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May 26, 2022 | 讻状讛 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讘 | TODAY'S DAF: Yevamot 80

Today's Daf Yomi

January 12, 2020 | 讟状讜 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Yad Binyamin ladies for the refuah shleima of Asher ben Devorah Fayga.

    This month's learning is sponsored by Bracha Rutner in loving memory of her mother, Anna Rutner, Sarah bat Yom Tov and Rachel, on her 5th yahrzeit.

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Leora & Jonathan Kukin and Cynthia & Abe Steinberger in honor of Rella Feldman and Curtiss Pulitzer.

Berakhot 9

Can one recite shema right before and right after sunrise and fulfill both the night and day obligations? Why when the mishna lists mitzvot that can be done all night, it doesn’t list eating the Pesach sacrifice? Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria and Rabbi Akiva have a debate regarding the time one can eat the Pesach sacrifice – midnight or until the end of the night. Why did the Jews borrow jewelry from the Egyptians before they left? Were they happy to do this or not? From when can one read shema in the mornig and until when? Does one need to juxtapose the blessing after shema of redemption to shmone esreh? If so, how does this effect the time whne one can say shema?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讗讬 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬诇讬讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讬谞砖讬 讚讙谞讜 讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗

The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just before sunrise is considered day and the fact that it is referred to here as night is because there are people who are still asleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as beshokhbekha [when you lie down] despite the fact that it is already day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜

Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Zeira said: As long as he will not recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] as well, after reciting the evening Shema before sunrise, as the blessing: Help us lie down, is a prayer that we sleep in peace, which is inappropriate in the morning.

讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讛讗 讚专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讗讜 讘驻讬专讜砖 讗讬转诪专 讗诇讗 诪讻诇诇讗 讗讬转诪专

That is how the halakha was taught in the study hall. However, when Rav Yitz岣k bar Yosef came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi lived, he said that this ruling that Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, was not said explicitly by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Rather, it was stated that he held that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva based on inference.

讚讛讛讜讗 讝讜讙讗 讚专讘谞谉 讚讗砖转讻讜专 讘讛诇讜诇讗 讚讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讻讚讗讬 讛讜讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诇住诪讜讱 注诇讬讜 讘砖注转 讛讚讞拽:

The incident was as follows: This pair of Sages got drunk at the wedding of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 son and fell asleep before reciting the evening Shema. By the time they awoke, dawn had already passed. They came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and asked him if they could still recite the evening Shema. He said to them: Rabbi Shimon is worthy to rely upon in exigent circumstances. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and, in a case where there are no exigent circumstances, one may not rely on this ruling.

诪注砖讛 砖讘讗讜 讘谞讬讜 讜讻讜壮:

The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 sons returned very late from a wedding hall and they asked their father if they were permitted to recite Shema after midnight.

讜注讚 讛砖转讗 诇讗 砖诪讬注 诇讛讜 讛讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

The Gemara asks: And until now, had they not heard this halakha of Rabban Gamliel? Were they unaware that he held that one is permitted to recite the evening Shema after midnight?

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 驻诇讬讙讬 注讬诇讜讜讱 讜讬讞讬讚 讜专讘讬诐 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬诐 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 专讘谞谉 讻讜讜转讱 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讜讛讗讬 讚拽讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 讻讜讜转讬 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讜讞讬讬讘讬谉 讗转诐 讜讛讗讬 讚拽讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛:

The Gemara answers that Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 sons did not ask him his opinion. Rather, they said to him as follows: Do the Rabbis fundamentally disagree with you concerning this halakha, holding that Shema may be recited only until midnight? If so, when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, in which case we must, in practice, follow the opinion of the Rabbis. Or perhaps, do the Rabbis hold in accordance with your opinion that the time of the evening Shema extends throughout the night, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression? If the latter is true, then, when there are extenuating circumstances, one may recite the evening Shema after midnight. Rabban Gamliel replied to his sons: The Rabbis agree with me and you are still obligated to recite Shema. The Rabbis say that Shema may only be recited until midnight in order to distance a person from transgression, but, after the fact, even the Rabbis permit recitation after midnight.

讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讜讻讜壮:

We learned in the mishna that Rabban Gamliel told his sons: And that is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but, rather, wherever the Rabbis say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.

讜专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讬 拽讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 讚拽转谞讬 讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜

The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Does Rabban Gamliel say until midnight, that he teaches: And not only did they say? Rabban Gamliel does not restrict the time for the recitation of Shema until midnight, so why does he say, and not only do they say, implying that he agrees with that stringency?

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讘谞讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇专讘谞谉 讚拽讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 诪爪讜转讛 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讛讗讬 讚拽讗 讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛:

The Gemara explains that this is what Rabban Gamliel said to his sons: Even according to the Rabbis, who say that the mitzva may be performed only until midnight, the biblical obligation to perform the mitzva continues until dawn, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression.

讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讻讜壮:

In the mishna, Rabban Gamliel cites several cases where a mitzva may be performed until dawn; among them, the burning of fats and limbs on the altar.

讜讗讬诇讜 讗讻讬诇转 驻住讞讬诐 诇讗 拽转谞讬

The Gemara notes: In our mishna, the eating of the Paschal lamb was not taught among those mitzvot that may be performed until dawn, indicating that the mitzva of eating the Paschal lamb does not extend until dawn.

讜专诪讬谞讛讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 注专讘讬转 讜讛诇诇 讘诇讬诇讬 驻住讞讬诐 讜讗讻讬诇转 驻住讞 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

The Gemara raises a contradiction to this conclusion based on a baraita: The mitzvot of the recitation of the evening Shema, the recitation of hallel on the nights of Passover accompanying the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb, as well as eating the Paschal lamb, may all be performed until dawn.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜讗讻诇讜 讗转 讛讘砖专 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讗讜诪专 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讜注讘专转讬 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 注讚 讞爪讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讚 讞爪讜转

Rav Yosef said: This is not difficult as these two sources reflect two conflicting opinions. This, our mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. While this, the baraita, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse discussing the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb: 鈥淎nd they shall eat of the meat on that night; roasted over fire and matzot with bitter herbs shall they eat it鈥 (Exodus 12:8); Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Here it is stated: 鈥淥n that night,鈥 from which we cannot determine when night ends. The same expression is encountered later in the same chapter: 鈥淎nd I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from person to animal鈥 (Exodus 12:12). We know when the firstborns were struck down based on the verse 鈥淭hus said the Lord: At about midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt and every firstborn in Egypt shall die鈥 (Exodus 11:4鈥5). Therefore, just as in the verse below, the striking of the firstborns took place until midnight, as stated explicitly in the verse, so too in the verse here, the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb continues until midnight.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讘讞驻讝讜谉 注讚 砖注转 讞驻讝讜谉 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘诇讬诇讛

Rabbi Akiva said to him: Was it not already said, 鈥淭hus you shall eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, your staffs in your hands and you will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord鈥 (Exodus 12:11)? Therefore the Paschal lamb may be eaten until the time of haste. Since the time of haste is when Israel left Egypt, and it is said, 鈥淵ou will not leave, every man from his house, until the morning,鈥 then the Paschal lamb may be eaten until dawn. If that is so, why does the verse state: On that night?

讬讻讜诇 讬讛讗 谞讗讻诇 讻拽讚砖讬诐 讘讬讜诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘诇讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗 谞讗讻诇 讜诇讗 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara explains that the phrase on that night is necessary because without it I might have thought that the Paschal lamb is eaten during the day, like all other sacrifices, which must all be slaughtered and eaten during the day. Therefore, the verse states: On that night, to underscore that this particular sacrifice is eaten at night and not during the day.
Essentially, the difference between these two opinions revolves around which word they deemed significant. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya considered the word night as the key word, while Rabbi Akiva considered the word haste as the key word. The Gemara begins to analyze their statements.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讙讝讬专讛 砖讜讛 讗爪讟专讬讱 诇诪讻转讘 诇讬讛 讛讝讛 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讗讬 讛讝讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛

Granted, according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who has the tradition of a verbal analogy between the phrase, on that night, with regard to the eating of the Paschal lamb and the phrase, on that night, with regard to the striking of the firstborn in Egypt, it was necessary for the verse to write 鈥渢hat鈥 in order to indicate that these times are parallel. However, according to Rabbi Akiva, who has no such tradition, what does he do with 鈥渢hat鈥? Why is it necessary to emphasize on that night?

诇诪注讜讟讬 诇讬诇讛 讗讞专 讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜驻住讞 拽讚砖讬诐 拽诇讬诐 讜砖诇诪讬诐 拽讚砖讬诐 拽诇讬诐 诪讛 砖诇诪讬诐 谞讗讻诇讬谉 诇砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜诇讬诇讛 讗讞讚 讗祝 驻住讞 谞讗讻诇 砖转讬 诇讬诇讜转 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜讬讛讗 谞讗讻诇 诇砖谞讬 诇讬诇讜转 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讛讜讗 谞讗讻诇 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讗讻诇 讘诇讬诇讛 讗讞专

The Gemara answers: On that night comes to exclude another night, as one might otherwise have concluded that the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights. It would have entered your mind to say: Since the Paschal lamb falls into the category of sacrifices of lesser sanctity, and peace-offerings are also sacrifices of lesser sanctity, just as peace-offerings may be eaten for two days and one night, i.e., the day that they are sacrificed through the following day, as we learned in the Torah, so too the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights instead of two days. In other words, one might otherwise mistakenly conclude from its parallel to peace-offerings, that the Paschal lamb is to be eaten for two nights and the day between them. Therefore, the verse teaches us specifically on that night, i.e., on that night it is eaten, and it is not eaten on another night.

讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derive that the Paschal lamb cannot be eaten for two nights?

诪诇讗 转讜转讬专讜 注讚 讘拽专 谞驻拽讗

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derives this conclusion from the verse: 鈥淚t should not remain until the morning鈥 (Exodus 12:10). If one is prohibited from leaving over any part of the sacrifice until the morning, he is certainly prohibited from leaving it over until the following night. Therefore, it is unnecessary to cite an additional source to teach that the Paschal lamb may only be eaten on the first night.

讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讬 诪讛转诐 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讘拽专 讘拽专 砖谞讬

And why does Rabbi Akiva require 鈥渢hat鈥 to derive that the Paschal lamb may not be eaten on the second night? According to Rabbi Akiva, if it was derived from the verse: 鈥淚t should not remain until the morning,鈥 I would have said: What is the meaning of morning? It means the second morning, as the Torah does not specify until which morning the Paschal lamb may not be left; until the first morning or the second morning. Therefore, the Torah needed to write on that night and no other.

讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讘拽专 讘拽专 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗

And what would Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya respond? He could have said to you: If it is not otherwise noted, every unmodified mention of the word morning in the Bible refers to the first, i.e., the next, morning. If that were not the case, no biblical text could have any definite meaning.

讜讛谞讬 转谞讗讬 讻讛谞讬 转谞讗讬 讚转谞讬讗 砖诐 转讝讘讞 讗转 讛驻住讞 讘注专讘 讻讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 诪讜注讚 爪讗转讱 诪诪爪专讬诐

Concerning the tannaitic dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya regarding until when the Paschal lamb may be eaten, the Gemara remarks: The dispute between these tanna鈥檌m is parallel to the dispute between those tanna鈥檌m, who disagree over the same issue. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淭here you will offer the Paschal lamb, in the evening when the sun sets at the time when you left the land of Egypt鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:6). Upon closer examination, it seems that this verse mentions three distinct times: In the evening, refers to the afternoon until sunset; when the sun sets, refers to the time of sunset itself; and the time when you left the land of Egypt refers to, as explained in Exodus, the early hours of the morning. Therefore it seems that these times parallel the different stages of the mitzva of the Paschal lamb, and it is regarding these details that the tanna鈥檌m disagree.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讘注专讘 讗转讛 讝讜讘讞 讜讻讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 讗转讛 讗讜讻诇 讜诪讜注讚 爪讗转讱 诪诪爪专讬诐 讗转讛 砖讜专祝 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讘注专讘 讗转讛 讝讜讘讞 讻讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 讗转讛 讗讜讻诇 讜注讚 诪转讬 讗转讛 讗讜讻诇 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 诪讜注讚 爪讗转讱 诪诪爪专讬诐

Rabbi Eliezer says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets until midnight you eat it, and at the time when you left the land of Egypt you burn what remains from the sacrifice, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets, you eat it. And until when do you continue eating? Until the time when you left the land of Egypt, meaning until morning, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬诐 讻砖谞讙讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪爪专讬诐 诇讗 谞讙讗诇讜 讗诇讗 讘注专讘 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜爪讬讗讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 诪诪爪专讬诐 诇讬诇讛 讜讻砖讬爪讗讜 诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 讬爪讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讬讚 专诪讛

The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the dispute between Rabbi Elazer ben Azarya and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Abba said: Everyone agrees that when the children of Israel were redeemed from Egypt were given permission to leave, they were redeemed only in the evening, as it is stated: 鈥淚n the spring the Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:1). And when they actually left, they left only during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淥n the fifteenth of the first month, on the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand before the eyes of Egypt鈥 (Numbers 33:3), indicating that they actually went out during the day.

注诇 诪讛 谞讞诇拽讜 注诇 砖注转 讞驻讝讜谉 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 住讘专 诪讗讬 讞驻讝讜谉 讞驻讝讜谉 讚诪爪专讬诐

However, with regard to what did they disagree? They disagreed with regard to the time of haste, as it is written: 鈥淵ou will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord鈥 (Exodus 12:11). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of the Egyptians at midnight, as they hurried to the houses of the people of Israel to send them away, in fear of the plague of the firstborn.

讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住讘专 诪讗讬 讞驻讝讜谉 讞驻讝讜谉 讚讬砖专讗诇

And Rabbi Akiva held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of Israel in the morning, as they rushed to leave Egypt.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛讜爪讬讗讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 诪诪爪专讬诐 诇讬诇讛 讜讻讬 讘诇讬诇讛 讬爪讗讜 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 讬爪讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讬讚 专诪讛 讗诇讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讛转讞讬诇讛 诇讛诐 讙讗讜诇讛 诪讘注专讘:

Similar to Rabbi Abba鈥檚 statement, it was also taught in a baraita, regarding the verse: 鈥淭he Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night,鈥 the question arises: Did they leave at night? Didn鈥檛 they leave during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淥n the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand鈥? Rather, this teaches that the redemption began for them in the evening.

讚讘专 谞讗 讘讗讝谞讬 讛注诐 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讗讬谉 谞讗 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讘拽砖讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 讘讘拽砖讛 诪诪讱 诇讱 讜讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘讘拽砖讛 诪讻诐 砖讗诇讜 诪诪爪专讬诐 讻诇讬 讻住祝 讜讻诇讬 讝讛讘 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专

Since the last topic discussed in the Gemara revolved around the exodus from Egypt, the Gemara cites additional aggadic midrash on that subject. With regard to the verse: 鈥淪peak, please [na] in the ears of the people, and they should borrow, every man from his fellow and every woman from her fellow, silver and gold vessels鈥 (Exodus 11:2), the word please [na] is unclear. The students of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Please [na] is nothing more than an expression of supplication. Why would God employ an expression of supplication in approaching Israel? The Gemara explains that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I beseech you, go and tell Israel: I beseech you; borrow vessels of silver and vessels of gold from the Egyptians in order to fulfill the promise I made to Abraham in the 鈥淐ovenant between the Pieces,鈥 so that

讗讜转讜 爪讚讬拽 讜注讘讚讜诐 讜注谞讜 讗转诐 拽讬讬诐 讘讛诐 讜讗讞专讬 讻谉 讬爪讗讜 讘专讻砖 讙讚讜诇 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 讘讛诐

that righteous person, Abraham, will not say: God fulfilled His pronouncement: 鈥淎nd they will be enslaved and afflicted,鈥 but God did not fulfill His pronouncement: 鈥淎nd afterward, they will leave with great possessions.鈥 As God said to Abraham: 鈥淪urely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions鈥 (Genesis 15:13鈥14).

讗诪专讜 诇讜 讜诇讜讗讬 砖谞爪讗 讘注爪诪谞讜 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 讞讘讜砖 讘讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讱 诇诪讞专 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讱 诪诪讜谉 讛专讘讛 讜讗讜诪专 诇讛诐 讘讘拽砖讛 诪讻诐 讛讜爪讬讗讜谞讬 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讬谞讬 诪讘拽砖 讻诇讜诐:

The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel said to Moses: If only we could get out ourselves. The Gemara offers a parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him: We promise, we will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing. So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.

讜讬砖讗诇讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪诇诪讚 砖讛砖讗讬诇讜诐 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚诪爪专讬诐 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚讬砖专讗诇

With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: 鈥淎nd the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, and they gave them what they requested and they emptied Egypt鈥 (Exodus 12:36), Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that the Egyptians gave them what they requested against their will. There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? Some say it was given against the will of the Egyptians, and some say it was given against the will of Israel. The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion.

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚诪爪专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞讜转 讘讬转 转讞诇拽 砖诇诇 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚讬砖专讗诇 诪砖讜诐 诪砖讜讬:

The one who said that it was given against the will of the Egyptians cites the verse describing Israel鈥檚 exit from Egypt, as it is written: 鈥淎nd she who tarries at home divides the spoils鈥 (Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. The one who said that it was given against the will of Israel, claims that they did not want the vessels because of the burden of carrying a heavy load on a long journey.

讜讬谞爪诇讜 讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪诇诪讚 砖注砖讗讜讛 讻诪爪讜讚讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讚讙谉 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 注砖讗讜讛 讻诪爪讜诇讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讚讙讬诐:

With regard to the continuation of the verse: And they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said: This indicates that they made Egypt like a trap in which there is no grain that serves as bait to attract birds. Reish Lakish said: They made Egypt like an abyss in the sea without fish.

讗讛讬讛 讗砖专 讗讛讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗谞讬 讛讬讬转讬 注诪讻诐 讘砖注讘讜讚 讝讛 讜讗谞讬 讗讛讬讛 注诪讻诐 讘砖注讘讜讚 诪诇讻讬讜转

The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God鈥檚 name, 鈥渁nd God said to Moses: 鈥業 will be that I will be,鈥 and He said: 鈥楾hus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you鈥欌 (Exodus 3:14). The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses to go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement, and in this redemption, and I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdoms in the future.

讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讚讬讛 诇爪专讛 讘砖注转讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讗讛讬讛 砖诇讞谞讬 讗诇讬讻诐:

Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough for them to endure. Let the future suffering be endured at its appointed time. There is no need to mention their future enslavement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with Moses and said to him: Go and tell the children of Israel only that, 鈥淚 will be has sent me to you.鈥

注谞谞讬 讛壮 注谞谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诇诪讛 讗诪专 讗诇讬讛讜 注谞谞讬 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 诪诇诪讚 砖讗诪专 讗诇讬讛讜 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 注谞谞讬 砖转专讚 讗砖 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讜转讗讻诇 讻诇 讗砖专 注诇 讛诪讝讘讞 讜注谞谞讬 砖转住讬讞 讚注转诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诪注砖讛 讻砖驻讬诐 讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 讛住讘转 讗转 诇讘诐 讗讞讜专谞讬转:

Having explained the use of the double language of 鈥淚 will be that I will be,鈥 the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: 鈥淎nswer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward鈥 (I Kings 18:37). Rabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice? This repetition teaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mind from devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so that they will not say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is stated that Elijah said: 鈥淎nd You have turned their hearts backward,鈥 God can restore them to the proper path as well.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讗讬诪转讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讘砖讞专讬转 诪砖讬讻讬专 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 诇诇讘谉 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 诇讻专转讬 讜讙讜诪专讛 注讚 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转 砖讻谉 讚专讱 诪诇讻讬诐 诇注诪讜讚 讘砖诇砖 砖注讜转

MISHNA: From when does one recite Shema in the morning? From when a person can distinguish between sky-blue [tekhelet] and white.
Rabbi Eliezer says: From when one can distinguish between sky-blue and leek-green.
And one must finish reciting Shema until the end of the period when you rise, i.e., sunrise, when the sun begins to shine.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may recite the morning Shema until three hours of the day, which this is still considered when you rise, as that is the habit of kings to rise from their sleep at three hours of the day.

讛拽讜专讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 讛驻住讬讚 讻讗讚诐 讛拽讜专讗 讘转讜专讛:

While there is a set time frame for the recitation of Shema, one who recites Shema from that time onward loses nothing. Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of Shema at its appointed time, he is nevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 诇诇讘谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讘讬谉 讙讘讘讗 讚注诪专讗 讞讬讜专讗 诇讙讘讘讗 讚注诪专讗 讚转讻诇转讗 讛讗 讘诇讬诇讬讗 谞诪讬 诪讬讚注 讬讚注讬 讗诇讗 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 砖讘讛 诇诇讘谉 砖讘讛

GEMARA: The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning Shema begins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To what is between sky-blue and white referring? If you say that it means distinguishing between a pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn鈥檛 one know the difference at night, as well? Rather, it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish between the sky-blue strings in the ritual fringes and the white strings in the ritual fringes.
With regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning Shema, a baraita cites additional opinions not cited in the mishna.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讬讻讬专 讘讬谉 讝讗讘 诇讻诇讘 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 讞诪讜专 诇注专讜讚 讜讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪砖讬专讗讛 讗转 讞讘专讜 专讞讜拽 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讜讬讻讬专谞讜

It was taught in a baraita:
Rabbi Meir says that the day begins when one can distinguish between two similar animals, e.g., a wolf and a dog.
Rabbi Akiva provides a different sign, and says that the day begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
And A岣rim say: When one can see another person, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from a distance of four cubits and recognize him.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛诇讻讛 讻讗讞专讬诐 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇转驻讬诇讬谉 讻讗讞专讬诐 诇拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讻讜转讬拽讬谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜转讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讙讜诪专讬谉 讗讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛

Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with A岣rim. Abaye said: Regarding the time from which one may don phylacteries, a mitzva incumbent only by day, the halakha is in accordance with A岣rim. But with regard to the recitation of Shema, one should conduct himself in accordance with the custom of the vatikin, pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise, and one should act accordingly.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讜转讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讙讜诪专讬谉 讗讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住诪讜讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讜谞诪爪讗 诪转驻诇诇 讘讬讜诐

It was also taught in a baraita: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise in order to juxtapose the blessing of redemption, which immediately follows the recitation of Shema, with prayer, and pray during the day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讬讬专讗讜讱 注诐 砖诪砖 讜诇驻谞讬 讬专讞 讚讜专 讚讜专讬诐

Regarding this custom of the vatikin, Rabbi Zeira said: What verse is the source for this tradition? 鈥淭hey shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations鈥 (Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one鈥檚 awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun.

讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讗诇讬拽讬诐 诪砖讜诐 拽讛诇讗 拽讚讬砖讗 讚讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻诇 讛住讜诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讗讬谞讜 谞讝讜拽 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜

Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem, a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer at sunrise will incur no harm for the entire day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讗谞讗 住诪讻讬 讜讗讬转讝拽讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪讗讬 讗讬转讝拽转 讚讗诪讟讬讬转 讗住讗 诇讘讬 诪诇讻讗 讛转诐 谞诪讬 诪讘注讬 诇讱 诇诪讬讛讘 讗讙专讗 诇诪讞讝讬 讗驻讬 诪诇讻讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇注讜诇诐 讬砖转讚诇 讗讚诐 诇专讜抓 诇拽专讗转 诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜诇讗 诇拽专讗转 诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讘讚 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇拽专讗转 诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 砖讗诐 讬讝讻讛 讬讘讞讬谉 讘讬谉 诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

Rabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 I juxtapose redemption and prayer and nevertheless I was harmed? Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim asked Rabbi Zeira: How were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king鈥檚 palace? The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, there, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israel to witness them in their glory. And not only must one run to greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world, to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讗 诇注讜诇讗 讻讬 注讬讬诇转 诇讛转诐 砖讗讬诇 讘砖诇诪讗 讚专讘 讘专讜谞讗 讗讞讬 讘诪注诪讚 讻诇 讛讞讘讜专讛 讚讗讚诐 讙讚讜诇 讛讜讗 讜砖诪讞 讘诪爪讜转 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 住诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讜诇讗 驻住讬拽 讞讜讻讗 诪驻讜诪讬讛 讻讜诇讬讛 讬讜诪讗

Rabbi El鈥檃 said to Ulla before Ulla left for Babylonia: When you go to Babylonia, ask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot, and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: Once, Rav Beruna juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise, as per the custom of the vatikin (Tosafot), and laughter and joy did not cease from his mouth for the entire day.

讛讬讻讬 诪爪讬 住诪讬讱 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘转讞诇讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛壮 砖驻转讬 转驻转讞 讜诇讘住讜祝 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬讜 诇专爪讜谉 讗诪专讬 驻讬 讜讙讜壮

In practice, the Gemara asks: How is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: At the beginning of prayer, one says: 鈥淟ord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory鈥 (Psalms 51:17), and at the end of prayer one says: 鈥淢ay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer鈥 (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 转讛讗 讘转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转

Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse, 鈥淟ord, open my lips,鈥 be recited only in the evening prayer but not in the morning prayer.

讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 讘谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讝讛讜 讛住讜诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转 诇转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转

The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: Who is worthy of a place in the World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer. Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 转讛讗 讘转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse: 鈥淟ord, open my lips,鈥 be recited only before the afternoon prayer.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 讗讻讜诇讛讜 讜讻讬讜谉 讚拽讘注讜讛 专讘谞谉 讘转驻诇讛 讻转驻诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗

Rav Ashi said another explanation: Even if you say that Rabbi Yo岣nan holds that 鈥淟ord, open my lips鈥 is recited before all prayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. Since the Sages instituted this verse, it is considered as an extended prayer; it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.

讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 注专讘讬转 讛讬讻讬 诪爪讬 住诪讬讱 讜讛讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讗诇讗 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讻讙讗讜诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讘注讜讛 专讘谞谉 讘转驻诇讛 讻转驻诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗

Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: As if you do not say so, how does one juxtapose redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer? Mustn鈥檛 one recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] after redemption? Rather, since the Sages instituted the recitation of: Help us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages instituted this verse in prayer, it is considered as an extended prayer.

诪讻讚讬 讛讗讬 讬讛讬讜 诇专爪讜谉 讗诪专讬 驻讬 诪砖诪注 诇讘住讜祝 讜诪砖诪注 诪注讬拽专讗 讚讘注讬谞讗 诇诪讬诪专 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 转拽谞讜讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗讞专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讘专讻讜转 诇讬诪专讜 诪注讬拽专讗

With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: Now, since this verse: 鈥淢ay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You,鈥 can connote the end of prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, and it can connote the beginning of the prayer that he wants to recite: May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: Why did the Sages institute that it is to be recited after the eighteen blessings that constitute the Amida? Let it be recited at the beginning of the prayer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 讚讜讚 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 驻专砖讬讜转 诇驻讬讻讱 转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗讞专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讘专讻讜转

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the Amida because David only said this verse after eighteen chapters of Psalms (end of ch. 19). Therefore, the Sages instituted to recite it after the eighteen blessings of the Amida.

讛谞讬 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 转砖注 注砖专讛 讛讜讬谉

The Gemara asks: Are these eighteen psalms? They are nineteen chapters that precede that verse.

讗砖专讬 讛讗讬砖 讜诇诪讛 专讙砖讜 讙讜讬诐 讞讚讗 驻专砖讛 讛讬讗

The Gemara answers: 鈥淗appy is the man,鈥 the first chapter of Psalms, and 鈥淲hy are the nations in an uproar,鈥 the second chapter, constitute a single chapter, so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖 驻专砖讬讜转 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讜诇讗 讗诪专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 注讚 砖专讗讛 讘诪驻诇转谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬转诪讜 讞讟讗讬诐 诪谉 讛讗专抓 讜专砖注讬诐 注讜讚 讗讬谞诐 讘专讻讬 谞驻砖讬 讗转 讛壮 讛诇诇讜讬讛

The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. As Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say Halleluya in any of them until he saw the downfall of the wicked. Only then could David say Halleluya wholeheartedly. As it is stated: 鈥淟et sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, Halleluya (Psalms 104:35).

讛谞讬 诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖 诪讗讛 讜讗专讘注 讛讜讬讬谉 讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讗砖专讬 讛讗讬砖 讜诇诪讛 专讙砖讜 讙讜讬诐 讞讚讗 驻专砖讛 讛讬讗

Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are these one hundred and three psalms? They are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from this that 鈥淗appy is the man鈥 and 鈥淲hy are the nations in uproar鈥 constitute a single portion.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉

Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said:

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Yad Binyamin ladies for the refuah shleima of Asher ben Devorah Fayga.

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 9

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Berakhot 9

诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讜讛讗讬 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬诇讬讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讬谞砖讬 讚讙谞讜 讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗

The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just before sunrise is considered day and the fact that it is referred to here as night is because there are people who are still asleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as beshokhbekha [when you lie down] despite the fact that it is already day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜

Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Zeira said: As long as he will not recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] as well, after reciting the evening Shema before sunrise, as the blessing: Help us lie down, is a prayer that we sleep in peace, which is inappropriate in the morning.

讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讛讗 讚专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讗讜 讘驻讬专讜砖 讗讬转诪专 讗诇讗 诪讻诇诇讗 讗讬转诪专

That is how the halakha was taught in the study hall. However, when Rav Yitz岣k bar Yosef came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi lived, he said that this ruling that Rabbi A岣, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, was not said explicitly by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Rather, it was stated that he held that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva based on inference.

讚讛讛讜讗 讝讜讙讗 讚专讘谞谉 讚讗砖转讻讜专 讘讛诇讜诇讗 讚讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讻讚讗讬 讛讜讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诇住诪讜讱 注诇讬讜 讘砖注转 讛讚讞拽:

The incident was as follows: This pair of Sages got drunk at the wedding of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 son and fell asleep before reciting the evening Shema. By the time they awoke, dawn had already passed. They came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and asked him if they could still recite the evening Shema. He said to them: Rabbi Shimon is worthy to rely upon in exigent circumstances. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and, in a case where there are no exigent circumstances, one may not rely on this ruling.

诪注砖讛 砖讘讗讜 讘谞讬讜 讜讻讜壮:

The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 sons returned very late from a wedding hall and they asked their father if they were permitted to recite Shema after midnight.

讜注讚 讛砖转讗 诇讗 砖诪讬注 诇讛讜 讛讗 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

The Gemara asks: And until now, had they not heard this halakha of Rabban Gamliel? Were they unaware that he held that one is permitted to recite the evening Shema after midnight?

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 驻诇讬讙讬 注讬诇讜讜讱 讜讬讞讬讚 讜专讘讬诐 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬诐 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 专讘谞谉 讻讜讜转讱 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讜讛讗讬 讚拽讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘谞谉 讻讜讜转讬 住讘讬专讗 诇讛讜 讜讞讬讬讘讬谉 讗转诐 讜讛讗讬 讚拽讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛:

The Gemara answers that Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 sons did not ask him his opinion. Rather, they said to him as follows: Do the Rabbis fundamentally disagree with you concerning this halakha, holding that Shema may be recited only until midnight? If so, when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, in which case we must, in practice, follow the opinion of the Rabbis. Or perhaps, do the Rabbis hold in accordance with your opinion that the time of the evening Shema extends throughout the night, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression? If the latter is true, then, when there are extenuating circumstances, one may recite the evening Shema after midnight. Rabban Gamliel replied to his sons: The Rabbis agree with me and you are still obligated to recite Shema. The Rabbis say that Shema may only be recited until midnight in order to distance a person from transgression, but, after the fact, even the Rabbis permit recitation after midnight.

讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讜讻讜壮:

We learned in the mishna that Rabban Gamliel told his sons: And that is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but, rather, wherever the Rabbis say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.

讜专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讬 拽讗诪专 注讚 讞爪讜转 讚拽转谞讬 讜诇讗 讝讜 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜

The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Does Rabban Gamliel say until midnight, that he teaches: And not only did they say? Rabban Gamliel does not restrict the time for the recitation of Shema until midnight, so why does he say, and not only do they say, implying that he agrees with that stringency?

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讘谞讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇专讘谞谉 讚拽讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 诪爪讜转讛 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讜讛讗讬 讚拽讗 讗诪专讬 注讚 讞爪讜转 讻讚讬 诇讛专讞讬拽 讗讚诐 诪谉 讛注讘讬专讛:

The Gemara explains that this is what Rabban Gamliel said to his sons: Even according to the Rabbis, who say that the mitzva may be performed only until midnight, the biblical obligation to perform the mitzva continues until dawn, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression.

讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讻讜壮:

In the mishna, Rabban Gamliel cites several cases where a mitzva may be performed until dawn; among them, the burning of fats and limbs on the altar.

讜讗讬诇讜 讗讻讬诇转 驻住讞讬诐 诇讗 拽转谞讬

The Gemara notes: In our mishna, the eating of the Paschal lamb was not taught among those mitzvot that may be performed until dawn, indicating that the mitzva of eating the Paschal lamb does not extend until dawn.

讜专诪讬谞讛讬 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 注专讘讬转 讜讛诇诇 讘诇讬诇讬 驻住讞讬诐 讜讗讻讬诇转 驻住讞 诪爪讜转谉 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

The Gemara raises a contradiction to this conclusion based on a baraita: The mitzvot of the recitation of the evening Shema, the recitation of hallel on the nights of Passover accompanying the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb, as well as eating the Paschal lamb, may all be performed until dawn.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜讗讻诇讜 讗转 讛讘砖专 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讗讜诪专 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讜注讘专转讬 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 注讚 讞爪讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讚 讞爪讜转

Rav Yosef said: This is not difficult as these two sources reflect two conflicting opinions. This, our mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. While this, the baraita, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse discussing the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb: 鈥淎nd they shall eat of the meat on that night; roasted over fire and matzot with bitter herbs shall they eat it鈥 (Exodus 12:8); Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Here it is stated: 鈥淥n that night,鈥 from which we cannot determine when night ends. The same expression is encountered later in the same chapter: 鈥淎nd I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from person to animal鈥 (Exodus 12:12). We know when the firstborns were struck down based on the verse 鈥淭hus said the Lord: At about midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt and every firstborn in Egypt shall die鈥 (Exodus 11:4鈥5). Therefore, just as in the verse below, the striking of the firstborns took place until midnight, as stated explicitly in the verse, so too in the verse here, the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb continues until midnight.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讛诇讗 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讘讞驻讝讜谉 注讚 砖注转 讞驻讝讜谉 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘诇讬诇讛

Rabbi Akiva said to him: Was it not already said, 鈥淭hus you shall eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, your staffs in your hands and you will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord鈥 (Exodus 12:11)? Therefore the Paschal lamb may be eaten until the time of haste. Since the time of haste is when Israel left Egypt, and it is said, 鈥淵ou will not leave, every man from his house, until the morning,鈥 then the Paschal lamb may be eaten until dawn. If that is so, why does the verse state: On that night?

讬讻讜诇 讬讛讗 谞讗讻诇 讻拽讚砖讬诐 讘讬讜诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘诇讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗 谞讗讻诇 讜诇讗 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara explains that the phrase on that night is necessary because without it I might have thought that the Paschal lamb is eaten during the day, like all other sacrifices, which must all be slaughtered and eaten during the day. Therefore, the verse states: On that night, to underscore that this particular sacrifice is eaten at night and not during the day.
Essentially, the difference between these two opinions revolves around which word they deemed significant. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya considered the word night as the key word, while Rabbi Akiva considered the word haste as the key word. The Gemara begins to analyze their statements.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 讙讝讬专讛 砖讜讛 讗爪讟专讬讱 诇诪讻转讘 诇讬讛 讛讝讛 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讗讬 讛讝讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛

Granted, according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who has the tradition of a verbal analogy between the phrase, on that night, with regard to the eating of the Paschal lamb and the phrase, on that night, with regard to the striking of the firstborn in Egypt, it was necessary for the verse to write 鈥渢hat鈥 in order to indicate that these times are parallel. However, according to Rabbi Akiva, who has no such tradition, what does he do with 鈥渢hat鈥? Why is it necessary to emphasize on that night?

诇诪注讜讟讬 诇讬诇讛 讗讞专 讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜驻住讞 拽讚砖讬诐 拽诇讬诐 讜砖诇诪讬诐 拽讚砖讬诐 拽诇讬诐 诪讛 砖诇诪讬诐 谞讗讻诇讬谉 诇砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜诇讬诇讛 讗讞讚 讗祝 驻住讞 谞讗讻诇 砖转讬 诇讬诇讜转 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜讬讛讗 谞讗讻诇 诇砖谞讬 诇讬诇讜转 讜讬讜诐 讗讞讚 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讛讜讗 谞讗讻诇 讜讗讬谞讜 谞讗讻诇 讘诇讬诇讛 讗讞专

The Gemara answers: On that night comes to exclude another night, as one might otherwise have concluded that the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights. It would have entered your mind to say: Since the Paschal lamb falls into the category of sacrifices of lesser sanctity, and peace-offerings are also sacrifices of lesser sanctity, just as peace-offerings may be eaten for two days and one night, i.e., the day that they are sacrificed through the following day, as we learned in the Torah, so too the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights instead of two days. In other words, one might otherwise mistakenly conclude from its parallel to peace-offerings, that the Paschal lamb is to be eaten for two nights and the day between them. Therefore, the verse teaches us specifically on that night, i.e., on that night it is eaten, and it is not eaten on another night.

讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derive that the Paschal lamb cannot be eaten for two nights?

诪诇讗 转讜转讬专讜 注讚 讘拽专 谞驻拽讗

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derives this conclusion from the verse: 鈥淚t should not remain until the morning鈥 (Exodus 12:10). If one is prohibited from leaving over any part of the sacrifice until the morning, he is certainly prohibited from leaving it over until the following night. Therefore, it is unnecessary to cite an additional source to teach that the Paschal lamb may only be eaten on the first night.

讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讬 诪讛转诐 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讘拽专 讘拽专 砖谞讬

And why does Rabbi Akiva require 鈥渢hat鈥 to derive that the Paschal lamb may not be eaten on the second night? According to Rabbi Akiva, if it was derived from the verse: 鈥淚t should not remain until the morning,鈥 I would have said: What is the meaning of morning? It means the second morning, as the Torah does not specify until which morning the Paschal lamb may not be left; until the first morning or the second morning. Therefore, the Torah needed to write on that night and no other.

讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讘拽专 讘拽专 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗

And what would Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya respond? He could have said to you: If it is not otherwise noted, every unmodified mention of the word morning in the Bible refers to the first, i.e., the next, morning. If that were not the case, no biblical text could have any definite meaning.

讜讛谞讬 转谞讗讬 讻讛谞讬 转谞讗讬 讚转谞讬讗 砖诐 转讝讘讞 讗转 讛驻住讞 讘注专讘 讻讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 诪讜注讚 爪讗转讱 诪诪爪专讬诐

Concerning the tannaitic dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya regarding until when the Paschal lamb may be eaten, the Gemara remarks: The dispute between these tanna鈥檌m is parallel to the dispute between those tanna鈥檌m, who disagree over the same issue. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淭here you will offer the Paschal lamb, in the evening when the sun sets at the time when you left the land of Egypt鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:6). Upon closer examination, it seems that this verse mentions three distinct times: In the evening, refers to the afternoon until sunset; when the sun sets, refers to the time of sunset itself; and the time when you left the land of Egypt refers to, as explained in Exodus, the early hours of the morning. Therefore it seems that these times parallel the different stages of the mitzva of the Paschal lamb, and it is regarding these details that the tanna鈥檌m disagree.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讘注专讘 讗转讛 讝讜讘讞 讜讻讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 讗转讛 讗讜讻诇 讜诪讜注讚 爪讗转讱 诪诪爪专讬诐 讗转讛 砖讜专祝 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讘注专讘 讗转讛 讝讜讘讞 讻讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 讗转讛 讗讜讻诇 讜注讚 诪转讬 讗转讛 讗讜讻诇 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 诪讜注讚 爪讗转讱 诪诪爪专讬诐

Rabbi Eliezer says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets until midnight you eat it, and at the time when you left the land of Egypt you burn what remains from the sacrifice, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets, you eat it. And until when do you continue eating? Until the time when you left the land of Egypt, meaning until morning, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬诐 讻砖谞讙讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪爪专讬诐 诇讗 谞讙讗诇讜 讗诇讗 讘注专讘 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜爪讬讗讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 诪诪爪专讬诐 诇讬诇讛 讜讻砖讬爪讗讜 诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 讬爪讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讬讚 专诪讛

The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the dispute between Rabbi Elazer ben Azarya and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Abba said: Everyone agrees that when the children of Israel were redeemed from Egypt were given permission to leave, they were redeemed only in the evening, as it is stated: 鈥淚n the spring the Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:1). And when they actually left, they left only during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淥n the fifteenth of the first month, on the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand before the eyes of Egypt鈥 (Numbers 33:3), indicating that they actually went out during the day.

注诇 诪讛 谞讞诇拽讜 注诇 砖注转 讞驻讝讜谉 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 住讘专 诪讗讬 讞驻讝讜谉 讞驻讝讜谉 讚诪爪专讬诐

However, with regard to what did they disagree? They disagreed with regard to the time of haste, as it is written: 鈥淵ou will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord鈥 (Exodus 12:11). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of the Egyptians at midnight, as they hurried to the houses of the people of Israel to send them away, in fear of the plague of the firstborn.

讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住讘专 诪讗讬 讞驻讝讜谉 讞驻讝讜谉 讚讬砖专讗诇

And Rabbi Akiva held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of Israel in the morning, as they rushed to leave Egypt.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛讜爪讬讗讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 诪诪爪专讬诐 诇讬诇讛 讜讻讬 讘诇讬诇讛 讬爪讗讜 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪诪讞专转 讛驻住讞 讬爪讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讬讚 专诪讛 讗诇讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讛转讞讬诇讛 诇讛诐 讙讗讜诇讛 诪讘注专讘:

Similar to Rabbi Abba鈥檚 statement, it was also taught in a baraita, regarding the verse: 鈥淭he Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night,鈥 the question arises: Did they leave at night? Didn鈥檛 they leave during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淥n the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand鈥? Rather, this teaches that the redemption began for them in the evening.

讚讘专 谞讗 讘讗讝谞讬 讛注诐 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讗讬谉 谞讗 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讘拽砖讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 讘讘拽砖讛 诪诪讱 诇讱 讜讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘讘拽砖讛 诪讻诐 砖讗诇讜 诪诪爪专讬诐 讻诇讬 讻住祝 讜讻诇讬 讝讛讘 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专

Since the last topic discussed in the Gemara revolved around the exodus from Egypt, the Gemara cites additional aggadic midrash on that subject. With regard to the verse: 鈥淪peak, please [na] in the ears of the people, and they should borrow, every man from his fellow and every woman from her fellow, silver and gold vessels鈥 (Exodus 11:2), the word please [na] is unclear. The students of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Please [na] is nothing more than an expression of supplication. Why would God employ an expression of supplication in approaching Israel? The Gemara explains that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I beseech you, go and tell Israel: I beseech you; borrow vessels of silver and vessels of gold from the Egyptians in order to fulfill the promise I made to Abraham in the 鈥淐ovenant between the Pieces,鈥 so that

讗讜转讜 爪讚讬拽 讜注讘讚讜诐 讜注谞讜 讗转诐 拽讬讬诐 讘讛诐 讜讗讞专讬 讻谉 讬爪讗讜 讘专讻砖 讙讚讜诇 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 讘讛诐

that righteous person, Abraham, will not say: God fulfilled His pronouncement: 鈥淎nd they will be enslaved and afflicted,鈥 but God did not fulfill His pronouncement: 鈥淎nd afterward, they will leave with great possessions.鈥 As God said to Abraham: 鈥淪urely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions鈥 (Genesis 15:13鈥14).

讗诪专讜 诇讜 讜诇讜讗讬 砖谞爪讗 讘注爪诪谞讜 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 讞讘讜砖 讘讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讱 诇诪讞专 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讱 诪诪讜谉 讛专讘讛 讜讗讜诪专 诇讛诐 讘讘拽砖讛 诪讻诐 讛讜爪讬讗讜谞讬 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讬谞讬 诪讘拽砖 讻诇讜诐:

The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel said to Moses: If only we could get out ourselves. The Gemara offers a parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him: We promise, we will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing. So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.

讜讬砖讗诇讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪诇诪讚 砖讛砖讗讬诇讜诐 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚诪爪专讬诐 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚讬砖专讗诇

With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: 鈥淎nd the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, and they gave them what they requested and they emptied Egypt鈥 (Exodus 12:36), Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that the Egyptians gave them what they requested against their will. There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? Some say it was given against the will of the Egyptians, and some say it was given against the will of Israel. The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion.

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚诪爪专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞讜转 讘讬转 转讞诇拽 砖诇诇 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注诇 讻专讞诐 讚讬砖专讗诇 诪砖讜诐 诪砖讜讬:

The one who said that it was given against the will of the Egyptians cites the verse describing Israel鈥檚 exit from Egypt, as it is written: 鈥淎nd she who tarries at home divides the spoils鈥 (Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. The one who said that it was given against the will of Israel, claims that they did not want the vessels because of the burden of carrying a heavy load on a long journey.

讜讬谞爪诇讜 讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪诇诪讚 砖注砖讗讜讛 讻诪爪讜讚讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讚讙谉 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 注砖讗讜讛 讻诪爪讜诇讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讚讙讬诐:

With regard to the continuation of the verse: And they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said: This indicates that they made Egypt like a trap in which there is no grain that serves as bait to attract birds. Reish Lakish said: They made Egypt like an abyss in the sea without fish.

讗讛讬讛 讗砖专 讗讛讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗谞讬 讛讬讬转讬 注诪讻诐 讘砖注讘讜讚 讝讛 讜讗谞讬 讗讛讬讛 注诪讻诐 讘砖注讘讜讚 诪诇讻讬讜转

The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God鈥檚 name, 鈥渁nd God said to Moses: 鈥業 will be that I will be,鈥 and He said: 鈥楾hus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you鈥欌 (Exodus 3:14). The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses to go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement, and in this redemption, and I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdoms in the future.

讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讚讬讛 诇爪专讛 讘砖注转讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讗讛讬讛 砖诇讞谞讬 讗诇讬讻诐:

Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough for them to endure. Let the future suffering be endured at its appointed time. There is no need to mention their future enslavement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with Moses and said to him: Go and tell the children of Israel only that, 鈥淚 will be has sent me to you.鈥

注谞谞讬 讛壮 注谞谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诇诪讛 讗诪专 讗诇讬讛讜 注谞谞讬 砖转讬 驻注诪讬诐 诪诇诪讚 砖讗诪专 讗诇讬讛讜 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 注谞谞讬 砖转专讚 讗砖 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讜转讗讻诇 讻诇 讗砖专 注诇 讛诪讝讘讞 讜注谞谞讬 砖转住讬讞 讚注转诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诪注砖讛 讻砖驻讬诐 讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 讛住讘转 讗转 诇讘诐 讗讞讜专谞讬转:

Having explained the use of the double language of 鈥淚 will be that I will be,鈥 the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: 鈥淎nswer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward鈥 (I Kings 18:37). Rabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice? This repetition teaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mind from devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so that they will not say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is stated that Elijah said: 鈥淎nd You have turned their hearts backward,鈥 God can restore them to the proper path as well.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讗讬诪转讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讘砖讞专讬转 诪砖讬讻讬专 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 诇诇讘谉 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 诇讻专转讬 讜讙讜诪专讛 注讚 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖诇砖 砖注讜转 砖讻谉 讚专讱 诪诇讻讬诐 诇注诪讜讚 讘砖诇砖 砖注讜转

MISHNA: From when does one recite Shema in the morning? From when a person can distinguish between sky-blue [tekhelet] and white.
Rabbi Eliezer says: From when one can distinguish between sky-blue and leek-green.
And one must finish reciting Shema until the end of the period when you rise, i.e., sunrise, when the sun begins to shine.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may recite the morning Shema until three hours of the day, which this is still considered when you rise, as that is the habit of kings to rise from their sleep at three hours of the day.

讛拽讜专讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 讛驻住讬讚 讻讗讚诐 讛拽讜专讗 讘转讜专讛:

While there is a set time frame for the recitation of Shema, one who recites Shema from that time onward loses nothing. Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of Shema at its appointed time, he is nevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 诇诇讘谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讘讬谉 讙讘讘讗 讚注诪专讗 讞讬讜专讗 诇讙讘讘讗 讚注诪专讗 讚转讻诇转讗 讛讗 讘诇讬诇讬讗 谞诪讬 诪讬讚注 讬讚注讬 讗诇讗 讘讬谉 转讻诇转 砖讘讛 诇诇讘谉 砖讘讛

GEMARA: The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning Shema begins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To what is between sky-blue and white referring? If you say that it means distinguishing between a pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn鈥檛 one know the difference at night, as well? Rather, it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish between the sky-blue strings in the ritual fringes and the white strings in the ritual fringes.
With regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning Shema, a baraita cites additional opinions not cited in the mishna.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讬讻讬专 讘讬谉 讝讗讘 诇讻诇讘 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 讞诪讜专 诇注专讜讚 讜讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪砖讬专讗讛 讗转 讞讘专讜 专讞讜拽 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讜讬讻讬专谞讜

It was taught in a baraita:
Rabbi Meir says that the day begins when one can distinguish between two similar animals, e.g., a wolf and a dog.
Rabbi Akiva provides a different sign, and says that the day begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
And A岣rim say: When one can see another person, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from a distance of four cubits and recognize him.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛诇讻讛 讻讗讞专讬诐 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇转驻讬诇讬谉 讻讗讞专讬诐 诇拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讻讜转讬拽讬谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜转讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讙讜诪专讬谉 讗讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛

Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with A岣rim. Abaye said: Regarding the time from which one may don phylacteries, a mitzva incumbent only by day, the halakha is in accordance with A岣rim. But with regard to the recitation of Shema, one should conduct himself in accordance with the custom of the vatikin, pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise, and one should act accordingly.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讜转讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讙讜诪专讬谉 讗讜转讛 注诐 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住诪讜讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讜谞诪爪讗 诪转驻诇诇 讘讬讜诐

It was also taught in a baraita: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise in order to juxtapose the blessing of redemption, which immediately follows the recitation of Shema, with prayer, and pray during the day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讬讬专讗讜讱 注诐 砖诪砖 讜诇驻谞讬 讬专讞 讚讜专 讚讜专讬诐

Regarding this custom of the vatikin, Rabbi Zeira said: What verse is the source for this tradition? 鈥淭hey shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations鈥 (Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one鈥檚 awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun.

讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讗诇讬拽讬诐 诪砖讜诐 拽讛诇讗 拽讚讬砖讗 讚讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻诇 讛住讜诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讗讬谞讜 谞讝讜拽 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讻讜诇讜

Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem, a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer at sunrise will incur no harm for the entire day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讗谞讗 住诪讻讬 讜讗讬转讝拽讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪讗讬 讗讬转讝拽转 讚讗诪讟讬讬转 讗住讗 诇讘讬 诪诇讻讗 讛转诐 谞诪讬 诪讘注讬 诇讱 诇诪讬讛讘 讗讙专讗 诇诪讞讝讬 讗驻讬 诪诇讻讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇注讜诇诐 讬砖转讚诇 讗讚诐 诇专讜抓 诇拽专讗转 诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜诇讗 诇拽专讗转 诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讘讚 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇拽专讗转 诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 砖讗诐 讬讝讻讛 讬讘讞讬谉 讘讬谉 诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

Rabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 I juxtapose redemption and prayer and nevertheless I was harmed? Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim asked Rabbi Zeira: How were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king鈥檚 palace? The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, there, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israel to witness them in their glory. And not only must one run to greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world, to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讗 诇注讜诇讗 讻讬 注讬讬诇转 诇讛转诐 砖讗讬诇 讘砖诇诪讗 讚专讘 讘专讜谞讗 讗讞讬 讘诪注诪讚 讻诇 讛讞讘讜专讛 讚讗讚诐 讙讚讜诇 讛讜讗 讜砖诪讞 讘诪爪讜转 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 住诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇转驻诇讛 讜诇讗 驻住讬拽 讞讜讻讗 诪驻讜诪讬讛 讻讜诇讬讛 讬讜诪讗

Rabbi El鈥檃 said to Ulla before Ulla left for Babylonia: When you go to Babylonia, ask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot, and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: Once, Rav Beruna juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise, as per the custom of the vatikin (Tosafot), and laughter and joy did not cease from his mouth for the entire day.

讛讬讻讬 诪爪讬 住诪讬讱 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘转讞诇讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛壮 砖驻转讬 转驻转讞 讜诇讘住讜祝 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬讜 诇专爪讜谉 讗诪专讬 驻讬 讜讙讜壮

In practice, the Gemara asks: How is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: At the beginning of prayer, one says: 鈥淟ord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory鈥 (Psalms 51:17), and at the end of prayer one says: 鈥淢ay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer鈥 (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 转讛讗 讘转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转

Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse, 鈥淟ord, open my lips,鈥 be recited only in the evening prayer but not in the morning prayer.

讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 讘谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讝讛讜 讛住讜诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转 诇转驻诇讛 砖诇 注专讘讬转

The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say: Who is worthy of a place in the World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer. Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 转讛讗 讘转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse: 鈥淟ord, open my lips,鈥 be recited only before the afternoon prayer.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 讗讻讜诇讛讜 讜讻讬讜谉 讚拽讘注讜讛 专讘谞谉 讘转驻诇讛 讻转驻诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗

Rav Ashi said another explanation: Even if you say that Rabbi Yo岣nan holds that 鈥淟ord, open my lips鈥 is recited before all prayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. Since the Sages instituted this verse, it is considered as an extended prayer; it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.

讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 注专讘讬转 讛讬讻讬 诪爪讬 住诪讬讱 讜讛讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬诪专 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讗诇讗 讻讬讜谉 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛砖讻讬讘谞讜 讻讙讗讜诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讘注讜讛 专讘谞谉 讘转驻诇讛 讻转驻诇讛 讗专讬讻转讗 讚诪讬讗

Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: As if you do not say so, how does one juxtapose redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer? Mustn鈥檛 one recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] after redemption? Rather, since the Sages instituted the recitation of: Help us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages instituted this verse in prayer, it is considered as an extended prayer.

诪讻讚讬 讛讗讬 讬讛讬讜 诇专爪讜谉 讗诪专讬 驻讬 诪砖诪注 诇讘住讜祝 讜诪砖诪注 诪注讬拽专讗 讚讘注讬谞讗 诇诪讬诪专 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 转拽谞讜讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗讞专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讘专讻讜转 诇讬诪专讜 诪注讬拽专讗

With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: Now, since this verse: 鈥淢ay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You,鈥 can connote the end of prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, and it can connote the beginning of the prayer that he wants to recite: May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: Why did the Sages institute that it is to be recited after the eighteen blessings that constitute the Amida? Let it be recited at the beginning of the prayer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 讚讜讚 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 驻专砖讬讜转 诇驻讬讻讱 转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗讞专 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 讘专讻讜转

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the Amida because David only said this verse after eighteen chapters of Psalms (end of ch. 19). Therefore, the Sages instituted to recite it after the eighteen blessings of the Amida.

讛谞讬 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 转砖注 注砖专讛 讛讜讬谉

The Gemara asks: Are these eighteen psalms? They are nineteen chapters that precede that verse.

讗砖专讬 讛讗讬砖 讜诇诪讛 专讙砖讜 讙讜讬诐 讞讚讗 驻专砖讛 讛讬讗

The Gemara answers: 鈥淗appy is the man,鈥 the first chapter of Psalms, and 鈥淲hy are the nations in an uproar,鈥 the second chapter, constitute a single chapter, so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖 驻专砖讬讜转 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讜诇讗 讗诪专 讛诇诇讜讬讛 注讚 砖专讗讛 讘诪驻诇转谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬转诪讜 讞讟讗讬诐 诪谉 讛讗专抓 讜专砖注讬诐 注讜讚 讗讬谞诐 讘专讻讬 谞驻砖讬 讗转 讛壮 讛诇诇讜讬讛

The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. As Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say Halleluya in any of them until he saw the downfall of the wicked. Only then could David say Halleluya wholeheartedly. As it is stated: 鈥淟et sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, Halleluya (Psalms 104:35).

讛谞讬 诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖 诪讗讛 讜讗专讘注 讛讜讬讬谉 讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讗砖专讬 讛讗讬砖 讜诇诪讛 专讙砖讜 讙讜讬诐 讞讚讗 驻专砖讛 讛讬讗

Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are these one hundred and three psalms? They are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from this that 鈥淗appy is the man鈥 and 鈥淲hy are the nations in uproar鈥 constitute a single portion.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉

Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said:

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