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Today's Daf Yomi

January 15, 2016 | ื”ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื•

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Gittin 33

What is the reason for the takana of Rabban Gamliel and how does it connect to the issue of in front of how many people does he need to cancel the get. ย If one goes against the takana of Rabban Gamliel and cancels a get in a court (or in a court in a different city) is the get cancelled or not? ย Do Rabbis have the power to override Torah law? ย The ย gemara explains that the Rabbis have the power to uproot the marriage in this case because the husband didn’t keep to their rules regarding marriage and therefore didn’t keep to his conditions of “k’dat moshe v’yisrael” that he accepted when he got married. ย To what extent can this concept be appliedย has important ramifications. ย If one cancels testimony, does he need to cancel it in front of all those who he told it to? ย Is gilui da’at – if his intent is clear without him actually saying tha he is cancelling the get – effective in cancelling a get? ย this is one of the 6 cases where we hold like Abaye over Rava. ย He holds that it is ineffective.


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ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื”ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืžืงื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™

so-and-so and so-and-so the judges, in such and such a place, in order that I will collect any debt that I am owed by so-and-so whenever I wish. Despite the fact that the prosbol mentions only two people, it nevertheless refers to them as judges, in accordance with the statement of Rav Naแธฅman.

ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื˜ื• ืชื ื ื›ื™ ืจื•ื›ืœื ืœื™ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ื–ื™ืœ

And Rav Sheshet would respond to this: Is that to say that the tanna should have continued counting judges like a peddler? The tanna twice used the expression so-and-so because he wished to note that one should mention the judgesโ€™ names; he did not intend to teach anything about the number of judges.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื—ื•ืชืžื™ืŸ ืœืžื˜ื” ืื• ื”ืขื“ื™ื ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืขื“ื™ื ืžื” ืขื“ื™ื ืฉื ื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ื•ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื

Rav Naแธฅman said: From where do I say that two judges are also considered a court? As we learned in a mishna with regard to a prosbol (Sheviโ€™it 10:4): The judges sign below the text of the prosbol, or the witnesses do so. What, is it not possible to deduce: The mishna means that judges are similar to witnesses? Just as there are two witnesses, so too, there are also two judges. And Rav Sheshet would respond to this: Are the cases comparable? This case of the judges is as it is, and that case of the witnesses is as it is, each one with its respective requirement of three or two members.

ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืชื ื ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืชื ื ืขื“ื™ื ื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืฉื ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื•ื—ืชืžื™ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืœื ืฉื ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ื—ืชืžื™ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื

The Gemara asks with regard to the mishna in Sheviโ€™it: Why do I need the tanna to teach that it can be signed by judges, and why do I need him to teach that it can be signed by witnesses as well? Why is it necessary to mention both? The Gemara answers: This teaches us that there is no difference if the prosbol is written in the terminology of judges and witnesses sign it, and there is no difference if it is written in the terminology of witnesses and judges sign it. What is important is that the prosbol was written and then signed by the court, and the precise wording is not important.

ืžืคื ื™ ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืžืื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืžืžื–ืจื™ื ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืขื’ื•ื ื•ืช

ยง The mishna taught that Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that one may not render a bill of divorce void in a court elsewhere for the betterment of the world. The Gemara asks: What problem did Rabban Gamliel ameliorate that this is considered to be for the betterment of the world? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This is for the benefit of potential children born from an adulterous relationship [mamzerim], as the husband might render a bill of divorce void unbeknownst to his wife. She might remarry after having received the void bill of divorce, when in fact she is still married to her first husband, and children born from the second marriage will be mamzerim. To prevent this, Rabban Gamliel instituted that one may not render the bill of divorce void when not in the location of his wife. Reish Lakish says: For the betterment of deserted wives, lest women who received their bill of divorce by means of the husbandโ€™s agent refrain from remarrying out of the concern that perhaps their husband rendered the bill of divorce void.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืžืžื–ืจื™ื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ ืชืจื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืงืœื ื•ื”ื™ื ืœื ืฉืžืขื” ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื” ื•ืื–ืœื” ื•ืžื™ื ืกื‘ื ื•ืื™ื›ื ืžืžื–ืจื™ื

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who says the reason for this ordinance is for the betterment of potential mamzerim, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman, who says that the husband can render void the bill of divorce even in the presence of two people. And since matters that occur in the presence of two people do not generate publicity, it is possible that she does not hear that the bill of divorce was rendered void. And since she does not know that her husband rendered the bill of divorce void, she will go and marry, and there are mamzerim as a result of second marriages like these.

ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืขื’ื•ื ื•ืช ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ื‘ื™ ืชืœืชื ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืงืœื ื•ืฉืžืขื” ื•ื™ื“ืขื” ื•ืœื ืžื™ื ืกื‘ื ื•ืชืงื ืช ืขื’ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ื›ื

And Reish Lakish, who says that the reason is for the betterment of deserted wives, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Sheshet, who says: One can render void a bill of divorce only in the presence of three people. And since matters that occur in the presence of three people do generate publicity, she does hear and know that her husband rendered void the bill of divorce, and she would not marry again. Therefore, there is no concern that this will result in mamzerim, but there is a need to institute this ordinance for the betterment of deserted wives, as explained above.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื˜ืœื• ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ืœื‘ื˜ืœื• ื•ืœื ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœ ืชื ืื• ืฉืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื”

ยง The Sages taught: Even after Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that a husband cannot render void a bill of divorce when not in the presence of the wife or the agent, if he nevertheless rendered it void, the bill of divorce is rendered void; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He is unable to render it void, and he also cannot add on to his condition if the bill of divorce contained some condition, as if so, i.e., if he can render it void, what advantage does the court have, if an ordinance of the court of Rabban Gamliel can be ignored?

ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื˜ืœ ื’ื™ื˜ื ื•ืžืฉื•ื ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ืฉืจื™ื ืŸ ืืฉืช ืื™ืฉ ืœืขืœืžื ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื“ืขืชื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืืคืงืขื™ื ื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And is there anything that by Torah law renders the bill of divorce void and the wife remains married, and due to the reasoning of: What advantage does the court have, we do not recognize that the bill of divorce is void and permit a married woman to marry anyone? The Gemara answers: Yes, anyone who betroths a woman betroths her contingent upon the will of the Sages, and when one fails to conform to their will in matters of marriage and divorce the Sages expropriated his betrothal from him retroactively.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืชื™ื ื— ื“ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ืกืคื ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืฉื•ื™ื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื‘ืขื™ืœืชื• ื‘ืขื™ืœืช ื–ื ื•ืช

Ravina said to Rav Ashi: This works out well in a case where he betrothed his wife with money, as it is possible to say that the Sages expropriated the money used for the betrothal from the possession of its owner, resulting in a retroactive cancellation of the betrothal. But if he betrothed her by means of sexual intercourse then what is there to say? The Gemara answers: The Sages declared his sexual intercourse to be licentious sexual intercourse, which does not create a bond of betrothal.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉืจื” ื›ืชื‘ื• ื’ื˜ ืœืืฉืชื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื–ื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ืืœื ื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื”

ยง The Sages taught: If a husband said to ten people: Write a bill of divorce for my wife, in which case any one of them may write the bill of divorce and two others will serve as witnesses, he can render his instructions void before this one, i.e., any one of them, by stating: Do not write the bill of divorce, even though it is not before that one, i.e., any other one of them; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He can render his instructions void only when this one is before that one of them, meaning that all ten people must be present.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ื‘ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื”

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? The Gemara answers: They disagree with regard to whether testimony that was partially invalidated is entirely invalidated. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds: Testimony that was partially invalidated

ืœื ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ืื™ ืื–ืœื™ ื”ื ืš ื›ืชื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื”ื‘ื™ ืœื™ื›ืชื‘ื• ื•ืœื™ืชื‘ื•

is not entirely invalidated; and therefore, even though the husband nullified the agency of part of the group, if these other people whose agency was never nullified go and write the bill of divorce and give it to the wife, let them write and give the bill of divorce. There is nothing to be concerned about, as their agency was never nullified. Since the bill of divorce that they deliver is valid, there is no reason to institute an ordinance that a husband can nullify the agency only in the presence of the entire group.

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื ืš ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ ื•ืื–ืœื™ ื•ื›ืชื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื”ื‘ื™ ื•ืฉืจื• ืืฉืช ืื™ืฉ ืœืขืœืžื

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and holds: Testimony that was partially invalidated is entirely invalidated. And if the agency of part of the group was nullified when those agents were not in the presence of the rest of the group, then those others do not know that their agency has been nullified as well. And they might then go and write a bill of divorce and give it, and they will cause the court to mistakenly permit a married woman to marry anyone.

ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ืœื ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื›ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืงืกื‘ืจ ืžืœืชื ื“ืžืชืขื‘ื“ื ื‘ืืคื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืœืžื™ืฉืœืคื”

And if you wish, say instead that everyone agrees that testimony that was partially invalidated is not entirely invalidated; and here, this is the reason of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that the husband can nullify his instructions only in the presence of all of the agents: He holds that a matter that is performed in the presence of ten people requires the presence of ten people to revoke it. Since the husband instructed ten people to write the bill of divorce, he cannot revoke his instructions in the presence of only a portion of them.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื›ื•ืœื›ื ืžื”ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ื•ืœื›ื ืœื ืžืฆื• ื›ืชื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื”ื‘ื™

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If the husband said to them: All of you should write a bill of divorce for my wife, in which case all of them must sign the bill of divorce, what is the halakha according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel? The Gemara elaborates: Is the reason of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel for prohibiting the husband from nullifying the instructions that he had given to ten people because he holds that testimony that was partially invalidated is entirely invalidated, and one should be concerned that the rest of the group will not know that their agency was nullified? And these people, since he said to them explicitly: All of you should write the bill of divorce, the rest of the group are not able to write and give the bill of divorce on their own. Therefore, the husband should be able to nullify his instructions when not in the presence of the entire group, as no mistake can occur because of his action.

ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืกื‘ืจ ื›ืœ ืžืœืชื ื“ืžืชืขื‘ื“ื ื‘ืืคื™ ื‘ื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืœืžื™ืฉืœืคื” ื•ื”ื™ืœื›ืš ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื›ื ื ืžื™

Or perhaps the reason of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is be-cause he holds that a matter that is performed in the presence of ten people requires the presence of ten people to revoke it. And therefore, even if he said: All of you should write the bill of divorce, he must nullify his instructions in all ten peopleโ€™s presence as well.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืืžืจ ืœืฉื ื™ื ืชื ื• ื’ื˜ ืœืืฉืชื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื–ื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ืืœื ื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื•ื”ื ืฉื ื™ื ื“ื›ื™ ื›ื•ืœื›ื ื“ืžื• ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื™

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a resolution from a baraita (Tosefta 4:1): If one said to two agents: Give a bill of divorce to my wife, he can render his instructions void before this one, i.e., either of them, even though it is not before that one, i.e., the other one; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He can render his instructions void only when this one is before that one, i.e., when the two of them are together. The Gemara now states the attempted proof. But two are equivalent to: All of you, as the bill of divorce cannot be written and given by fewer than two people, and there is no concern that perhaps one will sign without the other. And yet Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel still disagree, proving that Rabban Shimon ben Gamlielโ€™s reason is that the husband can nullify his instructions only in the same manner that he gave them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืื™ ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื”ื•ืœื›ื”

Rav Ashi said: If the baraita was speaking of witnesses of the writing of the bill of divorce, both of whom must sign the bill of divorce, this would indeed resolve the question. However, here we are dealing with witnesses of the delivery of the bill of divorce. In that case there is no need for two agents, so there is a concern that if the husband nullifies their agency in the presence of only one of them, then the second agent could mistakenly deliver the bill of divorce to the wife.

ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžื™ืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืืžืจ ืœื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืœื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื–ื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ืื™ ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื”ื•ืœื›ื” ืฉืคื™ืจ ืืœื ืื™ ืืžืจืช ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ืžื™ ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ ื”ื ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืขื“ื•ืชืŸ ืžืฆื˜ืจืคืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ืจืื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื›ืื—ื“ ื“ืœืžื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara comments: This too, stands to reason, as the latter clause of the baraita teaches: If one said to this one on his own and to that one on his own, then he can nullify each of their agencies before this one even though it is not before that one. Granted, if you say that this is referring to witnesses of the delivery of the bill of divorce, this works out well, as they need not be appointed together. However, if you say that this is referring to witnesses of the writing, can they combine together if they were appointed separately? But doesnโ€™t the Master say: The testimony of two witnesses does not combine together until the two of them see the event as one, together? The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, who holds that in order for the witnesses to combine together and present their testimony it is not necessary for them to witness the event together.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืžืขื™ืช ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืชืจืชื™ ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื ื”ื™ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื”ื™ ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said: I heard from Rabbi Abba two rulings with regard to these questions; in one he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and in one he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and I do not know which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื ื™ื—ื–ื™ ืื ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืขืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืคืจื˜ื ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืคืจื˜ื ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืคืจื˜ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื•ื—ื–ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืขืฉื” ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

Rav Yosef said: Let us see ourselves which argument was decided in favor of whom based on other sources, as when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: There was an incident and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi acted in accordance with the statement of the Rabbis. Rabbi Perata, the son of Rabbi Elazar ben Perata and the son of the son of Rabbi Perata the Great, said before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: If so, what advantage does the court have? And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi reversed his ruling and acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. The claim of: If so, what advantage does the court have, is the reason behind Rabban Shimon ben Gamlielโ€™s opinion with regard to the question of whether, in a case where the husband violates the ordinance and renders the bill of divorce void in the presence of a court but not before the agent, it is void after the fact.

ื•ืžื“ื”ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ืš ื›ืจื‘ื™

And from the fact that this dispute is decided in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi retracted his opinion and acted in accordance with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, by inference, in the case of that disagreement, with regard to one who gives instructions to ten people, the halakha must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

ื•ืืฃ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืืฉื™ื” ื“ืžืŸ ืื•ืฉื ืกื‘ืจ ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ื—ืžืฉื” ืกื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืืฉื™ื” ื“ืžืŸ ืื•ืฉื ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืงืžื™ื” ื•ืืฉืงืœื™ื” ื’ื™ื˜ื ืขืœ ื›ื•ืจื—ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœืŸ ื–ื™ืœื• ืื˜ืžื•ืจื• ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื”

The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Yoshiya from the city of Usha also holds that one halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and one is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As Rabba bar bar แธคana said: We were five elders sitting before Rabbi Yoshiya from Usha. A certain man came before him, and Rabbi Yoshiya extracted the authorization to write a bill of divorce from him against his will. Rabbi Yoshiya said to us: Go hide and write for her a bill of divorce, so that the husband will not find you and render the bill of divorce void after it has been written.

ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื›ื™ ืžื™ื˜ืžืจื™ ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara explains the inference as to the ruling of Rabbi Yoshiya: And if it enters your mind that he rules in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, that if a husband renders a bill of divorce void when not in the presence of the agent then the bill of divorce is void, then if they hide, what of it? The man could simply render the bill of divorce void in the presence of others. Rather, learn from it that he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, that one can render the bill of divorce void only in the presence of the agents.

ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœืžื” ืœื”ื• ืื˜ืžื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื‘ื“ืจื• ืื™ื‘ื“ื•ืจื™ ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

The Gemara explains the second element: And if it enters your mind to say that with regard to the other dispute, where one instructs ten people to write the bill of divorce, he also holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, then why would they need to hide? Let them scatter, and since the husband will not find all of them together, he will be unable to render the bill of divorce void. Rather, learn from it that he holds in one case in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and in one case in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. This is one opinion with regard to the halakha in the two disputes of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ

And Rava says that Rav Naแธฅman says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi in both cases. The Gemara asks: But doesnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman accept the argument that the court should have an advantage? But doesnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman say that Shmuel says,

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Gittin 33

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Gittin 33

ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื”ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืžืงื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™

so-and-so and so-and-so the judges, in such and such a place, in order that I will collect any debt that I am owed by so-and-so whenever I wish. Despite the fact that the prosbol mentions only two people, it nevertheless refers to them as judges, in accordance with the statement of Rav Naแธฅman.

ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื˜ื• ืชื ื ื›ื™ ืจื•ื›ืœื ืœื™ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ื–ื™ืœ

And Rav Sheshet would respond to this: Is that to say that the tanna should have continued counting judges like a peddler? The tanna twice used the expression so-and-so because he wished to note that one should mention the judgesโ€™ names; he did not intend to teach anything about the number of judges.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื—ื•ืชืžื™ืŸ ืœืžื˜ื” ืื• ื”ืขื“ื™ื ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืขื“ื™ื ืžื” ืขื“ื™ื ืฉื ื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ื•ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื

Rav Naแธฅman said: From where do I say that two judges are also considered a court? As we learned in a mishna with regard to a prosbol (Sheviโ€™it 10:4): The judges sign below the text of the prosbol, or the witnesses do so. What, is it not possible to deduce: The mishna means that judges are similar to witnesses? Just as there are two witnesses, so too, there are also two judges. And Rav Sheshet would respond to this: Are the cases comparable? This case of the judges is as it is, and that case of the witnesses is as it is, each one with its respective requirement of three or two members.

ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืชื ื ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืชื ื ืขื“ื™ื ื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืฉื ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื•ื—ืชืžื™ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ืœื ืฉื ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ื—ืชืžื™ ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ื

The Gemara asks with regard to the mishna in Sheviโ€™it: Why do I need the tanna to teach that it can be signed by judges, and why do I need him to teach that it can be signed by witnesses as well? Why is it necessary to mention both? The Gemara answers: This teaches us that there is no difference if the prosbol is written in the terminology of judges and witnesses sign it, and there is no difference if it is written in the terminology of witnesses and judges sign it. What is important is that the prosbol was written and then signed by the court, and the precise wording is not important.

ืžืคื ื™ ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืžืื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืžืžื–ืจื™ื ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืขื’ื•ื ื•ืช

ยง The mishna taught that Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that one may not render a bill of divorce void in a court elsewhere for the betterment of the world. The Gemara asks: What problem did Rabban Gamliel ameliorate that this is considered to be for the betterment of the world? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This is for the benefit of potential children born from an adulterous relationship [mamzerim], as the husband might render a bill of divorce void unbeknownst to his wife. She might remarry after having received the void bill of divorce, when in fact she is still married to her first husband, and children born from the second marriage will be mamzerim. To prevent this, Rabban Gamliel instituted that one may not render the bill of divorce void when not in the location of his wife. Reish Lakish says: For the betterment of deserted wives, lest women who received their bill of divorce by means of the husbandโ€™s agent refrain from remarrying out of the concern that perhaps their husband rendered the bill of divorce void.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืžืžื–ืจื™ื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ ืชืจื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืงืœื ื•ื”ื™ื ืœื ืฉืžืขื” ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื” ื•ืื–ืœื” ื•ืžื™ื ืกื‘ื ื•ืื™ื›ื ืžืžื–ืจื™ื

The Gemara explains the two opinions: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who says the reason for this ordinance is for the betterment of potential mamzerim, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman, who says that the husband can render void the bill of divorce even in the presence of two people. And since matters that occur in the presence of two people do not generate publicity, it is possible that she does not hear that the bill of divorce was rendered void. And since she does not know that her husband rendered the bill of divorce void, she will go and marry, and there are mamzerim as a result of second marriages like these.

ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืชืงื ืช ืขื’ื•ื ื•ืช ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ื‘ื™ ืชืœืชื ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืงืœื ื•ืฉืžืขื” ื•ื™ื“ืขื” ื•ืœื ืžื™ื ืกื‘ื ื•ืชืงื ืช ืขื’ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ื›ื

And Reish Lakish, who says that the reason is for the betterment of deserted wives, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Sheshet, who says: One can render void a bill of divorce only in the presence of three people. And since matters that occur in the presence of three people do generate publicity, she does hear and know that her husband rendered void the bill of divorce, and she would not marry again. Therefore, there is no concern that this will result in mamzerim, but there is a need to institute this ordinance for the betterment of deserted wives, as explained above.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื˜ืœื• ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ืœื‘ื˜ืœื• ื•ืœื ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœ ืชื ืื• ืฉืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื”

ยง The Sages taught: Even after Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that a husband cannot render void a bill of divorce when not in the presence of the wife or the agent, if he nevertheless rendered it void, the bill of divorce is rendered void; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He is unable to render it void, and he also cannot add on to his condition if the bill of divorce contained some condition, as if so, i.e., if he can render it void, what advantage does the court have, if an ordinance of the court of Rabban Gamliel can be ignored?

ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื˜ืœ ื’ื™ื˜ื ื•ืžืฉื•ื ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ืฉืจื™ื ืŸ ืืฉืช ืื™ืฉ ืœืขืœืžื ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื“ืขืชื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืืคืงืขื™ื ื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืงื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And is there anything that by Torah law renders the bill of divorce void and the wife remains married, and due to the reasoning of: What advantage does the court have, we do not recognize that the bill of divorce is void and permit a married woman to marry anyone? The Gemara answers: Yes, anyone who betroths a woman betroths her contingent upon the will of the Sages, and when one fails to conform to their will in matters of marriage and divorce the Sages expropriated his betrothal from him retroactively.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืชื™ื ื— ื“ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ืกืคื ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืฉื•ื™ื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื‘ืขื™ืœืชื• ื‘ืขื™ืœืช ื–ื ื•ืช

Ravina said to Rav Ashi: This works out well in a case where he betrothed his wife with money, as it is possible to say that the Sages expropriated the money used for the betrothal from the possession of its owner, resulting in a retroactive cancellation of the betrothal. But if he betrothed her by means of sexual intercourse then what is there to say? The Gemara answers: The Sages declared his sexual intercourse to be licentious sexual intercourse, which does not create a bond of betrothal.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉืจื” ื›ืชื‘ื• ื’ื˜ ืœืืฉืชื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื–ื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ืืœื ื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื”

ยง The Sages taught: If a husband said to ten people: Write a bill of divorce for my wife, in which case any one of them may write the bill of divorce and two others will serve as witnesses, he can render his instructions void before this one, i.e., any one of them, by stating: Do not write the bill of divorce, even though it is not before that one, i.e., any other one of them; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He can render his instructions void only when this one is before that one of them, meaning that all ten people must be present.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ื‘ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื”

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? The Gemara answers: They disagree with regard to whether testimony that was partially invalidated is entirely invalidated. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds: Testimony that was partially invalidated

ืœื ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ืื™ ืื–ืœื™ ื”ื ืš ื›ืชื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื”ื‘ื™ ืœื™ื›ืชื‘ื• ื•ืœื™ืชื‘ื•

is not entirely invalidated; and therefore, even though the husband nullified the agency of part of the group, if these other people whose agency was never nullified go and write the bill of divorce and give it to the wife, let them write and give the bill of divorce. There is nothing to be concerned about, as their agency was never nullified. Since the bill of divorce that they deliver is valid, there is no reason to institute an ordinance that a husband can nullify the agency only in the presence of the entire group.

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื ืš ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ ื•ืื–ืœื™ ื•ื›ืชื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื”ื‘ื™ ื•ืฉืจื• ืืฉืช ืื™ืฉ ืœืขืœืžื

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and holds: Testimony that was partially invalidated is entirely invalidated. And if the agency of part of the group was nullified when those agents were not in the presence of the rest of the group, then those others do not know that their agency has been nullified as well. And they might then go and write a bill of divorce and give it, and they will cause the court to mistakenly permit a married woman to marry anyone.

ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ืœื ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื›ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืงืกื‘ืจ ืžืœืชื ื“ืžืชืขื‘ื“ื ื‘ืืคื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืœืžื™ืฉืœืคื”

And if you wish, say instead that everyone agrees that testimony that was partially invalidated is not entirely invalidated; and here, this is the reason of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that the husband can nullify his instructions only in the presence of all of the agents: He holds that a matter that is performed in the presence of ten people requires the presence of ten people to revoke it. Since the husband instructed ten people to write the bill of divorce, he cannot revoke his instructions in the presence of only a portion of them.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื›ื•ืœื›ื ืžื”ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืกื‘ืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ื•ืœื›ื ืœื ืžืฆื• ื›ืชื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื”ื‘ื™

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If the husband said to them: All of you should write a bill of divorce for my wife, in which case all of them must sign the bill of divorce, what is the halakha according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel? The Gemara elaborates: Is the reason of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel for prohibiting the husband from nullifying the instructions that he had given to ten people because he holds that testimony that was partially invalidated is entirely invalidated, and one should be concerned that the rest of the group will not know that their agency was nullified? And these people, since he said to them explicitly: All of you should write the bill of divorce, the rest of the group are not able to write and give the bill of divorce on their own. Therefore, the husband should be able to nullify his instructions when not in the presence of the entire group, as no mistake can occur because of his action.

ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืกื‘ืจ ื›ืœ ืžืœืชื ื“ืžืชืขื‘ื“ื ื‘ืืคื™ ื‘ื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ ืขืฉืจื” ืœืžื™ืฉืœืคื” ื•ื”ื™ืœื›ืš ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื›ื ื ืžื™

Or perhaps the reason of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is be-cause he holds that a matter that is performed in the presence of ten people requires the presence of ten people to revoke it. And therefore, even if he said: All of you should write the bill of divorce, he must nullify his instructions in all ten peopleโ€™s presence as well.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืืžืจ ืœืฉื ื™ื ืชื ื• ื’ื˜ ืœืืฉืชื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื–ื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ืืœื ื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื•ื”ื ืฉื ื™ื ื“ื›ื™ ื›ื•ืœื›ื ื“ืžื• ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื™

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a resolution from a baraita (Tosefta 4:1): If one said to two agents: Give a bill of divorce to my wife, he can render his instructions void before this one, i.e., either of them, even though it is not before that one, i.e., the other one; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He can render his instructions void only when this one is before that one, i.e., when the two of them are together. The Gemara now states the attempted proof. But two are equivalent to: All of you, as the bill of divorce cannot be written and given by fewer than two people, and there is no concern that perhaps one will sign without the other. And yet Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel still disagree, proving that Rabban Shimon ben Gamlielโ€™s reason is that the husband can nullify his instructions only in the same manner that he gave them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืื™ ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื”ื•ืœื›ื”

Rav Ashi said: If the baraita was speaking of witnesses of the writing of the bill of divorce, both of whom must sign the bill of divorce, this would indeed resolve the question. However, here we are dealing with witnesses of the delivery of the bill of divorce. In that case there is no need for two agents, so there is a concern that if the husband nullifies their agency in the presence of only one of them, then the second agent could mistakenly deliver the bill of divorce to the wife.

ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืžื™ืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืืžืจ ืœื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืœื–ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื–ื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื–ื” ืื™ ืืžืจืช ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื”ื•ืœื›ื” ืฉืคื™ืจ ืืœื ืื™ ืืžืจืช ื‘ืขื“ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ืžื™ ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ ื”ื ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืขื“ื•ืชืŸ ืžืฆื˜ืจืคืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ืจืื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื›ืื—ื“ ื“ืœืžื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara comments: This too, stands to reason, as the latter clause of the baraita teaches: If one said to this one on his own and to that one on his own, then he can nullify each of their agencies before this one even though it is not before that one. Granted, if you say that this is referring to witnesses of the delivery of the bill of divorce, this works out well, as they need not be appointed together. However, if you say that this is referring to witnesses of the writing, can they combine together if they were appointed separately? But doesnโ€™t the Master say: The testimony of two witnesses does not combine together until the two of them see the event as one, together? The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, who holds that in order for the witnesses to combine together and present their testimony it is not necessary for them to witness the event together.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืžืขื™ืช ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืชืจืชื™ ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื ื”ื™ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื”ื™ ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said: I heard from Rabbi Abba two rulings with regard to these questions; in one he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and in one he ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and I do not know which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื ื™ื—ื–ื™ ืื ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืขืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืคืจื˜ื ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืคืจื˜ื ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืคืจื˜ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื•ื—ื–ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืขืฉื” ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

Rav Yosef said: Let us see ourselves which argument was decided in favor of whom based on other sources, as when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: There was an incident and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi acted in accordance with the statement of the Rabbis. Rabbi Perata, the son of Rabbi Elazar ben Perata and the son of the son of Rabbi Perata the Great, said before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: If so, what advantage does the court have? And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi reversed his ruling and acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. The claim of: If so, what advantage does the court have, is the reason behind Rabban Shimon ben Gamlielโ€™s opinion with regard to the question of whether, in a case where the husband violates the ordinance and renders the bill of divorce void in the presence of a court but not before the agent, it is void after the fact.

ื•ืžื“ื”ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ืš ื›ืจื‘ื™

And from the fact that this dispute is decided in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi retracted his opinion and acted in accordance with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, by inference, in the case of that disagreement, with regard to one who gives instructions to ten people, the halakha must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

ื•ืืฃ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืืฉื™ื” ื“ืžืŸ ืื•ืฉื ืกื‘ืจ ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ื—ืžืฉื” ืกื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืืฉื™ื” ื“ืžืŸ ืื•ืฉื ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืงืžื™ื” ื•ืืฉืงืœื™ื” ื’ื™ื˜ื ืขืœ ื›ื•ืจื—ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœืŸ ื–ื™ืœื• ืื˜ืžื•ืจื• ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื”

The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Yoshiya from the city of Usha also holds that one halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and one is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As Rabba bar bar แธคana said: We were five elders sitting before Rabbi Yoshiya from Usha. A certain man came before him, and Rabbi Yoshiya extracted the authorization to write a bill of divorce from him against his will. Rabbi Yoshiya said to us: Go hide and write for her a bill of divorce, so that the husband will not find you and render the bill of divorce void after it has been written.

ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื›ื™ ืžื™ื˜ืžืจื™ ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara explains the inference as to the ruling of Rabbi Yoshiya: And if it enters your mind that he rules in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, that if a husband renders a bill of divorce void when not in the presence of the agent then the bill of divorce is void, then if they hide, what of it? The man could simply render the bill of divorce void in the presence of others. Rather, learn from it that he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, that one can render the bill of divorce void only in the presence of the agents.

ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœืžื” ืœื”ื• ืื˜ืžื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื‘ื“ืจื• ืื™ื‘ื“ื•ืจื™ ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื“ื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

The Gemara explains the second element: And if it enters your mind to say that with regard to the other dispute, where one instructs ten people to write the bill of divorce, he also holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, then why would they need to hide? Let them scatter, and since the husband will not find all of them together, he will be unable to render the bill of divorce void. Rather, learn from it that he holds in one case in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and in one case in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. This is one opinion with regard to the halakha in the two disputes of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžื” ื›ื— ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ

And Rava says that Rav Naแธฅman says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi in both cases. The Gemara asks: But doesnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman accept the argument that the court should have an advantage? But doesnโ€™t Rav Naแธฅman say that Shmuel says,

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