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Today's Daf Yomi

January 12, 2020 | ט״ו בטבת תש״פ

Berakhot 9

Can one recite shema right before and right after sunrise and fulfill both the night and day obligations? Why when the mishna lists mitzvot that can be done all night, it doesn’t list eating the Pesach sacrifice? Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria and Rabbi Akiva have a debate regarding the time one can eat the Pesach sacrifice – midnight or until the end of the night. Why did the Jews borrow jewelry from the Egyptians before they left? Were they happy to do this or not? From when can one read shema in the mornig and until when? Does one need to juxtapose the blessing after shema of redemption to shmone esreh? If so, how does this effect the time whne one can say shema?

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

לא לעולם יממא הוא והאי דקרו ליה ליליא דאיכא אינשי דגנו בההיא שעתא

The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just before sunrise is considered day and the fact that it is referred to here as night is because there are people who are still asleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as beshokhbekha [when you lie down] despite the fact that it is already day.

אמר רבי אחא ברבי חנינא אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה כרבי שמעון שאמר משום רבי עקיבא אמר רבי זירא ובלבד שלא יאמר השכיבנו

Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Zeira said: As long as he will not recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] as well, after reciting the evening Shema before sunrise, as the blessing: Help us lie down, is a prayer that we sleep in peace, which is inappropriate in the morning.

כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי אחא ברבי חנינא אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי לאו בפירוש איתמר אלא מכללא איתמר

That is how the halakha was taught in the study hall. However, when Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi lived, he said that this ruling that Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, was not said explicitly by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Rather, it was stated that he held that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva based on inference.

דההוא זוגא דרבנן דאשתכור בהלולא דבריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אתו לקמיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כדאי הוא רבי שמעון לסמוך עליו בשעת הדחק:

The incident was as follows: This pair of Sages got drunk at the wedding of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s son and fell asleep before reciting the evening Shema. By the time they awoke, dawn had already passed. They came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and asked him if they could still recite the evening Shema. He said to them: Rabbi Shimon is worthy to rely upon in exigent circumstances. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and, in a case where there are no exigent circumstances, one may not rely on this ruling.

מעשה שבאו בניו וכו׳:

The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel’s sons returned very late from a wedding hall and they asked their father if they were permitted to recite Shema after midnight.

ועד השתא לא שמיע להו הא דרבן גמליאל

The Gemara asks: And until now, had they not heard this halakha of Rabban Gamliel? Were they unaware that he held that one is permitted to recite the evening Shema after midnight?

הכי קאמרי ליה רבנן פליגי עילווך ויחיד ורבים הלכה כרבים או דלמא רבנן כוותך סבירא להו והאי דקאמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה אמר להו רבנן כוותי סבירא להו וחייבין אתם והאי דקאמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:

The Gemara answers that Rabban Gamliel’s sons did not ask him his opinion. Rather, they said to him as follows: Do the Rabbis fundamentally disagree with you concerning this halakha, holding that Shema may be recited only until midnight? If so, when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, in which case we must, in practice, follow the opinion of the Rabbis. Or perhaps, do the Rabbis hold in accordance with your opinion that the time of the evening Shema extends throughout the night, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression? If the latter is true, then, when there are extenuating circumstances, one may recite the evening Shema after midnight. Rabban Gamliel replied to his sons: The Rabbis agree with me and you are still obligated to recite Shema. The Rabbis say that Shema may only be recited until midnight in order to distance a person from transgression, but, after the fact, even the Rabbis permit recitation after midnight.

ולא זו בלבד אמרו אלא וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna that Rabban Gamliel told his sons: And that is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but, rather, wherever the Rabbis say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.

ורבן גמליאל מי קאמר עד חצות דקתני ולא זו בלבד אמרו

The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Does Rabban Gamliel say until midnight, that he teaches: And not only did they say? Rabban Gamliel does not restrict the time for the recitation of Shema until midnight, so why does he say, and not only do they say, implying that he agrees with that stringency?

הכי קאמר להו רבן גמליאל לבניה אפילו לרבנן דקאמרי עד חצות מצותה עד שיעלה עמוד השחר והאי דקא אמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:

The Gemara explains that this is what Rabban Gamliel said to his sons: Even according to the Rabbis, who say that the mitzva may be performed only until midnight, the biblical obligation to perform the mitzva continues until dawn, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression.

הקטר חלבים וכו׳:

In our mishna, Rabban Gamliel cites several cases where a mitzva that must be performed before midnight may actually be performed until dawn; among them, the burning of fats and limbs on the altar.

ואילו אכילת פסחים לא קתני

The Gemara notes: In our mishna, the eating of the Paschal lamb was not taught among those mitzvot that may be performed until dawn, indicating that the mitzva of eating the Paschal lamb does not extend until dawn.

ורמינהי קריאת שמע ערבית והלל בלילי פסחים ואכילת פסח מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר

The Gemara raises a contradiction to this conclusion based on a baraita: The mitzvot of the recitation of the evening Shema, the recitation of hallel on the nights of Passover accompanying the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb, as well as eating the Paschal lamb, may all be performed until dawn.

אמר רב יוסף לא קשיא הא רבי אלעזר בן עזריה הא רבי עקיבא דתניא ואכלו את הבשר בלילה הזה רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר נאמר כאן בלילה הזה ונאמר להלן ועברתי בארץ מצרים בלילה הזה מה להלן עד חצות אף כאן עד חצות

Rav Yosef said: This is not difficult as these two sources reflect two conflicting opinions. This, our mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. While this, the baraita, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse discussing the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb: “And they shall eat of the meat on that night; roasted over fire and matzot with bitter herbs shall they eat it” (Exodus 12:8); Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Here it is stated: “On that night,” from which we cannot determine when night ends. The same expression is encountered later in the same chapter: “And I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from person to animal” (Exodus 12:12). We know when the firstborns were struck down based on the verse “Thus said the Lord: At about midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt and every firstborn in Egypt shall die” (Exodus 11:4–5). Therefore, just as in the verse below, the striking of the firstborns took place until midnight, as stated explicitly in the verse, so too in the verse here, the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb continues until midnight.

אמר ליה רבי עקיבא והלא כבר נאמר בחפזון עד שעת חפזון אם כן מה תלמוד לומר בלילה

Rabbi Akiva said to him: Was it not already said, “Thus you shall eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, your staffs in your hands and you will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11)? Therefore the Paschal lamb may be eaten until the time of haste. Since the time of haste is when Israel left Egypt, and it is said, “You will not leave, every man from his house, until the morning,” then the Paschal lamb may be eaten until dawn. If that is so, why does the verse state: On that night?

יכול יהא נאכל כקדשים ביום תלמוד לומר בלילה בלילה הוא נאכל ולא ביום

The Gemara explains that the phrase on that night is necessary because without it I might have thought that the Paschal lamb is eaten during the day, like all other sacrifices, which must all be slaughtered and eaten during the day. Therefore, the verse states: On that night, to underscore that this particular sacrifice is eaten at night and not during the day.
Essentially, the difference between these two opinions revolves around which word they deemed significant. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya considered the word night as the key word, while Rabbi Akiva considered the word haste as the key word. The Gemara begins to analyze their statements.

בשלמא לרבי אלעזר בן עזריה דאית ליה גזירה שוה אצטריך למכתב ליה הזה אלא לרבי עקיבא האי הזה מאי עביד ליה

Granted, according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who has the tradition of a verbal analogy between the phrase, on that night, with regard to the eating of the Paschal lamb and the phrase, on that night, with regard to the striking of the firstborn in Egypt, it was necessary for the verse to write “that” in order to indicate that these times are parallel. However, according to Rabbi Akiva, who has no such tradition, what does he do with “that”? Why is it necessary to emphasize on that night?

למעוטי לילה אחר הוא דאתא סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ופסח קדשים קלים ושלמים קדשים קלים מה שלמים נאכלין לשני ימים ולילה אחד אף פסח נאכל שתי לילות במקום שני ימים ויהא נאכל לשני לילות ויום אחד קמשמע לן בלילה הזה בלילה הזה הוא נאכל ואינו נאכל בלילה אחר

The Gemara answers: On that night comes to exclude another night, as one might otherwise have concluded that the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights. It would have entered your mind to say: Since the Paschal lamb falls into the category of sacrifices of lesser sanctity, and peace-offerings are also sacrifices of lesser sanctity, just as peace-offerings may be eaten for two days and one night, i.e., the day that they are sacrificed through the following day, as we learned in the Torah, so too the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights instead of two days. In other words, one might otherwise mistakenly conclude from its parallel to peace-offerings, that the Paschal lamb is to be eaten for two nights and the day between them. Therefore, the verse teaches us specifically on that night, i.e., on that night it is eaten, and it is not eaten on another night.

ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derive that the Paschal lamb cannot be eaten for two nights?

מלא תותירו עד בקר נפקא

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derives this conclusion from the verse: “It should not remain until the morning” (Exodus 12:10). If one is prohibited from leaving over any part of the sacrifice until the morning, he is certainly prohibited from leaving it over until the following night. Therefore, it is unnecessary to cite an additional source to teach that the Paschal lamb may only be eaten on the first night.

ורבי עקיבא אי מהתם הוה אמינא מאי בקר בקר שני

And why does Rabbi Akiva require “that” to derive that the Paschal lamb may not be eaten on the second night? According to Rabbi Akiva, if it was derived from the verse: “It should not remain until the morning,” I would have said: What is the meaning of morning? It means the second morning, as the Torah does not specify until which morning the Paschal lamb may not be left; until the first morning or the second morning. Therefore, the Torah needed to write on that night and no other.

ורבי אלעזר אמר לך כל בקר בקר ראשון הוא

And what would Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya respond? He could have said to you: If it is not otherwise noted, every unmodified mention of the word morning in the Bible refers to the first, i.e., the next, morning. If that were not the case, no biblical text could have any definite meaning.

והני תנאי כהני תנאי דתניא שם תזבח את הפסח בערב כבוא השמש מועד צאתך ממצרים

Concerning the tannaitic dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya regarding until when the Paschal lamb may be eaten, the Gemara remarks: The dispute between these tanna’im is parallel to the dispute between those tanna’im, who disagree over the same issue. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “There you will offer the Paschal lamb, in the evening when the sun sets at the time when you left the land of Egypt” (Deuteronomy 16:6). Upon closer examination, it seems that this verse mentions three distinct times: In the evening, refers to the afternoon until sunset; when the sun sets, refers to the time of sunset itself; and the time when you left the land of Egypt refers to, as explained in Exodus, the early hours of the morning. Therefore it seems that these times parallel the different stages of the mitzva of the Paschal lamb, and it is regarding these details that the tanna’im disagree.

רבי אליעזר אומר בערב אתה זובח וכבוא השמש אתה אוכל ומועד צאתך ממצרים אתה שורף רבי יהושע אומר בערב אתה זובח כבוא השמש אתה אוכל ועד מתי אתה אוכל והולך עד מועד צאתך ממצרים

Rabbi Eliezer says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets until midnight you eat it, and at the time when you left the land of Egypt you burn what remains from the sacrifice, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets, you eat it. And until when do you continue eating? Until the time when you left the land of Egypt, meaning until morning, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

אמר רבי אבא הכל מודים כשנגאלו ישראל ממצרים לא נגאלו אלא בערב שנאמר הוציאך ה׳ אלהיך ממצרים לילה וכשיצאו לא יצאו אלא ביום שנאמר ממחרת הפסח יצאו בני ישראל ביד רמה

The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the dispute between Rabbi Elazer ben Azarya and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Abba said: Everyone agrees that when the children of Israel were redeemed from Egypt were given permission to leave, they were redeemed only in the evening, as it is stated: “In the spring the Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night” (Deuteronomy 16:1). And when they actually left, they left only during the day, as it is stated: “On the fifteenth of the first month, on the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand before the eyes of Egypt” (Numbers 33:3), indicating that they actually went out during the day.

על מה נחלקו על שעת חפזון רבי אלעזר בן עזריה סבר מאי חפזון חפזון דמצרים

However, with regard to what did they disagree? They disagreed with regard to the time of haste, as it is written: “You will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of the Egyptians at midnight, as they hurried to the houses of the people of Israel to send them away, in fear of the plague of the firstborn.

ורבי עקיבא סבר מאי חפזון חפזון דישראל

And Rabbi Akiva held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of Israel in the morning, as they rushed to leave Egypt.

תניא נמי הכי הוציאך ה׳ אלהיך ממצרים לילה וכי בלילה יצאו והלא לא יצאו אלא ביום שנאמר ממחרת הפסח יצאו בני ישראל ביד רמה אלא מלמד שהתחילה להם גאולה מבערב:

Similar to Rabbi Abba’s statement, it was also taught in a baraita, regarding the verse: “The Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night,” the question arises: Did they leave at night? Didn’t they leave during the day, as it is stated: “On the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand”? Rather, this teaches that the redemption began for them in the evening.

דבר נא באזני העם וגו׳ אמרי דבי רבי ינאי אין נא אלא לשון בקשה אמר ליה הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה בבקשה ממך לך ואמור להם לישראל בבקשה מכם שאלו ממצרים כלי כסף וכלי זהב שלא יאמר

Since the last topic discussed in the Gemara revolved around the exodus from Egypt, the Gemara cites additional aggadic midrash on that subject. With regard to the verse: “Speak, please [na] in the ears of the people, and they should borrow, every man from his fellow and every woman from her fellow, silver and gold vessels” (Exodus 11:2), the word please [na] is unclear. The students of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Please [na] is nothing more than an expression of supplication. Why would God employ an expression of supplication in approaching Israel? The Gemara explains that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I beseech you, go and tell Israel: I beseech you; borrow vessels of silver and vessels of gold from the Egyptians in order to fulfill the promise I made to Abraham in the “Covenant between the Pieces,” so that

אותו צדיק ועבדום וענו אתם קיים בהם ואחרי כן יצאו ברכש גדול לא קיים בהם

that righteous person, Abraham, will not say: God fulfilled His pronouncement: “And they will be enslaved and afflicted,” but God did not fulfill His pronouncement: “And afterward, they will leave with great possessions.” As God said to Abraham: “Surely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions” (Genesis 15:13–14).

אמרו לו ולואי שנצא בעצמנו משל לאדם שהיה חבוש בבית האסורים והיו אומרים לו בני אדם מוציאין אותך למחר מבית האסורין ונותנין לך ממון הרבה ואומר להם בבקשה מכם הוציאוני היום ואיני מבקש כלום:

The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel said to Moses: If only we could get out ourselves. The Gemara offers a parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him: We promise, we will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing. So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.

וישאלום אמר רבי אמי מלמד שהשאילום בעל כרחם איכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דמצרים ואיכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דישראל

With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: “And the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, and they gave them what they requested and they emptied Egypt” (Exodus 12:36), Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that the Egyptians gave them what they requested against their will. There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? Some say it was given against the will of the Egyptians, and some say it was given against the will of Israel. The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion.

מאן דאמר בעל כרחם דמצרים דכתיב ונות בית תחלק שלל מאן דאמר בעל כרחם דישראל משום משוי:

The one who said that it was given against the will of the Egyptians cites the verse describing Israel’s exit from Egypt, as it is written: “And she who tarries at home divides the spoils” (Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. The one who said that it was given against the will of Israel, claims that they did not want the vessels because of the burden of carrying a heavy load on a long journey.

וינצלו את מצרים אמר רבי אמי מלמד שעשאוה כמצודה שאין בה דגן וריש לקיש אמר עשאוה כמצולה שאין בה דגים:

With regard to the continuation of the verse: And they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said: This indicates that they made Egypt like a trap in which there is no grain that serves as bait to attract birds. Reish Lakish said: They made Egypt like an abyss in the sea without fish.

אהיה אשר אהיה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור להם לישראל אני הייתי עמכם בשעבוד זה ואני אהיה עמכם בשעבוד מלכיות

The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God’s name, “and God said to Moses: ‘I will be that I will be,’ and He said: ‘Thus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you’” (Exodus 3:14). The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses to go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement, and in this redemption, and I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdoms in the future.

אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם דיה לצרה בשעתה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לך אמור להם אהיה שלחני אליכם:

Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough for them to endure. Let the future suffering be endured at its appointed time. There is no need to mention their future enslavement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with Moses and said to him: Go and tell the children of Israel only that, “I will be has sent me to you.”

ענני ה׳ ענני אמר רבי אבהו למה אמר אליהו ענני שתי פעמים מלמד שאמר אליהו לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם ענני שתרד אש מן השמים ותאכל כל אשר על המזבח וענני שתסיח דעתם כדי שלא יאמרו מעשה כשפים הם שנאמר ואתה הסבת את לבם אחורנית:

Having explained the use of the double language of “I will be that I will be,” the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: “Answer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward” (I Kings 18:37). Rabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice? This repetition teaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mind from devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so that they will say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is stated that Elijah said: “And You have turned their hearts backward,” God can restore them to the proper path as well.

מתני׳ מאימתי קורין את שמע בשחרית משיכיר בין תכלת ללבן רבי אליעזר אומר בין תכלת לכרתי וגומרה עד הנץ החמה רבי יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות

MISHNA: From when does one recite Shema in the morning? From when a person can distinguish between sky-blue [tekhelet] and white.
Rabbi Eliezer says: From when one can distinguish between sky-blue and leek-green.
And one must finish reciting Shema until the end of the period when you rise, i.e., sunrise, when the sun begins to shine.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may recite the morning Shema until three hours of the day, which this is still considered when you rise, as that is the habit of kings to rise from their sleep at three hours of the day.

הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה:

While there is a set time frame for the recitation of Shema, one who recites Shema from that time onward loses nothing. Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of Shema at its appointed time, he is nevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.

גמ׳ מאי בין תכלת ללבן אילימא בין גבבא דעמרא חיורא לגבבא דעמרא דתכלתא הא בליליא נמי מידע ידעי אלא בין תכלת שבה ללבן שבה

GEMARA: The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning Shema begins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To what is between sky-blue and white referring? If you say that it means distinguishing between a pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn’t one know the difference at night, as well? Rather, it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish between the sky-blue strings in the ritual fringes and the white strings in the ritual fringes.
With regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning Shema, a baraita cites additional opinions not cited in the mishna.

תניא רבי מאיר אומר משיכיר בין זאב לכלב רבי עקיבא אומר בין חמור לערוד ואחרים אומרים משיראה את חברו רחוק ארבע אמות ויכירנו

It was taught in a baraita:
Rabbi Meir says that the day begins when one can distinguish between two similar animals, e.g., a wolf and a dog.
Rabbi Akiva provides a different sign, and says that the day begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
And Aḥerim say: When one can see another person, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from a distance of four cubits and recognize him.

אמר רב הונא הלכה כאחרים אמר אביי לתפילין כאחרים לקריאת שמע כותיקין דאמר רבי יוחנן ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה

Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. Abaye said: Regarding the time from which one may don phylacteries, a mitzva incumbent only by day, the halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. But with regard to the recitation of Shema, one should conduct himself in accordance with the custom of the vatikin, pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise, and one should act accordingly.

תניא נמי הכי ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה כדי שיסמוך גאולה לתפלה ונמצא מתפלל ביום

It was also taught in a baraita: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise in order to juxtapose the blessing of redemption, which immediately follows the recitation of Shema, with prayer, and pray during the day.

אמר רבי זירא מאי קראה ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים

Regarding this custom of the vatikin, Rabbi Zeira said: What verse is the source for this tradition? “They shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations” (Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one’s awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun.

העיד רבי יוסי בן אליקים משום קהלא קדישא דבירושלים כל הסומך גאולה לתפלה אינו נזוק כל היום כולו

Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem, a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer at sunrise will incur no harm for the entire day.

אמר רבי זירא איני והא אנא סמכי ואיתזקי אמר ליה במאי איתזקת דאמטיית אסא לבי מלכא התם נמי מבעי לך למיהב אגרא למחזי אפי מלכא דאמר רבי יוחנן לעולם ישתדל אדם לרוץ לקראת מלכי ישראל ולא לקראת מלכי ישראל בלבד אלא אפילו לקראת מלכי אומות העולם שאם יזכה יבחין בין מלכי ישראל למלכי אומות העולם

Rabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn’t I juxtapose redemption and prayer and nevertheless I was harmed? Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim asked Rabbi Zeira: How were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king’s palace? The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira’s responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, there, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israel to witness them in their glory. And not only must one run to greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world, to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king.

אמר ליה רבי אלעא לעולא כי עיילת להתם שאיל בשלמא דרב ברונא אחי במעמד כל החבורה דאדם גדול הוא ושמח במצות זימנא חדא סמך גאולה לתפלה ולא פסיק חוכא מפומיה כוליה יומא

Rabbi El’a said to Ulla before Ulla left for Babylonia: When you go to Babylonia, ask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot, and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: Once, Rav Beruna juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise, as per the custom of the vatikin (Tosafot), and laughter and joy did not cease from his mouth for the entire day.

היכי מצי סמיך והא אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה הוא אומר ה׳ שפתי תפתח ולבסוף הוא אומר יהיו לרצון אמרי פי וגו׳

In practice, the Gemara asks: How is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: At the beginning of prayer, one says: “Lord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory” (Psalms 51:17), and at the end of prayer one says: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer” (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer.

אמר רבי אלעזר תהא בתפלה של ערבית

Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse, “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only in the evening prayer but not in the morning prayer.

והא אמר רבי יוחנן איזהו בן העולם הבא זהו הסומך גאולה של ערבית לתפלה של ערבית

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: Who is worthy of a place in the World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer. Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either.

אלא אמר רבי אלעזר תהא בתפלת המנחה

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse: “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only before the afternoon prayer.

רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא אכולהו וכיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא

Rav Ashi said another explanation: Even if you say that Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that “Lord, open my lips” is recited before all prayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. Since the Sages instituted this verse, it is considered as an extended prayer; it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.

דאי לא תימא הכי ערבית היכי מצי סמיך והא בעי למימר השכיבנו אלא כיון דתקינו רבנן השכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא הכי נמי כיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא

Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: As if you do not say so, how does one juxtapose redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer? Mustn’t one recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] after redemption? Rather, since the Sages instituted the recitation of: Help us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages instituted this verse in prayer, it is considered as an extended prayer.

מכדי האי יהיו לרצון אמרי פי משמע לבסוף ומשמע מעיקרא דבעינא למימר מאי טעמא תקנוהו רבנן לאחר שמונה עשרה ברכות לימרו מעיקרא

With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: Now, since this verse: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You,” can connote the end of prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, and it can connote the beginning of the prayer that he wants to recite: May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: Why did the Sages institute that it is to be recited after the eighteen blessings that constitute the Amida? Let it be recited at the beginning of the prayer.

אמר רבי יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי הואיל ולא אמרו דוד אלא לאחר שמונה עשרה פרשיות לפיכך תקינו רבנן לאחר שמונה עשרה ברכות

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the Amida because David only said this verse after eighteen chapters of Psalms (end of ch. 19). Therefore, the Sages instituted to recite it after the eighteen blessings of the Amida.

הני שמונה עשרה תשע עשרה הוין

The Gemara asks: Are these eighteen psalms? They are nineteen chapters that precede that verse.

אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא

The Gemara answers: “Happy is the man,” the first chapter of Psalms, and “Why are the nations in an uproar,” the second chapter, constitute a single chapter, so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.

דאמר רבי יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי מאה ושלש פרשיות אמר דוד ולא אמר הללויה עד שראה במפלתן של רשעים שנאמר יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה׳ הללויה

The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. As Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say Halleluya in any of them until he saw the downfall of the wicked. Only then could David say Halleluya wholeheartedly. As it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, Halleluya (Psalms 104:35).

הני מאה ושלש מאה וארבע הויין אלא שמע מינה אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא

Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are these one hundred and three psalms? They are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from this that “Happy is the man” and “Why are the nations in uproar” constitute a single portion.

דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן

Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said:

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite ‘Til...

Berakhot 9

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Berakhot 9

לא לעולם יממא הוא והאי דקרו ליה ליליא דאיכא אינשי דגנו בההיא שעתא

The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just before sunrise is considered day and the fact that it is referred to here as night is because there are people who are still asleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as beshokhbekha [when you lie down] despite the fact that it is already day.

אמר רבי אחא ברבי חנינא אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה כרבי שמעון שאמר משום רבי עקיבא אמר רבי זירא ובלבד שלא יאמר השכיבנו

Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Zeira said: As long as he will not recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] as well, after reciting the evening Shema before sunrise, as the blessing: Help us lie down, is a prayer that we sleep in peace, which is inappropriate in the morning.

כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי אחא ברבי חנינא אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי לאו בפירוש איתמר אלא מכללא איתמר

That is how the halakha was taught in the study hall. However, when Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi lived, he said that this ruling that Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, was not said explicitly by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Rather, it was stated that he held that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva based on inference.

דההוא זוגא דרבנן דאשתכור בהלולא דבריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אתו לקמיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כדאי הוא רבי שמעון לסמוך עליו בשעת הדחק:

The incident was as follows: This pair of Sages got drunk at the wedding of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s son and fell asleep before reciting the evening Shema. By the time they awoke, dawn had already passed. They came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and asked him if they could still recite the evening Shema. He said to them: Rabbi Shimon is worthy to rely upon in exigent circumstances. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and, in a case where there are no exigent circumstances, one may not rely on this ruling.

מעשה שבאו בניו וכו׳:

The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel’s sons returned very late from a wedding hall and they asked their father if they were permitted to recite Shema after midnight.

ועד השתא לא שמיע להו הא דרבן גמליאל

The Gemara asks: And until now, had they not heard this halakha of Rabban Gamliel? Were they unaware that he held that one is permitted to recite the evening Shema after midnight?

הכי קאמרי ליה רבנן פליגי עילווך ויחיד ורבים הלכה כרבים או דלמא רבנן כוותך סבירא להו והאי דקאמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה אמר להו רבנן כוותי סבירא להו וחייבין אתם והאי דקאמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:

The Gemara answers that Rabban Gamliel’s sons did not ask him his opinion. Rather, they said to him as follows: Do the Rabbis fundamentally disagree with you concerning this halakha, holding that Shema may be recited only until midnight? If so, when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, in which case we must, in practice, follow the opinion of the Rabbis. Or perhaps, do the Rabbis hold in accordance with your opinion that the time of the evening Shema extends throughout the night, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression? If the latter is true, then, when there are extenuating circumstances, one may recite the evening Shema after midnight. Rabban Gamliel replied to his sons: The Rabbis agree with me and you are still obligated to recite Shema. The Rabbis say that Shema may only be recited until midnight in order to distance a person from transgression, but, after the fact, even the Rabbis permit recitation after midnight.

ולא זו בלבד אמרו אלא וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna that Rabban Gamliel told his sons: And that is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but, rather, wherever the Rabbis say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.

ורבן גמליאל מי קאמר עד חצות דקתני ולא זו בלבד אמרו

The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Does Rabban Gamliel say until midnight, that he teaches: And not only did they say? Rabban Gamliel does not restrict the time for the recitation of Shema until midnight, so why does he say, and not only do they say, implying that he agrees with that stringency?

הכי קאמר להו רבן גמליאל לבניה אפילו לרבנן דקאמרי עד חצות מצותה עד שיעלה עמוד השחר והאי דקא אמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:

The Gemara explains that this is what Rabban Gamliel said to his sons: Even according to the Rabbis, who say that the mitzva may be performed only until midnight, the biblical obligation to perform the mitzva continues until dawn, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression.

הקטר חלבים וכו׳:

In our mishna, Rabban Gamliel cites several cases where a mitzva that must be performed before midnight may actually be performed until dawn; among them, the burning of fats and limbs on the altar.

ואילו אכילת פסחים לא קתני

The Gemara notes: In our mishna, the eating of the Paschal lamb was not taught among those mitzvot that may be performed until dawn, indicating that the mitzva of eating the Paschal lamb does not extend until dawn.

ורמינהי קריאת שמע ערבית והלל בלילי פסחים ואכילת פסח מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר

The Gemara raises a contradiction to this conclusion based on a baraita: The mitzvot of the recitation of the evening Shema, the recitation of hallel on the nights of Passover accompanying the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb, as well as eating the Paschal lamb, may all be performed until dawn.

אמר רב יוסף לא קשיא הא רבי אלעזר בן עזריה הא רבי עקיבא דתניא ואכלו את הבשר בלילה הזה רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר נאמר כאן בלילה הזה ונאמר להלן ועברתי בארץ מצרים בלילה הזה מה להלן עד חצות אף כאן עד חצות

Rav Yosef said: This is not difficult as these two sources reflect two conflicting opinions. This, our mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. While this, the baraita, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse discussing the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb: “And they shall eat of the meat on that night; roasted over fire and matzot with bitter herbs shall they eat it” (Exodus 12:8); Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Here it is stated: “On that night,” from which we cannot determine when night ends. The same expression is encountered later in the same chapter: “And I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from person to animal” (Exodus 12:12). We know when the firstborns were struck down based on the verse “Thus said the Lord: At about midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt and every firstborn in Egypt shall die” (Exodus 11:4–5). Therefore, just as in the verse below, the striking of the firstborns took place until midnight, as stated explicitly in the verse, so too in the verse here, the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb continues until midnight.

אמר ליה רבי עקיבא והלא כבר נאמר בחפזון עד שעת חפזון אם כן מה תלמוד לומר בלילה

Rabbi Akiva said to him: Was it not already said, “Thus you shall eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, your staffs in your hands and you will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11)? Therefore the Paschal lamb may be eaten until the time of haste. Since the time of haste is when Israel left Egypt, and it is said, “You will not leave, every man from his house, until the morning,” then the Paschal lamb may be eaten until dawn. If that is so, why does the verse state: On that night?

יכול יהא נאכל כקדשים ביום תלמוד לומר בלילה בלילה הוא נאכל ולא ביום

The Gemara explains that the phrase on that night is necessary because without it I might have thought that the Paschal lamb is eaten during the day, like all other sacrifices, which must all be slaughtered and eaten during the day. Therefore, the verse states: On that night, to underscore that this particular sacrifice is eaten at night and not during the day.
Essentially, the difference between these two opinions revolves around which word they deemed significant. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya considered the word night as the key word, while Rabbi Akiva considered the word haste as the key word. The Gemara begins to analyze their statements.

בשלמא לרבי אלעזר בן עזריה דאית ליה גזירה שוה אצטריך למכתב ליה הזה אלא לרבי עקיבא האי הזה מאי עביד ליה

Granted, according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who has the tradition of a verbal analogy between the phrase, on that night, with regard to the eating of the Paschal lamb and the phrase, on that night, with regard to the striking of the firstborn in Egypt, it was necessary for the verse to write “that” in order to indicate that these times are parallel. However, according to Rabbi Akiva, who has no such tradition, what does he do with “that”? Why is it necessary to emphasize on that night?

למעוטי לילה אחר הוא דאתא סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ופסח קדשים קלים ושלמים קדשים קלים מה שלמים נאכלין לשני ימים ולילה אחד אף פסח נאכל שתי לילות במקום שני ימים ויהא נאכל לשני לילות ויום אחד קמשמע לן בלילה הזה בלילה הזה הוא נאכל ואינו נאכל בלילה אחר

The Gemara answers: On that night comes to exclude another night, as one might otherwise have concluded that the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights. It would have entered your mind to say: Since the Paschal lamb falls into the category of sacrifices of lesser sanctity, and peace-offerings are also sacrifices of lesser sanctity, just as peace-offerings may be eaten for two days and one night, i.e., the day that they are sacrificed through the following day, as we learned in the Torah, so too the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights instead of two days. In other words, one might otherwise mistakenly conclude from its parallel to peace-offerings, that the Paschal lamb is to be eaten for two nights and the day between them. Therefore, the verse teaches us specifically on that night, i.e., on that night it is eaten, and it is not eaten on another night.

ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derive that the Paschal lamb cannot be eaten for two nights?

מלא תותירו עד בקר נפקא

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derives this conclusion from the verse: “It should not remain until the morning” (Exodus 12:10). If one is prohibited from leaving over any part of the sacrifice until the morning, he is certainly prohibited from leaving it over until the following night. Therefore, it is unnecessary to cite an additional source to teach that the Paschal lamb may only be eaten on the first night.

ורבי עקיבא אי מהתם הוה אמינא מאי בקר בקר שני

And why does Rabbi Akiva require “that” to derive that the Paschal lamb may not be eaten on the second night? According to Rabbi Akiva, if it was derived from the verse: “It should not remain until the morning,” I would have said: What is the meaning of morning? It means the second morning, as the Torah does not specify until which morning the Paschal lamb may not be left; until the first morning or the second morning. Therefore, the Torah needed to write on that night and no other.

ורבי אלעזר אמר לך כל בקר בקר ראשון הוא

And what would Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya respond? He could have said to you: If it is not otherwise noted, every unmodified mention of the word morning in the Bible refers to the first, i.e., the next, morning. If that were not the case, no biblical text could have any definite meaning.

והני תנאי כהני תנאי דתניא שם תזבח את הפסח בערב כבוא השמש מועד צאתך ממצרים

Concerning the tannaitic dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya regarding until when the Paschal lamb may be eaten, the Gemara remarks: The dispute between these tanna’im is parallel to the dispute between those tanna’im, who disagree over the same issue. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “There you will offer the Paschal lamb, in the evening when the sun sets at the time when you left the land of Egypt” (Deuteronomy 16:6). Upon closer examination, it seems that this verse mentions three distinct times: In the evening, refers to the afternoon until sunset; when the sun sets, refers to the time of sunset itself; and the time when you left the land of Egypt refers to, as explained in Exodus, the early hours of the morning. Therefore it seems that these times parallel the different stages of the mitzva of the Paschal lamb, and it is regarding these details that the tanna’im disagree.

רבי אליעזר אומר בערב אתה זובח וכבוא השמש אתה אוכל ומועד צאתך ממצרים אתה שורף רבי יהושע אומר בערב אתה זובח כבוא השמש אתה אוכל ועד מתי אתה אוכל והולך עד מועד צאתך ממצרים

Rabbi Eliezer says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets until midnight you eat it, and at the time when you left the land of Egypt you burn what remains from the sacrifice, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets, you eat it. And until when do you continue eating? Until the time when you left the land of Egypt, meaning until morning, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

אמר רבי אבא הכל מודים כשנגאלו ישראל ממצרים לא נגאלו אלא בערב שנאמר הוציאך ה׳ אלהיך ממצרים לילה וכשיצאו לא יצאו אלא ביום שנאמר ממחרת הפסח יצאו בני ישראל ביד רמה

The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the dispute between Rabbi Elazer ben Azarya and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Abba said: Everyone agrees that when the children of Israel were redeemed from Egypt were given permission to leave, they were redeemed only in the evening, as it is stated: “In the spring the Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night” (Deuteronomy 16:1). And when they actually left, they left only during the day, as it is stated: “On the fifteenth of the first month, on the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand before the eyes of Egypt” (Numbers 33:3), indicating that they actually went out during the day.

על מה נחלקו על שעת חפזון רבי אלעזר בן עזריה סבר מאי חפזון חפזון דמצרים

However, with regard to what did they disagree? They disagreed with regard to the time of haste, as it is written: “You will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of the Egyptians at midnight, as they hurried to the houses of the people of Israel to send them away, in fear of the plague of the firstborn.

ורבי עקיבא סבר מאי חפזון חפזון דישראל

And Rabbi Akiva held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of Israel in the morning, as they rushed to leave Egypt.

תניא נמי הכי הוציאך ה׳ אלהיך ממצרים לילה וכי בלילה יצאו והלא לא יצאו אלא ביום שנאמר ממחרת הפסח יצאו בני ישראל ביד רמה אלא מלמד שהתחילה להם גאולה מבערב:

Similar to Rabbi Abba’s statement, it was also taught in a baraita, regarding the verse: “The Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night,” the question arises: Did they leave at night? Didn’t they leave during the day, as it is stated: “On the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand”? Rather, this teaches that the redemption began for them in the evening.

דבר נא באזני העם וגו׳ אמרי דבי רבי ינאי אין נא אלא לשון בקשה אמר ליה הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה בבקשה ממך לך ואמור להם לישראל בבקשה מכם שאלו ממצרים כלי כסף וכלי זהב שלא יאמר

Since the last topic discussed in the Gemara revolved around the exodus from Egypt, the Gemara cites additional aggadic midrash on that subject. With regard to the verse: “Speak, please [na] in the ears of the people, and they should borrow, every man from his fellow and every woman from her fellow, silver and gold vessels” (Exodus 11:2), the word please [na] is unclear. The students of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Please [na] is nothing more than an expression of supplication. Why would God employ an expression of supplication in approaching Israel? The Gemara explains that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I beseech you, go and tell Israel: I beseech you; borrow vessels of silver and vessels of gold from the Egyptians in order to fulfill the promise I made to Abraham in the “Covenant between the Pieces,” so that

אותו צדיק ועבדום וענו אתם קיים בהם ואחרי כן יצאו ברכש גדול לא קיים בהם

that righteous person, Abraham, will not say: God fulfilled His pronouncement: “And they will be enslaved and afflicted,” but God did not fulfill His pronouncement: “And afterward, they will leave with great possessions.” As God said to Abraham: “Surely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions” (Genesis 15:13–14).

אמרו לו ולואי שנצא בעצמנו משל לאדם שהיה חבוש בבית האסורים והיו אומרים לו בני אדם מוציאין אותך למחר מבית האסורין ונותנין לך ממון הרבה ואומר להם בבקשה מכם הוציאוני היום ואיני מבקש כלום:

The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel said to Moses: If only we could get out ourselves. The Gemara offers a parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him: We promise, we will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing. So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.

וישאלום אמר רבי אמי מלמד שהשאילום בעל כרחם איכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דמצרים ואיכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דישראל

With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: “And the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, and they gave them what they requested and they emptied Egypt” (Exodus 12:36), Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that the Egyptians gave them what they requested against their will. There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? Some say it was given against the will of the Egyptians, and some say it was given against the will of Israel. The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion.

מאן דאמר בעל כרחם דמצרים דכתיב ונות בית תחלק שלל מאן דאמר בעל כרחם דישראל משום משוי:

The one who said that it was given against the will of the Egyptians cites the verse describing Israel’s exit from Egypt, as it is written: “And she who tarries at home divides the spoils” (Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. The one who said that it was given against the will of Israel, claims that they did not want the vessels because of the burden of carrying a heavy load on a long journey.

וינצלו את מצרים אמר רבי אמי מלמד שעשאוה כמצודה שאין בה דגן וריש לקיש אמר עשאוה כמצולה שאין בה דגים:

With regard to the continuation of the verse: And they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said: This indicates that they made Egypt like a trap in which there is no grain that serves as bait to attract birds. Reish Lakish said: They made Egypt like an abyss in the sea without fish.

אהיה אשר אהיה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור להם לישראל אני הייתי עמכם בשעבוד זה ואני אהיה עמכם בשעבוד מלכיות

The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God’s name, “and God said to Moses: ‘I will be that I will be,’ and He said: ‘Thus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you’” (Exodus 3:14). The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses to go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement, and in this redemption, and I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdoms in the future.

אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם דיה לצרה בשעתה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לך אמור להם אהיה שלחני אליכם:

Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough for them to endure. Let the future suffering be endured at its appointed time. There is no need to mention their future enslavement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with Moses and said to him: Go and tell the children of Israel only that, “I will be has sent me to you.”

ענני ה׳ ענני אמר רבי אבהו למה אמר אליהו ענני שתי פעמים מלמד שאמר אליהו לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם ענני שתרד אש מן השמים ותאכל כל אשר על המזבח וענני שתסיח דעתם כדי שלא יאמרו מעשה כשפים הם שנאמר ואתה הסבת את לבם אחורנית:

Having explained the use of the double language of “I will be that I will be,” the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: “Answer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward” (I Kings 18:37). Rabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice? This repetition teaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mind from devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so that they will say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is stated that Elijah said: “And You have turned their hearts backward,” God can restore them to the proper path as well.

מתני׳ מאימתי קורין את שמע בשחרית משיכיר בין תכלת ללבן רבי אליעזר אומר בין תכלת לכרתי וגומרה עד הנץ החמה רבי יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות

MISHNA: From when does one recite Shema in the morning? From when a person can distinguish between sky-blue [tekhelet] and white.
Rabbi Eliezer says: From when one can distinguish between sky-blue and leek-green.
And one must finish reciting Shema until the end of the period when you rise, i.e., sunrise, when the sun begins to shine.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may recite the morning Shema until three hours of the day, which this is still considered when you rise, as that is the habit of kings to rise from their sleep at three hours of the day.

הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה:

While there is a set time frame for the recitation of Shema, one who recites Shema from that time onward loses nothing. Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of Shema at its appointed time, he is nevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.

גמ׳ מאי בין תכלת ללבן אילימא בין גבבא דעמרא חיורא לגבבא דעמרא דתכלתא הא בליליא נמי מידע ידעי אלא בין תכלת שבה ללבן שבה

GEMARA: The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning Shema begins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To what is between sky-blue and white referring? If you say that it means distinguishing between a pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn’t one know the difference at night, as well? Rather, it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish between the sky-blue strings in the ritual fringes and the white strings in the ritual fringes.
With regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning Shema, a baraita cites additional opinions not cited in the mishna.

תניא רבי מאיר אומר משיכיר בין זאב לכלב רבי עקיבא אומר בין חמור לערוד ואחרים אומרים משיראה את חברו רחוק ארבע אמות ויכירנו

It was taught in a baraita:
Rabbi Meir says that the day begins when one can distinguish between two similar animals, e.g., a wolf and a dog.
Rabbi Akiva provides a different sign, and says that the day begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
And Aḥerim say: When one can see another person, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from a distance of four cubits and recognize him.

אמר רב הונא הלכה כאחרים אמר אביי לתפילין כאחרים לקריאת שמע כותיקין דאמר רבי יוחנן ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה

Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. Abaye said: Regarding the time from which one may don phylacteries, a mitzva incumbent only by day, the halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. But with regard to the recitation of Shema, one should conduct himself in accordance with the custom of the vatikin, pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise, and one should act accordingly.

תניא נמי הכי ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה כדי שיסמוך גאולה לתפלה ונמצא מתפלל ביום

It was also taught in a baraita: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise in order to juxtapose the blessing of redemption, which immediately follows the recitation of Shema, with prayer, and pray during the day.

אמר רבי זירא מאי קראה ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים

Regarding this custom of the vatikin, Rabbi Zeira said: What verse is the source for this tradition? “They shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations” (Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one’s awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun.

העיד רבי יוסי בן אליקים משום קהלא קדישא דבירושלים כל הסומך גאולה לתפלה אינו נזוק כל היום כולו

Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem, a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer at sunrise will incur no harm for the entire day.

אמר רבי זירא איני והא אנא סמכי ואיתזקי אמר ליה במאי איתזקת דאמטיית אסא לבי מלכא התם נמי מבעי לך למיהב אגרא למחזי אפי מלכא דאמר רבי יוחנן לעולם ישתדל אדם לרוץ לקראת מלכי ישראל ולא לקראת מלכי ישראל בלבד אלא אפילו לקראת מלכי אומות העולם שאם יזכה יבחין בין מלכי ישראל למלכי אומות העולם

Rabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn’t I juxtapose redemption and prayer and nevertheless I was harmed? Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim asked Rabbi Zeira: How were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king’s palace? The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira’s responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, there, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israel to witness them in their glory. And not only must one run to greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world, to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king.

אמר ליה רבי אלעא לעולא כי עיילת להתם שאיל בשלמא דרב ברונא אחי במעמד כל החבורה דאדם גדול הוא ושמח במצות זימנא חדא סמך גאולה לתפלה ולא פסיק חוכא מפומיה כוליה יומא

Rabbi El’a said to Ulla before Ulla left for Babylonia: When you go to Babylonia, ask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot, and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: Once, Rav Beruna juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise, as per the custom of the vatikin (Tosafot), and laughter and joy did not cease from his mouth for the entire day.

היכי מצי סמיך והא אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה הוא אומר ה׳ שפתי תפתח ולבסוף הוא אומר יהיו לרצון אמרי פי וגו׳

In practice, the Gemara asks: How is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: At the beginning of prayer, one says: “Lord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory” (Psalms 51:17), and at the end of prayer one says: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer” (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer.

אמר רבי אלעזר תהא בתפלה של ערבית

Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse, “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only in the evening prayer but not in the morning prayer.

והא אמר רבי יוחנן איזהו בן העולם הבא זהו הסומך גאולה של ערבית לתפלה של ערבית

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: Who is worthy of a place in the World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer. Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either.

אלא אמר רבי אלעזר תהא בתפלת המנחה

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse: “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only before the afternoon prayer.

רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא אכולהו וכיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא

Rav Ashi said another explanation: Even if you say that Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that “Lord, open my lips” is recited before all prayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. Since the Sages instituted this verse, it is considered as an extended prayer; it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.

דאי לא תימא הכי ערבית היכי מצי סמיך והא בעי למימר השכיבנו אלא כיון דתקינו רבנן השכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא הכי נמי כיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא

Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: As if you do not say so, how does one juxtapose redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer? Mustn’t one recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] after redemption? Rather, since the Sages instituted the recitation of: Help us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages instituted this verse in prayer, it is considered as an extended prayer.

מכדי האי יהיו לרצון אמרי פי משמע לבסוף ומשמע מעיקרא דבעינא למימר מאי טעמא תקנוהו רבנן לאחר שמונה עשרה ברכות לימרו מעיקרא

With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: Now, since this verse: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You,” can connote the end of prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, and it can connote the beginning of the prayer that he wants to recite: May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: Why did the Sages institute that it is to be recited after the eighteen blessings that constitute the Amida? Let it be recited at the beginning of the prayer.

אמר רבי יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי הואיל ולא אמרו דוד אלא לאחר שמונה עשרה פרשיות לפיכך תקינו רבנן לאחר שמונה עשרה ברכות

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the Amida because David only said this verse after eighteen chapters of Psalms (end of ch. 19). Therefore, the Sages instituted to recite it after the eighteen blessings of the Amida.

הני שמונה עשרה תשע עשרה הוין

The Gemara asks: Are these eighteen psalms? They are nineteen chapters that precede that verse.

אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא

The Gemara answers: “Happy is the man,” the first chapter of Psalms, and “Why are the nations in an uproar,” the second chapter, constitute a single chapter, so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.

דאמר רבי יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי מאה ושלש פרשיות אמר דוד ולא אמר הללויה עד שראה במפלתן של רשעים שנאמר יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה׳ הללויה

The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. As Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say Halleluya in any of them until he saw the downfall of the wicked. Only then could David say Halleluya wholeheartedly. As it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, Halleluya (Psalms 104:35).

הני מאה ושלש מאה וארבע הויין אלא שמע מינה אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא

Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are these one hundred and three psalms? They are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from this that “Happy is the man” and “Why are the nations in uproar” constitute a single portion.

דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן

Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said:

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