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Today's Daf Yomi

March 5, 2020 | 讟壮 讘讗讚专 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Berakhot 62

There were rabbis who would follow their teachers into the bathroom or hide under their beds to learn from their rabbis how to act in the bathroom or when having sex. Some were critical of this behavior to which they retorted, “It is Torah and I need to learn it!” People were sacred of demons in the outhouses. What did they do to protect themselves? One needs to be act modestly in the bathroom also. It is told of King Saul that acted modestly in the bathroom and that is why David didn’t kill him when he came upon him in the cave. The gemara extrapolates other verses in that story and from there gets to the story of when David did a census by counting the people and not by using money (as commanded in the Torah) and explains why David made a mistake why when God brought the plague, he stopped it soon after. What is forbidden to do on the Temple Mount? What from that list can be done in a synogogue? Why is there a difference? Instead of saying amen in the Temple, they would say the verse “baruch shem kevod…”

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞讻谞住转讬 讗讞专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诇诪讚转讬 诪诪谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻谞讬谉 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻专注讬谉 诪注讜诪讚 讗诇讗 诪讬讜砖讘 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 诪拽谞讞讬谉 讘讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖诪讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谉 注讝讗讬 注讚 讻讗谉 讛注讝转 驻谞讬讱 讘专讘讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转讜专讛 讛讬讗 讜诇诇诪讜讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱

It was taught in a baraita in tractate Derekh Eretz that Rabbi Akiva said: I once entered the bathroom after my teacher Rabbi Yehoshua, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting, in the interest of modesty; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Ben Azzai, a student of Rabbi Akiva, said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent that you observed that much? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

转谞讬讗 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞讻谞住转讬 讗讞专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诇诪讚转讬 诪诪谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻谞讬谉 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻专注讬谉 诪注讜诪讚 讗诇讗 诪讬讜砖讘 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 诪拽谞讞讬谉 讘讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖诪讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 注讚 讻讗谉 讛注讝转 驻谞讬讱 讘专讘讱 讗诪专 诇讜 转讜专讛 讛讬讗 讜诇诇诪讜讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱

Similarly, we learned in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: I once entered a bathroom after Rabbi Akiva, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

专讘 讻讛谞讗 注诇 讙谞讗 转讜转讬讛 驻讜专讬讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪注讬讛 讚砖讞 讜砖讞拽 讜注砖讛 爪专讻讬讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诪讬 驻讜诪讬讛 讚讗讘讗 讻讚诇讗 砖专讬祝 转讘砖讬诇讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讛谞讗 讛讻讗 讗转 驻讜拽 讚诇讗讜 讗专讞 讗专注讗 讗诪专 诇讜 转讜专讛 讛讬讗 讜诇诇诪讜讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱

On a similar note, the Gemara relates that Rav Kahana entered and lay beneath Rav鈥檚 bed. He heard Rav chatting and laughing with his wife, and seeing to his needs, i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana said to Rav: The mouth of Abba, Rav, is like one whom has never eaten a cooked dish, i.e., his behavior was lustful. Rav said to him: Kahana, you are here? Leave, as this is an undesirable mode of behavior. Rav Kahana said to him: It is Torah, and I must learn.

诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬谉 诪拽谞讞讬谉 讘讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖诪讗诇 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪驻谞讬 砖讛转讜专讛 谞讬转谞讛 讘讬诪讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪讬诪讬谞讜 讗砖 讚转 诇诪讜 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 拽专讜讘讛 诇驻讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖拽讜砖专 讘讛 转驻讬诇讬谉 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪专讗讛 讘讛 讟注诪讬 转讜专讛

The Gemara asks: Why must one not wipe himself with his right hand, but with his left? Rava said: Because the Torah was given with the right hand, as it is stated: 鈥淎t His right hand was a fiery law unto them鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:2). Rabba bar bar 岣na said: Because the right hand is close to the mouth, i.e., people eat with the right hand. And Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Because one ties the phylacteries onto his left hand with his right hand. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Because one points to the cantillation notes of the Torah with his right hand.

讻转谞讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讜讻诇 讘讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讻讜转讘 讘讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪专讗讛 讘讛 讟注诪讬 转讜专讛

The Gemara notes that this is parallel to a tannaitic dispute: Rabbi Eliezer says: One is forbidden to wipe himself with his right hand because he eats with it. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Because he writes with it. Rabbi Akiva says: Because he points to the notes of the Torah with it.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讘专 讞谞讬诇讗讬 讻诇 讛爪谞讜注 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 谞爪讜诇 诪砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪谉 讛谞讞砖讬诐 讜诪谉 讛注拽专讘讬诐 讜诪谉 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讞诇讜诪讜转讬讜 诪讬讜砖讘讬诐 注诇讬讜

Rabbi Tan岣m bar 岣nilai said: Anyone who is modest in the bathroom will be saved from three things: From snakes, from scorpions and from demons. And some say that even his dreams will be settling for him.

讛讛讜讗 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讚讛讜讛 讘讟讘专讬讗 讻讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 讘讬讛 讘讬 转专讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬诪诪讗 诪转讝拽讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 讘讬讛 讞讚 讜讞讚 诇讞讜讚讬讛 讜诇讗 诪转讝拽讬 讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 诪住转驻讬转讜 讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 讗谞谉 拽讘诇讛 讙诪讬专讬谞谉 拽讘诇讛 讚讘讬转 讛讻住讗 爪谞讬注讜转讗 讜砖转讬拽讜转讗 拽讘诇讛 讚讬住讜专讬 砖转讬拽讜转讗 讜诪讘注讬 专讞诪讬

The Gemara relates: There was a particular bathroom in the city of Tiberias, where, when two would enter it, even during the day, they would be harmed by demons. When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would each enter alone, they were not harmed. The Sages said to them: Aren鈥檛 you afraid? Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi said to them: We have learned through tradition: The tradition to avoid danger in the bathroom is to conduct oneself with modesty and silence. The tradition to end suffering is with silence and prayer.

讗讘讬讬 诪专讘讬讗 诇讬讛 讗诪讬讛 讗诪专讗 诇诪讬注诇 讘讛讚讬讛 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诇专讘讬讗 诇讬讛 讙讚讬讗 砖注讬专 讘砖注讬专 诪讬讞诇祝

Because fear of demons in bathrooms was pervasive, the Gemara relates: Abaye鈥檚 mother raised a lamb to accompany him to the bathroom. The Gemara objects: She should have raised a goat for him. The Gemara responds: A goat could be interchanged with a goat-demon. Since both the demon and the goat are called sa鈥檌r, they were afraid to bring a goat to a place frequented by demons.

专讘讗 诪拽诪讬 讚讛讜讛 专讬砖讗 诪拽专拽砖讗 诇讬讛 讘转 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪讙讜讝讗 讘诇拽谞讗 讘转专 讚诪诇讱 注讘讚讗 诇讬讛 讻讜讜转讗 讜诪谞讞讗 诇讬讛 讬讚讗 讗专讬砖讬讛

Before Rava became the head of the yeshiva, his wife, the daughter of Rav 岣sda, would rattle a nut in a copper vessel for him. This was in order to fend off demons when he was in the bathroom. After he was chosen to preside as head of the yeshiva, he required an additional degree of protection, so she constructed a window for him, opposite where he would defecate, and placed her hand upon his head.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 讛讙讚专 谞驻谞讛 诪讬讚 讜讘讘拽注讛 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪转注讟砖 讜讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 砖讜诪注 讗讬住讬 讘专 谞转谉 诪转谞讬 讛讻讬 讗讞讜专讬 讛讙讚专 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪转注讟砖 讜讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 砖讜诪注 讜讘讘拽注讛 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专讜讗讛讜

With regard to where one may or may not go to defecate, Ulla said: Behind a fence, one need not distance himself from people and may defecate immediately. In a valley or open field, one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind, no one will hear him. Isi bar Natan taught as follows: Behind a fence one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind another does not hear him, and in a valley, one must distance himself sufficiently so that no one can see him.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪驻转讞 讘讬转 讛讘讚 讜谞驻谞讬谉 诇讗讞讜专讬 讛讙讚专 讜讛谉 讟讛讜专讬谉

The Gemara raises an objection based on what we learned in a mishna in Teharot: Physical laborers, who usually fall into the category of am ha鈥檃retz and are not generally cautious with regard to the laws of ritual purity, exit from the entrance of the olive press, defecate behind the fence, and are ritually pure. There is no reason to be concerned that they might become impure in the interim. This indicates that a greater distance is unnecessary.

讘讟讛专讜转 讛拽诇讜

The Gemara responds: With regard to the laws of ritual purity, they were lenient. To ensure maintenance of purity, they were lenient and did not require a greater distance.

转讗 砖诪注 讻诪讛 讬专讞拽讜 讜讬讛讬讜 讟讛讜专讬谉 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讗 专讜讗讛讜 砖讗谞讬 讗讜讻诇讬 讟讛专讜转 讚讗拽讬诇讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉

Come and hear from what we learned: How far may workers distance themselves, and the fruit and oil will remain pure? They may distance themselves only so far that he still sees him. This contradicts the opinion of Isi bar Natan, who required them to distance themselves sufficiently that they may not be seen. The Gemara responds: Those who eat in purity are different, as the Sages were lenient with them.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专讜讗讛 讚拽讗诪专 讗讬住讬 讘专 谞转谉 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 驻专讜注讜 讗讘诇 诇讚讬讚讬讛 讞讝讬 诇讬讛

Rav Ashi said: What is the meaning of: So long as another does not see him, which was the standard that Isi bar Natan said? Sufficient that another person cannot see his nakedness, although he does see him.

讛讛讜讗 住驻讚谞讗 讚谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讛讗讬 爪谞讜注 讘讗讜专讞讜转讬讜 讛讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗转 注讬讬诇转 讘讛讚讬讛 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜讬讚注转 讗讬 爪谞讜注 讗讬 诇讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 爪谞讜注 讗诇讗 诇诪讬 砖爪谞讜注 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗

The Gemara relates: There was a particular eulogizer who went to eulogize an important person in the presence of Rav Na岣an. Of the deceased, he said: This man was modest in his ways. Rav Na岣an said to him: Did you go to the bathroom with him and know whether or not he was modest? As we learned in a baraita: One can only describe as modest one who is modest even in the bathroom, when no one else is there.

讜专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诇讬讛 诪讬谞讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讚转谞讬讗 讻砖诐 砖谞驻专注讬谉 诪谉 讛诪转讬诐 讻讱 谞驻专注讬谉 诪谉 讛住驻讚谞讬谉 讜诪谉 讛注讜谞讬谉 讗讞专讬讛谉

The Gemara asks: And what difference did it make to Rav Na岣an, that he was so insistent upon the details of whether or not this man was modest? The Gemara answers: Because it was taught in a baraita: Just as the deceased are punished, so too are the eulogizers and those who answer after them.The deceased are punished for transgressions committed in their lifetimes. The eulogizers and those who answer are punished for accepting the attribution of virtues that the deceased did not possess.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 爪谞讜注 讝讛 讛谞驻谞讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞驻谞讛 讘讬讜诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: Who is a modest person? One who defecates at night where he defecates during the day, i.e., who distances himself at night, in order to relieve himself, no less than he distances himself during the day.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬谞讛讬讙 讗讚诐 讗转 注爪诪讜 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛转专讞拽 讜转讜 专讘讗 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讜讛 讗讝讬诇 注讚 诪讬诇 讜讘诇讬诇讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 驻谞讜 诇讬 讚讜讻转讗 讘专讞讜讘讗 讚诪转讗 讜讻谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇砖诪注讬讛 讞讝讬 诪讗谉 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讞讘专讬讗 讚讘注讬谞讗 诇诪驻谞讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讻讚专讱 砖谞驻谞讛 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara challenges: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate in the morning and at night, when it is dark, so that he will not need to distance himself? Moreover, during the day, Rava would go up to a mil outside the city, and at night he would tell his servant: Clear a place for me in the city street. And so too, Rabbi Zeira told his servant: See who is behind the study hall, as I need to defecate. These Sages did not defecate at night in the same place where they defecated during the day. Rather, emend the statement and say as follows: In the manner that one defecates during the day, i.e. he should conduct himself at night with the same degree of modesty with which he removes his clothing when defecating during the day.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 讘诪拽讜诐 诇讗 谞爪专讻讛 讗诇讗 诇拽专谉 讝讜讬转

Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that the text can remain as it was: Where he defecates during the day, it was only necessary in the case of a corner, where one may conceal himself. In the interest of modesty, he should go around the corner at night, just as he does during the day.

讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬谞讛讬讙 讗讚诐 讗转 注爪诪讜 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛转专讞拽

The Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate early in the morning and late at night so that he will not need to distance himself.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讛砖讻诐 讜爪讗 讛注专讘 讜爪讗 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 转转专讞拽 诪砖诪砖 讜砖讘 讜讗诇 转砖讘 讜转诪砖诪砖 砖讻诇 讛讬讜砖讘 讜诪诪砖诪砖 讗驻讬诇讜 注讜砖讬谉 讻砖驻讬诐 讘讗住驻诪讬讗 讘讗讬谉 注诇讬讜

That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: Rise early in the morning and go defecate, wait for evening and go defecate, so that you will not need to distance yourself. He also said: Touch around the anus first to assist in the opening of orifices and then sit; do not sit and then touch, for anyone who sits and then touches, even if sorcery is performed in a distant place like Aspamia, the sorcery will come upon him.

讜讗讬 讗谞砖讬 讜讬转讬讘 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪砖诪砖 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 讻讬 拽讗讬 诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 诇讗 诇讬 诇讗 诇讬 诇讗 转讞讬诐 讜诇讗 转讞转讬诐 诇讗 讛谞讬 讜诇讗 诪讛谞讬 诇讗 讞专砖讬 讚讞专砖讗 讜诇讗 讞专砖讬 讚讞专砖转讗

The Gemara says: And if one forgets and sits and then touches, what is his remedy? When he stands, he should recite the following incantation: Not for me, not for me, neither ta岣m nor ta岣im, types of sorcery, neither these nor from these, neither the sorcery of a sorcerer nor the sorcery of a sorceress.

转谞讬讗 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 讻诇 诪砖讻讘 砖讻讘 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 注诇 讻诇 诪讜砖讘 砖讘 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛拽讜专讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讬谞讛 讘注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻讗住讟诪讗 诇驻专讝诇讗 讬爪讬讗讛 讘注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻讗住讟诪讗 诇驻专讝诇讗

Continuing with the subject of health, it was taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam, lest you fall off. Shmuel said: Sleeping at dawn is as effective as forging [istema] is to iron. A bowel movement at dawn is as beneficial as forging is to iron.

讘专 拽驻专讗 讛讜讛 诪讝讘谉 诪讬诇讬 讘讚讬谞专讬 注讚 讚讻驻谞转 讗讻讜诇 注讚 讚爪讞讬转 砖转讬 注讚 讚专转讞讗 拽讚专讱 砖驻讜讱 拽专谞讗 拽专讬讗 讘专讜诪讬 讘专 诪讝讘讬谉 转讗谞讬 转讗谞讬 讚讗讘讜讱 讝讘讬谉

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Bar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars; he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: If you are hungry, eat; do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, if you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour it out before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: When the horn is sounded in Rome, signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, son of a fig seller, sell your father鈥檚 figs, even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘谞谉 讻讬 注讬讬诇讬转讜 讘砖讘讬诇讬 讚诪讞讜讝讗 诇诪讬驻拽 讘讬讛 讘讞拽诇讗 诇讗 转讞讝讜 诇讗 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讜诇讗 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讚诇诪讗 讬转讘讬 谞砖讬 讜诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇讗住转讻讜诇讬 讘讛讜

Abaye said to the Sages: When you enter the paths of the city of Me岣za in order to go out and defecate in a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them.

专讘 住驻专讗 注诇 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗转讗 专讘讬 讗讘讗 谞讞专 诇讬讛 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬注讜诇 诪专 讘转专 讚谞驻拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注讚 讛砖转讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇转 诇砖注讬专 讜讙诪专转 诇讱 诪讬诇讬 讚砖注讬专 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 转谞谉 诪讚讜专讛 讛讬转讛 砖诐 讜讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖诇 讻讘讜讚 讜讝讛 讛讬讛 讻讘讜讚讜 诪爪讗讜 谞注讜诇 讘讬讚讜注 砖讬砖 砖诐 讗讚诐 诪爪讗讜 驻转讜讞 讘讬讚讜注 砖讗讬谉 砖诐 讗讚诐 讗诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara relates: Rav Safra once entered a bathroom, when Rabbi Abba came along. To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba coughed next to the door. Rav Safra said to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir, the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, and yet you already learned the customs of Seir? Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna concerning the Temple: There was a fire next to the ritual bath, and a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside; if he found it open, it was known that no one was inside. Speaking in the bathroom is not a desired mode of behavior.

讜讛讜讗 住讘专 诪住讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注诪讜讚 讛讞讜讝专 诪讘讬讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 诇讬讚讬 讛讚专讜拽谉 住讬诇讜谉 讛讞讜讝专 诪讘讬讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 诇讬讚讬 讬专拽讜谉

The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra held that it was dangerous for Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A column of feces that is held back because one cannot relieve himself causes dropsy [hidrokan]. A stream [silon] of urine that is held back causes jaundice.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 注诇 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 专讜诪讗讛 讚讞拽讬讛 拽诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜谞驻拽 讗转讗 讚专拽讜谞讗 砖诪讟讬讛 诇讻专讻砖讬讛 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜讗转谉 讗讚诐 转讞转讬讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 讗讚讜诐:

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed him away. Rabbi Elazar stood and left, and a serpent came and ripped out the intestines of the Roman. Rabbi Elazar recited the following verse about the Roman: 鈥淭herefore I will give man [adam] for you鈥 (Isaiah 43:4); do not read it as adam, but rather read it as Edom, meaning a Roman.

讜讗诪专 诇讛专讙讱 讜转讞住 注诇讬讱

With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: 鈥淏ehold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, and he said to kill you; and you spared you鈥 (I Samuel 24:10).

讜讗诪专 讜讗诪专转讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讜转讞住 讜讞住转讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讜 讚讜讚 诇砖讗讜诇 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讘谉 讛专讬讙讛 讗转讛 砖讛专讬 专讜讚祝 讗转讛 讜讛转讜专讛 讗诪专讛 讘讗 诇讛专讙讱 讛砖讻诐 诇讛专讙讜 讗诇讗 爪谞讬注讜转 砖讛讬转讛 讘讱 讛讬讗 讞住讛 注诇讬讱

The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: And he said? It should say: And I said. Why does the verse say: And you spared? It should say: And I spared. Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuer who seeks to kill me, and the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you.

讜诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讗诇 讙讚专讜转 讛爪讗谉 注诇 讛讚专讱 讜砖诐 诪注专讛 讜讬讘讗 砖讗讜诇 诇讛住讱 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 转谞讗 讙讚专 诇驻谞讬诐 诪谉 讙讚专 讜诪注专讛 诇驻谞讬诐 诪诪注专讛 诇讛住讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪诇诪讚 砖住讬讻讱 注爪诪讜 讻住讜讻讛:

And what is this modesty? As it is written: 鈥淎nd he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet, to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave鈥 (I Samuel 24:3). It was taught that the Sages said: There was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave, and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, to cover his feet, Rabbi Elazar said: This teaches that, even there, he covered himself with his garment like a sukka.

讜讬拽诐 讚讜讚 讜讬讻专转 讗转 讻谞祝 讛诪注讬诇 讗砖专 诇砖讗讜诇 讘诇讟 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讻诇 讛诪讘讝讛 讗转 讛讘讙讚讬诐 住讜祝 讗讬谞讜 谞讛谞讛 诪讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛诪诇讱 讚讜讚 讝拽谉 讘讗 讘讬诪讬诐 讜讬讻住讛讜 讘讘讙讚讬诐 讜诇讗 讬讞诐 诇讜:

The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: 鈥淭hen David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul鈥檚 robe privily鈥 (I Samuel 24:4). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt, like David who tore Saul鈥檚 robe for no reason, will be punished in that ultimately he will not benefit from his garments, as it is stated: 鈥淣ow King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat鈥 (I Kings 1:1).

讗诐 讛壮 讛住讬转讱 讘讬 讬专讞 诪谞讞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讚讜讚 诪住讬转 拽专讬转 诇讬 讛专讬 讗谞讬 诪讻砖讬诇讱 讘讚讘专 砖讗驻讬诇讜 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讬讜讚注讬诐 讗讜转讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 转砖讗 讗转 专讗砖 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻拽讚讬讛诐 讜谞转谞讜 讗讬砖 讻驻专 谞驻砖讜 讜讙讜壮 诪讬讚 讜讬注诪讚 砖讟谉 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬住转 讗转 讚讜讚 讘讛诐 诇讗诪专 诇讱 诪谞讛 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诪谞讬谞讛讜 诇讗 砖拽诇 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讻讜驻专 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转谉 讛壮 讚讘专 讘讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讘拽专 讜注讚 注转 诪讜注讚

As for David鈥檚 statement to Saul: 鈥淚f it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering鈥 (I Samuel 26:19), Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter? In retribution, I will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: 鈥淲hen you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them鈥 (Exodus 30:12). Immediately after God said this to David, 鈥淪atan stood up against Israel and incited David to number Israel鈥 (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, it is written: 鈥淎nd again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea鈥 (II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David鈥檚 calling God an inciter was that He incited David. And when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them, and he was punished, as it is written: 鈥淪o the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time鈥 (II Samuel 24:15).

诪讗讬 注转 诪讜注讚 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 住讘讗 讞转谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪砖注转 砖讞讬讟转 讛转诪讬讚 注讚 砖注转 讝专讬拽转讜 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 诪诪砖:

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi 岣nina, said in the name of Rabbi 岣nina: It means from when the daily offering is slaughtered until when its blood is sprinkled. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It means precisely until noon.

讜讬讗诪专 诇诪诇讗讱 讛诪砖讞讬转 讘注诐 专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪诇讗讱 讟讜诇 诇讬 专讘 砖讘讛诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 诇讬驻专注 诪讛诐 讻诪讛 讞讜讘讜转 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 诪转 讗讘讬砖讬 讘谉 爪专讜讬讛 砖砖拽讜诇 讻专讜讘讛 砖诇 住谞讛讚专讬谉:

It is also stated there: 鈥淭he Lord repented Him of the evil and said to the angel that destroyed the many [rav] people: It is enough; now stay your hand鈥 (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word rav, Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [rav] from among them, who is worthy of defraying several of Israel鈥檚 debts. As a result, at that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died. His death atoned for the entire nation.

讜讘讛砖讞讬转 专讗讛 讛壮 讜讬谞讞诐 诪讗讬 专讗讛

On a parallel note, it is said: 鈥淭he Lord beheld, and He repented him of the evil鈥 (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: What did the Lord behold?

讗诪专 专讘 专讗讛 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讬注拽讘 讻讗砖专 专讗诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗驻专讜 砖诇 讬爪讞拽 专讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛讬诐 讬专讗讛 诇讜 讛砖讛

Rav said: He saw and remembered the patriarch, Jacob, about whom the term seeing is used: 鈥淎nd Jacob said when he saw them [ra鈥檃m]: This is God鈥檚 camp鈥 (Genesis 32:3). And Shmuel said: He saw and remembered Isaac鈥檚 ashes, as it is said in the portion of the binding of Isaac: 鈥淕od will provide [yireh] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering鈥 (Genesis 22:8).

专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 谞驻讞讗 讗诪专 讻住祝 讻驻讜专讬诐 专讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇拽讞转 讗转 讻住祝 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛专 讛壮 讬专讗讛

Rabbi Yitz岣k Nappa岣 said: He saw the money of atonement that Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls鈥 (Exodus 30:16). Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: 鈥淥n the mount where the Lord is seen [yera鈥檈]鈥 (Genesis 22:14).

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讻住祝 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 专讗讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗讛 讜诪住转讘专讗 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖专 讬讗诪专 讛讬讜诐 讘讛专 讛壮 讬专讗讛:

Additional amora鈥檌m, Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani, differed in their opinions of what God saw. One said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And it stands to reason like the one who says that he saw the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; as it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen鈥 (Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.

诇讗 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 讘诪拽诇讜 讜讻讜壮: 诪讗讬 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 讻砖诪讛 讜专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讗讚讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 住诪讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪专讬 讗诪专 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞砖 讗讚诪拽讬驻谞讗 讗讚专讬 讗讬注讜诇 讘讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 注诇 诪谞转 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转讜 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 诪讜转专 诇注砖讜转讜 拽驻谞讚专讬讗

We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, a person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staff and his shoes. He may not make it a kappandarya. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kappandarya? Rava said: Kappandarya, as its name implies; a shortcut. Rav 岣na bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said: One may interpret this as an acrostic, as people say: Instead of circumventing the rows of houses [ademakifna adarei], I will enter this [ei鈥檕l beha] one. Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This halakha applies in a synagogue as well. However, one who enters a synagogue not intending to make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcut if he later changed his mind.

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 讗诐 讛讬讛 砖讘讬诇 诪注讬拽专讜 诪讜转专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诇讛转驻诇诇 诪讜转专 诇注砖讜转讜 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讘讗 注诐 讛讗专抓 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讘诪讜注讚讬诐 讜讙讜壮:

Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a path that passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, one is permitted to pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. Rabbi 岣lbo said that Rav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate鈥 (Ezekiel 46:9).

讜专拽讬拽讛 诪拽诇 讜讞讜诪专: 讗诪专 专讘 讘讬讘讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛专讜拽拽 讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讻讗讬诇讜 专讜拽拽 讘讘转 注讬谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讜 注讬谞讬 讜诇讘讬 砖诐 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐

We learned in the mishna that spitting on the Temple Mount is prohibited through an a fortiori inference. Rav Beivai said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount, even today, it is as if he spit in the pupil of God鈥檚 eye, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually鈥 (I Kings 9:3).

讗诪专 专讘讗 专拽讬拽讛 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖专讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗诪谞注诇 诪讛 诪谞注诇 讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讗住讜专 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诪讜转专 讗祝 专拽讬拽讛 讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讛讜讗 讚讗住讜专 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖专讬

Rava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 诇专讘讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 诪转谞讗 诇专讘讗 讗讚讬诇讬祝 诪诪谞注诇 谞讬诇祝 诪拽驻谞讚专讬讗

Rav Pappa said to Rava, and some say that Ravina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of deriving this from the case of wearing a shoe, derive it from the case of a shortcut. Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讗 讬诇讬祝 诪诪谞注诇 讜讗转 讗诪专转 诪拽驻谞讚专讬讗 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 诇讗 讘诪拽诇讜 砖讘讬讚讜 讜诇讗 讘诪谞注诇讜 砖讘专讙诇讜 讜诇讗 讘诪注讜转 讛爪专讜专讬诐 诇讜 讘住讚讬谞讜 讜讘驻讜谞讚转讜 诪讜驻砖诇转 诇讗讞讜专讬讜 讜诇讗 讬注砖谞讛 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 讜专拽讬拽讛 诪拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诪诪谞注诇 讜诪讛 诪谞注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讚专讱 讘讝讬讜谉 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 砖诇 谞注诇讬讱 诪注诇 专讙诇讬讱 专拽讬拽讛 砖讛讬讗 讚专讱 讘讝讬讜谉 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

Rava said to him: The tanna derives the prohibition of spitting from the case of a shoe, and you say that it should be derived from the case of a shortcut? The Gemara elaborates: What is this derivation from the case of a shoe? As it was taught in a baraita: One may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, nor should one make it a shortcut. All the more so, spitting is prohibited a fortiori from the halakha with regard to wearing a shoe. Just as with regard to a shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: 鈥淧ut off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground鈥 (Exodus 3:5), all the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous, should be prohibited.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讬 讗讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讗诇 砖注专 讛诪诇讱 讘诇讘讜砖 砖拽 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 砖拽 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讗讜住 诇驻谞讬 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讻讱 专拽讬拽讛 砖讛讬讗 诪讗讜住讛 诇驻谞讬 诪诇讱 诪诇讻讬 讛诪诇讻讬诐 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This a fortiori inference is unnecessary. It could be otherwise derived. It says: 鈥淔or none may enter within the king鈥檚 gate clothed with sackcloth鈥 (Esther 4:2). This matter can be inferred a fortiori: Just as sackcloth, which is generally not considered repulsive before one who is flesh and blood, is forbidden within the king鈥檚 gate, all the more so spitting, which is repulsive, should be forbidden before the King of Kings.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪讬谞讗 谞讬诪讗 讛讻讗 诇讞讜诪专讗 讜讛讻讗 诇讞讜诪专讗

The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, said to Rava: I intended to say the following: Let us say, be stringent here, with regard to the Temple Mount, and be stringent here, with regard to the synagogue,

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Berakhot 62

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Berakhot 62

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞讻谞住转讬 讗讞专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诇诪讚转讬 诪诪谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻谞讬谉 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻专注讬谉 诪注讜诪讚 讗诇讗 诪讬讜砖讘 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 诪拽谞讞讬谉 讘讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖诪讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谉 注讝讗讬 注讚 讻讗谉 讛注讝转 驻谞讬讱 讘专讘讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转讜专讛 讛讬讗 讜诇诇诪讜讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱

It was taught in a baraita in tractate Derekh Eretz that Rabbi Akiva said: I once entered the bathroom after my teacher Rabbi Yehoshua, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting, in the interest of modesty; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Ben Azzai, a student of Rabbi Akiva, said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent that you observed that much? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

转谞讬讗 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞讻谞住转讬 讗讞专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诇诪讚转讬 诪诪谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻谞讬谉 诪讝专讞 讜诪注专讘 讗诇讗 爪驻讜谉 讜讚专讜诐 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 谞驻专注讬谉 诪注讜诪讚 讗诇讗 诪讬讜砖讘 讜诇诪讚转讬 砖讗讬谉 诪拽谞讞讬谉 讘讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖诪讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 注讚 讻讗谉 讛注讝转 驻谞讬讱 讘专讘讱 讗诪专 诇讜 转讜专讛 讛讬讗 讜诇诇诪讜讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱

Similarly, we learned in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: I once entered a bathroom after Rabbi Akiva, and I learned three things from observing his behavior: I learned that one should not defecate while facing east and west, but rather while facing north and south; I learned that one should not uncover himself while standing, but while sitting; and I learned that one should not wipe with his right hand, but with his left. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: You were impertinent to your teacher to that extent? He replied: It is Torah, and I must learn.

专讘 讻讛谞讗 注诇 讙谞讗 转讜转讬讛 驻讜专讬讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪注讬讛 讚砖讞 讜砖讞拽 讜注砖讛 爪专讻讬讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诪讬 驻讜诪讬讛 讚讗讘讗 讻讚诇讗 砖专讬祝 转讘砖讬诇讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讛谞讗 讛讻讗 讗转 驻讜拽 讚诇讗讜 讗专讞 讗专注讗 讗诪专 诇讜 转讜专讛 讛讬讗 讜诇诇诪讜讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱

On a similar note, the Gemara relates that Rav Kahana entered and lay beneath Rav鈥檚 bed. He heard Rav chatting and laughing with his wife, and seeing to his needs, i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana said to Rav: The mouth of Abba, Rav, is like one whom has never eaten a cooked dish, i.e., his behavior was lustful. Rav said to him: Kahana, you are here? Leave, as this is an undesirable mode of behavior. Rav Kahana said to him: It is Torah, and I must learn.

诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬谉 诪拽谞讞讬谉 讘讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘砖诪讗诇 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪驻谞讬 砖讛转讜专讛 谞讬转谞讛 讘讬诪讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪讬诪讬谞讜 讗砖 讚转 诇诪讜 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 拽专讜讘讛 诇驻讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖拽讜砖专 讘讛 转驻讬诇讬谉 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪专讗讛 讘讛 讟注诪讬 转讜专讛

The Gemara asks: Why must one not wipe himself with his right hand, but with his left? Rava said: Because the Torah was given with the right hand, as it is stated: 鈥淎t His right hand was a fiery law unto them鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:2). Rabba bar bar 岣na said: Because the right hand is close to the mouth, i.e., people eat with the right hand. And Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Because one ties the phylacteries onto his left hand with his right hand. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Because one points to the cantillation notes of the Torah with his right hand.

讻转谞讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讜讻诇 讘讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讻讜转讘 讘讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪专讗讛 讘讛 讟注诪讬 转讜专讛

The Gemara notes that this is parallel to a tannaitic dispute: Rabbi Eliezer says: One is forbidden to wipe himself with his right hand because he eats with it. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Because he writes with it. Rabbi Akiva says: Because he points to the notes of the Torah with it.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讘专 讞谞讬诇讗讬 讻诇 讛爪谞讜注 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗 谞爪讜诇 诪砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪谉 讛谞讞砖讬诐 讜诪谉 讛注拽专讘讬诐 讜诪谉 讛诪讝讬拽讬谉 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讞诇讜诪讜转讬讜 诪讬讜砖讘讬诐 注诇讬讜

Rabbi Tan岣m bar 岣nilai said: Anyone who is modest in the bathroom will be saved from three things: From snakes, from scorpions and from demons. And some say that even his dreams will be settling for him.

讛讛讜讗 讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讚讛讜讛 讘讟讘专讬讗 讻讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 讘讬讛 讘讬 转专讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬诪诪讗 诪转讝拽讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 讘讬讛 讞讚 讜讞讚 诇讞讜讚讬讛 讜诇讗 诪转讝拽讬 讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 诪住转驻讬转讜 讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 讗谞谉 拽讘诇讛 讙诪讬专讬谞谉 拽讘诇讛 讚讘讬转 讛讻住讗 爪谞讬注讜转讗 讜砖转讬拽讜转讗 拽讘诇讛 讚讬住讜专讬 砖转讬拽讜转讗 讜诪讘注讬 专讞诪讬

The Gemara relates: There was a particular bathroom in the city of Tiberias, where, when two would enter it, even during the day, they would be harmed by demons. When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would each enter alone, they were not harmed. The Sages said to them: Aren鈥檛 you afraid? Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi said to them: We have learned through tradition: The tradition to avoid danger in the bathroom is to conduct oneself with modesty and silence. The tradition to end suffering is with silence and prayer.

讗讘讬讬 诪专讘讬讗 诇讬讛 讗诪讬讛 讗诪专讗 诇诪讬注诇 讘讛讚讬讛 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜诇专讘讬讗 诇讬讛 讙讚讬讗 砖注讬专 讘砖注讬专 诪讬讞诇祝

Because fear of demons in bathrooms was pervasive, the Gemara relates: Abaye鈥檚 mother raised a lamb to accompany him to the bathroom. The Gemara objects: She should have raised a goat for him. The Gemara responds: A goat could be interchanged with a goat-demon. Since both the demon and the goat are called sa鈥檌r, they were afraid to bring a goat to a place frequented by demons.

专讘讗 诪拽诪讬 讚讛讜讛 专讬砖讗 诪拽专拽砖讗 诇讬讛 讘转 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪讙讜讝讗 讘诇拽谞讗 讘转专 讚诪诇讱 注讘讚讗 诇讬讛 讻讜讜转讗 讜诪谞讞讗 诇讬讛 讬讚讗 讗专讬砖讬讛

Before Rava became the head of the yeshiva, his wife, the daughter of Rav 岣sda, would rattle a nut in a copper vessel for him. This was in order to fend off demons when he was in the bathroom. After he was chosen to preside as head of the yeshiva, he required an additional degree of protection, so she constructed a window for him, opposite where he would defecate, and placed her hand upon his head.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗讞讜专讬 讛讙讚专 谞驻谞讛 诪讬讚 讜讘讘拽注讛 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪转注讟砖 讜讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 砖讜诪注 讗讬住讬 讘专 谞转谉 诪转谞讬 讛讻讬 讗讞讜专讬 讛讙讚专 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪转注讟砖 讜讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 砖讜诪注 讜讘讘拽注讛 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专讜讗讛讜

With regard to where one may or may not go to defecate, Ulla said: Behind a fence, one need not distance himself from people and may defecate immediately. In a valley or open field, one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind, no one will hear him. Isi bar Natan taught as follows: Behind a fence one must distance himself sufficiently so that if he passes wind another does not hear him, and in a valley, one must distance himself sufficiently so that no one can see him.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪驻转讞 讘讬转 讛讘讚 讜谞驻谞讬谉 诇讗讞讜专讬 讛讙讚专 讜讛谉 讟讛讜专讬谉

The Gemara raises an objection based on what we learned in a mishna in Teharot: Physical laborers, who usually fall into the category of am ha鈥檃retz and are not generally cautious with regard to the laws of ritual purity, exit from the entrance of the olive press, defecate behind the fence, and are ritually pure. There is no reason to be concerned that they might become impure in the interim. This indicates that a greater distance is unnecessary.

讘讟讛专讜转 讛拽诇讜

The Gemara responds: With regard to the laws of ritual purity, they were lenient. To ensure maintenance of purity, they were lenient and did not require a greater distance.

转讗 砖诪注 讻诪讛 讬专讞拽讜 讜讬讛讬讜 讟讛讜专讬谉 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讗 专讜讗讛讜 砖讗谞讬 讗讜讻诇讬 讟讛专讜转 讚讗拽讬诇讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉

Come and hear from what we learned: How far may workers distance themselves, and the fruit and oil will remain pure? They may distance themselves only so far that he still sees him. This contradicts the opinion of Isi bar Natan, who required them to distance themselves sufficiently that they may not be seen. The Gemara responds: Those who eat in purity are different, as the Sages were lenient with them.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专讜讗讛 讚拽讗诪专 讗讬住讬 讘专 谞转谉 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 驻专讜注讜 讗讘诇 诇讚讬讚讬讛 讞讝讬 诇讬讛

Rav Ashi said: What is the meaning of: So long as another does not see him, which was the standard that Isi bar Natan said? Sufficient that another person cannot see his nakedness, although he does see him.

讛讛讜讗 住驻讚谞讗 讚谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讛讗讬 爪谞讜注 讘讗讜专讞讜转讬讜 讛讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗转 注讬讬诇转 讘讛讚讬讛 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讜讬讚注转 讗讬 爪谞讜注 讗讬 诇讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 爪谞讜注 讗诇讗 诇诪讬 砖爪谞讜注 讘讘讬转 讛讻住讗

The Gemara relates: There was a particular eulogizer who went to eulogize an important person in the presence of Rav Na岣an. Of the deceased, he said: This man was modest in his ways. Rav Na岣an said to him: Did you go to the bathroom with him and know whether or not he was modest? As we learned in a baraita: One can only describe as modest one who is modest even in the bathroom, when no one else is there.

讜专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诇讬讛 诪讬谞讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讚转谞讬讗 讻砖诐 砖谞驻专注讬谉 诪谉 讛诪转讬诐 讻讱 谞驻专注讬谉 诪谉 讛住驻讚谞讬谉 讜诪谉 讛注讜谞讬谉 讗讞专讬讛谉

The Gemara asks: And what difference did it make to Rav Na岣an, that he was so insistent upon the details of whether or not this man was modest? The Gemara answers: Because it was taught in a baraita: Just as the deceased are punished, so too are the eulogizers and those who answer after them.The deceased are punished for transgressions committed in their lifetimes. The eulogizers and those who answer are punished for accepting the attribution of virtues that the deceased did not possess.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 爪谞讜注 讝讛 讛谞驻谞讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞驻谞讛 讘讬讜诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: Who is a modest person? One who defecates at night where he defecates during the day, i.e., who distances himself at night, in order to relieve himself, no less than he distances himself during the day.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬谞讛讬讙 讗讚诐 讗转 注爪诪讜 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛转专讞拽 讜转讜 专讘讗 讘讬诪诪讗 讛讜讛 讗讝讬诇 注讚 诪讬诇 讜讘诇讬诇讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 驻谞讜 诇讬 讚讜讻转讗 讘专讞讜讘讗 讚诪转讗 讜讻谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇砖诪注讬讛 讞讝讬 诪讗谉 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讞讘专讬讗 讚讘注讬谞讗 诇诪驻谞讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讻讚专讱 砖谞驻谞讛 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara challenges: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate in the morning and at night, when it is dark, so that he will not need to distance himself? Moreover, during the day, Rava would go up to a mil outside the city, and at night he would tell his servant: Clear a place for me in the city street. And so too, Rabbi Zeira told his servant: See who is behind the study hall, as I need to defecate. These Sages did not defecate at night in the same place where they defecated during the day. Rather, emend the statement and say as follows: In the manner that one defecates during the day, i.e. he should conduct himself at night with the same degree of modesty with which he removes his clothing when defecating during the day.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 讘诪拽讜诐 诇讗 谞爪专讻讛 讗诇讗 诇拽专谉 讝讜讬转

Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that the text can remain as it was: Where he defecates during the day, it was only necessary in the case of a corner, where one may conceal himself. In the interest of modesty, he should go around the corner at night, just as he does during the day.

讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬谞讛讬讙 讗讚诐 讗转 注爪诪讜 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛转专讞拽

The Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One must always accustom himself to defecate early in the morning and late at night so that he will not need to distance himself.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讛砖讻诐 讜爪讗 讛注专讘 讜爪讗 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 转转专讞拽 诪砖诪砖 讜砖讘 讜讗诇 转砖讘 讜转诪砖诪砖 砖讻诇 讛讬讜砖讘 讜诪诪砖诪砖 讗驻讬诇讜 注讜砖讬谉 讻砖驻讬诐 讘讗住驻诪讬讗 讘讗讬谉 注诇讬讜

That opinion was also taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai said: Rise early in the morning and go defecate, wait for evening and go defecate, so that you will not need to distance yourself. He also said: Touch around the anus first to assist in the opening of orifices and then sit; do not sit and then touch, for anyone who sits and then touches, even if sorcery is performed in a distant place like Aspamia, the sorcery will come upon him.

讜讗讬 讗谞砖讬 讜讬转讬讘 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪砖诪砖 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 讻讬 拽讗讬 诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 诇讗 诇讬 诇讗 诇讬 诇讗 转讞讬诐 讜诇讗 转讞转讬诐 诇讗 讛谞讬 讜诇讗 诪讛谞讬 诇讗 讞专砖讬 讚讞专砖讗 讜诇讗 讞专砖讬 讚讞专砖转讗

The Gemara says: And if one forgets and sits and then touches, what is his remedy? When he stands, he should recite the following incantation: Not for me, not for me, neither ta岣m nor ta岣im, types of sorcery, neither these nor from these, neither the sorcery of a sorcerer nor the sorcery of a sorceress.

转谞讬讗 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 讻诇 诪砖讻讘 砖讻讘 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 注诇 讻诇 诪讜砖讘 砖讘 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛拽讜专讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讬谞讛 讘注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻讗住讟诪讗 诇驻专讝诇讗 讬爪讬讗讛 讘注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讻讗住讟诪讗 诇驻专讝诇讗

Continuing with the subject of health, it was taught in a baraita: Ben Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam, lest you fall off. Shmuel said: Sleeping at dawn is as effective as forging [istema] is to iron. A bowel movement at dawn is as beneficial as forging is to iron.

讘专 拽驻专讗 讛讜讛 诪讝讘谉 诪讬诇讬 讘讚讬谞专讬 注讚 讚讻驻谞转 讗讻讜诇 注讚 讚爪讞讬转 砖转讬 注讚 讚专转讞讗 拽讚专讱 砖驻讜讱 拽专谞讗 拽专讬讗 讘专讜诪讬 讘专 诪讝讘讬谉 转讗谞讬 转讗谞讬 讚讗讘讜讱 讝讘讬谉

Similarly, the Gemara relates: Bar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars; he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: If you are hungry, eat; do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, if you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour it out before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: When the horn is sounded in Rome, signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, son of a fig seller, sell your father鈥檚 figs, even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘谞谉 讻讬 注讬讬诇讬转讜 讘砖讘讬诇讬 讚诪讞讜讝讗 诇诪讬驻拽 讘讬讛 讘讞拽诇讗 诇讗 转讞讝讜 诇讗 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讜诇讗 诇讛讱 讙讬住讗 讚诇诪讗 讬转讘讬 谞砖讬 讜诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇讗住转讻讜诇讬 讘讛讜

Abaye said to the Sages: When you enter the paths of the city of Me岣za in order to go out and defecate in a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them.

专讘 住驻专讗 注诇 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗转讗 专讘讬 讗讘讗 谞讞专 诇讬讛 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬注讜诇 诪专 讘转专 讚谞驻拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注讚 讛砖转讗 诇讗 注讬讬诇转 诇砖注讬专 讜讙诪专转 诇讱 诪讬诇讬 讚砖注讬专 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 转谞谉 诪讚讜专讛 讛讬转讛 砖诐 讜讘讬转 讛讻住讗 砖诇 讻讘讜讚 讜讝讛 讛讬讛 讻讘讜讚讜 诪爪讗讜 谞注讜诇 讘讬讚讜注 砖讬砖 砖诐 讗讚诐 诪爪讗讜 驻转讜讞 讘讬讚讜注 砖讗讬谉 砖诐 讗讚诐 讗诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara relates: Rav Safra once entered a bathroom, when Rabbi Abba came along. To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba coughed next to the door. Rav Safra said to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir, the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, and yet you already learned the customs of Seir? Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna concerning the Temple: There was a fire next to the ritual bath, and a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside; if he found it open, it was known that no one was inside. Speaking in the bathroom is not a desired mode of behavior.

讜讛讜讗 住讘专 诪住讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注诪讜讚 讛讞讜讝专 诪讘讬讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 诇讬讚讬 讛讚专讜拽谉 住讬诇讜谉 讛讞讜讝专 诪讘讬讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 诇讬讚讬 讬专拽讜谉

The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra held that it was dangerous for Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A column of feces that is held back because one cannot relieve himself causes dropsy [hidrokan]. A stream [silon] of urine that is held back causes jaundice.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 注诇 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 专讜诪讗讛 讚讞拽讬讛 拽诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜谞驻拽 讗转讗 讚专拽讜谞讗 砖诪讟讬讛 诇讻专讻砖讬讛 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜讗转谉 讗讚诐 转讞转讬讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 讗讚讜诐:

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed him away. Rabbi Elazar stood and left, and a serpent came and ripped out the intestines of the Roman. Rabbi Elazar recited the following verse about the Roman: 鈥淭herefore I will give man [adam] for you鈥 (Isaiah 43:4); do not read it as adam, but rather read it as Edom, meaning a Roman.

讜讗诪专 诇讛专讙讱 讜转讞住 注诇讬讱

With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: 鈥淏ehold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, and he said to kill you; and you spared you鈥 (I Samuel 24:10).

讜讗诪专 讜讗诪专转讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讜转讞住 讜讞住转讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讜 讚讜讚 诇砖讗讜诇 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讘谉 讛专讬讙讛 讗转讛 砖讛专讬 专讜讚祝 讗转讛 讜讛转讜专讛 讗诪专讛 讘讗 诇讛专讙讱 讛砖讻诐 诇讛专讙讜 讗诇讗 爪谞讬注讜转 砖讛讬转讛 讘讱 讛讬讗 讞住讛 注诇讬讱

The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: And he said? It should say: And I said. Why does the verse say: And you spared? It should say: And I spared. Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuer who seeks to kill me, and the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you.

讜诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讗诇 讙讚专讜转 讛爪讗谉 注诇 讛讚专讱 讜砖诐 诪注专讛 讜讬讘讗 砖讗讜诇 诇讛住讱 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 转谞讗 讙讚专 诇驻谞讬诐 诪谉 讙讚专 讜诪注专讛 诇驻谞讬诐 诪诪注专讛 诇讛住讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪诇诪讚 砖住讬讻讱 注爪诪讜 讻住讜讻讛:

And what is this modesty? As it is written: 鈥淎nd he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet, to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave鈥 (I Samuel 24:3). It was taught that the Sages said: There was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave, and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, to cover his feet, Rabbi Elazar said: This teaches that, even there, he covered himself with his garment like a sukka.

讜讬拽诐 讚讜讚 讜讬讻专转 讗转 讻谞祝 讛诪注讬诇 讗砖专 诇砖讗讜诇 讘诇讟 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讻诇 讛诪讘讝讛 讗转 讛讘讙讚讬诐 住讜祝 讗讬谞讜 谞讛谞讛 诪讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛诪诇讱 讚讜讚 讝拽谉 讘讗 讘讬诪讬诐 讜讬讻住讛讜 讘讘讙讚讬诐 讜诇讗 讬讞诐 诇讜:

The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: 鈥淭hen David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul鈥檚 robe privily鈥 (I Samuel 24:4). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt, like David who tore Saul鈥檚 robe for no reason, will be punished in that ultimately he will not benefit from his garments, as it is stated: 鈥淣ow King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat鈥 (I Kings 1:1).

讗诐 讛壮 讛住讬转讱 讘讬 讬专讞 诪谞讞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讚讜讚 诪住讬转 拽专讬转 诇讬 讛专讬 讗谞讬 诪讻砖讬诇讱 讘讚讘专 砖讗驻讬诇讜 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讬讜讚注讬诐 讗讜转讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 转砖讗 讗转 专讗砖 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻拽讚讬讛诐 讜谞转谞讜 讗讬砖 讻驻专 谞驻砖讜 讜讙讜壮 诪讬讚 讜讬注诪讚 砖讟谉 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬住转 讗转 讚讜讚 讘讛诐 诇讗诪专 诇讱 诪谞讛 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讻讬讜谉 讚诪谞讬谞讛讜 诇讗 砖拽诇 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讻讜驻专 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬转谉 讛壮 讚讘专 讘讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讘拽专 讜注讚 注转 诪讜注讚

As for David鈥檚 statement to Saul: 鈥淚f it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering鈥 (I Samuel 26:19), Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter? In retribution, I will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: 鈥淲hen you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them鈥 (Exodus 30:12). Immediately after God said this to David, 鈥淪atan stood up against Israel and incited David to number Israel鈥 (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, it is written: 鈥淎nd again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea鈥 (II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David鈥檚 calling God an inciter was that He incited David. And when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them, and he was punished, as it is written: 鈥淪o the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time鈥 (II Samuel 24:15).

诪讗讬 注转 诪讜注讚 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 住讘讗 讞转谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪砖注转 砖讞讬讟转 讛转诪讬讚 注讚 砖注转 讝专讬拽转讜 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 诪诪砖:

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi 岣nina, said in the name of Rabbi 岣nina: It means from when the daily offering is slaughtered until when its blood is sprinkled. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It means precisely until noon.

讜讬讗诪专 诇诪诇讗讱 讛诪砖讞讬转 讘注诐 专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪诇讗讱 讟讜诇 诇讬 专讘 砖讘讛诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 诇讬驻专注 诪讛诐 讻诪讛 讞讜讘讜转 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 诪转 讗讘讬砖讬 讘谉 爪专讜讬讛 砖砖拽讜诇 讻专讜讘讛 砖诇 住谞讛讚专讬谉:

It is also stated there: 鈥淭he Lord repented Him of the evil and said to the angel that destroyed the many [rav] people: It is enough; now stay your hand鈥 (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word rav, Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [rav] from among them, who is worthy of defraying several of Israel鈥檚 debts. As a result, at that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died. His death atoned for the entire nation.

讜讘讛砖讞讬转 专讗讛 讛壮 讜讬谞讞诐 诪讗讬 专讗讛

On a parallel note, it is said: 鈥淭he Lord beheld, and He repented him of the evil鈥 (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: What did the Lord behold?

讗诪专 专讘 专讗讛 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讬注拽讘 讻讗砖专 专讗诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗驻专讜 砖诇 讬爪讞拽 专讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛讬诐 讬专讗讛 诇讜 讛砖讛

Rav said: He saw and remembered the patriarch, Jacob, about whom the term seeing is used: 鈥淎nd Jacob said when he saw them [ra鈥檃m]: This is God鈥檚 camp鈥 (Genesis 32:3). And Shmuel said: He saw and remembered Isaac鈥檚 ashes, as it is said in the portion of the binding of Isaac: 鈥淕od will provide [yireh] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering鈥 (Genesis 22:8).

专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 谞驻讞讗 讗诪专 讻住祝 讻驻讜专讬诐 专讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇拽讞转 讗转 讻住祝 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛专 讛壮 讬专讗讛

Rabbi Yitz岣k Nappa岣 said: He saw the money of atonement that Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls鈥 (Exodus 30:16). Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: 鈥淥n the mount where the Lord is seen [yera鈥檈]鈥 (Genesis 22:14).

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讻住祝 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 专讗讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗讛 讜诪住转讘专讗 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 专讗讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖专 讬讗诪专 讛讬讜诐 讘讛专 讛壮 讬专讗讛:

Additional amora鈥檌m, Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani, differed in their opinions of what God saw. One said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And it stands to reason like the one who says that he saw the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; as it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen鈥 (Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.

诇讗 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 讘诪拽诇讜 讜讻讜壮: 诪讗讬 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 讻砖诪讛 讜专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讗讚讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 住诪讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪专讬 讗诪专 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞砖 讗讚诪拽讬驻谞讗 讗讚专讬 讗讬注讜诇 讘讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 注诇 诪谞转 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转讜 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 诪讜转专 诇注砖讜转讜 拽驻谞讚专讬讗

We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, a person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staff and his shoes. He may not make it a kappandarya. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kappandarya? Rava said: Kappandarya, as its name implies; a shortcut. Rav 岣na bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said: One may interpret this as an acrostic, as people say: Instead of circumventing the rows of houses [ademakifna adarei], I will enter this [ei鈥檕l beha] one. Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This halakha applies in a synagogue as well. However, one who enters a synagogue not intending to make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcut if he later changed his mind.

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 讗诐 讛讬讛 砖讘讬诇 诪注讬拽专讜 诪讜转专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛谞讻谞住 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诇讛转驻诇诇 诪讜转专 诇注砖讜转讜 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讘讗 注诐 讛讗专抓 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讘诪讜注讚讬诐 讜讙讜壮:

Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a path that passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, one is permitted to pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. Rabbi 岣lbo said that Rav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate鈥 (Ezekiel 46:9).

讜专拽讬拽讛 诪拽诇 讜讞讜诪专: 讗诪专 专讘 讘讬讘讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛专讜拽拽 讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讻讗讬诇讜 专讜拽拽 讘讘转 注讬谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讜 注讬谞讬 讜诇讘讬 砖诐 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐

We learned in the mishna that spitting on the Temple Mount is prohibited through an a fortiori inference. Rav Beivai said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount, even today, it is as if he spit in the pupil of God鈥檚 eye, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually鈥 (I Kings 9:3).

讗诪专 专讘讗 专拽讬拽讛 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖专讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗诪谞注诇 诪讛 诪谞注诇 讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讗住讜专 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诪讜转专 讗祝 专拽讬拽讛 讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讛讜讗 讚讗住讜专 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖专讬

Rava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mount but permitted in a synagogue.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 诇专讘讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 诪转谞讗 诇专讘讗 讗讚讬诇讬祝 诪诪谞注诇 谞讬诇祝 诪拽驻谞讚专讬讗

Rav Pappa said to Rava, and some say that Ravina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of deriving this from the case of wearing a shoe, derive it from the case of a shortcut. Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讗 讬诇讬祝 诪诪谞注诇 讜讗转 讗诪专转 诪拽驻谞讚专讬讗 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 诇讗 讘诪拽诇讜 砖讘讬讚讜 讜诇讗 讘诪谞注诇讜 砖讘专讙诇讜 讜诇讗 讘诪注讜转 讛爪专讜专讬诐 诇讜 讘住讚讬谞讜 讜讘驻讜谞讚转讜 诪讜驻砖诇转 诇讗讞讜专讬讜 讜诇讗 讬注砖谞讛 拽驻谞讚专讬讗 讜专拽讬拽讛 诪拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诪诪谞注诇 讜诪讛 诪谞注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讚专讱 讘讝讬讜谉 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 砖诇 谞注诇讬讱 诪注诇 专讙诇讬讱 专拽讬拽讛 砖讛讬讗 讚专讱 讘讝讬讜谉 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

Rava said to him: The tanna derives the prohibition of spitting from the case of a shoe, and you say that it should be derived from the case of a shortcut? The Gemara elaborates: What is this derivation from the case of a shoe? As it was taught in a baraita: One may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, nor should one make it a shortcut. All the more so, spitting is prohibited a fortiori from the halakha with regard to wearing a shoe. Just as with regard to a shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: 鈥淧ut off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground鈥 (Exodus 3:5), all the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous, should be prohibited.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讬 讗讬谉 诇讘讜讗 讗诇 砖注专 讛诪诇讱 讘诇讘讜砖 砖拽 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 砖拽 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讗讜住 诇驻谞讬 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讻讱 专拽讬拽讛 砖讛讬讗 诪讗讜住讛 诇驻谞讬 诪诇讱 诪诇讻讬 讛诪诇讻讬诐 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This a fortiori inference is unnecessary. It could be otherwise derived. It says: 鈥淔or none may enter within the king鈥檚 gate clothed with sackcloth鈥 (Esther 4:2). This matter can be inferred a fortiori: Just as sackcloth, which is generally not considered repulsive before one who is flesh and blood, is forbidden within the king鈥檚 gate, all the more so spitting, which is repulsive, should be forbidden before the King of Kings.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪讬谞讗 谞讬诪讗 讛讻讗 诇讞讜诪专讗 讜讛讻讗 诇讞讜诪专讗

The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, said to Rava: I intended to say the following: Let us say, be stringent here, with regard to the Temple Mount, and be stringent here, with regard to the synagogue,

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