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Daf Yomi

September 17, 2020 | 讻状讞 讘讗诇讜诇 转砖状驻

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 39

Today’s daf is dedicated by Gabrielle and Daniel Altman in honor of their wonderful nephew Eliyahu Stark on his upcoming wedding to Ariella Weiss.

What is the difference in the case of Shabbat and Yom Tov that fall out one after the other between one who puts out bread/food for an eruv and one who stands at the spot where one wants to designate as one’s eruv? How do we understand the nature of the two days of Rosh Hashana – are they considered the same as two days of other holiday in the Exile, meaning one only day is sanctified and we don’t know which one. Or is it treated as one sanctity. Ramifications of this debate are for making two eruvs – one for each day in a different direction or tithing produce with a stipulation: “If today is not Rosh Hashana, then I will separate today…”, and for an egg that hatched on the first day, can one eat it on the second day? Does one add in their prayers a stipulation that maybe today is the first day of the month or maybe it is tomorrow? Rabbi Yosi who forbids stipulations, would he differentiate between Rosh Hashana and two days of Yom Tov on other holidays in the Exile? An incident happened in the house of the Exilarch and Rav Sheshet disagreed with Rav Nachman and was later proven wrong but doesn’t want word to get out to Rav Nachman of his mistake.

诇讗 讬讟讬讬诇 讗讚诐 注诇 驻转讞 诪讚讬谞讛 讻讚讬 砖讬讻谞住 诇诪专讞抓 诪讬讚 讛讚专 讘讬讛


a person may not stroll at the entrance to the city toward the end of Shabbat or a Festival in order to enter a bathhouse immediately upon the conclusion of Shabbat, then Rabba would have retracted his statement with regard to an eiruv. This baraita indicates that even walking on Shabbat for something one needs after Shabbat falls into the category of prohibited preparation.


讜诇讗 讛讬讗 砖诪注 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讛转诐 诪讜讻讞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讻讗 诇讗讜 诪讜讻讞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗


The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not correct. Rabba heard this baraita but did not retract his ruling, as a distinction can be drawn between the cases. There, in the baraita pertaining to one who walks to the end of his field, or one who strolls at the entrance to the city, it is clear to all observers that he is doing so in order to determine what work the field needs after Shabbat, or to enter the bathhouse immediately after Shabbat, respectively. Whereas here, with regard to an eiruv, it is not clear to others that one鈥檚 actions are for the purpose of establishing an eiruv.


讗讬 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 砖诪注转讗 诪砖讻转讬讛 讜讗讬 注诐 讛讗专抓 讛讜讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讞诪专讗 讗讬专讻住 诇讬讛


The Gemara explains: If he is a Torah scholar [tzurva merabbanan], we, the observers, would say: Perhaps his study pulled him, i.e., he was engrossed in his study and was not paying attention to where he was going. And if he is an ignoramus, we would say: Perhaps he lost his donkey and went to look for it. His actions give no indication that he is going to establish an eiruv for the following day, as establishing an eiruv does not require any recognizable action.


讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 注讬专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘砖谞讬 注讬专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讬


The Gemara now examines Rav Yehuda鈥檚 statement itself, which was cited in the course of the previous discussion. Rav Yehuda said: If one established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day as well. If he established an eiruv with bread that he deposited in the place where he wishes to acquire his place of rest on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day as well.


注讬专讘 讘驻转 讘专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘砖谞讬 注讬专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 讗讬谉 诪注专讘 讘驻转 讘砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讘转讞诇讛 讘驻转


If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, and his eiruv was eaten, he may change and establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day. However, if he established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may not establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, as one may not initially establish an eiruv with bread on a Festival for the sake of Shabbat because it is prohibited to prepare on a Festival for Shabbat.


注讬专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讘讗讜转讛 讛驻转 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚拽转谞讬 讻讬爪讚 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 诪讜诇讬讻讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜诪讞砖讬讱 注诇讬讜 讜谞讜讟诇讜 讜讘讗 诇讜 讘砖谞讬 诪讞砖讬讱 注诇讬讜 讜讗讜讻诇讜 讜讘讗 诇讜


With regard to the statement: If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, Shmuel said: Only with the same bread. Rav Ashi said: The wording of the mishna is also precise according to this understanding, as we learned: What does he do if a Festival occurs on Friday, and he wishes to establish an eiruv that will be valid for both the Festival and Shabbat? He brings the eiruv to the spot that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, and then he takes it with him and goes away. On the eve of the second day, he takes the eiruv back to the same place as the day before, and stays there with it until nightfall, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away. The wording of the mishna indicates that he must establish his eiruv for the second day with the same bread that he used for the first day, as argued by Shmuel.


讜专讘谞谉 讚讬诇诪讗 讛转诐 注爪讛 讟讜讘讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉:


The Gemara adds: And the Rabbis, who do not accept the opinion of Shmuel, argue that this is no proof, as perhaps there, the mishna is merely teaching us good advice as to how one can rely on a single eiruv and avoid having to prepare an additional eiruv for the second day.


诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖讛讬讛 讬专讗 砖诪讗 转转注讘专 诪注专讘 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 注讬专讜讘讬谉 讜讗讜诪专 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪讝专讞 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪注专讘 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪注专讘 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪讝专讞 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜讘砖谞讬 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 注讬专讜讘讬 讘砖谞讬 讜讘专讗砖讜谉 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐


MISHNA: During the time period when the Jewish calendar was established by the court according to the testimony of witnesses who had seen the new moon, Rosh HaShana would be observed for only one day if witnesses arrived on that day, and for two days if witnesses failed to arrive and the month of Elul was declared to be an extended, thirty-day month. Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to Rosh HaShana, if one feared that the month of Elul might be extended, and he wanted to travel in two different directions on the two days that could be Rosh HaShana, this person may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east and on the second day to the west, or alternatively: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east. Similarly, he may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or alternatively: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that the two days of Rosh HaShana can be divided in such a manner.


讜注讜讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转谞讛 讗讚诐 注诇 讛讻诇讻诇讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜讗讜讻诇讛 讘砖谞讬


And Rabbi Yehuda said further, with regard to the two days of Rosh HaShana that one observes because he does not know which is the real day of the Festival: A person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and say as follows: If today is the Festival and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday I will separate the teruma and tithes tomorrow, and I have performed nothing today; if today is an ordinary weekday, I hereby separate the appropriate teruma and tithes now. He may then eat the produce on the second day of the Festival, since one of his two acts of tithing was certainly performed on an ordinary weekday.


讜讻谉 讘讬爪讛 砖谞讜诇讚讛 讘专讗砖讜谉 转讗讻诇 讘砖谞讬 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐


And similarly, an egg that was laid on the first day of the Festival may be eaten on the second day, since one of the days is certainly an ordinary weekday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him even with regard to these two days.


专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛专讻讬谞住 讗讜诪专 讛注讜讘专 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讜诪专 讛讞诇讬爪谞讜 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讗转 讬讜诐 专讗砖 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讗诐 诇诪讞专 讜诇诪讞专 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讗诐 讗诪砖 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐:


Rabbi Dosa ben Harekinas says: One who passes before the ark in the synagogue and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. And similarly, on the following day he says: Whether Rosh HaShana is today or yesterday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that one should formulate his prayer in this conditional manner.


讙诪壮 诪讗谉 诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪讜讚讬诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖讛讬讛 讬专讗 砖诪讗 转转注讘专 诪注专讘 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 注讬专讜讘讬谉 讜讗讜诪专 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪讝专讞 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪注专讘 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪注专讘 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪讝专讞 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜讘砖谞讬 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 注讬专讜讘讬 讘砖谞讬 讜讘专讗砖讜谉 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专


GEMARA: Who are the Sages who did not agree with Rabbi Yehuda? Rav said: It is those who follow the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it was taught in the Tosefta: Even though the Rabbis disagree with him about a Festival and Shabbat that occur on consecutive days and say that one cannot make two separate eiruvin for the two days, they concede to Rabbi Eliezer with regard to Rosh HaShana that if a person feared that the month of Elul might be extended, he may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east, and on the second day to the west, or: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east, or: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. But Rabbi Yosei prohibits it.


讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讬 讗转诐 诪讜讚讬诐 砖讗诐 讘讗讜 注讚讬诐 诪谉 讛诪谞讞讛 讜诇诪注诇讛 砖谞讜讛讙讬谉 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 拽讚砖 讜诇诪讞专 拽讚砖


Rabbi Yosei said to the Rabbis: Don鈥檛 you concede that if witnesses came from the time of min岣 and onwards on the first day of Rosh HaShana and testified that they had seen the new moon, we do not rely on their testimony to sanctify that day as Rosh HaShana; rather, since their testimony was not given on time, we observe that day as sanctified and also the following day as sanctified? This indicates that the two days of Rosh HaShana are not observed out of doubt as to which is the proper day; rather, it is as though the two days are one long day that are imbued with one unified sanctity. Therefore, it should not be possible to divide them.


讜专讘谞谉 讛转诐 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讝诇讝讜诇讬 讘讬讛:


And the Rabbis hold that there, the first day is not observed as a Festival by Torah law but due to rabbinic decree, so that people will not demean the day in future years and end up desecrating the Festival should the witnesses come on time. However, by Torah law it is an ordinary weekday, and therefore one can establish two separate eiruvin for the two days.


讜注讜讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讜壮:


We learned in the mishna that in addition to his ruling with regard to eiruvin for the two days of Rosh HaShana, Rabbi Yehuda said further that the two days can be split with regard to a basket of tevel produce and an egg laid on the first day of the Festival.


讜爪专讬讻讗 讚讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讘讛讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 拽注讘讬讚 诪讬讚讬 讗讘诇 讻诇讻诇讛 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻诪转拽谉 讟讬讘诇讗 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讛 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉


The Gemara comments: And it was necessary to teach us all three laws, as they could not have been derived from one another. As, if he had only taught us the halakha with regard to establishing an eiruv for the two days of Rosh HaShana, one might have said that only in this case does Rabbi Yehuda say his ruling because in this case one does not actually do anything on the Festival itself. But in the case of a basket, where it appears as though one is rendering tevel fit on a Festival, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the Rabbis that it is decreed prohibited.


讜讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 讛谞讬 转专转讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讬讻讗 诇诪讬讙讝专 注诇讬讬讛讜 讗讘诇 讘讬爪讛 讚讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬讙讝专 讘讛 诪砖讜诐 驻讬专讜转 讛谞讜砖专讬谉 讜诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽讬谉 砖讝讘讜 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讛 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 爪专讬讻讗:


And had he taught us only these two halakhot, we might have said that Rabbi Yehuda is lenient because there is no reason to issue a decree prohibiting them, as the potential prohibitions involved are not so severe. But in the case of an egg that was laid on the first day of a Festival, where there is reason to issue a decree prohibiting it, as explained in tractate Beitza, because of fruit that fall from a tree or due to liquids that oozed from fruit on a Festival, both of which the Sages prohibited as a safeguard against violating Torah prohibitions, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the opinion of the Rabbis, which maintains that this egg may not be eaten even on the second day of the Festival. It was therefore necessary to teach us all three cases.


转谞讬讗 讻讬爪讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转谞讛 讗讚诐 注诇 讛讻诇讻诇讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜讗讜讻诇讛 讘砖谞讬 讛讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 砖转讬 讻诇讻诇讜转 砖诇 讟讘诇 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讞讜诇 讜诇诪讞专 拽讚砖 转讛讗 讝讜 转专讜诪讛 注诇 讝讜 讜讗诐 讛讬讜诐 拽讚砖 讜诇诪讞专 讞讜诇 讗讬谉 讘讚讘专讬 讻诇讜诐 讜拽讜专讗 注诇讬讛 砖诐 讜诪谞讬讞讛


It was taught in a baraita: How is one to carry out what Rabbi Yehuda said, that a person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and then eat the produce on the second day? If there were two baskets of tevel produce before him, he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday and tomorrow is sanctified, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday, my statement has no significance. And he bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and sets it aside.


讜诇诪讞专 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讞讜诇 转讛讗 讝讜 转专讜诪讛 注诇 讝讜 讜讗诐 讛讬讜诐 拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讘讚讘专讬 讻诇讜诐 讜拽讜专讗 注诇讬讛 砖诐 讜讗讜讻诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 讘砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转


And on the next day he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified, my statement has no significance. And He bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and he may then eat the produce in the other basket, as teruma has definitely been separated on a weekday. Rabbi Yosei prohibits this. And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora, even though the second day is only observed because of a doubt as to the proper day on which to observe the Festival.


讛讛讜讗 讘专 讟讘讬讗 讚讗转讗 诇讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 讚讗转爪讬讚 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讜讗砖转讞讬讟 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖谞讬


The Gemara relates that a particular young deer was brought to the house of the Exilarch. The deer was trapped by a gentile on the first day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora and slaughtered on the second day of the Festival. The question arose whether it was permitted to eat it, based on the fact that one of these two days was certainly an ordinary weekday.


专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜专讘 讞住讚讗 讗讻诇讜 专讘 砖砖转 诇讗 讗讻诇 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪讗讬 讗注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诇专讘 砖砖转 讚诇讗 讗讻讬诇 讘讬砖专讗 讚讟讘讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 砖砖转 讜讛讬讻讬 讗讬讻讜诇 讚转谞讬 讗讬住讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讬住讬 转谞讬 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转


Rav Na岣an and Rav 岣sda ate from it, but Rav Sheshet did not eat from it. Rav Na岣an said in a jesting manner: What can I do for Rav Sheshet, who does not eat deer meat? Rav Sheshet said to him: How can I eat it, as Isi taught, and some say that this should be read as a question: Didn鈥檛 Isi teach: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora?


讗诪专 专讘讗 讜诪讗讬 拽讜砖讬讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 讘砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讘讙讜诇讛 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讘讙讜诇讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛


Rava said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana in the Diaspora, but with regard to the two days of other Festivals observed in the Diaspora, he too would agree with Rabbi Yehuda and permit it. They said to him: If so, the phrase of the Diaspora is inappropriate. It should have said in the Diaspora.


讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讜诪讗讬 拽讜砖讬讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 注讜砖讛 讗讬住讜专 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讻砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇专讘谞谉 讚砖专讜


Rav Asi said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And so too, Rabbi Yosei would treat the prohibition of such a procedure on the two Festival days of the Diaspora as on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit it. In any case, the proof from this baraita is inconclusive.


讗砖讻讞讬讛 专讘 砖砖转 诇专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讬 诪专 诪讬讚讬 讘拽讚讜砖讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讬谞讗 诪讜讚讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛讜 诇讗 转讬诪讗 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬


The Gemara further relates that afterward Rav Sheshet met Rabba bar Shmuel and said to him: Has the Master learned anything with regard to the two sanctities of a Festival and the like? Rabba bar Shmuel said to him: We have learned that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to the two Festival days of the Diaspora. Rav Sheshet said to him: If you happen to meet Rav Na岣an and Rav 岣sda, who disagreed with me and ate the deer in the Exilarch鈥檚 house, do not tell them anything of what you just told me, lest they use this tannaitic source to embarrass me about my refusal to eat.


讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讚讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬 讗诪讬诪专 讛讛讜讗 讘专 讟讘讬讗 诇讗讜 讗讬转爪讜讚讬 讗讬转爪讬讚


Rav Ashi said: Ameimar told me that the deer was not trapped on the Festival;


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Eruvin 39

诇讗 讬讟讬讬诇 讗讚诐 注诇 驻转讞 诪讚讬谞讛 讻讚讬 砖讬讻谞住 诇诪专讞抓 诪讬讚 讛讚专 讘讬讛


a person may not stroll at the entrance to the city toward the end of Shabbat or a Festival in order to enter a bathhouse immediately upon the conclusion of Shabbat, then Rabba would have retracted his statement with regard to an eiruv. This baraita indicates that even walking on Shabbat for something one needs after Shabbat falls into the category of prohibited preparation.


讜诇讗 讛讬讗 砖诪注 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讛转诐 诪讜讻讞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讻讗 诇讗讜 诪讜讻讞讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讬讗


The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not correct. Rabba heard this baraita but did not retract his ruling, as a distinction can be drawn between the cases. There, in the baraita pertaining to one who walks to the end of his field, or one who strolls at the entrance to the city, it is clear to all observers that he is doing so in order to determine what work the field needs after Shabbat, or to enter the bathhouse immediately after Shabbat, respectively. Whereas here, with regard to an eiruv, it is not clear to others that one鈥檚 actions are for the purpose of establishing an eiruv.


讗讬 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 砖诪注转讗 诪砖讻转讬讛 讜讗讬 注诐 讛讗专抓 讛讜讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讞诪专讗 讗讬专讻住 诇讬讛


The Gemara explains: If he is a Torah scholar [tzurva merabbanan], we, the observers, would say: Perhaps his study pulled him, i.e., he was engrossed in his study and was not paying attention to where he was going. And if he is an ignoramus, we would say: Perhaps he lost his donkey and went to look for it. His actions give no indication that he is going to establish an eiruv for the following day, as establishing an eiruv does not require any recognizable action.


讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 注讬专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘砖谞讬 注讬专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讬


The Gemara now examines Rav Yehuda鈥檚 statement itself, which was cited in the course of the previous discussion. Rav Yehuda said: If one established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day as well. If he established an eiruv with bread that he deposited in the place where he wishes to acquire his place of rest on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day as well.


注讬专讘 讘驻转 讘专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘砖谞讬 注讬专讘 讘专讙诇讬讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 讗讬谉 诪注专讘 讘驻转 讘砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讘转讞诇讛 讘驻转


If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, and his eiruv was eaten, he may change and establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day. However, if he established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may not establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, as one may not initially establish an eiruv with bread on a Festival for the sake of Shabbat because it is prohibited to prepare on a Festival for Shabbat.


注讬专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 诪注专讘 讘驻转 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讘讗讜转讛 讛驻转 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚拽转谞讬 讻讬爪讚 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 诪讜诇讬讻讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜诪讞砖讬讱 注诇讬讜 讜谞讜讟诇讜 讜讘讗 诇讜 讘砖谞讬 诪讞砖讬讱 注诇讬讜 讜讗讜讻诇讜 讜讘讗 诇讜


With regard to the statement: If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, Shmuel said: Only with the same bread. Rav Ashi said: The wording of the mishna is also precise according to this understanding, as we learned: What does he do if a Festival occurs on Friday, and he wishes to establish an eiruv that will be valid for both the Festival and Shabbat? He brings the eiruv to the spot that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, and then he takes it with him and goes away. On the eve of the second day, he takes the eiruv back to the same place as the day before, and stays there with it until nightfall, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away. The wording of the mishna indicates that he must establish his eiruv for the second day with the same bread that he used for the first day, as argued by Shmuel.


讜专讘谞谉 讚讬诇诪讗 讛转诐 注爪讛 讟讜讘讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉:


The Gemara adds: And the Rabbis, who do not accept the opinion of Shmuel, argue that this is no proof, as perhaps there, the mishna is merely teaching us good advice as to how one can rely on a single eiruv and avoid having to prepare an additional eiruv for the second day.


诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖讛讬讛 讬专讗 砖诪讗 转转注讘专 诪注专讘 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 注讬专讜讘讬谉 讜讗讜诪专 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪讝专讞 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪注专讘 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪注专讘 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪讝专讞 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜讘砖谞讬 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 注讬专讜讘讬 讘砖谞讬 讜讘专讗砖讜谉 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐


MISHNA: During the time period when the Jewish calendar was established by the court according to the testimony of witnesses who had seen the new moon, Rosh HaShana would be observed for only one day if witnesses arrived on that day, and for two days if witnesses failed to arrive and the month of Elul was declared to be an extended, thirty-day month. Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to Rosh HaShana, if one feared that the month of Elul might be extended, and he wanted to travel in two different directions on the two days that could be Rosh HaShana, this person may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east and on the second day to the west, or alternatively: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east. Similarly, he may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or alternatively: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that the two days of Rosh HaShana can be divided in such a manner.


讜注讜讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转谞讛 讗讚诐 注诇 讛讻诇讻诇讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜讗讜讻诇讛 讘砖谞讬


And Rabbi Yehuda said further, with regard to the two days of Rosh HaShana that one observes because he does not know which is the real day of the Festival: A person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and say as follows: If today is the Festival and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday I will separate the teruma and tithes tomorrow, and I have performed nothing today; if today is an ordinary weekday, I hereby separate the appropriate teruma and tithes now. He may then eat the produce on the second day of the Festival, since one of his two acts of tithing was certainly performed on an ordinary weekday.


讜讻谉 讘讬爪讛 砖谞讜诇讚讛 讘专讗砖讜谉 转讗讻诇 讘砖谞讬 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐


And similarly, an egg that was laid on the first day of the Festival may be eaten on the second day, since one of the days is certainly an ordinary weekday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him even with regard to these two days.


专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛专讻讬谞住 讗讜诪专 讛注讜讘专 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讜诪专 讛讞诇讬爪谞讜 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讗转 讬讜诐 专讗砖 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讗诐 诇诪讞专 讜诇诪讞专 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讗诐 讗诪砖 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐:


Rabbi Dosa ben Harekinas says: One who passes before the ark in the synagogue and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. And similarly, on the following day he says: Whether Rosh HaShana is today or yesterday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that one should formulate his prayer in this conditional manner.


讙诪壮 诪讗谉 诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪讜讚讬诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖讛讬讛 讬专讗 砖诪讗 转转注讘专 诪注专讘 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 注讬专讜讘讬谉 讜讗讜诪专 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪讝专讞 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪注专讘 讘专讗砖讜谉 诇诪注专讘 讜讘砖谞讬 诇诪讝专讞 注讬专讜讘讬 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜讘砖谞讬 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 注讬专讜讘讬 讘砖谞讬 讜讘专讗砖讜谉 讻讘谞讬 注讬专讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专


GEMARA: Who are the Sages who did not agree with Rabbi Yehuda? Rav said: It is those who follow the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it was taught in the Tosefta: Even though the Rabbis disagree with him about a Festival and Shabbat that occur on consecutive days and say that one cannot make two separate eiruvin for the two days, they concede to Rabbi Eliezer with regard to Rosh HaShana that if a person feared that the month of Elul might be extended, he may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east, and on the second day to the west, or: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east, or: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. But Rabbi Yosei prohibits it.


讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讬 讗转诐 诪讜讚讬诐 砖讗诐 讘讗讜 注讚讬诐 诪谉 讛诪谞讞讛 讜诇诪注诇讛 砖谞讜讛讙讬谉 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 拽讚砖 讜诇诪讞专 拽讚砖


Rabbi Yosei said to the Rabbis: Don鈥檛 you concede that if witnesses came from the time of min岣 and onwards on the first day of Rosh HaShana and testified that they had seen the new moon, we do not rely on their testimony to sanctify that day as Rosh HaShana; rather, since their testimony was not given on time, we observe that day as sanctified and also the following day as sanctified? This indicates that the two days of Rosh HaShana are not observed out of doubt as to which is the proper day; rather, it is as though the two days are one long day that are imbued with one unified sanctity. Therefore, it should not be possible to divide them.


讜专讘谞谉 讛转诐 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讝诇讝讜诇讬 讘讬讛:


And the Rabbis hold that there, the first day is not observed as a Festival by Torah law but due to rabbinic decree, so that people will not demean the day in future years and end up desecrating the Festival should the witnesses come on time. However, by Torah law it is an ordinary weekday, and therefore one can establish two separate eiruvin for the two days.


讜注讜讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讜壮:


We learned in the mishna that in addition to his ruling with regard to eiruvin for the two days of Rosh HaShana, Rabbi Yehuda said further that the two days can be split with regard to a basket of tevel produce and an egg laid on the first day of the Festival.


讜爪专讬讻讗 讚讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讘讛讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 拽注讘讬讚 诪讬讚讬 讗讘诇 讻诇讻诇讛 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻诪转拽谉 讟讬讘诇讗 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讛 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉


The Gemara comments: And it was necessary to teach us all three laws, as they could not have been derived from one another. As, if he had only taught us the halakha with regard to establishing an eiruv for the two days of Rosh HaShana, one might have said that only in this case does Rabbi Yehuda say his ruling because in this case one does not actually do anything on the Festival itself. But in the case of a basket, where it appears as though one is rendering tevel fit on a Festival, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the Rabbis that it is decreed prohibited.


讜讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 讛谞讬 转专转讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讬讻讗 诇诪讬讙讝专 注诇讬讬讛讜 讗讘诇 讘讬爪讛 讚讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬讙讝专 讘讛 诪砖讜诐 驻讬专讜转 讛谞讜砖专讬谉 讜诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽讬谉 砖讝讘讜 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讛 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 爪专讬讻讗:


And had he taught us only these two halakhot, we might have said that Rabbi Yehuda is lenient because there is no reason to issue a decree prohibiting them, as the potential prohibitions involved are not so severe. But in the case of an egg that was laid on the first day of a Festival, where there is reason to issue a decree prohibiting it, as explained in tractate Beitza, because of fruit that fall from a tree or due to liquids that oozed from fruit on a Festival, both of which the Sages prohibited as a safeguard against violating Torah prohibitions, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the opinion of the Rabbis, which maintains that this egg may not be eaten even on the second day of the Festival. It was therefore necessary to teach us all three cases.


转谞讬讗 讻讬爪讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转谞讛 讗讚诐 注诇 讛讻诇讻诇讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜讗讜讻诇讛 讘砖谞讬 讛讬讜 诇驻谞讬讜 砖转讬 讻诇讻诇讜转 砖诇 讟讘诇 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讞讜诇 讜诇诪讞专 拽讚砖 转讛讗 讝讜 转专讜诪讛 注诇 讝讜 讜讗诐 讛讬讜诐 拽讚砖 讜诇诪讞专 讞讜诇 讗讬谉 讘讚讘专讬 讻诇讜诐 讜拽讜专讗 注诇讬讛 砖诐 讜诪谞讬讞讛


It was taught in a baraita: How is one to carry out what Rabbi Yehuda said, that a person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and then eat the produce on the second day? If there were two baskets of tevel produce before him, he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday and tomorrow is sanctified, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday, my statement has no significance. And he bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and sets it aside.


讜诇诪讞专 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讛讬讜诐 讞讜诇 转讛讗 讝讜 转专讜诪讛 注诇 讝讜 讜讗诐 讛讬讜诐 拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讘讚讘专讬 讻诇讜诐 讜拽讜专讗 注诇讬讛 砖诐 讜讗讜讻诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 讘砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转


And on the next day he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified, my statement has no significance. And He bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and he may then eat the produce in the other basket, as teruma has definitely been separated on a weekday. Rabbi Yosei prohibits this. And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora, even though the second day is only observed because of a doubt as to the proper day on which to observe the Festival.


讛讛讜讗 讘专 讟讘讬讗 讚讗转讗 诇讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 讚讗转爪讬讚 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讜讗砖转讞讬讟 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖谞讬


The Gemara relates that a particular young deer was brought to the house of the Exilarch. The deer was trapped by a gentile on the first day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora and slaughtered on the second day of the Festival. The question arose whether it was permitted to eat it, based on the fact that one of these two days was certainly an ordinary weekday.


专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜专讘 讞住讚讗 讗讻诇讜 专讘 砖砖转 诇讗 讗讻诇 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪讗讬 讗注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诇专讘 砖砖转 讚诇讗 讗讻讬诇 讘讬砖专讗 讚讟讘讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 砖砖转 讜讛讬讻讬 讗讬讻讜诇 讚转谞讬 讗讬住讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讬住讬 转谞讬 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转


Rav Na岣an and Rav 岣sda ate from it, but Rav Sheshet did not eat from it. Rav Na岣an said in a jesting manner: What can I do for Rav Sheshet, who does not eat deer meat? Rav Sheshet said to him: How can I eat it, as Isi taught, and some say that this should be read as a question: Didn鈥檛 Isi teach: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora?


讗诪专 专讘讗 讜诪讗讬 拽讜砖讬讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜住专 讘砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讘讙讜诇讛 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讘讙讜诇讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛


Rava said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana in the Diaspora, but with regard to the two days of other Festivals observed in the Diaspora, he too would agree with Rabbi Yehuda and permit it. They said to him: If so, the phrase of the Diaspora is inappropriate. It should have said in the Diaspora.


讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讜诪讗讬 拽讜砖讬讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 注讜砖讛 讗讬住讜专 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讻砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇专讘谞谉 讚砖专讜


Rav Asi said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And so too, Rabbi Yosei would treat the prohibition of such a procedure on the two Festival days of the Diaspora as on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit it. In any case, the proof from this baraita is inconclusive.


讗砖讻讞讬讛 专讘 砖砖转 诇专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讬 诪专 诪讬讚讬 讘拽讚讜砖讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讬谞讗 诪讜讚讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 讙诇讬讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛讜 诇讗 转讬诪讗 诇讛讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬


The Gemara further relates that afterward Rav Sheshet met Rabba bar Shmuel and said to him: Has the Master learned anything with regard to the two sanctities of a Festival and the like? Rabba bar Shmuel said to him: We have learned that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to the two Festival days of the Diaspora. Rav Sheshet said to him: If you happen to meet Rav Na岣an and Rav 岣sda, who disagreed with me and ate the deer in the Exilarch鈥檚 house, do not tell them anything of what you just told me, lest they use this tannaitic source to embarrass me about my refusal to eat.


讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讚讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬 讗诪讬诪专 讛讛讜讗 讘专 讟讘讬讗 诇讗讜 讗讬转爪讜讚讬 讗讬转爪讬讚


Rav Ashi said: Ameimar told me that the deer was not trapped on the Festival;


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