬讜讚讬谉 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讜讬讬爪专

Returning to interpretation of vayyitzer, the Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was originally a face or side of Adam; that is why it is written vayyitzer, with a double yod, which allude to the two formations. However, according to the one who said that she was a tail, or appendage, of Adam, what is conveyed by spelling vayyitzer with a double yod?

讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬讜爪专讬 讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬爪专讬

The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: This comes to emphasize that which a person says to himself in every circumstance: Woe unto me from my Creator and woe unto me from my inclination.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讘专讗诐 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讘专讗诐 讻讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讘专讗诐 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讘爪诇诐 讗诇讛讬诐 注砖讛 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讘转讞诇讛 注诇讛 讘诪讞砖讘讛 诇讘专讗转 砖谞讬诐 讜诇讘住讜祝 诇讗 谞讘专讗 讗诇讗 讗讞讚

Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a face, that is why it is written: 鈥淢ale and female, He created them鈥 (Genesis 5:2). However, according to the one who said that Eve was a tail, what is the meaning of the verse: 鈥淢ale and female, He created them鈥? The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu. As Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradiction between the verses: On the one hand it is written: 鈥淢ale and female, He created them,鈥 and on the other hand it is written: 鈥淔or in the image of God He made man鈥 (Genesis 9:6), indicating that man was created alone. How, then, does he resolve the contradiction? At first, the thought entered God鈥檚 mind to create two, and ultimately, only one was actually created.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬住讙专 讘砖专 转讞转谞讛 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讜讬住讙专 讘砖专 转讞转谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讝讘讬讚 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 谞爪专讻讛 讗诇讗 诇诪拽讜诐 讞转讱

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a face, that is why it is written: 鈥淎nd He took one of his sides and closed up the place with flesh in its place鈥 (Genesis 2:21), as it was necessary to close the side that was open. However, according to the one who said that Eve was originally a tail, what is meant by the verse: 鈥淎nd closed up the place with flesh in its place鈥? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say Rav Zevid said, and some say Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It was necessary to say that only with regard to the place of the incision.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘谉 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 诪讗讬 讜讬讘谉

The Gemara challenges the other opinion: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a tail, that is why it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord God built the tzela鈥 (Genesis 2:22); it was a completely new building. However, according to the one who said that Eve was a complete face or side, what is the meaning of: 鈥淎nd He built鈥? What needed to be built?

诇讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 讚讚专砖 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘谉 讛壮 讗转 讛爪诇注 诪诇诪讚 砖拽诇注讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讞讜讛 讜讛讘讬讗讛 诇讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖讻谉 讘讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 拽讜专讬谉 诇拽诇讬注转讗 讘谞讬讬转讗

The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord God built the tzela鈥? This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided Eve鈥檚 hair, and then brought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braiding hair, building.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讬讘谉 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讘谞讗讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讞讜讛 讻讘谞讬谉 讗讜爪专 诪讛 讗讜爪专 讝讛 拽爪专 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜专讞讘 诪诇诪讟讛 讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛驻讬专讜转 讗祝 讗砖讛 拽爪专讛 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜专讞讘讛 诪诇诪讟讛 讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛讜诇讚

Alternatively, the verse: And He built, could be understood as a description of her basic shape, as Rav 岣sda said, and some say that it is taught in a baraita: This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure of a storehouse. Just as a storehouse is built narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold produce without collapsing; so too a woman is created narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold the fetus.

讜讬讘讬讗讛 讗诇 讛讗讚诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 诪诇诪讚 砖谞注砖讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讜砖讘讬谉 诇讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 诪讻讗谉 诇诪讚讛 转讜专讛 讚专讱 讗专抓 砖讬讞讝讜专 讙讚讜诇 注诐 拽讟谉 讘砖讜砖讘讬谞讜转 讜讗诇 讬专注 诇讜

With regard to the verse: 鈥淎nd brought her unto the man鈥 (Genesis 2:22), Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the first man鈥檚 best man. From here, the Torah taught that it is a desired mode of behavior for a greater individual to seek out a lesser individual to assist him and serve as his best man. The greater individual should help the lesser and should not feel badly about it, that it might be beneath his dignity.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 住讙讬 讘专讬砖讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪住转讘专讗 讚讙讘专讗 住讙讬 讘专讬砖讗 讚转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讛诇讱 讗讚诐 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讘讚专讱 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讗砖转讜 谞讝讚诪谞讛 诇讜 注诇 讛讙砖专 讬住诇拽谞讛 诇爪讚讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讛注讜讘专 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讘谞讛专 讗讬谉 诇讜 讞诇拽 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who said that Eve was a face or side of Adam, which one of them walked in front? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It is reasonable to say that the man walked in front, as it is taught in a baraita: A man should not walk behind a woman on a path, as he will look at her constantly, even if it is his wife. If a woman happens upon him along a bridge, he should walk quickly in order to move her to his side so that she will not walk in front of him. And anyone who walks behind a woman in a river in order to see her exposed skin when she lifts her clothing as she passes through the water has no portion in the World-to-Come.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪专爪讛 诪注讜转 诇讗砖讛 诪讬讚讜 诇讬讚讛 讻讚讬 诇讛住转讻诇 讘讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 讘讬讚讜 转讜专讛 讜诪注砖讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讻诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 讬谞拽讛 诪讚讬谞讛 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬讚 诇讬讚 诇讗 讬谞拽讛 专注 诇讗 讬谞拽讛 诪讚讬谞讛 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐

The Sages taught: One who counts money for a woman from his hand to her hand in order to look upon her, even if he has accumulated Torah and good deeds like Moses our teacher, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, as it is stated: 鈥淗and to hand, the evil man shall not go unpunished鈥 (Proverbs 11:21); one who hands money from his hand to her hand, even if he received the Torah from God鈥檚 hand to his own, like Moses, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, which is called evil.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪谞讜讞 注诐 讛讗专抓 讛讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬诇讱 诪谞讜讞 讗讞专讬 讗砖转讜

Rav Na岣an said: From the following verse we know that Samson鈥檚 father, Manoah, was an ignoramus, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Manoah鈥ent after his wife鈥 (Judges 13:11).

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讙讘讬 讗诇拽谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬诇讱 讗诇拽谞讛 讗讞专讬 讗砖转讜 讜讙讘讬 讗诇讬砖注 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽诐 讜讬诇讱 讗讞专讬讛 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗讞专讬讛 诪诪砖 讗诇讗 讗讞专讬 讚讘专讬讛 讜讗讞专讬 注爪转讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗讞专讬 讚讘专讬讛 讜讗讞专讬 注爪转讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k strongly objects to this: If that is so that you understand the verse literally, what do you say about the verse with regard to Elkana, the father of the prophet Samuel, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Elkana walked after his wife,鈥 and what of the verse with regard to the prophet Elisha, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he arose and followed her鈥 (II Kings 4:30)? Does this verse mean that he literally walked after her? Rather, certainly this verse means that he followed her words and advice. Here, too, then the verse concerning Manoah may be similarly interpreted; he followed his wife鈥檚 words and followed her advice, and did not literally walk behind her.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜诇诪讗讬 讚拽讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪谞讜讞 注诐 讛讗专抓 讛讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬 专讘 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽专讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜转拽诐 专讘拽讛 讜谞注专转讬讛 讜转专讻讘谞讛 注诇 讛讙诪诇讬诐 讜转诇讻谞讛 讗讞专讬 讛讗讬砖 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬 讛讗讬砖

Rav Ashi said: And according to what Rav Na岣an said, that Manoah was an ignoramus; he did not even learn to read the basic Torah stories that even children learn in school, as it is stated: 鈥淩ebecca arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man鈥 (Genesis 24:61); they followed him and did not walk before the man.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讞讜专讬 讗专讬 讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗讞讜专讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉

On this topic, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is preferable to walk behind a lion and not behind a woman, and preferable to walk behind a woman and not behind idolatry, for then it will appear as if he is accompanying the idolatry. It is preferable to walk behind idolatry and not behind a synagogue when the congregation is praying, as he appears to separate himself from the community in that he does not wish to join them in prayer.

讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讚专讬 诪讬讚讬 讜讗讬 讚专讬 诪讬讚讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讗讘诇 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 诪谞讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讗讘诇 诪谞讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛:

This last halakha has numerous caveats: And we only said this in a case where he is not carrying something, and if he is carrying something, this does not apply, as everyone will understand why he did not enter the synagogue. And we only said this in a case where there is no other entrance to the synagogue, and if there is another entrance, this does not apply. And we only said this in a case where he is not riding a donkey, and if he is riding a donkey, this does not apply. And we only said this in a case where he is not donning phylacteries, but if he is donning phylacteries, this does not apply.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪专 讛专注 讚讜诪讛 诇讝讘讜讘 讜讬讜砖讘 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 诪驻转讞讬 讛诇讘 砖谞讗诪专 讝讘讜讘讬 诪讜转 讬讘讗讬砖 讬讘讬注 砖诪谉 专讜拽讞 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讻诪讬谉 讞讟讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻转讞 讞讟讗转 专讜讘抓

Rav said: The evil inclination is like a fly and it sits between the two entrances of the heart, as it is stated: 鈥淒ead flies make the ointment of the perfumer fetid and putrid鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:1). And Shmuel said: The evil inclination is like a type of wheat, as it is stated: 鈥淭ransgression [岣tat] couches at the door鈥 (Genesis 4:7); 岣tat is interpreted homiletically as related to 岣tta, wheat.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖转讬 讻诇讬讜转 讬砖 讘讜 讘讗讚诐 讗讞转 讬讜注爪转讜 诇讟讜讘讛 讜讗讞转 讬讜注爪转讜 诇专注讛 讜诪住转讘专讗 讚讟讜讘讛 诇讬诪讬谞讜 讜专注讛 诇砖诪讗诇讜 讚讻转讬讘 诇讘 讞讻诐 诇讬诪讬谞讜 讜诇讘 讻住讬诇 诇砖诪讗诇讜:

The Sages taught in a baraita: A person has two kidneys; one advises him to do good and one advises him to do evil. And it stands to reason that the one advising him to do good is to his right and the one that advises him to do evil is to his left, as it is written: 鈥淎 wise man鈥檚 understanding is at his right hand, but a fool鈥檚 understanding is at his left鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:2).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇讬讜转 讬讜注爪讜转 诇讘 诪讘讬谉 诇砖讜谉 诪讞转讱 驻讛 讙讜诪专 讜砖讟 诪讻谞讬住 讜诪讜爪讬讗 讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讗讻诇 拽谞讛 诪讜爪讬讗 拽讜诇

Tangential to the subject of kidneys, the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the roles of various organs: The kidneys advise, the heart understands, the tongue shapes the sounds that emerges from the mouth, the mouth completes the shaping of the voice, the esophagus takes in and lets out all kinds of food, the trachea produces the voice,

专讬讗讛 砖讜讗讘转 讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪砖拽讬谉 讻讘讚 讻讜注住 诪专讛 讝讜专拽转 讘讜 讟驻讛 讜诪谞讬讞转讜 讟讞讜诇 砖讜讞拽 拽专拽讘谉 讟讜讞谉 拽讬讘讛 讬砖谞讛 讗祝 谞注讜专 谞注讜专 讛讬砖谉 讬砖谉 讛谞注讜专 谞诪讜拽 讜讛讜诇讱 诇讜 转谞讗 讗诐 砖谞讬讛诐 讬砖谞讬诐 讗讜 砖谞讬讛诐 谞注讜专讬诐 诪讬讚 诪转

and the lungs draw all kinds of liquids, the liver becomes angry, the gall bladder injects a drop of gall into the liver and allays anger, the spleen laughs, the maw grinds the food, and the stomach brings sleep, the nose awakens. If they reversed roles such that the organ which brings on sleep were to awaken, or the organ which awakens were to bring on sleep, the individual would gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If both bring on sleep or both awaken, the person immediately dies.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讗讜诪专 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讬爪专 讟讜讘 砖讜驻讟谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讘讬 讞诇诇 讘拽专讘讬 专砖注讬诐 讬爪专 专注 砖讜驻讟谉 砖谞讗诪专 谞讗诐 驻砖注 诇专砖注 讘拽专讘 诇讘讬 讗讬谉 驻讞讚 讗诇讛讬诐 诇谞讙讚 注讬谞讬讜 讘讬谞讜谞讬诐 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜驻讟谉 砖谞讗诪专 讬注诪讚 诇讬诪讬谉 讗讘讬讜谉 诇讛讜砖讬注 诪砖驻讟讬 谞驻砖讜

With regard to one鈥檚 inclinations, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd my heart is dead within me鈥 (Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The evil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: 鈥淭ransgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes鈥 (Psalms 36:2). Middling people are ruled by both the good and evil inclinations, as it is stated: 鈥淏ecause He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul鈥 (Psalms 109:31).

讗诪专 专讘讛 讻讙讜谉 讗谞讜 讘讬谞讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 砖讘讬拽 诪专 讞讬讬 诇讻诇 讘专讬讛

Rabba said: People like us are middling. Abaye, his student and nephew, said to him: If the Master claims that he is merely middling, he does not leave room for any creature to live. If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 讗讬讘专讬 注诇诪讗 讗诇讗 诇专砖讬注讬 讙诪讜专讬 讗讜 诇爪讚讬拽讬 讙诪讜专讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讬讚注 讗讬谞砖 讘谞驻砖讬讛 讗诐 爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讛讜讗 讗诐 诇讗讜 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 讗讬讘专讬 注诇诪讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讞讗讘 讘谉 注诪专讬 讜诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 诇讗讞讗讘 讘谉 注诪专讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗:

And Rava said: The world was created only for the sake of the full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous; others do not live complete lives in either world. Rava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous, as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. Rav said: The world was only created for the wicked Ahab ben Omri and for Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa. The Gemara explains: For Ahab ben Omri, this world was created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, and for Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa, the World-to-Come was created.

讜讗讛讘转 讗转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱: 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗诐 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 诇诪讛 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪讗讚讱 讜讗诐 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪讗讚讱 诇诪讛 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讗诇讗 讗诐 讬砖 诇讱 讗讚诐 砖讙讜驻讜 讞讘讬讘 注诇讬讜 诪诪诪讜谞讜 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讜讗诐 讬砖 诇讱 讗讚诐 砖诪诪讜谞讜 讞讘讬讘 注诇讬讜 诪讙讜驻讜 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪讗讚讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讜讟诇 讗转 谞驻砖讱

We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and all your soul and all your might鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: 鈥淲ith all your soul,鈥 why does it state: 鈥淲ith all your might鈥? Conversely, if it stated: 鈥淲ith all your might,鈥 why does it state: 鈥淲ith all your soul鈥? Rather, this means that if one鈥檚 body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: 鈥淲ith all your soul鈥; one must give his soul in sanctification of God. And if one鈥檚 money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: 鈥淲ith all your might鈥; with all your assets. Rabbi Akiva says: 鈥淲ith all your soul鈥 means: Even if God takes your soul.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖诇讗 讬注住拽讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘转讜专讛 讘讗 驻驻讜住 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诪爪讗讜 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讛讬讛 诪拽讛讬诇 拽讛诇讜转 讘专讘讬诐 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注拽讬讘讗 讗讬 讗转讛 诪转讬专讗 诪驻谞讬 诪诇讻讜转

The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. The Sages taught: One time, after the bar Kokheva rebellion, the evil empire of Rome decreed that Israel may not engage in the study and practice of Torah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torah study. Pappos said to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire?

讗诪专 诇讜 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇砖讜注诇 砖讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 注诇 讙讘 讛谞讛专 讜专讗讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讛讬讜 诪转拽讘爪讬诐 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转诐 讘讜专讞讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 专砖转讜转 砖诪讘讬讗讬谉 注诇讬谞讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专爪讜谞讻诐 砖转注诇讜 诇讬讘砖讛 讜谞讚讜专 讗谞讬 讜讗转诐 讻砖诐 砖讚专讜 讗讘讜转讬 注诐 讗讘讜转讬讻诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗转讛 讛讜讗 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇讬讱 驻拽讞 砖讘讞讬讜转 诇讗 驻拽讞 讗转讛 讗诇讗 讟驻砖 讗转讛 讜诪讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讞讬讜转谞讜 讗谞讜 诪转讬专讗讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 诪讬转转谞讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讗祝 讗谞讞谞讜 注讻砖讬讜 砖讗谞讜 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讜注讜住拽讬诐 讘转讜专讛 砖讻转讜讘 讘讛 讻讬 讛讜讗 讞讬讬讱 讜讗专讱 讬诪讬讱 讻讱 讗诐 讗谞讜 讛讜诇讻讬诐 讜诪讘讟诇讬诐 诪诪谞讛 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Rabbi Akiva answered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared? It is like a fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gathering and fleeing from place to place.
The fox said to them: From what are you fleeing?
They said to him: We are fleeing from the nets that people cast upon us.
He said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors?
The fish said to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid in the water, our natural habitat which gives us life, then in a habitat that causes our death, all the more so.
The moral is: So too, we Jews, now that we sit and engage in Torah study, about which it is written: 鈥淔or that is your life, and the length of your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire to this extent; if we proceed to sit idle from its study, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, all the more so will we fear the empire.

讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 注讚 砖转驻住讜讛讜 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讞讘砖讜讛讜 讘讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬诐 讜转驻住讜 诇驻驻讜住 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讘砖讜讛讜 讗爪诇讜 讗诪专 诇讜 驻驻讜住 诪讬 讛讘讬讗讱 诇讻讗谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖专讬讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖谞转驻住转 注诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇驻驻讜住 砖谞转驻住 注诇 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐

The Sages said: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Pappos, who brought you here? Pappos replied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested on the charge of engaging in Torah study. Woe unto Pappos who was seized on the charge of engaging in idle matters.

讘砖注讛 砖讛讜爪讬讗讜 讗转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讛专讬讙讛 讝诪谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讛讬讛 讜讛讬讜 住讜专拽讬诐 讗转 讘砖专讜 讘诪住专拽讜转 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜讛讬讛 诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 专讘讬谞讜 注讚 讻讗谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻诇 讬诪讬 讛讬讬转讬 诪爪讟注专 注诇 驻住讜拽 讝讛 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讜讟诇 讗转 谞砖诪转讱 讗诪专转讬 诪转讬 讬讘讗 诇讬讚讬 讜讗拽讬讬诪谞讜 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖讘讗 诇讬讚讬 诇讗 讗拽讬讬诪谞讜 讛讬讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘讗讞讚 注讚 砖讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转讜 讘讗讞讚 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 讗砖专讬讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讬爪讗讛 谞砖诪转讱 讘讗讞讚

The Gemara relates: When they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of Shema. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he was reciting Shema, thereby accepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now, as you suffer, you recite Shema? He said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul, meaning: Even if God takes your soul. I said to myself: When will the opportunity be afforded me to fulfill this verse? Now that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolonged his uttering of the word: One, until his soul left his body as he uttered his final word: One. A voice descended from heaven and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul left your body as you uttered: One.

讗诪专讜 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝讜 转讜专讛 讜讝讜 砖讻专讛 诪诪转讬诐 讬讚讱 讛壮 诪诪转讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讞诇拽诐 讘讞讬讬诐 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 讗砖专讬讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讗转讛 诪讝讜诪谉 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗:

The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward? As it is stated: 鈥淔rom death, by Your hand, O Lord, from death of the world鈥 (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God said the end of the verse to the ministering angels: 鈥淲hose portion is in this life.鈥 And then a Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come, as your portion is already in eternal life.

诇讗 讬拽诇 讗讚诐 讗转 专讗砖讜 讻谞讙讚 砖注专 讛诪讝专讞 砖讛讜讗 诪讻讜讜谉 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛爪讜驻讬诐 讜诇驻谞讬诐 讜讘专讜讗讛 讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛爪讜驻讬诐 讜诇驻谞讬诐 讜讘专讜讗讛 讜讘砖讗讬谉 讙讚专 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛

We learned in the mishna that one may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies. Limiting this halakha, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They only said this halakha with regard to irreverent behavior from Mount Scopus [Tzofim] and within, and specifically areas from where one can see the Temple. It is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yo岣nan said the following: They only said this halakha with regard to Mount Scopus and within, when one can see, and when there is no fence obstructing his view, and when the Divine Presence is resting there, i.e., when the Temple is standing.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讬驻谞讛 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜讘讙诇讬诇 诇讗 讬驻谞讛 讗诇讗 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 砖讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讗住专讜 讗诇讗 讘专讜讗讛 讜讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 砖诐 讙讚专 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜住专讬诐

In this context, the Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecate when facing east and west, for then he is facing Jerusalem; rather he should do so facing north and south. But in the Galilee which is north of Jerusalem, one should only defecate facing east and west. Rabbi Yosei permits doing so, as Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibited doing so when one can see the Temple, where there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is resting there. And the Rabbis prohibit doing so.

讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 爪讚讚讬谉

The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the Rabbis, who prohibit this, is identical to that of the first anonymous tanna, who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference between them is with regard to the sides, i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first tanna, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讬驻谞讛 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜讘讙诇讬诇 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讗住讜专 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 诪讜转专 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 砖讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讗住专讜 讗诇讗 讘专讜讗讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讝诪谉 砖讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 讗住讜专 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讜转专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜住专 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐

It was taught in another baraita: One who defecates in Judea should not defecate when facing east and west; rather, he should only do so facing north and south. And in the Galilee, defecating while facing north and south is prohibited, while east and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitted doing so, as Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibited doing so when one can see the Temple. Rabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited, but when the Temple is not standing, it is permitted. The Gemara adds that Rabbi Akiva prohibits defecating anywhere while facing east and west.

专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讞讜抓 诇讗专抓

The Gemara challenges this: Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 position is identical to that of the first, anonymous tanna, who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference between them is with regard to places outside of Eretz Yisrael, as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.

专讘讛 讛讜讜 砖讚讬讬谉 诇讬讛 诇讘谞讬 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗讝诇 讗讘讬讬 砖讚谞讛讜 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 注诇 专讘讛 转专爪谞讛讜 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讛讗讬 讚拽诪爪注专 诇讬 讗谞讗 讻专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住讘讬专讗 诇讬 讚讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讗住讜专:

The Gemara relates that in Rabba鈥檚 bathroom, the bricks were placed east and west in order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. Abaye went and placed them north and south, to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. Rabba entered and fixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: It is prohibited everywhere.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rabbi Akiva’s Moment of Death and Shema

  It's the final stretch of Berakhot -- now's the time to catch up if you are behind and still...

Berakhot 61

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Berakhot 61

讛讻诇 诇讟讜讘讛:

He does for the best.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讬讜 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转讘讛诇 注诇 驻讬讱 讜诇讘讱 讗诇 讬诪讛专 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讚讘专 诇驻谞讬 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讻讬 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讘砖诪讬诐 讜讗转讛 注诇 讛讗专抓 注诇 讻谉 讬讛讬讜 讚讘专讬讱 诪注讟讬诐:

And Rav Huna said that Rav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One鈥檚 words should always be few before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: 鈥淏e not rash with your mouth and let not your heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and you upon earth. Therefore, let your words be few鈥 (Ecclesiastes 5:1).

讚专砖 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讬爪专 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讘砖谞讬 讬讜讚讬谉 砖谞讬 讬爪专讬诐 讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讞讚 讬爪专 讟讜讘 讜讗讞讚 讬爪专 专注

Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hen the Lord God formed [vayyitzer] man鈥 (Genesis 2:7), with a double yod? This double yod alludes to that fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created two inclinations; one a good inclination and one an evil inclination.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讘讛诪讛 讚诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讜讬讬爪专 诇讬转 诇讛 讬爪专讗 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 讚诪讝拽讗 讜谞砖讻讗 讜讘注讟讗 讗诇讗 讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬讜爪专讬 讜讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬爪专讬

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k strongly objects to this: If that is so, does an animal, with regard to whom vayyitzer is not written with a double yod, not have an inclination? Don鈥檛 we see that it causes damage and bites and kicks? Rather, interpret the double yod homiletically, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: This alludes to the difficulty of human life; woe unto me from my Creator [yotzri] and woe unto me from my inclination [yitzri]. If one opts to follow either his Creator or his inclination, woe unto him from the other.

讗讬 谞诪讬 讻讚专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讚讜 驻专爪讜驻讬谉 讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬:

Alternatively, this duplication in the language of creation can be explained in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar, as Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, created two faces [du partzufin] on Adam the first man; he was created both male and female in a single body, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou have formed me [tzartani] behind and before鈥 (Psalms 139:5); tzartani is derived from the word tzura [face]. God formed two faces on a single creation, back and front.

讜讬讘谉 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讛爪诇注

It is stated: 鈥淎nd the tzela which the Lord, God, had taken from the man, He made a woman, and brought her unto the man鈥 (Genesis 2:22).

专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讝谞讘

Rav and Shmuel disagree over the meaning of the word tzela: One said: It means face. Eve was originally one face or side of Adam. And one said: It means tail, which he explains to mean that the tzela was an appendage, i.e., one of the ribs in Adam鈥檚 chest.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬 讻讚专讘讬 讗诪讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗讞讜专 诇诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜拽讚诐 诇驻讜专注谞讜转

The Gemara analyzes this dispute: Granted, according to the one who said that tzela means face; that is why it is written: 鈥淵ou have formed me [tzartani] behind and before.鈥 However, according to the one who said that tzela means tail, what is meant by the verse: 鈥淵ou have formed me [tzartani] behind and before鈥? The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behind means Adam was created at the end of the act of creation; and before means that he was first for punishment.

讘砖诇诪讗 讗讞讜专 诇诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讚诇讗 讗讘专讬 注讚 诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讗诇讗 讜拽讚诐 诇驻讜专注谞讜转 驻讜专注谞讜转 讚诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 驻讜专注谞讜转 讚谞讞砖 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

The Gemara asks: Granted, Adam was behind, or last, in the act of creation, meaning that he was not created until the sixth day, Shabbat eve; however, before, or first, for punishment, to what punishment does this refer? If you say that he was first for punishment in the wake of the episode with the snake, wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that, with regard to punishment, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: In conferring honor, one begins with the greatest; in cursing, one begins with the least significant.

讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讚讘专 诪砖讛 讗诇 讗讛专谉 讜讗诇 讗诇注讝专 讜讗诇 讗讬转诪专 讘谞讬讜 讛谞讜转专讬诐 拽讞讜 讜讙讜壮 讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 讘转讞诇讛 谞转拽诇诇 谞讞砖 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞转拽诇诇讛 讞讜讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞转拽诇诇 讗讚诐

The Gemara explains: In conferring honor, one begins with the greatest, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Moses said unto Aaron, and Elazar and Itamar, his remaining sons: Take the meal-offering that remains鈥 (Leviticus 10:12). Aaron, who was the greatest among those involved, is mentioned first. And in cursing, one begins with the least significant, as first the snake was cursed, then Eve was cursed, and ultimately Adam himself was cursed. The punishment did not begin with Adam.

讗诇讗 驻讜专注谞讜转 讚诪讘讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬诪讞 讗转 讻诇 讛讬拽讜诐 讗砖专 注诇 驻谞讬 讛讗讚诪讛 诪讗讚诐 讜注讚 讘讛诪讛 讘专讬砖讗 讗讚诐 讜讛讚专 讘讛诪讛

Rather, this refers to the punishment of the flood, as it is written: 鈥淎nd He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle, creeping things and fowl of the heaven鈥 (Genesis 7:23); the punishment began with man, then the animals, and ultimately all the other creatures.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讬爪专 讘砖谞讬 讬讜讚讬谉 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讜讬讬爪专

Returning to interpretation of vayyitzer, the Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was originally a face or side of Adam; that is why it is written vayyitzer, with a double yod, which allude to the two formations. However, according to the one who said that she was a tail, or appendage, of Adam, what is conveyed by spelling vayyitzer with a double yod?

讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬讜爪专讬 讗讜讬 诇讬 诪讬爪专讬

The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: This comes to emphasize that which a person says to himself in every circumstance: Woe unto me from my Creator and woe unto me from my inclination.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讘专讗诐 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讘专讗诐 讻讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讘专讗诐 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讘爪诇诐 讗诇讛讬诐 注砖讛 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讘转讞诇讛 注诇讛 讘诪讞砖讘讛 诇讘专讗转 砖谞讬诐 讜诇讘住讜祝 诇讗 谞讘专讗 讗诇讗 讗讞讚

Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a face, that is why it is written: 鈥淢ale and female, He created them鈥 (Genesis 5:2). However, according to the one who said that Eve was a tail, what is the meaning of the verse: 鈥淢ale and female, He created them鈥? The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu. As Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradiction between the verses: On the one hand it is written: 鈥淢ale and female, He created them,鈥 and on the other hand it is written: 鈥淔or in the image of God He made man鈥 (Genesis 9:6), indicating that man was created alone. How, then, does he resolve the contradiction? At first, the thought entered God鈥檚 mind to create two, and ultimately, only one was actually created.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬住讙专 讘砖专 转讞转谞讛 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 诪讗讬 讜讬住讙专 讘砖专 转讞转谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讝讘讬讚 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 谞爪专讻讛 讗诇讗 诇诪拽讜诐 讞转讱

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a face, that is why it is written: 鈥淎nd He took one of his sides and closed up the place with flesh in its place鈥 (Genesis 2:21), as it was necessary to close the side that was open. However, according to the one who said that Eve was originally a tail, what is meant by the verse: 鈥淎nd closed up the place with flesh in its place鈥? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say Rav Zevid said, and some say Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It was necessary to say that only with regard to the place of the incision.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝谞讘 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘谉 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 诪讗讬 讜讬讘谉

The Gemara challenges the other opinion: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a tail, that is why it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord God built the tzela鈥 (Genesis 2:22); it was a completely new building. However, according to the one who said that Eve was a complete face or side, what is the meaning of: 鈥淎nd He built鈥? What needed to be built?

诇讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 讚讚专砖 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诪谞住讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘谉 讛壮 讗转 讛爪诇注 诪诇诪讚 砖拽诇注讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讞讜讛 讜讛讘讬讗讛 诇讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖讻谉 讘讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 拽讜专讬谉 诇拽诇讬注转讗 讘谞讬讬转讗

The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord God built the tzela鈥? This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided Eve鈥檚 hair, and then brought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braiding hair, building.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讬讘谉 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讘谞讗讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讞讜讛 讻讘谞讬谉 讗讜爪专 诪讛 讗讜爪专 讝讛 拽爪专 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜专讞讘 诪诇诪讟讛 讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛驻讬专讜转 讗祝 讗砖讛 拽爪专讛 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜专讞讘讛 诪诇诪讟讛 讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛讜诇讚

Alternatively, the verse: And He built, could be understood as a description of her basic shape, as Rav 岣sda said, and some say that it is taught in a baraita: This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure of a storehouse. Just as a storehouse is built narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold produce without collapsing; so too a woman is created narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold the fetus.

讜讬讘讬讗讛 讗诇 讛讗讚诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 诪诇诪讚 砖谞注砖讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讜砖讘讬谉 诇讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 诪讻讗谉 诇诪讚讛 转讜专讛 讚专讱 讗专抓 砖讬讞讝讜专 讙讚讜诇 注诐 拽讟谉 讘砖讜砖讘讬谞讜转 讜讗诇 讬专注 诇讜

With regard to the verse: 鈥淎nd brought her unto the man鈥 (Genesis 2:22), Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the first man鈥檚 best man. From here, the Torah taught that it is a desired mode of behavior for a greater individual to seek out a lesser individual to assist him and serve as his best man. The greater individual should help the lesser and should not feel badly about it, that it might be beneath his dignity.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 驻专爪讜祝 讛讬 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 住讙讬 讘专讬砖讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪住转讘专讗 讚讙讘专讗 住讙讬 讘专讬砖讗 讚转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讛诇讱 讗讚诐 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讘讚专讱 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讗砖转讜 谞讝讚诪谞讛 诇讜 注诇 讛讙砖专 讬住诇拽谞讛 诇爪讚讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讛注讜讘专 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讘谞讛专 讗讬谉 诇讜 讞诇拽 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who said that Eve was a face or side of Adam, which one of them walked in front? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It is reasonable to say that the man walked in front, as it is taught in a baraita: A man should not walk behind a woman on a path, as he will look at her constantly, even if it is his wife. If a woman happens upon him along a bridge, he should walk quickly in order to move her to his side so that she will not walk in front of him. And anyone who walks behind a woman in a river in order to see her exposed skin when she lifts her clothing as she passes through the water has no portion in the World-to-Come.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪专爪讛 诪注讜转 诇讗砖讛 诪讬讚讜 诇讬讚讛 讻讚讬 诇讛住转讻诇 讘讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 讘讬讚讜 转讜专讛 讜诪注砖讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讻诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 讬谞拽讛 诪讚讬谞讛 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬讚 诇讬讚 诇讗 讬谞拽讛 专注 诇讗 讬谞拽讛 诪讚讬谞讛 砖诇 讙讬讛谞诐

The Sages taught: One who counts money for a woman from his hand to her hand in order to look upon her, even if he has accumulated Torah and good deeds like Moses our teacher, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, as it is stated: 鈥淗and to hand, the evil man shall not go unpunished鈥 (Proverbs 11:21); one who hands money from his hand to her hand, even if he received the Torah from God鈥檚 hand to his own, like Moses, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, which is called evil.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪谞讜讞 注诐 讛讗专抓 讛讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬诇讱 诪谞讜讞 讗讞专讬 讗砖转讜

Rav Na岣an said: From the following verse we know that Samson鈥檚 father, Manoah, was an ignoramus, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Manoah鈥ent after his wife鈥 (Judges 13:11).

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讙讘讬 讗诇拽谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬诇讱 讗诇拽谞讛 讗讞专讬 讗砖转讜 讜讙讘讬 讗诇讬砖注 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽诐 讜讬诇讱 讗讞专讬讛 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗讞专讬讛 诪诪砖 讗诇讗 讗讞专讬 讚讘专讬讛 讜讗讞专讬 注爪转讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗讞专讬 讚讘专讬讛 讜讗讞专讬 注爪转讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k strongly objects to this: If that is so that you understand the verse literally, what do you say about the verse with regard to Elkana, the father of the prophet Samuel, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Elkana walked after his wife,鈥 and what of the verse with regard to the prophet Elisha, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he arose and followed her鈥 (II Kings 4:30)? Does this verse mean that he literally walked after her? Rather, certainly this verse means that he followed her words and advice. Here, too, then the verse concerning Manoah may be similarly interpreted; he followed his wife鈥檚 words and followed her advice, and did not literally walk behind her.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜诇诪讗讬 讚拽讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪谞讜讞 注诐 讛讗专抓 讛讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬 专讘 谞诪讬 诇讗 拽专讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜转拽诐 专讘拽讛 讜谞注专转讬讛 讜转专讻讘谞讛 注诇 讛讙诪诇讬诐 讜转诇讻谞讛 讗讞专讬 讛讗讬砖 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬 讛讗讬砖

Rav Ashi said: And according to what Rav Na岣an said, that Manoah was an ignoramus; he did not even learn to read the basic Torah stories that even children learn in school, as it is stated: 鈥淩ebecca arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man鈥 (Genesis 24:61); they followed him and did not walk before the man.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讞讜专讬 讗专讬 讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讗讞讜专讬 讗砖讛 讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗讞讜专讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘砖注讛 砖讛爪讘讜专 诪转驻诇诇讬谉

On this topic, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is preferable to walk behind a lion and not behind a woman, and preferable to walk behind a woman and not behind idolatry, for then it will appear as if he is accompanying the idolatry. It is preferable to walk behind idolatry and not behind a synagogue when the congregation is praying, as he appears to separate himself from the community in that he does not wish to join them in prayer.

讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讚专讬 诪讬讚讬 讜讗讬 讚专讬 诪讬讚讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 驻转讞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讗讘诇 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 诪谞讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讗讘诇 诪谞讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛:

This last halakha has numerous caveats: And we only said this in a case where he is not carrying something, and if he is carrying something, this does not apply, as everyone will understand why he did not enter the synagogue. And we only said this in a case where there is no other entrance to the synagogue, and if there is another entrance, this does not apply. And we only said this in a case where he is not riding a donkey, and if he is riding a donkey, this does not apply. And we only said this in a case where he is not donning phylacteries, but if he is donning phylacteries, this does not apply.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪专 讛专注 讚讜诪讛 诇讝讘讜讘 讜讬讜砖讘 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 诪驻转讞讬 讛诇讘 砖谞讗诪专 讝讘讜讘讬 诪讜转 讬讘讗讬砖 讬讘讬注 砖诪谉 专讜拽讞 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讻诪讬谉 讞讟讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻转讞 讞讟讗转 专讜讘抓

Rav said: The evil inclination is like a fly and it sits between the two entrances of the heart, as it is stated: 鈥淒ead flies make the ointment of the perfumer fetid and putrid鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:1). And Shmuel said: The evil inclination is like a type of wheat, as it is stated: 鈥淭ransgression [岣tat] couches at the door鈥 (Genesis 4:7); 岣tat is interpreted homiletically as related to 岣tta, wheat.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖转讬 讻诇讬讜转 讬砖 讘讜 讘讗讚诐 讗讞转 讬讜注爪转讜 诇讟讜讘讛 讜讗讞转 讬讜注爪转讜 诇专注讛 讜诪住转讘专讗 讚讟讜讘讛 诇讬诪讬谞讜 讜专注讛 诇砖诪讗诇讜 讚讻转讬讘 诇讘 讞讻诐 诇讬诪讬谞讜 讜诇讘 讻住讬诇 诇砖诪讗诇讜:

The Sages taught in a baraita: A person has two kidneys; one advises him to do good and one advises him to do evil. And it stands to reason that the one advising him to do good is to his right and the one that advises him to do evil is to his left, as it is written: 鈥淎 wise man鈥檚 understanding is at his right hand, but a fool鈥檚 understanding is at his left鈥 (Ecclesiastes 10:2).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇讬讜转 讬讜注爪讜转 诇讘 诪讘讬谉 诇砖讜谉 诪讞转讱 驻讛 讙讜诪专 讜砖讟 诪讻谞讬住 讜诪讜爪讬讗 讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讗讻诇 拽谞讛 诪讜爪讬讗 拽讜诇

Tangential to the subject of kidneys, the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the roles of various organs: The kidneys advise, the heart understands, the tongue shapes the sounds that emerges from the mouth, the mouth completes the shaping of the voice, the esophagus takes in and lets out all kinds of food, the trachea produces the voice,

专讬讗讛 砖讜讗讘转 讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪砖拽讬谉 讻讘讚 讻讜注住 诪专讛 讝讜专拽转 讘讜 讟驻讛 讜诪谞讬讞转讜 讟讞讜诇 砖讜讞拽 拽专拽讘谉 讟讜讞谉 拽讬讘讛 讬砖谞讛 讗祝 谞注讜专 谞注讜专 讛讬砖谉 讬砖谉 讛谞注讜专 谞诪讜拽 讜讛讜诇讱 诇讜 转谞讗 讗诐 砖谞讬讛诐 讬砖谞讬诐 讗讜 砖谞讬讛诐 谞注讜专讬诐 诪讬讚 诪转

and the lungs draw all kinds of liquids, the liver becomes angry, the gall bladder injects a drop of gall into the liver and allays anger, the spleen laughs, the maw grinds the food, and the stomach brings sleep, the nose awakens. If they reversed roles such that the organ which brings on sleep were to awaken, or the organ which awakens were to bring on sleep, the individual would gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If both bring on sleep or both awaken, the person immediately dies.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讗讜诪专 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讬爪专 讟讜讘 砖讜驻讟谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讘讬 讞诇诇 讘拽专讘讬 专砖注讬诐 讬爪专 专注 砖讜驻讟谉 砖谞讗诪专 谞讗诐 驻砖注 诇专砖注 讘拽专讘 诇讘讬 讗讬谉 驻讞讚 讗诇讛讬诐 诇谞讙讚 注讬谞讬讜 讘讬谞讜谞讬诐 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜驻讟谉 砖谞讗诪专 讬注诪讚 诇讬诪讬谉 讗讘讬讜谉 诇讛讜砖讬注 诪砖驻讟讬 谞驻砖讜

With regard to one鈥檚 inclinations, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd my heart is dead within me鈥 (Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The evil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: 鈥淭ransgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes鈥 (Psalms 36:2). Middling people are ruled by both the good and evil inclinations, as it is stated: 鈥淏ecause He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul鈥 (Psalms 109:31).

讗诪专 专讘讛 讻讙讜谉 讗谞讜 讘讬谞讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 砖讘讬拽 诪专 讞讬讬 诇讻诇 讘专讬讛

Rabba said: People like us are middling. Abaye, his student and nephew, said to him: If the Master claims that he is merely middling, he does not leave room for any creature to live. If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 讗讬讘专讬 注诇诪讗 讗诇讗 诇专砖讬注讬 讙诪讜专讬 讗讜 诇爪讚讬拽讬 讙诪讜专讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讬讚注 讗讬谞砖 讘谞驻砖讬讛 讗诐 爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讛讜讗 讗诐 诇讗讜 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 讗讬讘专讬 注诇诪讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讞讗讘 讘谉 注诪专讬 讜诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 诇讗讞讗讘 讘谉 注诪专讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗:

And Rava said: The world was created only for the sake of the full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous; others do not live complete lives in either world. Rava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous, as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. Rav said: The world was only created for the wicked Ahab ben Omri and for Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa. The Gemara explains: For Ahab ben Omri, this world was created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, and for Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa, the World-to-Come was created.

讜讗讛讘转 讗转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱: 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗诐 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 诇诪讛 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪讗讚讱 讜讗诐 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪讗讚讱 诇诪讛 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讗诇讗 讗诐 讬砖 诇讱 讗讚诐 砖讙讜驻讜 讞讘讬讘 注诇讬讜 诪诪诪讜谞讜 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讜讗诐 讬砖 诇讱 讗讚诐 砖诪诪讜谞讜 讞讘讬讘 注诇讬讜 诪讙讜驻讜 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪讗讚讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讜讟诇 讗转 谞驻砖讱

We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and all your soul and all your might鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: 鈥淲ith all your soul,鈥 why does it state: 鈥淲ith all your might鈥? Conversely, if it stated: 鈥淲ith all your might,鈥 why does it state: 鈥淲ith all your soul鈥? Rather, this means that if one鈥檚 body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: 鈥淲ith all your soul鈥; one must give his soul in sanctification of God. And if one鈥檚 money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: 鈥淲ith all your might鈥; with all your assets. Rabbi Akiva says: 鈥淲ith all your soul鈥 means: Even if God takes your soul.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖诇讗 讬注住拽讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘转讜专讛 讘讗 驻驻讜住 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诪爪讗讜 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讛讬讛 诪拽讛讬诇 拽讛诇讜转 讘专讘讬诐 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注拽讬讘讗 讗讬 讗转讛 诪转讬专讗 诪驻谞讬 诪诇讻讜转

The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. The Sages taught: One time, after the bar Kokheva rebellion, the evil empire of Rome decreed that Israel may not engage in the study and practice of Torah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torah study. Pappos said to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire?

讗诪专 诇讜 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇砖讜注诇 砖讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 注诇 讙讘 讛谞讛专 讜专讗讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讛讬讜 诪转拽讘爪讬诐 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转诐 讘讜专讞讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 专砖转讜转 砖诪讘讬讗讬谉 注诇讬谞讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专爪讜谞讻诐 砖转注诇讜 诇讬讘砖讛 讜谞讚讜专 讗谞讬 讜讗转诐 讻砖诐 砖讚专讜 讗讘讜转讬 注诐 讗讘讜转讬讻诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗转讛 讛讜讗 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇讬讱 驻拽讞 砖讘讞讬讜转 诇讗 驻拽讞 讗转讛 讗诇讗 讟驻砖 讗转讛 讜诪讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讞讬讜转谞讜 讗谞讜 诪转讬专讗讬谉 讘诪拽讜诐 诪讬转转谞讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讗祝 讗谞讞谞讜 注讻砖讬讜 砖讗谞讜 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讜注讜住拽讬诐 讘转讜专讛 砖讻转讜讘 讘讛 讻讬 讛讜讗 讞讬讬讱 讜讗专讱 讬诪讬讱 讻讱 讗诐 讗谞讜 讛讜诇讻讬诐 讜诪讘讟诇讬诐 诪诪谞讛 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Rabbi Akiva answered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared? It is like a fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gathering and fleeing from place to place.
The fox said to them: From what are you fleeing?
They said to him: We are fleeing from the nets that people cast upon us.
He said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors?
The fish said to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid in the water, our natural habitat which gives us life, then in a habitat that causes our death, all the more so.
The moral is: So too, we Jews, now that we sit and engage in Torah study, about which it is written: 鈥淔or that is your life, and the length of your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire to this extent; if we proceed to sit idle from its study, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, all the more so will we fear the empire.

讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 注讚 砖转驻住讜讛讜 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讞讘砖讜讛讜 讘讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬诐 讜转驻住讜 诇驻驻讜住 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讘砖讜讛讜 讗爪诇讜 讗诪专 诇讜 驻驻讜住 诪讬 讛讘讬讗讱 诇讻讗谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖专讬讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖谞转驻住转 注诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇驻驻讜住 砖谞转驻住 注诇 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐

The Sages said: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Pappos, who brought you here? Pappos replied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested on the charge of engaging in Torah study. Woe unto Pappos who was seized on the charge of engaging in idle matters.

讘砖注讛 砖讛讜爪讬讗讜 讗转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讛专讬讙讛 讝诪谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讛讬讛 讜讛讬讜 住讜专拽讬诐 讗转 讘砖专讜 讘诪住专拽讜转 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜讛讬讛 诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 专讘讬谞讜 注讚 讻讗谉 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻诇 讬诪讬 讛讬讬转讬 诪爪讟注专 注诇 驻住讜拽 讝讛 讘讻诇 谞驻砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讜讟诇 讗转 谞砖诪转讱 讗诪专转讬 诪转讬 讬讘讗 诇讬讚讬 讜讗拽讬讬诪谞讜 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖讘讗 诇讬讚讬 诇讗 讗拽讬讬诪谞讜 讛讬讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘讗讞讚 注讚 砖讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转讜 讘讗讞讚 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 讗砖专讬讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讬爪讗讛 谞砖诪转讱 讘讗讞讚

The Gemara relates: When they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of Shema. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he was reciting Shema, thereby accepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now, as you suffer, you recite Shema? He said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul, meaning: Even if God takes your soul. I said to myself: When will the opportunity be afforded me to fulfill this verse? Now that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolonged his uttering of the word: One, until his soul left his body as he uttered his final word: One. A voice descended from heaven and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul left your body as you uttered: One.

讗诪专讜 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝讜 转讜专讛 讜讝讜 砖讻专讛 诪诪转讬诐 讬讚讱 讛壮 诪诪转讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讞诇拽诐 讘讞讬讬诐 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 讗砖专讬讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讗转讛 诪讝讜诪谉 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗:

The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward? As it is stated: 鈥淔rom death, by Your hand, O Lord, from death of the world鈥 (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God said the end of the verse to the ministering angels: 鈥淲hose portion is in this life.鈥 And then a Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come, as your portion is already in eternal life.

诇讗 讬拽诇 讗讚诐 讗转 专讗砖讜 讻谞讙讚 砖注专 讛诪讝专讞 砖讛讜讗 诪讻讜讜谉 讻谞讙讚 讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛爪讜驻讬诐 讜诇驻谞讬诐 讜讘专讜讗讛 讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛爪讜驻讬诐 讜诇驻谞讬诐 讜讘专讜讗讛 讜讘砖讗讬谉 讙讚专 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛

We learned in the mishna that one may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies. Limiting this halakha, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They only said this halakha with regard to irreverent behavior from Mount Scopus [Tzofim] and within, and specifically areas from where one can see the Temple. It is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yo岣nan said the following: They only said this halakha with regard to Mount Scopus and within, when one can see, and when there is no fence obstructing his view, and when the Divine Presence is resting there, i.e., when the Temple is standing.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讬驻谞讛 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜讘讙诇讬诇 诇讗 讬驻谞讛 讗诇讗 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 砖讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讗住专讜 讗诇讗 讘专讜讗讛 讜讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 砖诐 讙讚专 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜住专讬诐

In this context, the Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecate when facing east and west, for then he is facing Jerusalem; rather he should do so facing north and south. But in the Galilee which is north of Jerusalem, one should only defecate facing east and west. Rabbi Yosei permits doing so, as Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibited doing so when one can see the Temple, where there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is resting there. And the Rabbis prohibit doing so.

讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 爪讚讚讬谉

The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the Rabbis, who prohibit this, is identical to that of the first anonymous tanna, who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference between them is with regard to the sides, i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first tanna, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讬驻谞讛 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜讘讙诇讬诇 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讗住讜专 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 诪讜转专 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 砖讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讗住专讜 讗诇讗 讘专讜讗讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讝诪谉 砖讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 讗住讜专 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讜转专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜住专 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐

It was taught in another baraita: One who defecates in Judea should not defecate when facing east and west; rather, he should only do so facing north and south. And in the Galilee, defecating while facing north and south is prohibited, while east and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitted doing so, as Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibited doing so when one can see the Temple. Rabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited, but when the Temple is not standing, it is permitted. The Gemara adds that Rabbi Akiva prohibits defecating anywhere while facing east and west.

专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讞讜抓 诇讗专抓

The Gemara challenges this: Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 position is identical to that of the first, anonymous tanna, who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference between them is with regard to places outside of Eretz Yisrael, as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.

专讘讛 讛讜讜 砖讚讬讬谉 诇讬讛 诇讘谞讬 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗讝诇 讗讘讬讬 砖讚谞讛讜 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 注诇 专讘讛 转专爪谞讛讜 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讛讗讬 讚拽诪爪注专 诇讬 讗谞讗 讻专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住讘讬专讗 诇讬 讚讗诪专 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讗住讜专:

The Gemara relates that in Rabba鈥檚 bathroom, the bricks were placed east and west in order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. Abaye went and placed them north and south, to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. Rabba entered and fixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: It is prohibited everywhere.

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