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Today's Daf Yomi

September 18, 2020 | כ״ט באלול תש״פ

Masechet Eruvin is sponsored by Adina and Eric Hagege in honor of our parents, Rabbi Dov and Elayne Greenstone and Roger and Ketty Hagege who raised children, grandchildren and great grandchildren committed to Torah learning.

Eruvin 40

This is FRIDAY’S DAF, for Thursday’s daf, please click here!

Today’s daf is sponsored by Judith Munk and family in memory of our dear beloved mother, grandmother and great grandmother- Rivka Ruth bat Yissachar Dov z”l, (Ruth Schonfeld) on her 10th yahrzeit. She was an Eshet Chayil, one who דבקה במצוות and bore the tragedies of her past without complaint .יהי זכרה ברוך

A different version of the story of Rav Sheshet and Rav Nachman in the Exilarch’s house is told by Rav Ashi – the issue regards an animal brought from outside the techum and not two days of Yom Tov. The gemara discusses halachic issues regarding melacha done by a non-Jew for a Jew on Shabbat or chag. Can the Jew benefit? If so, when? Does it depend if it were done specifically for you or for a different Jew? What if it was done for non-Jews? Does one need to mention Rosh Chodesh in the Rosh Hashana davening? Does one say the shehechiyanu blessing on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur?

אלא מחוץ לתחום אתא מאן דאכל סבר הבא בשביל ישראל זה מותר לישראל אחר

rather, it had already been caught beforehand, but it came to the Exilarch’s house on the Festival from outside the Shabbat limit and was slaughtered on that day. The one who ate from it, namely, Rav Naḥman and Rav Ḥisda, holds: Something that comes from outside the Shabbat limit for one Jew is permitted to another Jew.Since the deer was brought for the Exilarch, the Sages at his table were permitted to eat from it, and we do not prohibit them to derive benefit from something that a gentile did for another Jew.

ומאן דלא אכל סבר כל דאתי לבי ריש גלותא אדעתא דכולהו רבנן אתי

And the one who did not eat from it, Rav Sheshet, holds: Anything that comes to the house of the Exilarch comes with all the Sages in mind, as it is known that the Exilarch invites them to dine with him on Festivals. Therefore, just as it was prohibited to the Exilarch himself, as it was brought from outside the Shabbat limit, so too, it was prohibited to all his guests.

והא אשכחיה רב ששת לרבה בר שמואל ואמר ליה לא היו דברים מעולם

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rav Sheshet meet Rabba bar Shmuel and say to him what he said, indicating that the issue is related to the question of whether the two days are considered distinct sanctities? The Gemara answers: According to Ameimar’s version of the story, that encounter never happened.

ההוא ליפתא דאתי למחוזא נפק רבא חזיא דכמישא שרא רבא למיזבן מיניה אמר הא ודאי מאיתמול נעקרה

The Gemara relates that a delivery of turnip was once brought to the town of Meḥoza by gentile merchants from outside the Shabbat limit on a Festival in the Diaspora. Rava went out to the market and saw that the turnips were withered, and therefore he permitted people to buy them immediately without having to wait the amount of time needed to bring similar items from outside the limit after the Festival. He said: These turnips were certainly uprooted from the ground yesterday, and no prohibited labor was performed with them today.

מאי אמרת מחוץ לתחום אתיא הבא בשביל ישראל זה מותר לאכול לישראל אחר וכל שכן האי דאדעתא דגוים אתא

What might you say; that they came from outside the Shabbat limit and should therefore be prohibited? The accepted principle is: Something that comes for one Jew is permitted to be eaten by another Jew, and all the more so with regard to this delivery of turnip, which came with gentiles in mind, i.e., for their sake rather than for the sake of Jews. Therefore, if they are purchased by Jews, no prohibition is violated.

כיון דחזא דקא מפשי ומייתי להו אסר להו:

The Gemara adds: Once Rava saw that the gentile merchants started to bring increased quantities of turnips on Festival days for the sake of their Jewish customers, he prohibited the inhabitants of Meḥoza to buy them, for it was evident that they were now being brought for Jews.

הנהו בני גננא דגזו להו אסא ביום טוב שני לאורתא שרא להו רבינא לאורוחי ביה לאלתר אמר ליה רבא בר תחליפא לרבינא ליסר להו מר מפני שאינן בני תורה

The Gemara relates that certain canopy makers, who would braid myrtle branches into their canopies, once cut myrtles on the second day of a Festival, and in the evening Ravina permitted people to smell them immediately at the conclusion of the Festival. Rava bar Taḥalifa said to Ravina: The Master should prohibit them to do this, as they are not knowledgeable in Torah, and therefore we should be stringent with them lest they come to treat the sanctity of the second Festival day lightly.

מתקיף לה רב שמעיה טעמא דאינן בני תורה הא בני תורה שרי והא בעינן בכדי שיעשו אזלו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו בעינן בכדי שיעשו:

Rav Shemaya strongly objects to this: The reason given here is that they are not knowledgeable in Torah; but if they were knowledgeable in Torah, would it be permitted? Don’t we require them to wait the time needed for the myrtle’s preparation, i.e., the time it takes to cut them? They went and asked Rava. He said to them: We require them to wait the time needed for the myrtle’s preparation.

רבי דוסא אומר העובר לפני התיבה כו׳:

The mishna cited Rabbi Dosa’s version of the Rosh HaShana prayer: Rabbi Dosa says: He who passes before the ark and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow.

אמר רבה כי הוינן בי רב הונא איבעיא לן מהו להזכיר של ראש חדש בראש השנה כיון דחלוקין במוספין אמרינן או דילמא זכרון אחד עולה לכאן ולכאן

Rabba said: When we were in the house of study of Rav Huna, we raised the following dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to whether it is proper to mention the New Moon during prayer on Rosh HaShana? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: Do we say that since they have separate additional offerings, as one additional offering is brought for the New Moon and another for Rosh HaShana, we mention them separately in prayer as well? Or perhaps one remembrance counts for both this and that? The Torah is referring to both Rosh HaShana and the New Moon as times of remembrance, and therefore perhaps simply mentioning that it is a Day of Remembrance should suffice.

אמר לן תניתוה רבי דוסא אומר העובר לפני התיבה כו׳ מאי לאו להזכיר

Rav Huna said to us: You have already learned the answer to this question in the mishna, which states that Rabbi Dosa says: He who passes before the ark and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day and on the second day of Rosh HaShana mentions the New Moon in a conditional manner: On this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. But the Rabbis did not agree with him. What, is it not that the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Dosa about the need to mention the New Moon during prayer on Rosh HaShana?

לא להתנות

The Gemara refutes this proof: No, they disagree about whether to make a condition. The novelty in Rabbi Dosa’s teaching was not that mention must be made of the New Moon, but that a condition must be made due to the day’s uncertain status. The Rabbis disagree about that.

הכי נמי מסתברא מדקתני בברייתא וכן היה רבי דוסא עושה בראשי חדשים של כל השנה כולה ולא הודו לו

The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable to say that the dispute between Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis relates to the condition and not to the very mention of the New Moon. This can be ascertained from the fact that it was taught in a baraita: And so too, Rabbi Dosa would do this on all the New Moons for which two days are kept out of doubt the entire year; and the Rabbis did not agree with him.

אי אמרת בשלמא להתנות משום הכי לא הודו לו אלא אי אמרת להזכיר אמאי לא הודו לו

Granted, if you say that the disagreement was about whether to make a condition, that is why they did not agree with him with regard to the New Moon throughout the year, as they did not accept the whole idea of a conditional prayer. But if you say the main point of contention was whether to mention the New Moon at all, why didn’t they agree with him that the New Moon should be mentioned during prayer the rest of the year?

ואלא מאי להתנות למה לי לאיפלוגי בתרתי צריכא דאי אשמעינן ראש השנה הוה אמינא בהא קאמרי רבנן דלא משום דאתי לזלזולי ביה אבל בראשי חדשים של כל השנה כולה אימא מודו ליה לרבי דוסא

The Gemara asks: Rather, what is the disagreement about, whether or not to make a condition? Why do I need them to disagree in two cases? The issue is the same on Rosh HaShana as on any other New Moon. The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach both cases, as, if he had only taught us the halakha with regard to Rosh HaShana, I might have said that only in this case did the Rabbis say that one should not mention the New Moon in a conditional manner because people might come to demean the day and perform prohibited labor. But in the case of an ordinary New Moon throughout the year, I might say that perhaps they agree with Rabbi Dosa, since labor is not prohibited on the New Moon, and therefore there is no reason for concern lest people come to treat it lightly.

ואי אתמר בהא בהא קאמר רבי דוסא אבל בהך אימא מודה להו לרבנן צריכא

And if the disagreement had only been stated in this case, in the case of an ordinary New Moon, one might say that only in this case did Rabbi Dosa say that a condition may be made. But in that other case of Rosh HaShana, I might say that he agrees with the Rabbis, due to concern lest people will come to treat the Festival lightly. It was therefore necessary to state the disagreement in both cases.

מיתיבי ראש השנה שחל להיות בשבת בית שמאי אומרים מתפלל עשר ובית הלל אומרים מתפלל תשע ואם איתא בית שמאי אחת עשרה מבעי ליה

The Gemara raises an objection based on the Tosefta that states that in the case of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One prays an Amida that contains ten blessings, including the nine blessings ordinarily recited on Rosh HaShana and an additional blessing in which Shabbat is mentioned. And Beit Hillel say: One prays an Amida that contains nine blessings, as Shabbat and the Festival are mentioned in the same blessing. And if there were an opinion that held that the New Moon must be separately mentioned in the Rosh HaShana prayer, then it should say that according to Beit Shammai, one must recite eleven blessings, i.e., nine for Rosh HaShana, one for Shabbat, and one for the New Moon.

אמר רבי זירא שאני ראש חדש מתוך שכולל לשחרית וערבית כולל נמי במוספין

Rabbi Zeira said: The New Moon is different, for while it must indeed be mentioned according to Beit Shammai, it does not require a separate blessing. Since the New Moon is included in the regular morning and evening prayers without a separate blessing, it is included in the additional prayer as well without a separate blessing.

ומי אית להו לבית שמאי כולל והתניא ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת בית שמאי אומרים מתפלל שמנה ובית הלל אומרים מתפלל שבע קשיא:

The Gemara asks: And do Beit Shammai accept the view that one should include the New Moon in the regular prayer? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that with regard to a New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One must pray an Amida that includes eight blessings in the additional prayer, including a separate blessing for the New Moon; and Beit Hillel say: One must pray an Amida that includes seven blessings, as Shabbat and the New Moon are mentioned in the same blessing? Therefore, according to Beit Shammai, we do not include the New Moon and other days in the same blessing, and the fact that the New Moon does not have its own blessing on Rosh HaShana is because one mention of remembrance counts for both Rosh HaShana and New Moon. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is difficult.

וכולל עצמו תנאי היא דתניא שבת שחל להיות בראש חדש או בחולו של מועד ערבית שחרית ומנחה מתפלל כדרכו שבע ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה רבי אליעזר אומר בהודאה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו

The Gemara comments: The issue of whether or not one should include the mention of the New Moon in the blessing pertaining to the sanctity of the day of Shabbat is itself the subject of a dispute between the tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to a Shabbat that occurs on a New Moon or on one of the intermediate days of a Festival: For the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one prays in his usual manner and recites seven blessings, and says a passage pertaining to the event of the day, i.e. May there rise and come [ya’aleh veyavo], during the blessing of Temple service. Rabbi Eliezer disagrees and says that this passage is said during the blessing of thanksgiving. And if he did not recite it, we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it.

ובמוספין מתחיל בשל שבת ומסיים בשל שבת ואומר קדושת היום באמצע

And in the additional prayer, one begins the fourth blessing, the special blessing for the additional service, with Shabbat, and concludes it with Shabbat, and says a passage referring to the sanctity of the day of the New Moon or the Festival in the middle. Therefore, only in the additional prayer is the New Moon included in the blessing for the sanctity of the day.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומרים כל מקום שזקוק לשבע מתחיל בשל שבת ומסיים בשל שבת ואומר קדושת היום באמצע

On the other hand, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, say: Wherever one is obligated to recite seven blessings, including the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, he begins the fourth blessing with Shabbat and concludes it with Shabbat, and he says a passage referring to the sanctity of the day of the New Moon or the Festival in the middle. In their opinion, the New Moon is included in the blessing of the sanctity of the day in all the prayers of the day.

מאי הוה עלה אמר רב חסדא זכרון אחד עולה לו לכאן ולכאן וכן אמר רבה זכרון אחד עולה לו לכאן ולכאן:

Returning to the fundamental question of whether the New Moon must be mentioned separately on Rosh HaShana, the Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached about this issue? Rav Ḥisda said: One mention of remembrance counts for both this and that. And so too, Rabba said: One mention of remembrance counts for both this and that.

ואמר רבה כי הוינא בי רב הונא איבעיא לן מהו לומר זמן בראש השנה וביום הכפורים כיון דמזמן לזמן אתי אמרינן או דילמא כיון דלא איקרו רגלים לא אמרינן לא הוה בידיה

Having discussed the Rosh HaShana prayers, the Gemara addresses related issues. Rabba said: When I was in the house of study of Rav Huna, we raised the following dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to saying the blessing for time, i.e., Who has given us life [sheheḥeyanu], on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur? The two sides of the dilemma are as follows: Do we say that since these Festivals come at fixed times of the year, we recite the blessing: Who has given us life, just as we would for any other joyous event that occurs at fixed intervals? Or do we say, perhaps, that since these Festivals are not called pilgrim Festivals [regalim], we do not recite: Who has given us life, as the joy that they bring is insufficient? Rav Huna did not have an answer at hand.

כי אתאי בי רב יהודה אמר אנא אקרא חדתא נמי אמינא זמן אמרי ליה רשות לא קא מיבעיא לי כי קא מיבעיא לי חובה מאי אמר לי רב ושמואל דאמרי תרווייהו אין אומר זמן אלא בשלש רגלים

When I came to the house of study of Rav Yehuda, he said: I recite the blessing for time even on a new gourd, and I certainly recite the blessing on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. I said to him: I have no dilemma about the fact that one has the option of reciting the blessing for time; the dilemma I have is about whether there is an obligation to recite the blessing. What is the halakha in this regard? Rav Yehuda said to me that it was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One recites the blessing for time only on the three pilgrim Festivals.

מיתיבי תן חלק לשבעה וגם לשמונה רבי אליעזר אומר שבעה אלו שבעה ימי בראשית שמונה אלו שמונה ימי מילה רבי יהושע אומר שבעה אלו שבעה ימי פסח שמונה אלו שמונה ימי החג וכשהוא אומר וגם לרבות עצרת וראש השנה ויום הכפורים

The Gemara raises an objection based upon the following baraita: The verse states: “Give a portion to seven, and also to eight” (Ecclesiastes 11:2). Rabbi Eliezer says: “Seven,” these are the seven days of Creation; “eight,” these are the eight days until circumcision. Rabbi Yehoshua says: “Seven,” these are the seven days of Passover; “eight,” these are the eight days of the festival of Sukkot. And when it says: “And also,” like every other instance of the word “also” in the Torah, this comes to include; what it includes is Shavuot, and Rosh HaShana, and Yom Kippur.

מאי לאו לזמן לא לברכה

What, is this exposition not coming to teach us that on these days one is obligated to recite the blessing for time? The Gemara responds: No, it is referring to the blessing recited over the special sanctity of the day.

הכי נמי מסתברא דאי סלקא דעתך לזמן זמן כל שבעה מי איכא הא לא קשיא דאי לא מברך האידנא מברך למחר וליום אוחרא

The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable to explain, as if it would enter your mind to say that it is referring to the blessing for time, is there a blessing for time that is recited all seven days of the Festival? It is recited only on the first day. The Gemara refutes this argument: This is not difficult, as it means that if he does not recite the blessing for time now, he recites the blessing tomorrow or the following day, as all seven days are part of the pilgrim Festival.

מכל מקום בעינן כוס לימא מסייע ליה לרב נחמן דאמר רב נחמן זמן אומרו אפילו בשוק הא לא קשיא דאיקלע ליה כוס

The Gemara asks: In any case, we require that this blessing be recited over a cup of wine, and most people do not have cups of wine for the intermediate days of a Festival. Let us say that this supports Rav Naḥman, as Rav Naḥman said: The blessing for time may be recited even in the market, without a cup of wine. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult, as the case is that he happened to have a cup; but without a cup of wine, the blessing may not be recited.

התינח עצרת וראש השנה יום הכפורים היכי עביד אי מברך עליה ושתי ליה כיון דאמר זמן קבליה עליה ואסר ליה

The Gemara asks: Granted, one can recite the blessing over a cup of wine on Shavuot and Rosh HaShana; but what does one do on Yom Kippur? If you say that he should recite the blessing over a cup of wine before the actual commencement of Yom Kippur and drink it, there is a difficulty: Since he recited the blessing for time, he accepted the sanctity of the day upon himself, and therefore caused the wine to be prohibited to himself by the laws of Yom Kippur.

דהאמר ליה רב ירמיה בר אבא לרב מי בדלת ואמר ליה אין בדילנא

As didn’t Rav Yirmeya bar Abba say the following to Rav, upon observing him recite kiddush before the actual commencement of Shabbat: Have you therefore accepted the obligation to abstain from labor from this point on? And he said to him: Yes, I have accepted the obligation to abstain from labor. This indicates that once one recites kiddush and accepts upon himself the sanctity of the day, all the laws of the day apply to him. Accordingly, if one recited the blessing for time for Yom Kippur, he may no longer eat or drink.

לברוך עליה ולנחיה המברך צריך שיטעום ליתביה לינוקא לית הלכתא כרב אחא דילמא אתי למסרך

And if you say that he should recite the blessing over a cup of wine and leave it and drink it only after the conclusion of Yom Kippur, this too is difficult, as the principle is that one who recites a blessing over a cup of wine must taste from it. If you say that he should give it to a child, who is not obligated to fast, this too is not feasible because the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, who made a similar suggestion with regard to a different matter, due to a concern that perhaps the child will come to be drawn after it. The child might come to drink wine on Yom Kippur even in future years after he comes of age, and we do not institute a practice that might turn into a stumbling block.

מאי הוי עלה שדרוה רבנן לרב יימר סבא קמיה דרב חסדא במעלי יומא דריש שתא אמרו ליה זיל חזי היכי עביד עובדא תא אימא לן כי חזייה אמר ליה דלויה לרטיבה רפסא ליה בדוכתיה אייתו ליה כסא דחמרא קדיש ואמר זמן

The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached about this matter? Must one recite the blessing: Who has given us life, on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur? The Sages sent Rav Yeimar the Elder before Rav Ḥisda on the eve of Rosh HaShana. They said to him: Go, see how he acts in this regard and then come and tell us. When Rav Ḥisda saw Rav Yeimar, he said to him in the words of a folk saying: One who picks up a moist log, which is not fit for firewood, must want to do something on the spot. In other words, you certainly have come to me with some purpose in mind, and not just for a visit. They brought him a cup of wine, and he recited kiddush and the blessing for time.

והלכתא אומר זמן בראש השנה ויום הכפורים והלכתא זמן אומרו אפילו בשוק:

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is that one recites the blessing for time on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur, and the halakha is that one may recite the blessing for time even in the market, as it does not require a cup of wine.

ואמר רבה כי הוינן בי רב הונא איבעיא לן בר בי רב דיתיב בתעניתא במעלי שבתא מהו לאשלומי לא הוה בידיה אתאי לקמיה דרב יהודה ולא הוה בידיה

Having discussed a question that was raised during Rabba’s student years, the Gemara now records another such question. And Rabba also said: When we were in the house of study of Rav Huna, we raised the following dilemma: A student in his master’s house who is fasting on Shabbat eve, what is the halakha with regard to whether he has to complete the fast until the end of the day? Do we perhaps say that he must stop fasting before Shabbat, so as not to enter Shabbat weary from his fast? Rav Huna did not have an answer at hand. I subsequently came before Rav Yehuda, and he too did not have an answer at hand.

אמר רבא נחזייה אנן דתניא תשעה באב שחל להיות בשבת

Rava said: Let us look ourselves for an answer from the sources. As it was taught in a baraita in the case of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat,

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Eruvin 40

אלא מחוץ לתחום אתא מאן דאכל סבר הבא בשביל ישראל זה מותר לישראל אחר

rather, it had already been caught beforehand, but it came to the Exilarch’s house on the Festival from outside the Shabbat limit and was slaughtered on that day. The one who ate from it, namely, Rav Naḥman and Rav Ḥisda, holds: Something that comes from outside the Shabbat limit for one Jew is permitted to another Jew.Since the deer was brought for the Exilarch, the Sages at his table were permitted to eat from it, and we do not prohibit them to derive benefit from something that a gentile did for another Jew.

ומאן דלא אכל סבר כל דאתי לבי ריש גלותא אדעתא דכולהו רבנן אתי

And the one who did not eat from it, Rav Sheshet, holds: Anything that comes to the house of the Exilarch comes with all the Sages in mind, as it is known that the Exilarch invites them to dine with him on Festivals. Therefore, just as it was prohibited to the Exilarch himself, as it was brought from outside the Shabbat limit, so too, it was prohibited to all his guests.

והא אשכחיה רב ששת לרבה בר שמואל ואמר ליה לא היו דברים מעולם

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rav Sheshet meet Rabba bar Shmuel and say to him what he said, indicating that the issue is related to the question of whether the two days are considered distinct sanctities? The Gemara answers: According to Ameimar’s version of the story, that encounter never happened.

ההוא ליפתא דאתי למחוזא נפק רבא חזיא דכמישא שרא רבא למיזבן מיניה אמר הא ודאי מאיתמול נעקרה

The Gemara relates that a delivery of turnip was once brought to the town of Meḥoza by gentile merchants from outside the Shabbat limit on a Festival in the Diaspora. Rava went out to the market and saw that the turnips were withered, and therefore he permitted people to buy them immediately without having to wait the amount of time needed to bring similar items from outside the limit after the Festival. He said: These turnips were certainly uprooted from the ground yesterday, and no prohibited labor was performed with them today.

מאי אמרת מחוץ לתחום אתיא הבא בשביל ישראל זה מותר לאכול לישראל אחר וכל שכן האי דאדעתא דגוים אתא

What might you say; that they came from outside the Shabbat limit and should therefore be prohibited? The accepted principle is: Something that comes for one Jew is permitted to be eaten by another Jew, and all the more so with regard to this delivery of turnip, which came with gentiles in mind, i.e., for their sake rather than for the sake of Jews. Therefore, if they are purchased by Jews, no prohibition is violated.

כיון דחזא דקא מפשי ומייתי להו אסר להו:

The Gemara adds: Once Rava saw that the gentile merchants started to bring increased quantities of turnips on Festival days for the sake of their Jewish customers, he prohibited the inhabitants of Meḥoza to buy them, for it was evident that they were now being brought for Jews.

הנהו בני גננא דגזו להו אסא ביום טוב שני לאורתא שרא להו רבינא לאורוחי ביה לאלתר אמר ליה רבא בר תחליפא לרבינא ליסר להו מר מפני שאינן בני תורה

The Gemara relates that certain canopy makers, who would braid myrtle branches into their canopies, once cut myrtles on the second day of a Festival, and in the evening Ravina permitted people to smell them immediately at the conclusion of the Festival. Rava bar Taḥalifa said to Ravina: The Master should prohibit them to do this, as they are not knowledgeable in Torah, and therefore we should be stringent with them lest they come to treat the sanctity of the second Festival day lightly.

מתקיף לה רב שמעיה טעמא דאינן בני תורה הא בני תורה שרי והא בעינן בכדי שיעשו אזלו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו בעינן בכדי שיעשו:

Rav Shemaya strongly objects to this: The reason given here is that they are not knowledgeable in Torah; but if they were knowledgeable in Torah, would it be permitted? Don’t we require them to wait the time needed for the myrtle’s preparation, i.e., the time it takes to cut them? They went and asked Rava. He said to them: We require them to wait the time needed for the myrtle’s preparation.

רבי דוסא אומר העובר לפני התיבה כו׳:

The mishna cited Rabbi Dosa’s version of the Rosh HaShana prayer: Rabbi Dosa says: He who passes before the ark and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow.

אמר רבה כי הוינן בי רב הונא איבעיא לן מהו להזכיר של ראש חדש בראש השנה כיון דחלוקין במוספין אמרינן או דילמא זכרון אחד עולה לכאן ולכאן

Rabba said: When we were in the house of study of Rav Huna, we raised the following dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to whether it is proper to mention the New Moon during prayer on Rosh HaShana? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: Do we say that since they have separate additional offerings, as one additional offering is brought for the New Moon and another for Rosh HaShana, we mention them separately in prayer as well? Or perhaps one remembrance counts for both this and that? The Torah is referring to both Rosh HaShana and the New Moon as times of remembrance, and therefore perhaps simply mentioning that it is a Day of Remembrance should suffice.

אמר לן תניתוה רבי דוסא אומר העובר לפני התיבה כו׳ מאי לאו להזכיר

Rav Huna said to us: You have already learned the answer to this question in the mishna, which states that Rabbi Dosa says: He who passes before the ark and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day and on the second day of Rosh HaShana mentions the New Moon in a conditional manner: On this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. But the Rabbis did not agree with him. What, is it not that the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Dosa about the need to mention the New Moon during prayer on Rosh HaShana?

לא להתנות

The Gemara refutes this proof: No, they disagree about whether to make a condition. The novelty in Rabbi Dosa’s teaching was not that mention must be made of the New Moon, but that a condition must be made due to the day’s uncertain status. The Rabbis disagree about that.

הכי נמי מסתברא מדקתני בברייתא וכן היה רבי דוסא עושה בראשי חדשים של כל השנה כולה ולא הודו לו

The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable to say that the dispute between Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis relates to the condition and not to the very mention of the New Moon. This can be ascertained from the fact that it was taught in a baraita: And so too, Rabbi Dosa would do this on all the New Moons for which two days are kept out of doubt the entire year; and the Rabbis did not agree with him.

אי אמרת בשלמא להתנות משום הכי לא הודו לו אלא אי אמרת להזכיר אמאי לא הודו לו

Granted, if you say that the disagreement was about whether to make a condition, that is why they did not agree with him with regard to the New Moon throughout the year, as they did not accept the whole idea of a conditional prayer. But if you say the main point of contention was whether to mention the New Moon at all, why didn’t they agree with him that the New Moon should be mentioned during prayer the rest of the year?

ואלא מאי להתנות למה לי לאיפלוגי בתרתי צריכא דאי אשמעינן ראש השנה הוה אמינא בהא קאמרי רבנן דלא משום דאתי לזלזולי ביה אבל בראשי חדשים של כל השנה כולה אימא מודו ליה לרבי דוסא

The Gemara asks: Rather, what is the disagreement about, whether or not to make a condition? Why do I need them to disagree in two cases? The issue is the same on Rosh HaShana as on any other New Moon. The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach both cases, as, if he had only taught us the halakha with regard to Rosh HaShana, I might have said that only in this case did the Rabbis say that one should not mention the New Moon in a conditional manner because people might come to demean the day and perform prohibited labor. But in the case of an ordinary New Moon throughout the year, I might say that perhaps they agree with Rabbi Dosa, since labor is not prohibited on the New Moon, and therefore there is no reason for concern lest people come to treat it lightly.

ואי אתמר בהא בהא קאמר רבי דוסא אבל בהך אימא מודה להו לרבנן צריכא

And if the disagreement had only been stated in this case, in the case of an ordinary New Moon, one might say that only in this case did Rabbi Dosa say that a condition may be made. But in that other case of Rosh HaShana, I might say that he agrees with the Rabbis, due to concern lest people will come to treat the Festival lightly. It was therefore necessary to state the disagreement in both cases.

מיתיבי ראש השנה שחל להיות בשבת בית שמאי אומרים מתפלל עשר ובית הלל אומרים מתפלל תשע ואם איתא בית שמאי אחת עשרה מבעי ליה

The Gemara raises an objection based on the Tosefta that states that in the case of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One prays an Amida that contains ten blessings, including the nine blessings ordinarily recited on Rosh HaShana and an additional blessing in which Shabbat is mentioned. And Beit Hillel say: One prays an Amida that contains nine blessings, as Shabbat and the Festival are mentioned in the same blessing. And if there were an opinion that held that the New Moon must be separately mentioned in the Rosh HaShana prayer, then it should say that according to Beit Shammai, one must recite eleven blessings, i.e., nine for Rosh HaShana, one for Shabbat, and one for the New Moon.

אמר רבי זירא שאני ראש חדש מתוך שכולל לשחרית וערבית כולל נמי במוספין

Rabbi Zeira said: The New Moon is different, for while it must indeed be mentioned according to Beit Shammai, it does not require a separate blessing. Since the New Moon is included in the regular morning and evening prayers without a separate blessing, it is included in the additional prayer as well without a separate blessing.

ומי אית להו לבית שמאי כולל והתניא ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת בית שמאי אומרים מתפלל שמנה ובית הלל אומרים מתפלל שבע קשיא:

The Gemara asks: And do Beit Shammai accept the view that one should include the New Moon in the regular prayer? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that with regard to a New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, Beit Shammai say: One must pray an Amida that includes eight blessings in the additional prayer, including a separate blessing for the New Moon; and Beit Hillel say: One must pray an Amida that includes seven blessings, as Shabbat and the New Moon are mentioned in the same blessing? Therefore, according to Beit Shammai, we do not include the New Moon and other days in the same blessing, and the fact that the New Moon does not have its own blessing on Rosh HaShana is because one mention of remembrance counts for both Rosh HaShana and New Moon. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is difficult.

וכולל עצמו תנאי היא דתניא שבת שחל להיות בראש חדש או בחולו של מועד ערבית שחרית ומנחה מתפלל כדרכו שבע ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה רבי אליעזר אומר בהודאה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו

The Gemara comments: The issue of whether or not one should include the mention of the New Moon in the blessing pertaining to the sanctity of the day of Shabbat is itself the subject of a dispute between the tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to a Shabbat that occurs on a New Moon or on one of the intermediate days of a Festival: For the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one prays in his usual manner and recites seven blessings, and says a passage pertaining to the event of the day, i.e. May there rise and come [ya’aleh veyavo], during the blessing of Temple service. Rabbi Eliezer disagrees and says that this passage is said during the blessing of thanksgiving. And if he did not recite it, we require him to return to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it.

ובמוספין מתחיל בשל שבת ומסיים בשל שבת ואומר קדושת היום באמצע

And in the additional prayer, one begins the fourth blessing, the special blessing for the additional service, with Shabbat, and concludes it with Shabbat, and says a passage referring to the sanctity of the day of the New Moon or the Festival in the middle. Therefore, only in the additional prayer is the New Moon included in the blessing for the sanctity of the day.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומרים כל מקום שזקוק לשבע מתחיל בשל שבת ומסיים בשל שבת ואומר קדושת היום באמצע

On the other hand, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, say: Wherever one is obligated to recite seven blessings, including the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, he begins the fourth blessing with Shabbat and concludes it with Shabbat, and he says a passage referring to the sanctity of the day of the New Moon or the Festival in the middle. In their opinion, the New Moon is included in the blessing of the sanctity of the day in all the prayers of the day.

מאי הוה עלה אמר רב חסדא זכרון אחד עולה לו לכאן ולכאן וכן אמר רבה זכרון אחד עולה לו לכאן ולכאן:

Returning to the fundamental question of whether the New Moon must be mentioned separately on Rosh HaShana, the Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached about this issue? Rav Ḥisda said: One mention of remembrance counts for both this and that. And so too, Rabba said: One mention of remembrance counts for both this and that.

ואמר רבה כי הוינא בי רב הונא איבעיא לן מהו לומר זמן בראש השנה וביום הכפורים כיון דמזמן לזמן אתי אמרינן או דילמא כיון דלא איקרו רגלים לא אמרינן לא הוה בידיה

Having discussed the Rosh HaShana prayers, the Gemara addresses related issues. Rabba said: When I was in the house of study of Rav Huna, we raised the following dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to saying the blessing for time, i.e., Who has given us life [sheheḥeyanu], on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur? The two sides of the dilemma are as follows: Do we say that since these Festivals come at fixed times of the year, we recite the blessing: Who has given us life, just as we would for any other joyous event that occurs at fixed intervals? Or do we say, perhaps, that since these Festivals are not called pilgrim Festivals [regalim], we do not recite: Who has given us life, as the joy that they bring is insufficient? Rav Huna did not have an answer at hand.

כי אתאי בי רב יהודה אמר אנא אקרא חדתא נמי אמינא זמן אמרי ליה רשות לא קא מיבעיא לי כי קא מיבעיא לי חובה מאי אמר לי רב ושמואל דאמרי תרווייהו אין אומר זמן אלא בשלש רגלים

When I came to the house of study of Rav Yehuda, he said: I recite the blessing for time even on a new gourd, and I certainly recite the blessing on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. I said to him: I have no dilemma about the fact that one has the option of reciting the blessing for time; the dilemma I have is about whether there is an obligation to recite the blessing. What is the halakha in this regard? Rav Yehuda said to me that it was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One recites the blessing for time only on the three pilgrim Festivals.

מיתיבי תן חלק לשבעה וגם לשמונה רבי אליעזר אומר שבעה אלו שבעה ימי בראשית שמונה אלו שמונה ימי מילה רבי יהושע אומר שבעה אלו שבעה ימי פסח שמונה אלו שמונה ימי החג וכשהוא אומר וגם לרבות עצרת וראש השנה ויום הכפורים

The Gemara raises an objection based upon the following baraita: The verse states: “Give a portion to seven, and also to eight” (Ecclesiastes 11:2). Rabbi Eliezer says: “Seven,” these are the seven days of Creation; “eight,” these are the eight days until circumcision. Rabbi Yehoshua says: “Seven,” these are the seven days of Passover; “eight,” these are the eight days of the festival of Sukkot. And when it says: “And also,” like every other instance of the word “also” in the Torah, this comes to include; what it includes is Shavuot, and Rosh HaShana, and Yom Kippur.

מאי לאו לזמן לא לברכה

What, is this exposition not coming to teach us that on these days one is obligated to recite the blessing for time? The Gemara responds: No, it is referring to the blessing recited over the special sanctity of the day.

הכי נמי מסתברא דאי סלקא דעתך לזמן זמן כל שבעה מי איכא הא לא קשיא דאי לא מברך האידנא מברך למחר וליום אוחרא

The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable to explain, as if it would enter your mind to say that it is referring to the blessing for time, is there a blessing for time that is recited all seven days of the Festival? It is recited only on the first day. The Gemara refutes this argument: This is not difficult, as it means that if he does not recite the blessing for time now, he recites the blessing tomorrow or the following day, as all seven days are part of the pilgrim Festival.

מכל מקום בעינן כוס לימא מסייע ליה לרב נחמן דאמר רב נחמן זמן אומרו אפילו בשוק הא לא קשיא דאיקלע ליה כוס

The Gemara asks: In any case, we require that this blessing be recited over a cup of wine, and most people do not have cups of wine for the intermediate days of a Festival. Let us say that this supports Rav Naḥman, as Rav Naḥman said: The blessing for time may be recited even in the market, without a cup of wine. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult, as the case is that he happened to have a cup; but without a cup of wine, the blessing may not be recited.

התינח עצרת וראש השנה יום הכפורים היכי עביד אי מברך עליה ושתי ליה כיון דאמר זמן קבליה עליה ואסר ליה

The Gemara asks: Granted, one can recite the blessing over a cup of wine on Shavuot and Rosh HaShana; but what does one do on Yom Kippur? If you say that he should recite the blessing over a cup of wine before the actual commencement of Yom Kippur and drink it, there is a difficulty: Since he recited the blessing for time, he accepted the sanctity of the day upon himself, and therefore caused the wine to be prohibited to himself by the laws of Yom Kippur.

דהאמר ליה רב ירמיה בר אבא לרב מי בדלת ואמר ליה אין בדילנא

As didn’t Rav Yirmeya bar Abba say the following to Rav, upon observing him recite kiddush before the actual commencement of Shabbat: Have you therefore accepted the obligation to abstain from labor from this point on? And he said to him: Yes, I have accepted the obligation to abstain from labor. This indicates that once one recites kiddush and accepts upon himself the sanctity of the day, all the laws of the day apply to him. Accordingly, if one recited the blessing for time for Yom Kippur, he may no longer eat or drink.

לברוך עליה ולנחיה המברך צריך שיטעום ליתביה לינוקא לית הלכתא כרב אחא דילמא אתי למסרך

And if you say that he should recite the blessing over a cup of wine and leave it and drink it only after the conclusion of Yom Kippur, this too is difficult, as the principle is that one who recites a blessing over a cup of wine must taste from it. If you say that he should give it to a child, who is not obligated to fast, this too is not feasible because the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, who made a similar suggestion with regard to a different matter, due to a concern that perhaps the child will come to be drawn after it. The child might come to drink wine on Yom Kippur even in future years after he comes of age, and we do not institute a practice that might turn into a stumbling block.

מאי הוי עלה שדרוה רבנן לרב יימר סבא קמיה דרב חסדא במעלי יומא דריש שתא אמרו ליה זיל חזי היכי עביד עובדא תא אימא לן כי חזייה אמר ליה דלויה לרטיבה רפסא ליה בדוכתיה אייתו ליה כסא דחמרא קדיש ואמר זמן

The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached about this matter? Must one recite the blessing: Who has given us life, on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur? The Sages sent Rav Yeimar the Elder before Rav Ḥisda on the eve of Rosh HaShana. They said to him: Go, see how he acts in this regard and then come and tell us. When Rav Ḥisda saw Rav Yeimar, he said to him in the words of a folk saying: One who picks up a moist log, which is not fit for firewood, must want to do something on the spot. In other words, you certainly have come to me with some purpose in mind, and not just for a visit. They brought him a cup of wine, and he recited kiddush and the blessing for time.

והלכתא אומר זמן בראש השנה ויום הכפורים והלכתא זמן אומרו אפילו בשוק:

The Gemara concludes: The halakha is that one recites the blessing for time on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur, and the halakha is that one may recite the blessing for time even in the market, as it does not require a cup of wine.

ואמר רבה כי הוינן בי רב הונא איבעיא לן בר בי רב דיתיב בתעניתא במעלי שבתא מהו לאשלומי לא הוה בידיה אתאי לקמיה דרב יהודה ולא הוה בידיה

Having discussed a question that was raised during Rabba’s student years, the Gemara now records another such question. And Rabba also said: When we were in the house of study of Rav Huna, we raised the following dilemma: A student in his master’s house who is fasting on Shabbat eve, what is the halakha with regard to whether he has to complete the fast until the end of the day? Do we perhaps say that he must stop fasting before Shabbat, so as not to enter Shabbat weary from his fast? Rav Huna did not have an answer at hand. I subsequently came before Rav Yehuda, and he too did not have an answer at hand.

אמר רבא נחזייה אנן דתניא תשעה באב שחל להיות בשבת

Rava said: Let us look ourselves for an answer from the sources. As it was taught in a baraita in the case of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat,

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