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December 4, 2021 | ל׳ בכסלו תשפ״ב | TODAY'S DAF: Taanit 22 - Shabbat December 4

Today's Daf Yomi

March 5, 2020 | ט׳ באדר תש״פ

Berakhot 62

There were rabbis who would follow their teachers into the bathroom or hide under their beds to learn from their rabbis how to act in the bathroom or when having sex. Some were critical of this behavior to which they retorted, “It is Torah and I need to learn it!” People were sacred of demons in the outhouses. What did they do to protect themselves? One needs to be act modestly in the bathroom also. It is told of King Saul that acted modestly in the bathroom and that is why David didn’t kill him when he came upon him in the cave. The gemara extrapolates other verses in that story and from there gets to the story of when David did a census by counting the people and not by using money (as commanded in the Torah) and explains why David made a mistake why when God brought the plague, he stopped it soon after. What is forbidden to do on the Temple Mount? What from that list can be done in a synogogue? Why is there a difference? Instead of saying amen in the Temple, they would say the verse “baruch shem kevod…”

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

תניא אמר רבי עקיבא פעם אחת נכנסתי אחר רבי יהושע לבית הכסא ולמדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נפנין מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ולמדתי שאין נפרעין מעומד אלא מיושב ולמדתי שאין מקנחין בימין אלא בשמאל אמר ליה בן עזאי עד כאן העזת פניך ברבך אמר ליה תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך

It was taught in a baraita in tractate Derekh Eretz that Rabbi Akiva said: I once entered the bathroom after my teacher Rabbi Yehoshua, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting, in the interest of modesty; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Ben Azzai, a student of Rabbi Akiva, said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent that you observed that much? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

תניא בן עזאי אומר פעם אחת נכנסתי אחר רבי עקיבא לבית הכסא ולמדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נפנין מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ולמדתי שאין נפרעין מעומד אלא מיושב ולמדתי שאין מקנחין בימין אלא בשמאל אמר לו רבי יהודה עד כאן העזת פניך ברבך אמר לו תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך

Similarly, we learned in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: I once entered a bathroom after Rabbi Akiva, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

רב כהנא על גנא תותיה פורייה דרב שמעיה דשח ושחק ועשה צרכיו אמר ליה דמי פומיה דאבא כדלא שריף תבשילא אמר לו כהנא הכא את פוק דלאו ארח ארעא אמר לו תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך

On a similar note, the Gemara relates that Rav Kahana entered and lay beneath Rav’s bed. He heard Rav chatting and laughing with his wife, and seeing to his needs, i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana said to Rav: The mouth of Abba, Rav, is like one whom has never eaten a cooked dish, i.e., his behavior was lustful. Rav said to him: Kahana, you are here? Leave, as this is an undesirable mode of behavior. Rav Kahana said to him: It is Torah, and I must learn.

מפני מה אין מקנחין בימין אלא בשמאל אמר רבא מפני שהתורה ניתנה בימין שנאמר מימינו אש דת למו רבה בר בר חנה אמר מפני שהיא קרובה לפה ורבי שמעון בן לקיש אמר מפני שקושר בה תפילין רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שמראה בה טעמי תורה

The Gemara asks: Why must one not wipe himself with his right hand, but with his left? Rava said: Because the Torah was given with the right hand, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law unto them” (Deuteronomy 33:2). Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: Because the right hand is close to the mouth, i.e., people eat with the right hand. And Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Because one ties the phylacteries onto his left hand with his right hand. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Because one points to the cantillation notes of the Torah with his right hand.

כתנאי רבי אליעזר אומר מפני שאוכל בה רבי יהושע אומר מפני שכותב בה רבי עקיבא אומר מפני שמראה בה טעמי תורה

The Gemara notes that this is parallel to a tannaitic dispute: Rabbi Eliezer says: One is forbidden to wipe himself with his right hand because he eats with it. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Because he writes with it. Rabbi Akiva says: Because he points to the notes of the Torah with it.

אמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי כל הצנוע בבית הכסא נצול משלשה דברים מן הנחשים ומן העקרבים ומן המזיקין ויש אומרים אף חלומותיו מיושבים עליו

Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai said: Anyone who is modest in the bathroom will be saved from three things: From snakes, from scorpions and from demons. And some say that even his dreams will be settling for him.

ההוא בית הכסא דהוה בטבריא כי הוו עיילי ביה בי תרי אפילו ביממא מתזקי רבי אמי ורבי אסי הוו עיילי ביה חד וחד לחודיה ולא מתזקי אמרי להו רבנן לא מסתפיתו אמרי להו אנן קבלה גמירינן קבלה דבית הכסא צניעותא ושתיקותא קבלה דיסורי שתיקותא ומבעי רחמי

The Gemara relates: There was a particular bathroom in the city of Tiberias, where, when two would enter it, even during the day, they would be harmed by demons. When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would each enter alone, they were not harmed. The Sages said to them: Aren’t you afraid? Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi said to them: We have learned through tradition: The tradition to avoid danger in the bathroom is to conduct oneself with modesty and silence. The tradition to end suffering is with silence and prayer.

אביי מרביא ליה אמיה אמרא למיעל בהדיה לבית הכסא ולרביא ליה גדיא שעיר בשעיר מיחלף

Because fear of demons in bathrooms was pervasive, the Gemara relates: Abaye’s mother raised a lamb to accompany him to the bathroom. The Gemara objects: She should have raised a goat for him. The Gemara responds: A goat could be interchanged with a goat-demon. Since both the demon and the goat are called sa’ir, they were afraid to bring a goat to a place frequented by demons.

רבא מקמי דהוה רישא מקרקשא ליה בת רב חסדא אמגוזא בלקנא בתר דמלך עבדא ליה כוותא ומנחא ליה ידא ארישיה

Before Rava became the head of the yeshiva, his wife, the daughter of Rav Ḥisda, would rattle a nut in a copper vessel for him. This was in order to fend off demons when he was in the bathroom. After he was chosen to preside as head of the yeshiva, he required an additional degree of protection, so she constructed a window for him, opposite where he would defecate, and placed her hand upon his head.

אמר עולא אחורי הגדר נפנה מיד ובבקעה כל זמן שמתעטש ואין חברו שומע איסי בר נתן מתני הכי אחורי הגדר כל זמן שמתעטש ואין חברו שומע ובבקעה כל זמן שאין חברו רואהו

With regard to where one may or may not go to defecate, Ulla said: Behind a fence, one need not distance himself from people and may defecate immediately. In a valley or open field, one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind, no one will hear him. Isi bar Natan taught as follows: Behind a fence one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind another does not hear him, and in a valley, one must distance himself sufficiently so that no one can see him.

מיתיבי יוצאין מפתח בית הבד ונפנין לאחורי הגדר והן טהורין

The Gemara raises an objection based on what we learned in a mishna in Teharot: Physical laborers, who usually fall into the category of am ha’aretz and are not generally cautious with regard to the laws of ritual purity, exit from the entrance of the olive press, defecate behind the fence, and are ritually pure. There is no reason to be concerned that they might become impure in the interim. This indicates that a greater distance is unnecessary.

בטהרות הקלו

The Gemara responds: With regard to the laws of ritual purity, they were lenient. To ensure maintenance of purity, they were lenient and did not require a greater distance.

תא שמע כמה ירחקו ויהיו טהורין כדי שיהא רואהו שאני אוכלי טהרות דאקילו בהו רבנן

Come and hear from what we learned: How far may workers distance themselves, and the fruit and oil will remain pure? They may distance themselves only so far that he still sees him. This contradicts the opinion of Isi bar Natan, who required them to distance themselves sufficiently that they may not be seen. The Gemara responds: Those who eat in purity are different, as the Sages were lenient with them.

רב אשי אמר מאי כל זמן שאין חברו רואה דקאמר איסי בר נתן כל זמן שאין חברו רואה את פרועו אבל לדידיה חזי ליה

Rav Ashi said: What is the meaning of: So long as another does not see him, which was the standard that Isi bar Natan said? Sufficient that another person cannot see his nakedness, although he does see him.

ההוא ספדנא דנחית קמיה דרב נחמן אמר האי צנוע באורחותיו הוה אמר ליה רב נחמן את עיילת בהדיה לבית הכסא וידעת אי צנוע אי לא דתניא אין קורין צנוע אלא למי שצנוע בבית הכסא

The Gemara relates: There was a particular eulogizer who went to eulogize an important person in the presence of Rav Naḥman. Of the deceased, he said: This man was modest in his ways. Rav Naḥman said to him: Did you go to the bathroom with him and know whether or not he was modest? As we learned in a baraita: One can only describe as modest one who is modest even in the bathroom, when no one else is there.

ורב נחמן מאי נפקא ליה מיניה משום דתניא כשם שנפרעין מן המתים כך נפרעין מן הספדנין ומן העונין אחריהן

The Gemara asks: And what difference did it make to Rav Naḥman, that he was so insistent upon the details of whether or not this man was modest? The Gemara answers: Because it was taught in a baraita: Just as the deceased are punished, so too are the eulogizers and those who answer after them.The deceased are punished for transgressions committed in their lifetimes. The eulogizers and those who answer are punished for accepting the attribution of virtues that the deceased did not possess.

תנו רבנן איזהו צנוע זה הנפנה בלילה במקום שנפנה ביום

The Sages taught in a baraita: Who is a modest person? One who defecates at night where he defecates during the day, i.e., who distances himself at night, in order to relieve himself, no less than he distances himself during the day.

איני והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ינהיג אדם את עצמו שחרית וערבית כדי שלא יהא צריך להתרחק ותו רבא ביממא הוה אזיל עד מיל ובליליא אמר ליה לשמעיה פנו לי דוכתא ברחובא דמתא וכן אמר ליה רבי זירא לשמעיה חזי מאן דאיכא אחורי בית חבריא דבעינא למפני לא תימא במקום אלא אימא כדרך שנפנה ביום

The Gemara challenges: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Yehuda say that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate in the morning and at night, when it is dark, so that he will not need to distance himself? Moreover, during the day, Rava would go up to a mil outside the city, and at night he would tell his servant: Clear a place for me in the city street. And so too, Rabbi Zeira told his servant: See who is behind the study hall, as I need to defecate. These Sages did not defecate at night in the same place where they defecated during the day. Rather, emend the statement and say as follows: In the manner that one defecates during the day, i.e. he should conduct himself at night with the same degree of modesty with which he removes his clothing when defecating during the day.

רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא במקום לא נצרכה אלא לקרן זוית

Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that the text can remain as it was: Where he defecates during the day, it was only necessary in the case of a corner, where one may conceal himself. In the interest of modesty, he should go around the corner at night, just as he does during the day.

גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ינהיג אדם את עצמו שחרית וערבית כדי שלא יהא צריך להתרחק

The Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate early in the morning and late at night so that he will not need to distance himself.

תניא נמי הכי בן עזאי אומר השכם וצא הערב וצא כדי שלא תתרחק משמש ושב ואל תשב ותמשמש שכל היושב וממשמש אפילו עושין כשפים באספמיא באין עליו

That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: Rise early in the morning and go defecate, wait for evening and go defecate, so that you will not need to distance yourself. He also said: Touch around the anus first to assist in the opening of orifices and then sit; do not sit and then touch, for anyone who sits and then touches, even if sorcery is performed in a distant place like Aspamia, the sorcery will come upon him.

ואי אנשי ויתיב ואחר כך משמש מאי תקנתיה כי קאי לימא הכי לא לי לא לי לא תחים ולא תחתים לא הני ולא מהני לא חרשי דחרשא ולא חרשי דחרשתא

The Gemara says: And if one forgets and sits and then touches, what is his remedy? When he stands, he should recite the following incantation: Not for me, not for me, neither taḥim nor taḥtim, types of sorcery, neither these nor from these, neither the sorcery of a sorcerer nor the sorcery of a sorceress.

תניא בן עזאי אומר על כל משכב שכב חוץ מן הקרקע על כל מושב שב חוץ מן הקורה אמר שמואל שינה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא יציאה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא

Continuing with the subject of health, it was taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam, lest you fall off. Shmuel said: Sleeping at dawn is as effective as forging [istema] is to iron. A bowel movement at dawn is as beneficial as forging is to iron.

בר קפרא הוה מזבן מילי בדינרי עד דכפנת אכול עד דצחית שתי עד דרתחא קדרך שפוך קרנא קריא ברומי בר מזבין תאני תאני דאבוך זבין

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Bar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars; he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: If you are hungry, eat; do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, if you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour it out before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: When the horn is sounded in Rome, signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, son of a fig seller, sell your father’s figs, even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity.

אמר להו אביי לרבנן כי עייליתו בשבילי דמחוזא למיפק ביה בחקלא לא תחזו לא להך גיסא ולא להך גיסא דלמא יתבי נשי ולאו אורח ארעא לאסתכולי בהו

Abaye said to the Sages: When you enter the paths of the city of Meḥoza in order to go out and defecate in a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them.

רב ספרא על לבית הכסא אתא רבי אבא נחר ליה אבבא אמר ליה ליעול מר בתר דנפק אמר ליה עד השתא לא עיילת לשעיר וגמרת לך מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד וזה היה כבודו מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם מצאו פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם אלמא לאו אורח ארעא הוא

The Gemara relates: Rav Safra once entered a bathroom, when Rabbi Abba came along. To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba coughed next to the door. Rav Safra said to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir, the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, and yet you already learned the customs of Seir? Didn’t we learn in the mishna concerning the Temple: There was a fire next to the ritual bath, and a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside; if he found it open, it was known that no one was inside. Speaking in the bathroom is not a desired mode of behavior.

והוא סבר מסוכן הוא דתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון

The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra held that it was dangerous for Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A column of feces that is held back because one cannot relieve himself causes dropsy [hidrokan]. A stream [silon] of urine that is held back causes jaundice.

רבי אלעזר על לבית הכסא אתא ההוא רומאה דחקיה קם רבי אלעזר ונפק אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה קרי עליה רבי אלעזר ואתן אדם תחתיך אל תקרי אדם אלא אדום:

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed him away. Rabbi Elazar stood and left, and a serpent came and ripped out the intestines of the Roman. Rabbi Elazar recited the following verse about the Roman: “Therefore I will give man [adam] for you” (Isaiah 43:4); do not read it as adam, but rather read it as Edom, meaning a Roman.

ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך

With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: “Behold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, and he said to kill you; and you spared you” (I Samuel 24:10).

ואמר ואמרתי מיבעי ליה ותחס וחסתי מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו דוד לשאול מן התורה בן הריגה אתה שהרי רודף אתה והתורה אמרה בא להרגך השכם להרגו אלא צניעות שהיתה בך היא חסה עליך

The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: And he said? It should say: And I said. Why does the verse say: And you spared? It should say: And I spared. Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuer who seeks to kill me, and the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you.

ומאי היא דכתיב ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו תנא גדר לפנים מן גדר ומערה לפנים ממערה להסך אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שסיכך עצמו כסוכה:

And what is this modesty? As it is written: “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet, to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave” (I Samuel 24:3). It was taught that the Sages said: There was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave, and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, to cover his feet, Rabbi Elazar said: This teaches that, even there, he covered himself with his garment like a sukka.

ויקם דוד ויכרת את כנף המעיל אשר לשאול בלט אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא כל המבזה את הבגדים סוף אינו נהנה מהם שנאמר והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו:

The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: “Then David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul’s robe privily” (I Samuel 24:4). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt, like David who tore Saul’s robe for no reason, will be punished in that ultimately he will not benefit from his garments, as it is stated: “Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat” (I Kings 1:1).

אם ה׳ הסיתך בי ירח מנחה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקדוש ברוך הוא לדוד מסית קרית לי הרי אני מכשילך בדבר שאפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעים אותו דכתיב כי תשא את ראש בני ישראל לפקדיהם ונתנו איש כפר נפשו וגו׳ מיד ויעמד שטן על ישראל וכתיב ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר לך מנה את ישראל וכיון דמנינהו לא שקל מינייהו כופר דכתיב ויתן ה׳ דבר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד

As for David’s statement to Saul: “If it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering” (I Samuel 26:19), Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter? In retribution, I will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: “When you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them” (Exodus 30:12). Immediately after God said this to David, “Satan stood up against Israel and incited David to number Israel” (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, it is written: “And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea” (II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David’s calling God an inciter was that He incited David. And when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them, and he was punished, as it is written: “So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time” (II Samuel 24:15).

מאי עת מועד אמר שמואל סבא חתניה דרבי חנינא משמיה דרבי חנינא משעת שחיטת התמיד עד שעת זריקתו רבי יוחנן אמר עד חצות ממש:

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: It means from when the daily offering is slaughtered until when its blood is sprinkled. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It means precisely until noon.

ויאמר למלאך המשחית בעם רב אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקדוש ברוך הוא למלאך טול לי רב שבהם שיש בו ליפרע מהם כמה חובות באותה שעה מת אבישי בן צרויה ששקול כרובה של סנהדרין:

It is also stated there: “The Lord repented Him of the evil and said to the angel that destroyed the many [rav] people: It is enough; now stay your hand” (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word rav, Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [rav] from among them, who is worthy of defraying several of Israel’s debts. As a result, at that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died. His death atoned for the entire nation.

ובהשחית ראה ה׳ וינחם מאי ראה

On a parallel note, it is said: “The Lord beheld, and He repented him of the evil” (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: What did the Lord behold?

אמר רב ראה יעקב אבינו דכתיב ויאמר יעקב כאשר ראם ושמואל אמר אפרו של יצחק ראה שנאמר אלהים יראה לו השה

Rav said: He saw and remembered the patriarch, Jacob, about whom the term seeing is used: “And Jacob said when he saw them [ra’am]: This is God’s camp” (Genesis 32:3). And Shmuel said: He saw and remembered Isaac’s ashes, as it is said in the portion of the binding of Isaac: “God will provide [yireh] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering” (Genesis 22:8).

רבי יצחק נפחא אמר כסף כפורים ראה שנאמר ולקחת את כסף הכפורים מאת בני ישראל וגו׳ רבי יוחנן אמר בית המקדש ראה דכתיב בהר ה׳ יראה

Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: He saw the money of atonement that Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, as it is stated: “And you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls” (Exodus 30:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: “On the mount where the Lord is seen [yera’e]” (Genesis 22:14).

פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כסף הכפורים ראה וחד אמר בית המקדש ראה ומסתברא כמאן דאמר בית המקדש ראה שנאמר אשר יאמר היום בהר ה׳ יראה:

Additional amora’im, Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, differed in their opinions of what God saw. One said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And it stands to reason like the one who says that he saw the Temple, as it is stated: “And Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; as it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen” (Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.

לא יכנס אדם להר הבית במקלו וכו׳: מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה ורב חנא בר אדא משמיה דרב סמא בריה דרב מרי אמר כמאן דאמר אינש אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הנכנס לבית הכנסת על מנת שלא לעשותו קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא

We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, a person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staff and his shoes. He may not make it a kappandarya. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kappandarya? Rava said: Kappandarya, as its name implies; a shortcut. Rav Ḥana bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said: One may interpret this as an acrostic, as people say: Instead of circumventing the rows of houses [ademakifna adarei], I will enter this [ei’ol beha] one. Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This halakha applies in a synagogue as well. However, one who enters a synagogue not intending to make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcut if he later changed his mind.

רבי אבהו אמר אם היה שביל מעיקרו מותר אמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנאמר ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה׳ במועדים וגו׳:

Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a path that passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, one is permitted to pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: “But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9).

ורקיקה מקל וחומר: אמר רב ביבי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל הרוקק בהר הבית בזמן הזה כאילו רוקק בבת עינו שנאמר והיו עיני ולבי שם כל הימים

We learned in the mishna that spitting on the Temple Mount is prohibited through an a fortiori inference. Rav Beivai said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount, even today, it is as if he spit in the pupil of God’s eye, as it is stated: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually” (I Kings 9:3).

אמר רבא רקיקה בבית הכנסת שריא מידי דהוה אמנעל מה מנעל בהר הבית אסור בבית הכנסת מותר אף רקיקה בהר הבית הוא דאסור בבית הכנסת שרי

Rava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue.

אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא ואמרי לה רבינא לרבא ואמרי לה רב אדא בר מתנא לרבא אדיליף ממנעל נילף מקפנדריא

Rav Pappa said to Rava, and some say that Ravina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of deriving this from the case of wearing a shoe, derive it from the case of a shortcut. Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.

אמר ליה תנא יליף ממנעל ואת אמרת מקפנדריא מאי היא דתניא לא יכנס אדם להר הבית לא במקלו שבידו ולא במנעלו שברגלו ולא במעות הצרורים לו בסדינו ובפונדתו מופשלת לאחוריו ולא יעשנה קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר ממנעל ומה מנעל שאין בו דרך בזיון אמרה תורה של נעליך מעל רגליך רקיקה שהיא דרך בזיון לא כל שכן

Rava said to him: The tanna derives the prohibition of spitting from the case of a shoe, and you say that it should be derived from the case of a shortcut? The Gemara elaborates: What is this derivation from the case of a shoe? As it was taught in a baraita: One may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, nor should one make it a shortcut. All the more so, spitting is prohibited a fortiori from the halakha with regard to wearing a shoe. Just as with regard to a shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: “Put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5), all the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous, should be prohibited.

רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כי אין לבוא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה שק שאינו מאוס לפני בשר ודם כך רקיקה שהיא מאוסה לפני מלך מלכי המלכים לא כל שכן

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This a fortiori inference is unnecessary. It could be otherwise derived. It says: “For none may enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth” (Esther 4:2). This matter can be inferred a fortiori: Just as sackcloth, which is generally not considered repulsive before one who is flesh and blood, is forbidden within the king’s gate, all the more so spitting, which is repulsive, should be forbidden before the King of Kings.

אמר ליה אנא הכי קאמינא נימא הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא

The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, said to Rava: I intended to say the following: Let us say, be stringent here, with regard to the Temple Mount, and be stringent here, with regard to the synagogue,

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Berakhot 62

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Berakhot 62

תניא אמר רבי עקיבא פעם אחת נכנסתי אחר רבי יהושע לבית הכסא ולמדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נפנין מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ולמדתי שאין נפרעין מעומד אלא מיושב ולמדתי שאין מקנחין בימין אלא בשמאל אמר ליה בן עזאי עד כאן העזת פניך ברבך אמר ליה תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך

It was taught in a baraita in tractate Derekh Eretz that Rabbi Akiva said: I once entered the bathroom after my teacher Rabbi Yehoshua, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting, in the interest of modesty; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Ben Azzai, a student of Rabbi Akiva, said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent that you observed that much? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

תניא בן עזאי אומר פעם אחת נכנסתי אחר רבי עקיבא לבית הכסא ולמדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נפנין מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ולמדתי שאין נפרעין מעומד אלא מיושב ולמדתי שאין מקנחין בימין אלא בשמאל אמר לו רבי יהודה עד כאן העזת פניך ברבך אמר לו תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך

Similarly, we learned in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: I once entered a bathroom after Rabbi Akiva, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

רב כהנא על גנא תותיה פורייה דרב שמעיה דשח ושחק ועשה צרכיו אמר ליה דמי פומיה דאבא כדלא שריף תבשילא אמר לו כהנא הכא את פוק דלאו ארח ארעא אמר לו תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך

On a similar note, the Gemara relates that Rav Kahana entered and lay beneath Rav’s bed. He heard Rav chatting and laughing with his wife, and seeing to his needs, i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana said to Rav: The mouth of Abba, Rav, is like one whom has never eaten a cooked dish, i.e., his behavior was lustful. Rav said to him: Kahana, you are here? Leave, as this is an undesirable mode of behavior. Rav Kahana said to him: It is Torah, and I must learn.

מפני מה אין מקנחין בימין אלא בשמאל אמר רבא מפני שהתורה ניתנה בימין שנאמר מימינו אש דת למו רבה בר בר חנה אמר מפני שהיא קרובה לפה ורבי שמעון בן לקיש אמר מפני שקושר בה תפילין רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שמראה בה טעמי תורה

The Gemara asks: Why must one not wipe himself with his right hand, but with his left? Rava said: Because the Torah was given with the right hand, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law unto them” (Deuteronomy 33:2). Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: Because the right hand is close to the mouth, i.e., people eat with the right hand. And Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Because one ties the phylacteries onto his left hand with his right hand. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Because one points to the cantillation notes of the Torah with his right hand.

כתנאי רבי אליעזר אומר מפני שאוכל בה רבי יהושע אומר מפני שכותב בה רבי עקיבא אומר מפני שמראה בה טעמי תורה

The Gemara notes that this is parallel to a tannaitic dispute: Rabbi Eliezer says: One is forbidden to wipe himself with his right hand because he eats with it. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Because he writes with it. Rabbi Akiva says: Because he points to the notes of the Torah with it.

אמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי כל הצנוע בבית הכסא נצול משלשה דברים מן הנחשים ומן העקרבים ומן המזיקין ויש אומרים אף חלומותיו מיושבים עליו

Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai said: Anyone who is modest in the bathroom will be saved from three things: From snakes, from scorpions and from demons. And some say that even his dreams will be settling for him.

ההוא בית הכסא דהוה בטבריא כי הוו עיילי ביה בי תרי אפילו ביממא מתזקי רבי אמי ורבי אסי הוו עיילי ביה חד וחד לחודיה ולא מתזקי אמרי להו רבנן לא מסתפיתו אמרי להו אנן קבלה גמירינן קבלה דבית הכסא צניעותא ושתיקותא קבלה דיסורי שתיקותא ומבעי רחמי

The Gemara relates: There was a particular bathroom in the city of Tiberias, where, when two would enter it, even during the day, they would be harmed by demons. When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would each enter alone, they were not harmed. The Sages said to them: Aren’t you afraid? Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi said to them: We have learned through tradition: The tradition to avoid danger in the bathroom is to conduct oneself with modesty and silence. The tradition to end suffering is with silence and prayer.

אביי מרביא ליה אמיה אמרא למיעל בהדיה לבית הכסא ולרביא ליה גדיא שעיר בשעיר מיחלף

Because fear of demons in bathrooms was pervasive, the Gemara relates: Abaye’s mother raised a lamb to accompany him to the bathroom. The Gemara objects: She should have raised a goat for him. The Gemara responds: A goat could be interchanged with a goat-demon. Since both the demon and the goat are called sa’ir, they were afraid to bring a goat to a place frequented by demons.

רבא מקמי דהוה רישא מקרקשא ליה בת רב חסדא אמגוזא בלקנא בתר דמלך עבדא ליה כוותא ומנחא ליה ידא ארישיה

Before Rava became the head of the yeshiva, his wife, the daughter of Rav Ḥisda, would rattle a nut in a copper vessel for him. This was in order to fend off demons when he was in the bathroom. After he was chosen to preside as head of the yeshiva, he required an additional degree of protection, so she constructed a window for him, opposite where he would defecate, and placed her hand upon his head.

אמר עולא אחורי הגדר נפנה מיד ובבקעה כל זמן שמתעטש ואין חברו שומע איסי בר נתן מתני הכי אחורי הגדר כל זמן שמתעטש ואין חברו שומע ובבקעה כל זמן שאין חברו רואהו

With regard to where one may or may not go to defecate, Ulla said: Behind a fence, one need not distance himself from people and may defecate immediately. In a valley or open field, one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind, no one will hear him. Isi bar Natan taught as follows: Behind a fence one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind another does not hear him, and in a valley, one must distance himself sufficiently so that no one can see him.

מיתיבי יוצאין מפתח בית הבד ונפנין לאחורי הגדר והן טהורין

The Gemara raises an objection based on what we learned in a mishna in Teharot: Physical laborers, who usually fall into the category of am ha’aretz and are not generally cautious with regard to the laws of ritual purity, exit from the entrance of the olive press, defecate behind the fence, and are ritually pure. There is no reason to be concerned that they might become impure in the interim. This indicates that a greater distance is unnecessary.

בטהרות הקלו

The Gemara responds: With regard to the laws of ritual purity, they were lenient. To ensure maintenance of purity, they were lenient and did not require a greater distance.

תא שמע כמה ירחקו ויהיו טהורין כדי שיהא רואהו שאני אוכלי טהרות דאקילו בהו רבנן

Come and hear from what we learned: How far may workers distance themselves, and the fruit and oil will remain pure? They may distance themselves only so far that he still sees him. This contradicts the opinion of Isi bar Natan, who required them to distance themselves sufficiently that they may not be seen. The Gemara responds: Those who eat in purity are different, as the Sages were lenient with them.

רב אשי אמר מאי כל זמן שאין חברו רואה דקאמר איסי בר נתן כל זמן שאין חברו רואה את פרועו אבל לדידיה חזי ליה

Rav Ashi said: What is the meaning of: So long as another does not see him, which was the standard that Isi bar Natan said? Sufficient that another person cannot see his nakedness, although he does see him.

ההוא ספדנא דנחית קמיה דרב נחמן אמר האי צנוע באורחותיו הוה אמר ליה רב נחמן את עיילת בהדיה לבית הכסא וידעת אי צנוע אי לא דתניא אין קורין צנוע אלא למי שצנוע בבית הכסא

The Gemara relates: There was a particular eulogizer who went to eulogize an important person in the presence of Rav Naḥman. Of the deceased, he said: This man was modest in his ways. Rav Naḥman said to him: Did you go to the bathroom with him and know whether or not he was modest? As we learned in a baraita: One can only describe as modest one who is modest even in the bathroom, when no one else is there.

ורב נחמן מאי נפקא ליה מיניה משום דתניא כשם שנפרעין מן המתים כך נפרעין מן הספדנין ומן העונין אחריהן

The Gemara asks: And what difference did it make to Rav Naḥman, that he was so insistent upon the details of whether or not this man was modest? The Gemara answers: Because it was taught in a baraita: Just as the deceased are punished, so too are the eulogizers and those who answer after them.The deceased are punished for transgressions committed in their lifetimes. The eulogizers and those who answer are punished for accepting the attribution of virtues that the deceased did not possess.

תנו רבנן איזהו צנוע זה הנפנה בלילה במקום שנפנה ביום

The Sages taught in a baraita: Who is a modest person? One who defecates at night where he defecates during the day, i.e., who distances himself at night, in order to relieve himself, no less than he distances himself during the day.

איני והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ינהיג אדם את עצמו שחרית וערבית כדי שלא יהא צריך להתרחק ותו רבא ביממא הוה אזיל עד מיל ובליליא אמר ליה לשמעיה פנו לי דוכתא ברחובא דמתא וכן אמר ליה רבי זירא לשמעיה חזי מאן דאיכא אחורי בית חבריא דבעינא למפני לא תימא במקום אלא אימא כדרך שנפנה ביום

The Gemara challenges: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Yehuda say that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate in the morning and at night, when it is dark, so that he will not need to distance himself? Moreover, during the day, Rava would go up to a mil outside the city, and at night he would tell his servant: Clear a place for me in the city street. And so too, Rabbi Zeira told his servant: See who is behind the study hall, as I need to defecate. These Sages did not defecate at night in the same place where they defecated during the day. Rather, emend the statement and say as follows: In the manner that one defecates during the day, i.e. he should conduct himself at night with the same degree of modesty with which he removes his clothing when defecating during the day.

רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא במקום לא נצרכה אלא לקרן זוית

Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that the text can remain as it was: Where he defecates during the day, it was only necessary in the case of a corner, where one may conceal himself. In the interest of modesty, he should go around the corner at night, just as he does during the day.

גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם ינהיג אדם את עצמו שחרית וערבית כדי שלא יהא צריך להתרחק

The Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate early in the morning and late at night so that he will not need to distance himself.

תניא נמי הכי בן עזאי אומר השכם וצא הערב וצא כדי שלא תתרחק משמש ושב ואל תשב ותמשמש שכל היושב וממשמש אפילו עושין כשפים באספמיא באין עליו

That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: Rise early in the morning and go defecate, wait for evening and go defecate, so that you will not need to distance yourself. He also said: Touch around the anus first to assist in the opening of orifices and then sit; do not sit and then touch, for anyone who sits and then touches, even if sorcery is performed in a distant place like Aspamia, the sorcery will come upon him.

ואי אנשי ויתיב ואחר כך משמש מאי תקנתיה כי קאי לימא הכי לא לי לא לי לא תחים ולא תחתים לא הני ולא מהני לא חרשי דחרשא ולא חרשי דחרשתא

The Gemara says: And if one forgets and sits and then touches, what is his remedy? When he stands, he should recite the following incantation: Not for me, not for me, neither taḥim nor taḥtim, types of sorcery, neither these nor from these, neither the sorcery of a sorcerer nor the sorcery of a sorceress.

תניא בן עזאי אומר על כל משכב שכב חוץ מן הקרקע על כל מושב שב חוץ מן הקורה אמר שמואל שינה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא יציאה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא

Continuing with the subject of health, it was taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam, lest you fall off. Shmuel said: Sleeping at dawn is as effective as forging [istema] is to iron. A bowel movement at dawn is as beneficial as forging is to iron.

בר קפרא הוה מזבן מילי בדינרי עד דכפנת אכול עד דצחית שתי עד דרתחא קדרך שפוך קרנא קריא ברומי בר מזבין תאני תאני דאבוך זבין

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Bar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars; he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: If you are hungry, eat; do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, if you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour it out before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: When the horn is sounded in Rome, signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, son of a fig seller, sell your father’s figs, even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity.

אמר להו אביי לרבנן כי עייליתו בשבילי דמחוזא למיפק ביה בחקלא לא תחזו לא להך גיסא ולא להך גיסא דלמא יתבי נשי ולאו אורח ארעא לאסתכולי בהו

Abaye said to the Sages: When you enter the paths of the city of Meḥoza in order to go out and defecate in a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them.

רב ספרא על לבית הכסא אתא רבי אבא נחר ליה אבבא אמר ליה ליעול מר בתר דנפק אמר ליה עד השתא לא עיילת לשעיר וגמרת לך מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד וזה היה כבודו מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם מצאו פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם אלמא לאו אורח ארעא הוא

The Gemara relates: Rav Safra once entered a bathroom, when Rabbi Abba came along. To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba coughed next to the door. Rav Safra said to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir, the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, and yet you already learned the customs of Seir? Didn’t we learn in the mishna concerning the Temple: There was a fire next to the ritual bath, and a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside; if he found it open, it was known that no one was inside. Speaking in the bathroom is not a desired mode of behavior.

והוא סבר מסוכן הוא דתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון

The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra held that it was dangerous for Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A column of feces that is held back because one cannot relieve himself causes dropsy [hidrokan]. A stream [silon] of urine that is held back causes jaundice.

רבי אלעזר על לבית הכסא אתא ההוא רומאה דחקיה קם רבי אלעזר ונפק אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה קרי עליה רבי אלעזר ואתן אדם תחתיך אל תקרי אדם אלא אדום:

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed him away. Rabbi Elazar stood and left, and a serpent came and ripped out the intestines of the Roman. Rabbi Elazar recited the following verse about the Roman: “Therefore I will give man [adam] for you” (Isaiah 43:4); do not read it as adam, but rather read it as Edom, meaning a Roman.

ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך

With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: “Behold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, and he said to kill you; and you spared you” (I Samuel 24:10).

ואמר ואמרתי מיבעי ליה ותחס וחסתי מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו דוד לשאול מן התורה בן הריגה אתה שהרי רודף אתה והתורה אמרה בא להרגך השכם להרגו אלא צניעות שהיתה בך היא חסה עליך

The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: And he said? It should say: And I said. Why does the verse say: And you spared? It should say: And I spared. Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuer who seeks to kill me, and the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you.

ומאי היא דכתיב ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו תנא גדר לפנים מן גדר ומערה לפנים ממערה להסך אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שסיכך עצמו כסוכה:

And what is this modesty? As it is written: “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet, to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave” (I Samuel 24:3). It was taught that the Sages said: There was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave, and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, to cover his feet, Rabbi Elazar said: This teaches that, even there, he covered himself with his garment like a sukka.

ויקם דוד ויכרת את כנף המעיל אשר לשאול בלט אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא כל המבזה את הבגדים סוף אינו נהנה מהם שנאמר והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו:

The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: “Then David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul’s robe privily” (I Samuel 24:4). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt, like David who tore Saul’s robe for no reason, will be punished in that ultimately he will not benefit from his garments, as it is stated: “Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat” (I Kings 1:1).

אם ה׳ הסיתך בי ירח מנחה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקדוש ברוך הוא לדוד מסית קרית לי הרי אני מכשילך בדבר שאפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעים אותו דכתיב כי תשא את ראש בני ישראל לפקדיהם ונתנו איש כפר נפשו וגו׳ מיד ויעמד שטן על ישראל וכתיב ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר לך מנה את ישראל וכיון דמנינהו לא שקל מינייהו כופר דכתיב ויתן ה׳ דבר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד

As for David’s statement to Saul: “If it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering” (I Samuel 26:19), Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter? In retribution, I will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: “When you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them” (Exodus 30:12). Immediately after God said this to David, “Satan stood up against Israel and incited David to number Israel” (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, it is written: “And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea” (II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David’s calling God an inciter was that He incited David. And when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them, and he was punished, as it is written: “So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time” (II Samuel 24:15).

מאי עת מועד אמר שמואל סבא חתניה דרבי חנינא משמיה דרבי חנינא משעת שחיטת התמיד עד שעת זריקתו רבי יוחנן אמר עד חצות ממש:

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: It means from when the daily offering is slaughtered until when its blood is sprinkled. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It means precisely until noon.

ויאמר למלאך המשחית בעם רב אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקדוש ברוך הוא למלאך טול לי רב שבהם שיש בו ליפרע מהם כמה חובות באותה שעה מת אבישי בן צרויה ששקול כרובה של סנהדרין:

It is also stated there: “The Lord repented Him of the evil and said to the angel that destroyed the many [rav] people: It is enough; now stay your hand” (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word rav, Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [rav] from among them, who is worthy of defraying several of Israel’s debts. As a result, at that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died. His death atoned for the entire nation.

ובהשחית ראה ה׳ וינחם מאי ראה

On a parallel note, it is said: “The Lord beheld, and He repented him of the evil” (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: What did the Lord behold?

אמר רב ראה יעקב אבינו דכתיב ויאמר יעקב כאשר ראם ושמואל אמר אפרו של יצחק ראה שנאמר אלהים יראה לו השה

Rav said: He saw and remembered the patriarch, Jacob, about whom the term seeing is used: “And Jacob said when he saw them [ra’am]: This is God’s camp” (Genesis 32:3). And Shmuel said: He saw and remembered Isaac’s ashes, as it is said in the portion of the binding of Isaac: “God will provide [yireh] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering” (Genesis 22:8).

רבי יצחק נפחא אמר כסף כפורים ראה שנאמר ולקחת את כסף הכפורים מאת בני ישראל וגו׳ רבי יוחנן אמר בית המקדש ראה דכתיב בהר ה׳ יראה

Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: He saw the money of atonement that Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, as it is stated: “And you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls” (Exodus 30:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: “On the mount where the Lord is seen [yera’e]” (Genesis 22:14).

פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כסף הכפורים ראה וחד אמר בית המקדש ראה ומסתברא כמאן דאמר בית המקדש ראה שנאמר אשר יאמר היום בהר ה׳ יראה:

Additional amora’im, Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, differed in their opinions of what God saw. One said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And it stands to reason like the one who says that he saw the Temple, as it is stated: “And Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; as it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen” (Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.

לא יכנס אדם להר הבית במקלו וכו׳: מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה ורב חנא בר אדא משמיה דרב סמא בריה דרב מרי אמר כמאן דאמר אינש אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הנכנס לבית הכנסת על מנת שלא לעשותו קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא

We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, a person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staff and his shoes. He may not make it a kappandarya. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kappandarya? Rava said: Kappandarya, as its name implies; a shortcut. Rav Ḥana bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said: One may interpret this as an acrostic, as people say: Instead of circumventing the rows of houses [ademakifna adarei], I will enter this [ei’ol beha] one. Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This halakha applies in a synagogue as well. However, one who enters a synagogue not intending to make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcut if he later changed his mind.

רבי אבהו אמר אם היה שביל מעיקרו מותר אמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנאמר ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה׳ במועדים וגו׳:

Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a path that passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, one is permitted to pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: “But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9).

ורקיקה מקל וחומר: אמר רב ביבי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל הרוקק בהר הבית בזמן הזה כאילו רוקק בבת עינו שנאמר והיו עיני ולבי שם כל הימים

We learned in the mishna that spitting on the Temple Mount is prohibited through an a fortiori inference. Rav Beivai said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount, even today, it is as if he spit in the pupil of God’s eye, as it is stated: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually” (I Kings 9:3).

אמר רבא רקיקה בבית הכנסת שריא מידי דהוה אמנעל מה מנעל בהר הבית אסור בבית הכנסת מותר אף רקיקה בהר הבית הוא דאסור בבית הכנסת שרי

Rava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue.

אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא ואמרי לה רבינא לרבא ואמרי לה רב אדא בר מתנא לרבא אדיליף ממנעל נילף מקפנדריא

Rav Pappa said to Rava, and some say that Ravina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of deriving this from the case of wearing a shoe, derive it from the case of a shortcut. Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.

אמר ליה תנא יליף ממנעל ואת אמרת מקפנדריא מאי היא דתניא לא יכנס אדם להר הבית לא במקלו שבידו ולא במנעלו שברגלו ולא במעות הצרורים לו בסדינו ובפונדתו מופשלת לאחוריו ולא יעשנה קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר ממנעל ומה מנעל שאין בו דרך בזיון אמרה תורה של נעליך מעל רגליך רקיקה שהיא דרך בזיון לא כל שכן

Rava said to him: The tanna derives the prohibition of spitting from the case of a shoe, and you say that it should be derived from the case of a shortcut? The Gemara elaborates: What is this derivation from the case of a shoe? As it was taught in a baraita: One may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, nor should one make it a shortcut. All the more so, spitting is prohibited a fortiori from the halakha with regard to wearing a shoe. Just as with regard to a shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: “Put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5), all the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous, should be prohibited.

רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כי אין לבוא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה שק שאינו מאוס לפני בשר ודם כך רקיקה שהיא מאוסה לפני מלך מלכי המלכים לא כל שכן

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This a fortiori inference is unnecessary. It could be otherwise derived. It says: “For none may enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth” (Esther 4:2). This matter can be inferred a fortiori: Just as sackcloth, which is generally not considered repulsive before one who is flesh and blood, is forbidden within the king’s gate, all the more so spitting, which is repulsive, should be forbidden before the King of Kings.

אמר ליה אנא הכי קאמינא נימא הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא

The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, said to Rava: I intended to say the following: Let us say, be stringent here, with regard to the Temple Mount, and be stringent here, with regard to the synagogue,

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