Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

September 17, 2020 | כ״ח באלול תש״פ

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 39

Today’s daf is dedicated by Gabrielle and Daniel Altman in honor of their wonderful nephew Eliyahu Stark on his upcoming wedding to Ariella Weiss.

What is the difference in the case of Shabbat and Yom Tov that fall out one after the other between one who puts out bread/food for an eruv and one who stands at the spot where one wants to designate as one’s eruv? How do we understand the nature of the two days of Rosh Hashana – are they considered the same as two days of other holiday in the Exile, meaning one only day is sanctified and we don’t know which one. Or is it treated as one sanctity. Ramifications of this debate are for making two eruvs – one for each day in a different direction or tithing produce with a stipulation: “If today is not Rosh Hashana, then I will separate today…”, and for an egg that hatched on the first day, can one eat it on the second day? Does one add in their prayers a stipulation that maybe today is the first day of the month or maybe it is tomorrow? Rabbi Yosi who forbids stipulations, would he differentiate between Rosh Hashana and two days of Yom Tov on other holidays in the Exile? An incident happened in the house of the Exilarch and Rav Sheshet disagreed with Rav Nachman and was later proven wrong but doesn’t want word to get out to Rav Nachman of his mistake.

לא יטייל אדם על פתח מדינה כדי שיכנס למרחץ מיד הדר ביה

a person may not stroll at the entrance to the city toward the end of Shabbat or a Festival in order to enter a bathhouse immediately upon the conclusion of Shabbat, then Rabba would have retracted his statement with regard to an eiruv. This baraita indicates that even walking on Shabbat for something one needs after Shabbat falls into the category of prohibited preparation.

ולא היא שמע ליה ולא הדר ביה התם מוכחא מילתא הכא לאו מוכחא מילתא היא

The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not correct. Rabba heard this baraita but did not retract his ruling, as a distinction can be drawn between the cases. There, in the baraita pertaining to one who walks to the end of his field, or one who strolls at the entrance to the city, it is clear to all observers that he is doing so in order to determine what work the field needs after Shabbat, or to enter the bathhouse immediately after Shabbat, respectively. Whereas here, with regard to an eiruv, it is not clear to others that one’s actions are for the purpose of establishing an eiruv.

אי צורבא מרבנן הוא אמרינן שמעתא משכתיה ואי עם הארץ הוא אמרינן חמרא אירכס ליה

The Gemara explains: If he is a Torah scholar [tzurva merabbanan], we, the observers, would say: Perhaps his study pulled him, i.e., he was engrossed in his study and was not paying attention to where he was going. And if he is an ignoramus, we would say: Perhaps he lost his donkey and went to look for it. His actions give no indication that he is going to establish an eiruv for the following day, as establishing an eiruv does not require any recognizable action.

גופא אמר רב יהודה עירב ברגליו ביום ראשון מערב ברגליו בשני עירב בפת ביום ראשון מערב בפת ביום שני

The Gemara now examines Rav Yehuda’s statement itself, which was cited in the course of the previous discussion. Rav Yehuda said: If one established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day as well. If he established an eiruv with bread that he deposited in the place where he wishes to acquire his place of rest on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day as well.

עירב בפת בראשון מערב ברגליו בשני עירב ברגליו בראשון אין מערב בפת בשני שאין מערבין בתחלה בפת

If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, and his eiruv was eaten, he may change and establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day. However, if he established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may not establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, as one may not initially establish an eiruv with bread on a Festival for the sake of Shabbat because it is prohibited to prepare on a Festival for Shabbat.

עירב בפת ביום ראשון מערב בפת ביום שני אמר שמואל ובאותה הפת אמר רב אשי דיקא נמי מתניתין דקתני כיצד הוא עושה מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו ובא לו

With regard to the statement: If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, Shmuel said: Only with the same bread.Rav Ashi said: The wording of the mishna is also precise according to this understanding, as we learned: What does he do if a Festival occurs on Friday, and he wishes to establish an eiruv that will be valid for both the Festival and Shabbat? He brings the eiruv to the spot that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, and then he takes it with him and goes away. On the eve of the second day, he takes the eiruv back to the same place as the day before, and stays there with it until nightfall, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away. The wording of the mishna indicates that he must establish his eiruv for the second day with the same bread that he used for the first day, as argued by Shmuel.

ורבנן דילמא התם עצה טובה קא משמע לן:

The Gemara adds: And the Rabbis, who do not accept the opinion of Shmuel, argue that this is no proof, as perhaps there, the mishna is merely teaching us good advice as to how one can rely on a single eiruv and avoid having to prepare an additional eiruv for the second day.

מתני׳ רבי יהודה אומר ראש השנה שהיה ירא שמא תתעבר מערב אדם שני עירובין ואומר עירובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח עירובי בראשון ובשני כבני עירי עירובי בשני ובראשון כבני עירי ולא הודו לו חכמים

MISHNA: During the time period when the Jewish calendar was established by the court according to the testimony of witnesses who had seen the new moon, Rosh HaShana would be observed for only one day if witnesses arrived on that day, and for two days if witnesses failed to arrive and the month of Elul was declared to be an extended, thirty-day month. Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to Rosh HaShana, if one feared that the month of Elul might be extended, and he wanted to travel in two different directions on the two days that could be Rosh HaShana, this person may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east and on the second day to the west, or alternatively: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east. Similarly, he may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or alternatively: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that the two days of Rosh HaShana can be divided in such a manner.

ועוד אמר רבי יהודה מתנה אדם על הכלכלה ביום טוב ראשון ואוכלה בשני

And Rabbi Yehuda said further, with regard to the two days of Rosh HaShana that one observes because he does not know which is the real day of the Festival: A person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and say as follows: If today is the Festival and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday I will separate the teruma and tithes tomorrow, and I have performed nothing today; if today is an ordinary weekday, I hereby separate the appropriate teruma and tithes now. He may then eat the produce on the second day of the Festival, since one of his two acts of tithing was certainly performed on an ordinary weekday.

וכן ביצה שנולדה בראשון תאכל בשני ולא הודו לו חכמים

And similarly, an egg that was laid on the first day of the Festival may be eaten on the second day, since one of the days is certainly an ordinary weekday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him even with regard to these two days.

רבי דוסא בן הרכינס אומר העובר לפני התיבה ביום טוב של ראש השנה אומר החליצנו ה׳ אלהינו את יום ראש החדש הזה אם היום אם למחר ולמחר הוא אומר אם היום אם אמש ולא הודו לו חכמים:

Rabbi Dosa ben Harekinas says: One who passes before the ark in the synagogue and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. And similarly, on the following day he says: Whether Rosh HaShana is today or yesterday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that one should formulate his prayer in this conditional manner.

גמ׳ מאן לא הודו לו אמר רב רבי יוסי היא דתניא מודים חכמים לרבי אליעזר בראש השנה שהיה ירא שמא תתעבר מערב אדם שני עירובין ואומר עירובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח עירובי בראשון ובשני כבני עירי עירובי בשני ובראשון כבני עירי רבי יוסי אוסר

GEMARA: Who are the Sages who did not agree with Rabbi Yehuda? Rav said: It is those who follow the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it was taught in the Tosefta: Even though the Rabbis disagree with him about a Festival and Shabbat that occur on consecutive days and say that one cannot make two separate eiruvin for the two days, they concede to Rabbi Eliezer with regard to Rosh HaShana that if a person feared that the month of Elul might be extended, he may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east, and on the second day to the west, or: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east, or: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. But Rabbi Yosei prohibits it.

אמר להן רבי יוסי אי אתם מודים שאם באו עדים מן המנחה ולמעלה שנוהגין אותו היום קדש ולמחר קדש

Rabbi Yosei said to the Rabbis: Don’t you concede that if witnesses came from the time of minḥa and on on the first day of Rosh HaShana and testified that they had seen the new moon, we do not rely on their testimony to sanctify that day as Rosh HaShana; rather, since their testimony was not given on time, we observe that day as sanctified and also the following day as sanctified? This indicates that the two days of Rosh HaShana are not observed out of doubt as to which is the proper day; rather, it is as though the two days are one long day that are imbued with one unified sanctity. Therefore, it should not be possible to divide them.

ורבנן התם כי היכי דלא לזלזולי ביה:

And the Rabbis hold that there, the first day is not observed as a Festival by Torah law but due to rabbinic decree, so that people will not demean the day in future years and end up desecrating the Festival should the witnesses come on time. However, by Torah law it is an ordinary weekday, and therefore one can establish two separate eiruvin for the two days.

ועוד אמר רבי יהודה וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna that in addition to his ruling with regard to eiruvin for the two days of Rosh HaShana, Rabbi Yehuda said further that the two days can be split with regard to a basket of tevel produce and an egg laid on the first day of the Festival.

וצריכא דאי אשמעינן ראש השנה בהא קאמר רבי יהודה משום דלא קעביד מידי אבל כלכלה דמיחזי כמתקן טיבלא אימא מודה להו לרבנן

The Gemara comments: And it was necessary to teach us all three laws, as they could not have been derived from one another. As, if he had only taught us the halakha with regard to establishing an eiruv for the two days of Rosh HaShana, one might have said that only in this case does Rabbi Yehuda say his ruling because in this case one does not actually do anything on the Festival itself. But in the case of a basket, where it appears as though one is rendering tevel fit on a Festival, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the Rabbis that it is decreed prohibited.

ואי אשמעינן הני תרתי משום דליכא למיגזר עלייהו אבל ביצה דאיכא למיגזר בה משום פירות הנושרין ומשום משקין שזבו אימא מודה להו לרבנן צריכא:

And had he taught us only these two halakhot, we might have said that Rabbi Yehuda is lenient because there is no reason to issue a decree prohibiting them, as the potential prohibitions involved are not so severe. But in the case of an egg that was laid on the first day of a Festival, where there is reason to issue a decree prohibiting it, as explained in tractate Beitza, because of fruit that fall from a tree or due to liquids that oozed from fruit on a Festival, both of which the Sages prohibited as a safeguard against violating Torah prohibitions, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the opinion of the Rabbis, which maintains that this egg may not be eaten even on the second day of the Festival. It was therefore necessary to teach us all three cases.

תניא כיצד אמר רבי יהודה מתנה אדם על הכלכלה ביום טוב ראשון ואוכלה בשני היו לפניו שתי כלכלות של טבל אומר אם היום חול ולמחר קדש תהא זו תרומה על זו ואם היום קדש ולמחר חול אין בדברי כלום וקורא עליה שם ומניחה

It was taught in a baraita: How is one to carry out what Rabbi Yehuda said, that a person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and then eat the produce on the second day? If there were two baskets of tevel produce before him, he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday and tomorrow is sanctified, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday, my statement has no significance. And he bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and sets it aside.

ולמחר הוא אומר אם היום חול תהא זו תרומה על זו ואם היום קדש אין בדברי כלום וקורא עליה שם ואוכלה רבי יוסי אוסר וכן היה רבי יוסי אוסר בשני ימים טובים של גליות

And on the next day he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified, my statement has no significance. And He bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and he may then eat the produce in the other basket, as teruma has definitely been separated on a weekday. Rabbi Yosei prohibits this. And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora, even though the second day is only observed because of a doubt as to the proper day on which to observe the Festival.

ההוא בר טביא דאתא לבי ריש גלותא דאתציד ביום טוב ראשון של גליות ואשתחיט ביום טוב שני

The Gemara relates that a particular young deer was brought to the house of the Exilarch. The deer was trapped by a gentile on the first day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora and slaughtered on the second day of the Festival. The question arose whether it was permitted to eat it, based on the fact that one of these two days was certainly an ordinary weekday.

רב נחמן ורב חסדא אכלו רב ששת לא אכל אמר רב נחמן מאי אעביד ליה לרב ששת דלא אכיל בישרא דטביא אמר ליה רב ששת והיכי איכול דתני איסי ואמרי לה איסי תני וכן היה רבי יוסי אוסר שני ימים טובים של גליות

Rav Naḥman and Rav Ḥisda ate from it, but Rav Sheshet did not eat from it. Rav Naḥman said in a jesting manner: What can I do for Rav Sheshet, who does not eat deer meat? Rav Sheshet said to him: How can I eat it, as Isi taught, and some say that this should be read as a question: Didn’t Isi teach: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora?

אמר רבא ומאי קושיא דילמא הכי קאמר וכן היה רבי יוסי אוסר בשני ימים טובים של ראש השנה בגולה אי הכי של גליות בגולה מיבעי ליה

Rava said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana in the Diaspora, but with regard to the two days of other Festivals observed in the Diaspora, he too would agree with Rabbi Yehuda and permit it. They said to him: If so, the phrase of the Diaspora is inappropriate. It should have said in the Diaspora.

אמר רב אסי ומאי קושיא דילמא הכי קאמר וכן היה רבי יוסי עושה איסור שני ימים טובים של גליות כשני ימים טובים של ראש השנה לרבנן דשרו

Rav Asi said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And so too, Rabbi Yosei would treat the prohibition of such a procedure on the two Festival days of the Diaspora as on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit it. In any case, the proof from this baraita is inconclusive.

אשכחיה רב ששת לרבה בר שמואל אמר ליה תני מר מידי בקדושות אמר ליה תנינא מודה רבי יוסי בשני ימים טובים של גליות אמר ליה אי משכחת להו לא תימא להו ולא מידי

The Gemara further relates that afterward Rav Sheshet met Rabba bar Shmuel and said to him: Has the Master learned anything with regard to the two sanctities of a Festival and the like? Rabba bar Shmuel said to him: We have learned that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to the two Festival days of the Diaspora. Rav Sheshet said to him: If you happen to meet Rav Naḥman and Rav Ḥisda, who disagreed with me and ate the deer in the Exilarch’s house, do not tell them anything of what you just told me, lest they use this tannaitic source to embarrass me about my refusal to eat.

אמר רב אשי לדידי אמר לי אמימר ההוא בר טביא לאו איתצודי איתציד

Rav Ashi said: Ameimar told me that the deer was not trapped on the Festival;

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

one week at a time with tamara spitz

Eruvin 38-44 – Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

This week will discuss topics in Daf 38-44 including if one can make a separate Eruv for Shabbat and a...
talking talmud_square

Eruvin 39: When Rosh Hashanah Falls on Rosh Chodesh

The establishment of Rosh Chodesh, based on witness testimony, and the implications of that for Rosh Hashanah, which, by definition,...

Eruvin 39

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Eruvin 39

לא יטייל אדם על פתח מדינה כדי שיכנס למרחץ מיד הדר ביה

a person may not stroll at the entrance to the city toward the end of Shabbat or a Festival in order to enter a bathhouse immediately upon the conclusion of Shabbat, then Rabba would have retracted his statement with regard to an eiruv. This baraita indicates that even walking on Shabbat for something one needs after Shabbat falls into the category of prohibited preparation.

ולא היא שמע ליה ולא הדר ביה התם מוכחא מילתא הכא לאו מוכחא מילתא היא

The Gemara rejects this argument: And this is not correct. Rabba heard this baraita but did not retract his ruling, as a distinction can be drawn between the cases. There, in the baraita pertaining to one who walks to the end of his field, or one who strolls at the entrance to the city, it is clear to all observers that he is doing so in order to determine what work the field needs after Shabbat, or to enter the bathhouse immediately after Shabbat, respectively. Whereas here, with regard to an eiruv, it is not clear to others that one’s actions are for the purpose of establishing an eiruv.

אי צורבא מרבנן הוא אמרינן שמעתא משכתיה ואי עם הארץ הוא אמרינן חמרא אירכס ליה

The Gemara explains: If he is a Torah scholar [tzurva merabbanan], we, the observers, would say: Perhaps his study pulled him, i.e., he was engrossed in his study and was not paying attention to where he was going. And if he is an ignoramus, we would say: Perhaps he lost his donkey and went to look for it. His actions give no indication that he is going to establish an eiruv for the following day, as establishing an eiruv does not require any recognizable action.

גופא אמר רב יהודה עירב ברגליו ביום ראשון מערב ברגליו בשני עירב בפת ביום ראשון מערב בפת ביום שני

The Gemara now examines Rav Yehuda’s statement itself, which was cited in the course of the previous discussion. Rav Yehuda said: If one established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day as well. If he established an eiruv with bread that he deposited in the place where he wishes to acquire his place of rest on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day as well.

עירב בפת בראשון מערב ברגליו בשני עירב ברגליו בראשון אין מערב בפת בשני שאין מערבין בתחלה בפת

If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, and his eiruv was eaten, he may change and establish an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the second day. However, if he established an eiruv with his feet on the eve of the first day, he may not establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, as one may not initially establish an eiruv with bread on a Festival for the sake of Shabbat because it is prohibited to prepare on a Festival for Shabbat.

עירב בפת ביום ראשון מערב בפת ביום שני אמר שמואל ובאותה הפת אמר רב אשי דיקא נמי מתניתין דקתני כיצד הוא עושה מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו ובא לו

With regard to the statement: If he established an eiruv with bread on the eve of the first day, he may establish an eiruv with bread on the eve of the second day, Shmuel said: Only with the same bread.Rav Ashi said: The wording of the mishna is also precise according to this understanding, as we learned: What does he do if a Festival occurs on Friday, and he wishes to establish an eiruv that will be valid for both the Festival and Shabbat? He brings the eiruv to the spot that he wishes to establish as his residence on the eve of the first day, and he stays there with it until nightfall, and then he takes it with him and goes away. On the eve of the second day, he takes the eiruv back to the same place as the day before, and stays there with it until nightfall, and then he may eat the eiruv and go away. The wording of the mishna indicates that he must establish his eiruv for the second day with the same bread that he used for the first day, as argued by Shmuel.

ורבנן דילמא התם עצה טובה קא משמע לן:

The Gemara adds: And the Rabbis, who do not accept the opinion of Shmuel, argue that this is no proof, as perhaps there, the mishna is merely teaching us good advice as to how one can rely on a single eiruv and avoid having to prepare an additional eiruv for the second day.

מתני׳ רבי יהודה אומר ראש השנה שהיה ירא שמא תתעבר מערב אדם שני עירובין ואומר עירובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח עירובי בראשון ובשני כבני עירי עירובי בשני ובראשון כבני עירי ולא הודו לו חכמים

MISHNA: During the time period when the Jewish calendar was established by the court according to the testimony of witnesses who had seen the new moon, Rosh HaShana would be observed for only one day if witnesses arrived on that day, and for two days if witnesses failed to arrive and the month of Elul was declared to be an extended, thirty-day month. Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to Rosh HaShana, if one feared that the month of Elul might be extended, and he wanted to travel in two different directions on the two days that could be Rosh HaShana, this person may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east and on the second day to the west, or alternatively: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east. Similarly, he may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or alternatively: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that the two days of Rosh HaShana can be divided in such a manner.

ועוד אמר רבי יהודה מתנה אדם על הכלכלה ביום טוב ראשון ואוכלה בשני

And Rabbi Yehuda said further, with regard to the two days of Rosh HaShana that one observes because he does not know which is the real day of the Festival: A person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and say as follows: If today is the Festival and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday I will separate the teruma and tithes tomorrow, and I have performed nothing today; if today is an ordinary weekday, I hereby separate the appropriate teruma and tithes now. He may then eat the produce on the second day of the Festival, since one of his two acts of tithing was certainly performed on an ordinary weekday.

וכן ביצה שנולדה בראשון תאכל בשני ולא הודו לו חכמים

And similarly, an egg that was laid on the first day of the Festival may be eaten on the second day, since one of the days is certainly an ordinary weekday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him even with regard to these two days.

רבי דוסא בן הרכינס אומר העובר לפני התיבה ביום טוב של ראש השנה אומר החליצנו ה׳ אלהינו את יום ראש החדש הזה אם היום אם למחר ולמחר הוא אומר אם היום אם אמש ולא הודו לו חכמים:

Rabbi Dosa ben Harekinas says: One who passes before the ark in the synagogue and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. And similarly, on the following day he says: Whether Rosh HaShana is today or yesterday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that one should formulate his prayer in this conditional manner.

גמ׳ מאן לא הודו לו אמר רב רבי יוסי היא דתניא מודים חכמים לרבי אליעזר בראש השנה שהיה ירא שמא תתעבר מערב אדם שני עירובין ואומר עירובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח עירובי בראשון ובשני כבני עירי עירובי בשני ובראשון כבני עירי רבי יוסי אוסר

GEMARA: Who are the Sages who did not agree with Rabbi Yehuda? Rav said: It is those who follow the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it was taught in the Tosefta: Even though the Rabbis disagree with him about a Festival and Shabbat that occur on consecutive days and say that one cannot make two separate eiruvin for the two days, they concede to Rabbi Eliezer with regard to Rosh HaShana that if a person feared that the month of Elul might be extended, he may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east, and on the second day to the west, or: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east, or: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. But Rabbi Yosei prohibits it.

אמר להן רבי יוסי אי אתם מודים שאם באו עדים מן המנחה ולמעלה שנוהגין אותו היום קדש ולמחר קדש

Rabbi Yosei said to the Rabbis: Don’t you concede that if witnesses came from the time of minḥa and on on the first day of Rosh HaShana and testified that they had seen the new moon, we do not rely on their testimony to sanctify that day as Rosh HaShana; rather, since their testimony was not given on time, we observe that day as sanctified and also the following day as sanctified? This indicates that the two days of Rosh HaShana are not observed out of doubt as to which is the proper day; rather, it is as though the two days are one long day that are imbued with one unified sanctity. Therefore, it should not be possible to divide them.

ורבנן התם כי היכי דלא לזלזולי ביה:

And the Rabbis hold that there, the first day is not observed as a Festival by Torah law but due to rabbinic decree, so that people will not demean the day in future years and end up desecrating the Festival should the witnesses come on time. However, by Torah law it is an ordinary weekday, and therefore one can establish two separate eiruvin for the two days.

ועוד אמר רבי יהודה וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna that in addition to his ruling with regard to eiruvin for the two days of Rosh HaShana, Rabbi Yehuda said further that the two days can be split with regard to a basket of tevel produce and an egg laid on the first day of the Festival.

וצריכא דאי אשמעינן ראש השנה בהא קאמר רבי יהודה משום דלא קעביד מידי אבל כלכלה דמיחזי כמתקן טיבלא אימא מודה להו לרבנן

The Gemara comments: And it was necessary to teach us all three laws, as they could not have been derived from one another. As, if he had only taught us the halakha with regard to establishing an eiruv for the two days of Rosh HaShana, one might have said that only in this case does Rabbi Yehuda say his ruling because in this case one does not actually do anything on the Festival itself. But in the case of a basket, where it appears as though one is rendering tevel fit on a Festival, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the Rabbis that it is decreed prohibited.

ואי אשמעינן הני תרתי משום דליכא למיגזר עלייהו אבל ביצה דאיכא למיגזר בה משום פירות הנושרין ומשום משקין שזבו אימא מודה להו לרבנן צריכא:

And had he taught us only these two halakhot, we might have said that Rabbi Yehuda is lenient because there is no reason to issue a decree prohibiting them, as the potential prohibitions involved are not so severe. But in the case of an egg that was laid on the first day of a Festival, where there is reason to issue a decree prohibiting it, as explained in tractate Beitza, because of fruit that fall from a tree or due to liquids that oozed from fruit on a Festival, both of which the Sages prohibited as a safeguard against violating Torah prohibitions, say that Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the opinion of the Rabbis, which maintains that this egg may not be eaten even on the second day of the Festival. It was therefore necessary to teach us all three cases.

תניא כיצד אמר רבי יהודה מתנה אדם על הכלכלה ביום טוב ראשון ואוכלה בשני היו לפניו שתי כלכלות של טבל אומר אם היום חול ולמחר קדש תהא זו תרומה על זו ואם היום קדש ולמחר חול אין בדברי כלום וקורא עליה שם ומניחה

It was taught in a baraita: How is one to carry out what Rabbi Yehuda said, that a person may make a condition with regard to a basket of tevel produce on the first day of the Festival and then eat the produce on the second day? If there were two baskets of tevel produce before him, he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday and tomorrow is sanctified, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified and tomorrow is an ordinary weekday, my statement has no significance. And he bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and sets it aside.

ולמחר הוא אומר אם היום חול תהא זו תרומה על זו ואם היום קדש אין בדברי כלום וקורא עליה שם ואוכלה רבי יוסי אוסר וכן היה רבי יוסי אוסר בשני ימים טובים של גליות

And on the next day he says as follows: If today is an ordinary weekday, let this basket be teruma for that basket; and if today is sanctified, my statement has no significance. And He bestows upon the basket the name of teruma, and he may then eat the produce in the other basket, as teruma has definitely been separated on a weekday. Rabbi Yosei prohibits this. And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora, even though the second day is only observed because of a doubt as to the proper day on which to observe the Festival.

ההוא בר טביא דאתא לבי ריש גלותא דאתציד ביום טוב ראשון של גליות ואשתחיט ביום טוב שני

The Gemara relates that a particular young deer was brought to the house of the Exilarch. The deer was trapped by a gentile on the first day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora and slaughtered on the second day of the Festival. The question arose whether it was permitted to eat it, based on the fact that one of these two days was certainly an ordinary weekday.

רב נחמן ורב חסדא אכלו רב ששת לא אכל אמר רב נחמן מאי אעביד ליה לרב ששת דלא אכיל בישרא דטביא אמר ליה רב ששת והיכי איכול דתני איסי ואמרי לה איסי תני וכן היה רבי יוסי אוסר שני ימים טובים של גליות

Rav Naḥman and Rav Ḥisda ate from it, but Rav Sheshet did not eat from it. Rav Naḥman said in a jesting manner: What can I do for Rav Sheshet, who does not eat deer meat? Rav Sheshet said to him: How can I eat it, as Isi taught, and some say that this should be read as a question: Didn’t Isi teach: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of the Diaspora?

אמר רבא ומאי קושיא דילמא הכי קאמר וכן היה רבי יוסי אוסר בשני ימים טובים של ראש השנה בגולה אי הכי של גליות בגולה מיבעי ליה

Rava said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would prohibit this procedure even on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana in the Diaspora, but with regard to the two days of other Festivals observed in the Diaspora, he too would agree with Rabbi Yehuda and permit it. They said to him: If so, the phrase of the Diaspora is inappropriate. It should have said in the Diaspora.

אמר רב אסי ומאי קושיא דילמא הכי קאמר וכן היה רבי יוסי עושה איסור שני ימים טובים של גליות כשני ימים טובים של ראש השנה לרבנן דשרו

Rav Asi said: What is the difficulty? Perhaps this is what he said: And so too, Rabbi Yosei would treat the prohibition of such a procedure on the two Festival days of the Diaspora as on the two Festival days of Rosh HaShana, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit it. In any case, the proof from this baraita is inconclusive.

אשכחיה רב ששת לרבה בר שמואל אמר ליה תני מר מידי בקדושות אמר ליה תנינא מודה רבי יוסי בשני ימים טובים של גליות אמר ליה אי משכחת להו לא תימא להו ולא מידי

The Gemara further relates that afterward Rav Sheshet met Rabba bar Shmuel and said to him: Has the Master learned anything with regard to the two sanctities of a Festival and the like? Rabba bar Shmuel said to him: We have learned that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to the two Festival days of the Diaspora. Rav Sheshet said to him: If you happen to meet Rav Naḥman and Rav Ḥisda, who disagreed with me and ate the deer in the Exilarch’s house, do not tell them anything of what you just told me, lest they use this tannaitic source to embarrass me about my refusal to eat.

אמר רב אשי לדידי אמר לי אמימר ההוא בר טביא לאו איתצודי איתציד

Rav Ashi said: Ameimar told me that the deer was not trapped on the Festival;

Join Hadran Communities! Connect with women learning in your area.

Scroll To Top