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Today's Daf Yomi

February 8, 2016 | ื›ืดื˜ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื•

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Gittin 57

More stories about the destruction both of the first temple and of the second. ย Also stories about unexpected converts who came from our enemies.


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ื‘ืžืื™ ื“ืคืกื™ืง ืื ืคืฉื™ื” ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ืžื›ื ืฉื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืงื™ื˜ืžื™ื” ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื•ืงืœื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ืจื• ืืฉื‘ ื™ืžื™

That which he decreed against himself, as he undergoes the following: Every day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas.

ืื–ืœ ืืกืงื™ื” ืœื‘ืœืขื ื‘ื ื’ื™ื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ื‘ื•ืงื™ ื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืชื“ืจื•ืฉ ืฉืœื•ืžื ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ืชื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ื™ื” ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืจื•ืชื—ืช

Onkelos then went and raised Balaam from the grave through necromancy. He said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Balaam said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them here in this world? Balaam said to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days (see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam said to him: He is cooked in boiling semen, as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.

ืื–ืœ ืืกืงื™ื” ื‘ื ื’ื™ื“ื ืœื™ืฉื• ื”ื ื•ืฆืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื”ื• ืœืื“ื‘ื•ืงื™ ื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืจืขืชื ืœื ืชื“ืจื•ืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ื‘ื‘ืช ืขื™ื ื•

Onkelos then went and raised Jesus the Nazarene from the grave through necromancy. Onkelos said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Jesus said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them in this world? Jesus said to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek, for anyone who touches them is regarded as if he were touching the apple of his eye (see Zechariah 2:12).

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ื™ื” ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฆื•ืื” ืจื•ืชื—ืช ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืœืขื™ื’ ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื‘ืฆื•ืื” ืจื•ืชื—ืช ืชื ื—ื–ื™ ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื ื‘ื™ืื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื

Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus said to him: He is punished with boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement. And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: Come and see the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world. As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื›ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฉื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ืกื™ื™ืข ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืช ื‘ืจ ืงืžืฆื ื•ื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ ืืช ื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ื”ื™ื›ืœื•

To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a baraita. It is taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza, who had been humiliated, and due to this humiliation and shame He destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary.

ืืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื•ืืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืชื ื—ืจื™ื‘ ื˜ื•ืจ ืžืœื›ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืคืงื™ ื—ืชื ื ื•ื›ืœืชื ืžืคืงื™ ืงืžื™ื™ื”ื• ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื•ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืชื ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืคืจื• ื•ืจื‘ื• ื›ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื™ื

ยง It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as the Kingโ€™s Mountain [Tur Malka] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen. The details of what happened are as follows: It was customary in that place that when they would lead a bride and groom to their wedding, they would take out a rooster and a hen before them, as if to say in the manner of a good omen: Be fruitful and multiply like chickens.

ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื’ื•ื ื“ื ื“ืจื•ืžืื™ ืฉืงืœื™ื ื”ื• ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื ืคืœื• ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื—ื•ื ื”ื• ืืชื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืงื™ืกืจ ืžืจื“ื• ื‘ืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ืืชื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื”ื• ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงืคื™ืฅ ืžื™ืœื ื•ืงื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื”ื• ืฉืงืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืชืื’ื™ื” ื•ืื•ืชื‘ื™ื” ืืืจืขื ืืžืจ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ื” ื“ืขืœืžื ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืœืš ืœื ืชืžืกืจื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื•ืœืžืœื›ื•ืชื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ื“ื—ื“ ื’ื‘ืจื

One day a troop [gunda] of Roman soldiers passed by there while a wedding was taking place and took the rooster and hen from them. The residents of the city fell upon them and beat them. The soldiers came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war. Among the residents of the Kingโ€™s Mountain there was a certain man named bar Deroma who could jump the distance of a mil, and he killed many of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. The emperor then took his crown and set it on the ground as a sign of mourning. He said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man, a euphemism for himself, and his kingdom into the hands of only one man.

ืื›ืฉืœื™ื” ืคื•ืžื™ื” ืœื‘ืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื ื•ืืžืจ ื”ืœื ืืชื” ืืœื”ื™ื ื–ื ื—ืชื ื• ื•ืœื ืชืฆื ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ืื•ืชื™ื ื• ื“ื•ื“ ื ืžื™ ืืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ืืชืžื•ื”ื™ ืงื ืžืชืžื”

In the end it was the words issuing from his own mouth that caused bar Deroma to stumble, as he uttered this verse in complaint against God: โ€œHave You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?โ€ (Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not David also say this? The Gemara answers: David uttered these words as a question, wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.

ืขืœ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืกื ืืชื ื“ืจืงื•ื ื ืฉืžื˜ื™ื” ืœื›ืจื›ืฉื™ื” ื•ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืื™ืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ืœื™ ื ื™ืกื ื”ื ื–ื™ืžื ื ืื™ืฉื‘ืงื™ื ื”ื• ืฉื‘ืงื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืื–ืœ ืื™ื–ื“ืงื•ืจ ื•ืื›ืœื• ื•ืฉืชื• ื•ืื“ืœื™ืงื• ืฉืจื’ื™ ืขื“ ื“ืื™ืชื—ื–ื™ ื‘ืœื™ื•ื ื ื“ื’ื•ืฉืคื ืงื ื‘ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื™ืœื ืืžืจ ืžื™ื—ื“ื ืงื ื—ื“ื• ื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื“ืจ ืืชื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: He entered an outhouse, a snake came and eviscerated him, and he died. The emperor said: Since a miracle was performed for me, as I had no part in bar Deromaโ€™s death, I will let the rest of the people be this time and take no further action against them. He let them be and went on his way. They leapt about, ate, drank, and lit so many candles in celebration that the image [bilyona] imprinted on a seal [gushpanka] was visible from a distance of a mil. The emperor then said: The Jews are rejoicing over me. So he went back and came against them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืชืœืช ืžืื” ืืœืคื™ ืฉืœื™ืคื™ ืกื™ื™ืคื ืขื™ื™ืœื• ืœื˜ื•ืจ ืžืœื›ื ื•ืงื˜ืœื• ื‘ื” ืชืœืชื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื•ืชืœืชื ืœื™ืœื•ื•ืชื ื•ื‘ื”ืš ื’ื™ืกื ื”ืœื•ืœื™ ื•ื—ื ื’ื™ ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื™ื“ืขื™ ื”ื ื™ ื‘ื”ื ื™

Rav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the Kingโ€™s Mountain and massacred its inhabitants for three days and three nights. And at the same time on the other side of the mountain, weddings and other festivities continued to be celebrated, and they did not know about each other, owing to the enormous size of the place.

ื‘ืœืข ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ื—ืžืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื ืื•ืช ื™ืขืงื‘ ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœื• ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื™ื ืื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื™ื ืื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื” ื›ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืฉืœืฉ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ืคืœื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื

ยง Concerning the verse: โ€œThe Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacobโ€ (Lamentations 2:2), it is related that when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This is referring to the six hundred thousand cities that King Yannai had in the Kingโ€™s Mountain. As Rav Yehuda says that Rav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the Kingโ€™s Mountain, and each of them had a population as great as the number of those who left Egypt, except for three of those cities, the population of which was double the number of those who left Egypt.

ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื›ืคืจ ื‘ื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ืฉื™ื—ืœื™ื™ื ื›ืคืจ ื“ื›ืจื™ื ื›ืคืจ ื‘ื™ืฉ ื“ืœื ื™ื”ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื ืœืื•ืฉืคื™ื–ื ื›ืคืจ ืฉื™ื—ืœื™ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืคืจื ืกืชืŸ ืžืŸ ืฉื—ืœื™ื™ื ื›ืคืจ ื“ื›ืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื–ื›ืจื™ื ืชื—ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื ืงื‘ื” ื‘ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ื•ืคื•ืกืงื•ืช

These are those three cities: Kefar Bish, Kefar Shiแธฅalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya. The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. Kefar Bish, Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants would not open their houses to guests. Kefar Shiแธฅalayim was referred to by that name because their livelihood was derived from the cultivation of cress [shaแธฅalayim]. As for Kefar Dikhrayya, Town of Males, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, and then they would stop having children.

ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ืืชืจื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื•ืชื ืงื ื™ ืœื ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืฉืงื•ืจื™ ืžืฉืงืจื™ืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืจืฅ ืฆื‘ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ืžื” ืฆื‘ื™ ื–ื” ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืจื• ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ื‘ืฉืจื• ืืฃ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืจื•ื•ื—ื ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื’ืžื“ื

Ulla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds, all the more so that number of people. A certain heretic said to Rabbi แธคanina: You lie with your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi แธคanina said to him: With regard to Eretz Yisrael it is written: Land of the deer (see Jeremiah 3:19). Just as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh, for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, so too, with regard to Eretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts. This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Templeโ€™s destruction.

ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืœืงื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืœืงื™ื” ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืืžืจื™ ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืœืชื ืžื›ืคืจ ืกื›ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืœื™ืžื

ยง The Gemara relates that Rav Minyumi bar แธคilkiya, Rav แธคilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar แธคiyya were once sitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt, which was in that region, let him relate it.

ืคืชื— ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืืจื•ืก ื•ืืจื•ืกืชื• ืฉื ืฉื‘ื• ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื•ื”ืฉื™ืื•ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื• ื‘ื‘ืงืฉื” ืžืžืš ืืœ ืชื’ืข ื‘ื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ืžืžืš ื•ืœื ื ื’ืข ื‘ื” ืขื“ ื™ื•ื ืžื•ืชื•

One of them began the discussion and said: There was an incident involving a betrothed man and woman from there who were taken captive by gentiles and the latter married them off to each other. The woman said to the man: Please do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you, and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. And until the day of his death the man did not touch the woman.

ื•ื›ืฉืžืช ืืžืจื” ืœื”ืŸ ืกื™ืคื“ื• ืœื–ื” ืฉืคื˜ืคื˜ ื‘ื™ืฆืจื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืื™ืœื• ื‘ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืืœื ื—ื“ื ืฉืขืชื ื•ื”ืื™ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืื™ืœื• ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืื• ื‘ื—ื“ื ืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ืื™ ื‘ื—ื“ื ืžื˜ื” ื•ืื™ืœื• ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืื• ืืฉืชื• ื•ื”ื ืืฉืชื•

And when he died without having touched her, the woman said to the Sages: Eulogize this man who conquered [shepitpet] his passion [beyitzro] more than Joseph. As in the case of Joseph it was only for a short time that he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potipharโ€™s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), whereas this man struggled with his passion each and every day. Furthermore, Joseph was not in one bed with Potipharโ€™s wife, whereas this man was in one bed with his wife. In addition, with Joseph the woman was not his wife, whereas with this man she was his wife, as she was already betrothed to him.

ืคืชื— ืื™ื“ืš ื•ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืขืžื“ื• ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื“ื™ื ืจ ื ื—ืกืจ ื”ืฉืขืจ ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืื—ืช ื•ื‘ื“ืงื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ืื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื• ืฉื‘ืื• ืขืœ ื ืขืจื” ืžืื•ืจืกื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื•ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืกืงืœื•ื ื•ื—ื–ืจ ื”ืฉืขืจ ืœืžืงื•ืžื•

Another Sage began his remarks and said: It once happened that the market price of forty seโ€™a of grain stood at one dinar. And then the rate went down one seโ€™a [modeya], so that only thirty-nine seโ€™a were sold for a dinar. And they checked to see what sin had caused this, and they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They brought the offenders to court and stoned them, and the rate returned to its former level.

ืคืชื— ืื™ื“ืš ื•ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ืืฉืชื• ืœื’ืจืฉื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžื” ืขืฉื” ื”ืœืš ื•ื–ื™ืžืŸ ืืช ืฉื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื”ืื›ื™ืœืŸ ื•ื”ืฉืงืŸ ืฉื™ื›ืจืŸ ื•ื”ืฉื›ื™ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ืžื™ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืฆื” ื•ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื”ืŸ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ

Yet another Sage began his remarks and said: There was an incident there involving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was large and he wished to avoid having to pay it. What did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and lay his friends and his wife in one bed. He then brought the white of an egg, which has the appearance of semen, and placed it on the sheet between them. He then stood witnesses over them so that they could offer testimony, and went to court claiming that his wife had committed adultery.

ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื–ืงืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ืฉืžืื™ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ื•ื‘ื‘ื ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื•ื˜ื ืฉืžื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืฉืžืื™ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ืœื•ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืกื•ืœื“ ืžืŸ ื”ืื•ืจ ื•ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื“ื•ื—ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื•ืจ ื‘ื“ืงื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื•ื”ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืงื•ื”ื• ื•ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื” ืžืžื ื•

A certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Buta was his name. He said to them: This is the tradition that I received from Shammai the Elder: Egg white on a bedsheet contracts and hardens when heated by fire, whereas semen is absorbed into the sheet by the fire. They checked the matter and found in accordance with his statement that the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. They then brought the husband to court, administered lashes to him, and made him pay his wifeโ€™s marriage contract in full.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืžืื—ืจ ื“ื”ื•ื• ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืื™ืขื ื•ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืœื ืื™ืื‘ื•ืœ ืขืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืžื—ื• ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื’ื™ืœื• ื‘ื” ื›ืœ ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื™ืฉื• ืืชื” ืžืฉื•ืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืื‘ืœื™ื ืขืœื™ื”

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But since those in the city were so righteous, what is the reason that they were punished and destroyed? Rav Yosef said to him: It is because they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: โ€œRejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for herโ€ (Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.

ืืฉืงื ื“ืจื™ืกืคืง ื—ืจื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื“ื”ื•ื• ื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžืชื™ืœื™ื“ ื™ื ื•ืงื ืฉืชืœื™ ืืจื–ื ื™ื ื•ืงืชื ืฉืชืœื™ ืชื•ืจื ื™ืชื ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื™ื ืกื‘ื™ ืงื™ื™ืฆื™ ืœื”ื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ื• ื’ื ื ื ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื—ืœืคื ื‘ืจืชื™ื” ื“ืงื™ืกืจ ืืชื‘ืจ ืฉืงื ื“ืจื™ืกืคืง ืงืฆื• ืืจื–ื ื•ืขื™ื™ืœื• ืœื” ืืชื• ื ืคื•ืœ ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื—ื•ื ื”ื• ืืชื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืงื™ืกืจ ืžืจื“ื• ื‘ืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ืืชื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื•

ยง It was stated earlier that the city of Beitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage. The Gemara explains that it was customary in Beitar that when a boy was born they would plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born they would plant a cypress [tornita]. And when they would later marry each other they would cut down these trees and construct a wedding canopy for them with their branches. One day the emperorโ€™s daughter passed by there and the shaft of the carriage in which she was riding broke. Her attendants chopped down a cedar from among those trees and brought it to her. Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar came and fell upon them and beat them. The attendants came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war.

ื’ื“ืข ื‘ื—ืจื™ ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืงืจืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœื• ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื [ืืœืฃ] ืงืจื ื™ ืžืœื—ืžื” ืฉื ื›ื ืกื• ืœื›ืจืš ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืœื›ื“ื•ื” ื•ื”ืจื’ื• ื‘ื” ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื˜ืฃ ืขื“ ืฉื”ืœืš ื“ืžืŸ ื•ื ืคืœ ืœื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืžื ืชืืžืจ ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื™ืœ

It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: โ€œHe has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israelโ€ (Lamentations 2:3). Rabbi Zeira says that Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: These are the eighty thousand officers bearing battle trumpets in their hands, who entered the city of Beitar when the enemy took it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you say that the city was close to the sea, know that it was a mil away.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ ื ื—ืœื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื™ื“ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืฉืš ืื™ืœืš ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืฉืš ืื™ืœืš ื•ืฉื™ืขืจื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื ื™ ื—ืœืงื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื“ื ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชื ื ืฉื‘ืข ืฉื ื™ื ื‘ืฆืจื• ื’ื•ื™ื ืืช ื›ืจืžื™ื”ืŸ ืžื“ืžืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืœื ื–ื‘ืœ

It is similarly taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valley in that region, one flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimated that in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with two parts water to one part blood. Likewise, it was taught in a baraita: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyards that had been soaked with the blood of Israel without requiring any additional fertilizer.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืกื— ืœื™ ื–ืงืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืื ืฉื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื–ื• ื”ืจื’ ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื”ืจื’ ืชืฉืขื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืจื‘ื•ื ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขื“ ืฉื”ืœืš ื“ืžืŸ ื•ื ื’ืข ื‘ื“ืžื• ืฉืœ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ืœืงื™ื™ื ืžื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื“ืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ื ื’ืขื•

ยง With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, Rabbi แธคiyya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa says: An old man from among the inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valley that lies before you, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, killed 2,110,000 people. And in Jerusalem itself he killed 940,000 people on one stone, until the blood of his victims flowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: โ€œAnd blood touches bloodโ€ (Hosea 4:2).

ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœื“ืžื™ื” ื“ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžืจืชื— ื•ืกืœื™ืง ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื”ืื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื“ื ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ื“ืืฉืชืคื•ืš ืื™ื™ืชื™ ื“ืžื™ ื•ืœื ืื™ื“ืžื•

The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan found the blood of Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw that it was bubbling up from the ground, and he said: What is this? Those in the Temple said to him: It is sacrificial blood that had been poured there. He brought animal blood, compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, and saw that it was not similar to it.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ ืืžืจื™ืชื• ืœื™ ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื™ ืœืื• ืžืกืจื™ืงื ื ืœื‘ืฉืจื™ื™ื›ื• ื‘ืžืกืจืงื™ ื“ืคืจื–ืœื™ ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื ื™ืžื ืœืš ื ื‘ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžื•ื›ื— ืœืŸ ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืฉืžื™ื ืงืžื™ื ืŸ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืงื˜ืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื›ืžื” ืฉื ื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ืงื ื ื™ื™ื— ื“ืžื™ื”

Nebuzaradan said to them: If you tell me whose blood this is, it will be well for you. But if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters, and we rose up against him, and killed him (IIย Chronicles 24:20โ€“22), and for many years now his blood has not settled.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื ื ืžืคื™ื™ืกื ื ืœื™ื” ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ ืงื˜ื ื” ืงื˜ืœ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื— ื‘ื—ื•ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืชื•ืœื•ืช ืงื˜ืœ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื— ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืจื‘ืŸ ืงื˜ืœ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื— ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ืŸ ืื™ื‘ื“ืชื™ื ื ื™ื—ื ืœืš ื“ืื‘ื“ื™ื ื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ื—

Nebuzaradan said to them: I will appease Zechariah. He brought the members of the Great Sanhedrin and of a lesser Sanhedrin and killed them alongside the bubbling blood, but it still did not settle. He then brought young men and virgins and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. He then brought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. Finally Nebuzaradan said to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them. Would it please you if I destroyed them all? When he said this, the blood at last settled.

ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ื”ืจื”ืจ ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ื•ืžื” ืื ืขืœ ื ืคืฉ ืื—ืช ื›ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงื˜ืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ื ืฉืžืชื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืขืจืง ืื–ืœ ืฉื“ืจ ืฉื˜ืจ ืคืจื˜ืชื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื•ืื’ื™ื™ืจ

At that moment Nebuzaradan contemplated the idea of repentance and said to himself: If, for the death of one soul, that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in this manner, then that man, that is to say, I, who has killed all of those souls, all the more so will be I be subject to great punishment from God. He fled, sent to his house a document detailing what was to be done with his property, and converted to Judaism.

ืชื ื ื ืขืžืŸ ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ื”ื™ื” ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ื’ืจ ืฆื“ืง ื”ื™ื”

A Sage taught a baraita relating to this matter: Naaman, commander of the army of the king of Aram (see IIย Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he was a ger toshav, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan, by contrast, was a convert, as explained previously.

ืžื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืžืŸ ืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืง ืžื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืกื™ืกืจื ืœืžื“ื• ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืžื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืกื ื—ืจื™ื‘ ืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืืŸ ืื™ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืขื™ื” ื•ืื‘ื˜ืœื™ื•ืŸ

The Gemara adds that some of Hamanโ€™s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak, and some of Siseraโ€™s descendants taught children Torah in Jerusalem, and some of Sennacheribโ€™s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they? They are Shemaya and Avtalyon, the teachers of Hillel the Elder.

ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืชืชื™ ืืช ื“ืžื” ืขืœ ืฆื—ื™ื— ืกืœืข ืœื‘ืœืชื™ ื”ื›ืกื•ืช

As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, this is alluded to by that which is written: โ€œI have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be coveredโ€ (Ezekiel 24:8).

ื”ืงื•ืœ ืงื•ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื“ื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฉื• ื”ืงื•ืœ ื–ื” ืื“ืจื™ื™ื ื•ืก ืงื™ืกืจ ืฉื”ืจื’ ื‘ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ืขืœ ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื›ืคืœื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืงื•ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื–ื” ืืกืคืกื™ื™ื ื•ืก ืงื™ืกืจ ืฉื”ืจื’ ื‘ื›ืจืš ื‘ื™ืชืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืจื‘ืขืช ืืœืคื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ื”ื™ื“ื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฉื• ื–ื• ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ืจืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ื” ืืช ื‘ืชื™ื ื• ื•ืฉืจืคื” ืืช ื”ื™ื›ืœื ื• ื•ื”ื’ืœื™ืชื ื• ืžืืจืฆื ื•

ยง Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: โ€œThe voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esauโ€ (Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: โ€œThe voiceโ€; this is the cry stirred up by the emperor Hadrian, who caused the Jewish people to cry out when he killed six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twice the number of men who left Egypt. โ€œThe voice of Jacobโ€; this is the cry aroused by the emperor Vespasian, who killed four million people in the city of Beitar. And some say: He killed forty million people. โ€œAnd the hands are the hands of Esauโ€; this is the wicked kingdom of Rome that destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื”ืงื•ืœ ืงื•ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ืชืคืœื” ืฉืžื•ืขืœืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื“ื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฉื• ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ืžืœื—ืžื” ืฉื ื•ืฆื—ืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ืขืฉื•

Alternatively, โ€œthe voice is the voice of Jacobโ€ means that no prayer is effective in the world unless some member of the seed of Jacob has a part in it. The second clause in the verse, โ€œand the hands are the hands of Esau,โ€ means that no war grants victory unless some member of the seed of Esau has a part in it.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืฉื•ื˜ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืชื—ื‘ื ื‘ื—ื™ืจื—ื•ืจื™ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืชื—ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ื ื• ื’ื ื‘ื›ื™ื ื• ื‘ื–ื›ืจื ื• ืืช ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ืจืื”ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื“ื•ื“ ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉื ื™ ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ื ื• ื’ื ื‘ื›ื™ื ื• ื‘ื™ืช ืฉื ื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ืณ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื•ื ืืช ื™ื•ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืจื• ืขืจื• ืขื“ ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ื‘ื”

And this is what Rabbi Elazar says: The verse that says: โ€œYou shall be hid from the scourge of the tongueโ€ (Job 5:21), means: You shall need to hide on account of quarrels provoked by the tongue. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œBy the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zionโ€ (Psalms 137:1)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple. He saw the destruction of the First Temple, as it is stated: โ€œBy the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.โ€ He saw the destruction of the Second Temple, as it is written later in that same psalm: โ€œRemember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundationโ€ (Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, โ€œthe children of Edom.โ€

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชื ื ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืœื“ื•ืช ืฉื ืฉื‘ื• ืœืงืœื•ืŸ ื”ืจื’ื™ืฉื• ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ืœืžื” ื”ืŸ ืžืชื‘ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจื• ืื ืื ื• ื˜ื•ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื ืื ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉื‘ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืžื‘ืฉืŸ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืžืžืฆื•ืœื•ืช ื™ื ืžื‘ืฉืŸ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื ื™ ืืจื™ื” ืืฉื™ื‘ ืžืžืฆื•ืœื•ืช ื™ื ืืœื• ืฉื˜ื•ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says, and some say that it was Rabbi Ami who says this, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives for the purpose of prostitution. These children sensed on their own what they were expected to do, and they said: If we commit suicide and drown in the sea, will we come to eternal life in the World-to-Come? The oldest child among them expounded the verse: โ€œThe Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the seaโ€ (Psalms 68:23). โ€œI will bring back from Bashan,โ€ i.e., from between the teeth [bein shen] of the lion, and โ€œI will bring them back from the depths of the seaโ€ is referring to those who drown in the sea for the sake of Heaven.

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืฉืžืขื• ื™ืœื“ื•ืช ื›ืš ืงืคืฆื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื•ื ืคืœื• ืœืชื•ืš ื”ื™ื ื ืฉืื• ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ืืžืจื• ืžื” ื”ืœืœื• ืฉื“ืจื›ืŸ ืœื›ืš ื›ืš ืื ื• ืฉืื™ืŸ ื“ืจื›ื ื• ืœื›ืš ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืืฃ ื”ื ืงืคืฆื• ืœืชื•ืš ื”ื™ื ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ืขืœื™ืš ื”ืจื’ื ื• ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ื ื• ื›ืฆืืŸ ื˜ื‘ื—ื”

When the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boys then drew an a fortiori inference with regard to themselves and said: If these girls, for whom sexual intercourse with men is their natural way, act in such a manner, then we, for whom sexual intercourse with men is not our natural way, should all the more so conduct ourselves likewise. They too leapt into the sea. Concerning them and others like them the verse states: โ€œAs For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughterโ€ (Psalms 44:23).

ื•ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ื–ื• ืืฉื” ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ื‘ื ื™ื” ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืงืžื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืงื™ืกืจ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

And Rav Yehuda said: This verse applies to the woman and her seven sons who died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of Godโ€™s name. The incident occurred as follows: They brought in the first of the womanโ€™s sons before the emperor and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œI am the Lord your Godโ€ (Exodus 20:2). They immediately took him out and killed him.

ื•ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืงื™ืกืจ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ืืœื”ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื• ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื–ื•ื‘ื— ืœืืœื”ื™ื ื™ื—ืจื ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

And they then brought in another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œYou shall have no other gods beside Meโ€ (Exodus 20:3). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œHe that sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyedโ€ (Exodus 22:19). And so they took him out and killed him.

ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ืชืฉืชื—ื•ื” ืœืืœ ืื—ืจ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื• ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืณ ืื—ื“ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œYou shall not bow down to any other godโ€ (Exodus 34:14). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œHear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is Oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:4). And so they took him out and killed him.

ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืืœ ืœื‘ื‘ืš ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ื”ื•ื ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ืžืžืขืœ ื•ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืชื—ืช ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ื“ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œKnow therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no otherโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:39). And so they took him out and killed him.

ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืืช ื”ืณ ื”ืืžืจืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื”ืณ ื”ืืžื™ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืฉื‘ืขื ื• ืœื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืืœ ืื—ืจ ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื ื• ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื ื• ื‘ืื•ืžื” ืื—ืจืช

They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œYou have avouched the Lord this day to be your Godโ€ฆand the Lord has avouched you this day to be a people for His own possessionโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:17โ€“18). We already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืื™ืฉื“ื™ ืœืš ื’ื•ืฉืคื ืงื ื•ื’ื—ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืงืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ืžืจื• ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืจืžื ื ื“ืžืœื›ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื‘ืœ ืขืœืš ืงื™ืกืจ ื—ื‘ืœ ืขืœืš ืงื™ืกืจ ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืขืฆืžืš ื›ืš ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boyโ€™s life, the emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so that people will say that he has accepted the kingโ€™s authority [harmana]. The boy said to him: Woe [แธฅaval] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar. If you think that for the sake of your honor I should fulfill your command and do this, then for the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so should I fulfill His command.

ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ืœืžื™ืงื˜ืœื™ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื”ื• ืื™ืžื™ื” ื™ื”ื‘ื•ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ ื•ืื™ื ืฉืงื™ื” ืคื•ืจืชื ืืžืจื” ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื™ ืœื›ื• ื•ืืžืจื• ืœืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื›ื ืืชื” ืขืงื“ืช ืžื–ื‘ื— ืื—ื“ ื•ืื ื™ ืขืงื“ืชื™ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืžื–ื‘ื—ื•ืช ืืฃ ื”ื™ื ืขืœืชื” ืœื’ื’ ื•ื ืคืœื” ื•ืžืชื” ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืื ื”ื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืžื—ื”

As they were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound one son to the altar, but I bound seven altars. She too in the end went up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: โ€œA joyful mother of childrenโ€ (Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืืžืจ ื–ื• ืžื™ืœื” ืฉื ื™ืชื ื” ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉืžืจืื™ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื›ืœ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœื™ื—ื–ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says concerning the verse: โ€œFor Your sake we are killed all the day longโ€ (Psalms 44:23), that this is referring to circumcision, which was given for the eighth day, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covenant with God. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This verse was stated in reference to Torah scholars who demonstrate the halakhot of slaughter on themselves, meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is as Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himself to illustrate the act except for slaughter and another matter, a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉืžืžื™ืชื™ืŸ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžืชืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืžื™ ืฉืžืžื™ืช ืขืฆืžื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื–ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืื“ื ื›ื™ ื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืื”ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืกืื”

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: These people in the verse are Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: โ€œThis is the Torah, when a man dies in a tentโ€ (Numbers 19:14). Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Forty seโ€™a

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Gittin 57

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Gittin 57

ื‘ืžืื™ ื“ืคืกื™ืง ืื ืคืฉื™ื” ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ืžื›ื ืฉื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืงื™ื˜ืžื™ื” ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื•ืงืœื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ืจื• ืืฉื‘ ื™ืžื™

That which he decreed against himself, as he undergoes the following: Every day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas.

ืื–ืœ ืืกืงื™ื” ืœื‘ืœืขื ื‘ื ื’ื™ื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ื‘ื•ืงื™ ื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืชื“ืจื•ืฉ ืฉืœื•ืžื ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ืชื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ื™ื” ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืจื•ืชื—ืช

Onkelos then went and raised Balaam from the grave through necromancy. He said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Balaam said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them here in this world? Balaam said to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days (see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam said to him: He is cooked in boiling semen, as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.

ืื–ืœ ืืกืงื™ื” ื‘ื ื’ื™ื“ื ืœื™ืฉื• ื”ื ื•ืฆืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื”ื•ื ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื”ื• ืœืื“ื‘ื•ืงื™ ื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืจืขืชื ืœื ืชื“ืจื•ืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ื‘ื‘ืช ืขื™ื ื•

Onkelos then went and raised Jesus the Nazarene from the grave through necromancy. Onkelos said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Jesus said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them in this world? Jesus said to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek, for anyone who touches them is regarded as if he were touching the apple of his eye (see Zechariah 2:12).

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ื™ื” ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฆื•ืื” ืจื•ืชื—ืช ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืœืขื™ื’ ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื ื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื‘ืฆื•ืื” ืจื•ืชื—ืช ืชื ื—ื–ื™ ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื ื‘ื™ืื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื

Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus said to him: He is punished with boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement. And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: Come and see the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world. As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื›ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฉื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ืกื™ื™ืข ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืช ื‘ืจ ืงืžืฆื ื•ื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ ืืช ื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ื”ื™ื›ืœื•

To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a baraita. It is taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza, who had been humiliated, and due to this humiliation and shame He destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary.

ืืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื•ืืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืชื ื—ืจื™ื‘ ื˜ื•ืจ ืžืœื›ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืคืงื™ ื—ืชื ื ื•ื›ืœืชื ืžืคืงื™ ืงืžื™ื™ื”ื• ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื•ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืชื ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืคืจื• ื•ืจื‘ื• ื›ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื™ื

ยง It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as the Kingโ€™s Mountain [Tur Malka] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen. The details of what happened are as follows: It was customary in that place that when they would lead a bride and groom to their wedding, they would take out a rooster and a hen before them, as if to say in the manner of a good omen: Be fruitful and multiply like chickens.

ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื’ื•ื ื“ื ื“ืจื•ืžืื™ ืฉืงืœื™ื ื”ื• ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื ืคืœื• ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื—ื•ื ื”ื• ืืชื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืงื™ืกืจ ืžืจื“ื• ื‘ืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ืืชื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื”ื• ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงืคื™ืฅ ืžื™ืœื ื•ืงื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื”ื• ืฉืงืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืชืื’ื™ื” ื•ืื•ืชื‘ื™ื” ืืืจืขื ืืžืจ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ื” ื“ืขืœืžื ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื ื™ื—ื ืœืš ืœื ืชืžืกืจื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื•ืœืžืœื›ื•ืชื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ื“ื—ื“ ื’ื‘ืจื

One day a troop [gunda] of Roman soldiers passed by there while a wedding was taking place and took the rooster and hen from them. The residents of the city fell upon them and beat them. The soldiers came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war. Among the residents of the Kingโ€™s Mountain there was a certain man named bar Deroma who could jump the distance of a mil, and he killed many of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. The emperor then took his crown and set it on the ground as a sign of mourning. He said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man, a euphemism for himself, and his kingdom into the hands of only one man.

ืื›ืฉืœื™ื” ืคื•ืžื™ื” ืœื‘ืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื ื•ืืžืจ ื”ืœื ืืชื” ืืœื”ื™ื ื–ื ื—ืชื ื• ื•ืœื ืชืฆื ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืฆื‘ืื•ืชื™ื ื• ื“ื•ื“ ื ืžื™ ืืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ืืชืžื•ื”ื™ ืงื ืžืชืžื”

In the end it was the words issuing from his own mouth that caused bar Deroma to stumble, as he uttered this verse in complaint against God: โ€œHave You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?โ€ (Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not David also say this? The Gemara answers: David uttered these words as a question, wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.

ืขืœ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ืกื ืืชื ื“ืจืงื•ื ื ืฉืžื˜ื™ื” ืœื›ืจื›ืฉื™ื” ื•ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืื™ืชืจื—ื™ืฉ ืœื™ ื ื™ืกื ื”ื ื–ื™ืžื ื ืื™ืฉื‘ืงื™ื ื”ื• ืฉื‘ืงื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืื–ืœ ืื™ื–ื“ืงื•ืจ ื•ืื›ืœื• ื•ืฉืชื• ื•ืื“ืœื™ืงื• ืฉืจื’ื™ ืขื“ ื“ืื™ืชื—ื–ื™ ื‘ืœื™ื•ื ื ื“ื’ื•ืฉืคื ืงื ื‘ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื™ืœื ืืžืจ ืžื™ื—ื“ื ืงื ื—ื“ื• ื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื“ืจ ืืชื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: He entered an outhouse, a snake came and eviscerated him, and he died. The emperor said: Since a miracle was performed for me, as I had no part in bar Deromaโ€™s death, I will let the rest of the people be this time and take no further action against them. He let them be and went on his way. They leapt about, ate, drank, and lit so many candles in celebration that the image [bilyona] imprinted on a seal [gushpanka] was visible from a distance of a mil. The emperor then said: The Jews are rejoicing over me. So he went back and came against them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืชืœืช ืžืื” ืืœืคื™ ืฉืœื™ืคื™ ืกื™ื™ืคื ืขื™ื™ืœื• ืœื˜ื•ืจ ืžืœื›ื ื•ืงื˜ืœื• ื‘ื” ืชืœืชื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื•ืชืœืชื ืœื™ืœื•ื•ืชื ื•ื‘ื”ืš ื’ื™ืกื ื”ืœื•ืœื™ ื•ื—ื ื’ื™ ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื• ื™ื“ืขื™ ื”ื ื™ ื‘ื”ื ื™

Rav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the Kingโ€™s Mountain and massacred its inhabitants for three days and three nights. And at the same time on the other side of the mountain, weddings and other festivities continued to be celebrated, and they did not know about each other, owing to the enormous size of the place.

ื‘ืœืข ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ื—ืžืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื ืื•ืช ื™ืขืงื‘ ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœื• ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื™ื ืื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื™ื ืื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื” ื›ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืฉืœืฉ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ืคืœื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื

ยง Concerning the verse: โ€œThe Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacobโ€ (Lamentations 2:2), it is related that when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This is referring to the six hundred thousand cities that King Yannai had in the Kingโ€™s Mountain. As Rav Yehuda says that Rav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the Kingโ€™s Mountain, and each of them had a population as great as the number of those who left Egypt, except for three of those cities, the population of which was double the number of those who left Egypt.

ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื›ืคืจ ื‘ื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ืฉื™ื—ืœื™ื™ื ื›ืคืจ ื“ื›ืจื™ื ื›ืคืจ ื‘ื™ืฉ ื“ืœื ื™ื”ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื ืœืื•ืฉืคื™ื–ื ื›ืคืจ ืฉื™ื—ืœื™ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืคืจื ืกืชืŸ ืžืŸ ืฉื—ืœื™ื™ื ื›ืคืจ ื“ื›ืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ื™ื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื–ื›ืจื™ื ืชื—ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื ืงื‘ื” ื‘ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ื•ืคื•ืกืงื•ืช

These are those three cities: Kefar Bish, Kefar Shiแธฅalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya. The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. Kefar Bish, Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants would not open their houses to guests. Kefar Shiแธฅalayim was referred to by that name because their livelihood was derived from the cultivation of cress [shaแธฅalayim]. As for Kefar Dikhrayya, Town of Males, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, and then they would stop having children.

ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ืืชืจื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื•ืชื ืงื ื™ ืœื ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืฉืงื•ืจื™ ืžืฉืงืจื™ืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืจืฅ ืฆื‘ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ืžื” ืฆื‘ื™ ื–ื” ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืจื• ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ื‘ืฉืจื• ืืฃ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืจื•ื•ื—ื ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื’ืžื“ื

Ulla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds, all the more so that number of people. A certain heretic said to Rabbi แธคanina: You lie with your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi แธคanina said to him: With regard to Eretz Yisrael it is written: Land of the deer (see Jeremiah 3:19). Just as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh, for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, so too, with regard to Eretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts. This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Templeโ€™s destruction.

ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืœืงื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืœืงื™ื” ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืืžืจื™ ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืœืชื ืžื›ืคืจ ืกื›ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืœื™ืžื

ยง The Gemara relates that Rav Minyumi bar แธคilkiya, Rav แธคilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar แธคiyya were once sitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt, which was in that region, let him relate it.

ืคืชื— ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืืจื•ืก ื•ืืจื•ืกืชื• ืฉื ืฉื‘ื• ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื•ื”ืฉื™ืื•ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื• ื‘ื‘ืงืฉื” ืžืžืš ืืœ ืชื’ืข ื‘ื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ืžืžืš ื•ืœื ื ื’ืข ื‘ื” ืขื“ ื™ื•ื ืžื•ืชื•

One of them began the discussion and said: There was an incident involving a betrothed man and woman from there who were taken captive by gentiles and the latter married them off to each other. The woman said to the man: Please do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you, and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. And until the day of his death the man did not touch the woman.

ื•ื›ืฉืžืช ืืžืจื” ืœื”ืŸ ืกื™ืคื“ื• ืœื–ื” ืฉืคื˜ืคื˜ ื‘ื™ืฆืจื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืื™ืœื• ื‘ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืืœื ื—ื“ื ืฉืขืชื ื•ื”ืื™ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืื™ืœื• ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืื• ื‘ื—ื“ื ืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ืื™ ื‘ื—ื“ื ืžื˜ื” ื•ืื™ืœื• ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืื• ืืฉืชื• ื•ื”ื ืืฉืชื•

And when he died without having touched her, the woman said to the Sages: Eulogize this man who conquered [shepitpet] his passion [beyitzro] more than Joseph. As in the case of Joseph it was only for a short time that he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potipharโ€™s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), whereas this man struggled with his passion each and every day. Furthermore, Joseph was not in one bed with Potipharโ€™s wife, whereas this man was in one bed with his wife. In addition, with Joseph the woman was not his wife, whereas with this man she was his wife, as she was already betrothed to him.

ืคืชื— ืื™ื“ืš ื•ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืขืžื“ื• ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื“ื™ื ืจ ื ื—ืกืจ ื”ืฉืขืจ ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืื—ืช ื•ื‘ื“ืงื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ืื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื• ืฉื‘ืื• ืขืœ ื ืขืจื” ืžืื•ืจืกื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื•ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืกืงืœื•ื ื•ื—ื–ืจ ื”ืฉืขืจ ืœืžืงื•ืžื•

Another Sage began his remarks and said: It once happened that the market price of forty seโ€™a of grain stood at one dinar. And then the rate went down one seโ€™a [modeya], so that only thirty-nine seโ€™a were sold for a dinar. And they checked to see what sin had caused this, and they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They brought the offenders to court and stoned them, and the rate returned to its former level.

ืคืชื— ืื™ื“ืš ื•ืืžืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ืืฉืชื• ืœื’ืจืฉื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžื” ืขืฉื” ื”ืœืš ื•ื–ื™ืžืŸ ืืช ืฉื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื”ืื›ื™ืœืŸ ื•ื”ืฉืงืŸ ืฉื™ื›ืจืŸ ื•ื”ืฉื›ื™ื‘ืŸ ืขืœ ืžื™ื˜ื” ืื—ืช ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืฆื” ื•ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืœื”ืŸ ืขื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ

Yet another Sage began his remarks and said: There was an incident there involving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was large and he wished to avoid having to pay it. What did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and lay his friends and his wife in one bed. He then brought the white of an egg, which has the appearance of semen, and placed it on the sheet between them. He then stood witnesses over them so that they could offer testimony, and went to court claiming that his wife had committed adultery.

ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื–ืงืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ืฉืžืื™ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ื•ื‘ื‘ื ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื•ื˜ื ืฉืžื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืฉืžืื™ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ืœื•ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืกื•ืœื“ ืžืŸ ื”ืื•ืจ ื•ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื“ื•ื—ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื•ืจ ื‘ื“ืงื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื•ื”ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืงื•ื”ื• ื•ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื” ืžืžื ื•

A certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Buta was his name. He said to them: This is the tradition that I received from Shammai the Elder: Egg white on a bedsheet contracts and hardens when heated by fire, whereas semen is absorbed into the sheet by the fire. They checked the matter and found in accordance with his statement that the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. They then brought the husband to court, administered lashes to him, and made him pay his wifeโ€™s marriage contract in full.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืžืื—ืจ ื“ื”ื•ื• ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืื™ืขื ื•ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืœื ืื™ืื‘ื•ืœ ืขืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืžื—ื• ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื’ื™ืœื• ื‘ื” ื›ืœ ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื™ืฉื• ืืชื” ืžืฉื•ืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืื‘ืœื™ื ืขืœื™ื”

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But since those in the city were so righteous, what is the reason that they were punished and destroyed? Rav Yosef said to him: It is because they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: โ€œRejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for herโ€ (Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.

ืืฉืงื ื“ืจื™ืกืคืง ื—ืจื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื“ื”ื•ื• ื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžืชื™ืœื™ื“ ื™ื ื•ืงื ืฉืชืœื™ ืืจื–ื ื™ื ื•ืงืชื ืฉืชืœื™ ืชื•ืจื ื™ืชื ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื™ื ืกื‘ื™ ืงื™ื™ืฆื™ ืœื”ื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ื• ื’ื ื ื ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื—ืœืคื ื‘ืจืชื™ื” ื“ืงื™ืกืจ ืืชื‘ืจ ืฉืงื ื“ืจื™ืกืคืง ืงืฆื• ืืจื–ื ื•ืขื™ื™ืœื• ืœื” ืืชื• ื ืคื•ืœ ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื—ื•ื ื”ื• ืืชื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืงื™ืกืจ ืžืจื“ื• ื‘ืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ืืชื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื•

ยง It was stated earlier that the city of Beitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage. The Gemara explains that it was customary in Beitar that when a boy was born they would plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born they would plant a cypress [tornita]. And when they would later marry each other they would cut down these trees and construct a wedding canopy for them with their branches. One day the emperorโ€™s daughter passed by there and the shaft of the carriage in which she was riding broke. Her attendants chopped down a cedar from among those trees and brought it to her. Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar came and fell upon them and beat them. The attendants came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war.

ื’ื“ืข ื‘ื—ืจื™ ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืงืจืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœื• ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื [ืืœืฃ] ืงืจื ื™ ืžืœื—ืžื” ืฉื ื›ื ืกื• ืœื›ืจืš ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืœื›ื“ื•ื” ื•ื”ืจื’ื• ื‘ื” ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื˜ืฃ ืขื“ ืฉื”ืœืš ื“ืžืŸ ื•ื ืคืœ ืœื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืžื ืชืืžืจ ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื™ืœ

It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: โ€œHe has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israelโ€ (Lamentations 2:3). Rabbi Zeira says that Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: These are the eighty thousand officers bearing battle trumpets in their hands, who entered the city of Beitar when the enemy took it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you say that the city was close to the sea, know that it was a mil away.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ ื ื—ืœื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื™ื“ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืฉืš ืื™ืœืš ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืฉืš ืื™ืœืš ื•ืฉื™ืขืจื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื ื™ ื—ืœืงื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื“ื ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชื ื ืฉื‘ืข ืฉื ื™ื ื‘ืฆืจื• ื’ื•ื™ื ืืช ื›ืจืžื™ื”ืŸ ืžื“ืžืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืœื ื–ื‘ืœ

It is similarly taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valley in that region, one flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimated that in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with two parts water to one part blood. Likewise, it was taught in a baraita: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyards that had been soaked with the blood of Israel without requiring any additional fertilizer.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืกื— ืœื™ ื–ืงืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืื ืฉื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื–ื• ื”ืจื’ ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืื—ืช ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื”ืจื’ ืชืฉืขื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ืจื‘ื•ื ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขื“ ืฉื”ืœืš ื“ืžืŸ ื•ื ื’ืข ื‘ื“ืžื• ืฉืœ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ืœืงื™ื™ื ืžื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื“ืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ื ื’ืขื•

ยง With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, Rabbi แธคiyya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa says: An old man from among the inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valley that lies before you, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, killed 2,110,000 people. And in Jerusalem itself he killed 940,000 people on one stone, until the blood of his victims flowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: โ€œAnd blood touches bloodโ€ (Hosea 4:2).

ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœื“ืžื™ื” ื“ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžืจืชื— ื•ืกืœื™ืง ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื”ืื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื“ื ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ื“ืืฉืชืคื•ืš ืื™ื™ืชื™ ื“ืžื™ ื•ืœื ืื™ื“ืžื•

The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan found the blood of Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw that it was bubbling up from the ground, and he said: What is this? Those in the Temple said to him: It is sacrificial blood that had been poured there. He brought animal blood, compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, and saw that it was not similar to it.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ ืืžืจื™ืชื• ืœื™ ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื™ ืœืื• ืžืกืจื™ืงื ื ืœื‘ืฉืจื™ื™ื›ื• ื‘ืžืกืจืงื™ ื“ืคืจื–ืœื™ ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื ื™ืžื ืœืš ื ื‘ื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžื•ื›ื— ืœืŸ ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืฉืžื™ื ืงืžื™ื ืŸ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืงื˜ืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื›ืžื” ืฉื ื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ืงื ื ื™ื™ื— ื“ืžื™ื”

Nebuzaradan said to them: If you tell me whose blood this is, it will be well for you. But if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters, and we rose up against him, and killed him (IIย Chronicles 24:20โ€“22), and for many years now his blood has not settled.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื ื ืžืคื™ื™ืกื ื ืœื™ื” ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ ืงื˜ื ื” ืงื˜ืœ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื— ื‘ื—ื•ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืชื•ืœื•ืช ืงื˜ืœ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื— ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืจื‘ืŸ ืงื˜ืœ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื— ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ืŸ ืื™ื‘ื“ืชื™ื ื ื™ื—ื ืœืš ื“ืื‘ื“ื™ื ื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ื—

Nebuzaradan said to them: I will appease Zechariah. He brought the members of the Great Sanhedrin and of a lesser Sanhedrin and killed them alongside the bubbling blood, but it still did not settle. He then brought young men and virgins and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. He then brought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. Finally Nebuzaradan said to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them. Would it please you if I destroyed them all? When he said this, the blood at last settled.

ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ื”ืจื”ืจ ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ื•ืžื” ืื ืขืœ ื ืคืฉ ืื—ืช ื›ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงื˜ืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ื ืฉืžืชื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืขืจืง ืื–ืœ ืฉื“ืจ ืฉื˜ืจ ืคืจื˜ืชื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ื•ืื’ื™ื™ืจ

At that moment Nebuzaradan contemplated the idea of repentance and said to himself: If, for the death of one soul, that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in this manner, then that man, that is to say, I, who has killed all of those souls, all the more so will be I be subject to great punishment from God. He fled, sent to his house a document detailing what was to be done with his property, and converted to Judaism.

ืชื ื ื ืขืžืŸ ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ื”ื™ื” ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ื’ืจ ืฆื“ืง ื”ื™ื”

A Sage taught a baraita relating to this matter: Naaman, commander of the army of the king of Aram (see IIย Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he was a ger toshav, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan, by contrast, was a convert, as explained previously.

ืžื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืžืŸ ืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืง ืžื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืกื™ืกืจื ืœืžื“ื• ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืžื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืกื ื—ืจื™ื‘ ืœืžื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืืŸ ืื™ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืขื™ื” ื•ืื‘ื˜ืœื™ื•ืŸ

The Gemara adds that some of Hamanโ€™s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak, and some of Siseraโ€™s descendants taught children Torah in Jerusalem, and some of Sennacheribโ€™s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they? They are Shemaya and Avtalyon, the teachers of Hillel the Elder.

ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืชืชื™ ืืช ื“ืžื” ืขืœ ืฆื—ื™ื— ืกืœืข ืœื‘ืœืชื™ ื”ื›ืกื•ืช

As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, this is alluded to by that which is written: โ€œI have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be coveredโ€ (Ezekiel 24:8).

ื”ืงื•ืœ ืงื•ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื“ื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฉื• ื”ืงื•ืœ ื–ื” ืื“ืจื™ื™ื ื•ืก ืงื™ืกืจ ืฉื”ืจื’ ื‘ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ืขืœ ืฉืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื›ืคืœื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืงื•ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื–ื” ืืกืคืกื™ื™ื ื•ืก ืงื™ืกืจ ืฉื”ืจื’ ื‘ื›ืจืš ื‘ื™ืชืจ ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืจื‘ืขืช ืืœืคื™ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื•ื”ื™ื“ื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฉื• ื–ื• ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ืจืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ื” ืืช ื‘ืชื™ื ื• ื•ืฉืจืคื” ืืช ื”ื™ื›ืœื ื• ื•ื”ื’ืœื™ืชื ื• ืžืืจืฆื ื•

ยง Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: โ€œThe voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esauโ€ (Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: โ€œThe voiceโ€; this is the cry stirred up by the emperor Hadrian, who caused the Jewish people to cry out when he killed six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twice the number of men who left Egypt. โ€œThe voice of Jacobโ€; this is the cry aroused by the emperor Vespasian, who killed four million people in the city of Beitar. And some say: He killed forty million people. โ€œAnd the hands are the hands of Esauโ€; this is the wicked kingdom of Rome that destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื”ืงื•ืœ ืงื•ืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ืชืคืœื” ืฉืžื•ืขืœืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื“ื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ืขืฉื• ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ืžืœื—ืžื” ืฉื ื•ืฆื—ืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ืขืฉื•

Alternatively, โ€œthe voice is the voice of Jacobโ€ means that no prayer is effective in the world unless some member of the seed of Jacob has a part in it. The second clause in the verse, โ€œand the hands are the hands of Esau,โ€ means that no war grants victory unless some member of the seed of Esau has a part in it.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืฉื•ื˜ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืชื—ื‘ื ื‘ื—ื™ืจื—ื•ืจื™ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืชื—ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ื ื• ื’ื ื‘ื›ื™ื ื• ื‘ื–ื›ืจื ื• ืืช ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ืจืื”ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื“ื•ื“ ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉื ื™ ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ื ื• ื’ื ื‘ื›ื™ื ื• ื‘ื™ืช ืฉื ื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื”ืณ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื•ื ืืช ื™ื•ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืจื• ืขืจื• ืขื“ ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ื‘ื”

And this is what Rabbi Elazar says: The verse that says: โ€œYou shall be hid from the scourge of the tongueโ€ (Job 5:21), means: You shall need to hide on account of quarrels provoked by the tongue. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œBy the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zionโ€ (Psalms 137:1)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple. He saw the destruction of the First Temple, as it is stated: โ€œBy the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.โ€ He saw the destruction of the Second Temple, as it is written later in that same psalm: โ€œRemember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundationโ€ (Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, โ€œthe children of Edom.โ€

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชื ื ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืœื“ื•ืช ืฉื ืฉื‘ื• ืœืงืœื•ืŸ ื”ืจื’ื™ืฉื• ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ืœืžื” ื”ืŸ ืžืชื‘ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจื• ืื ืื ื• ื˜ื•ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื ืื ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉื‘ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืžื‘ืฉืŸ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืžืžืฆื•ืœื•ืช ื™ื ืžื‘ืฉืŸ ืืฉื™ื‘ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื ื™ ืืจื™ื” ืืฉื™ื‘ ืžืžืฆื•ืœื•ืช ื™ื ืืœื• ืฉื˜ื•ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says, and some say that it was Rabbi Ami who says this, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives for the purpose of prostitution. These children sensed on their own what they were expected to do, and they said: If we commit suicide and drown in the sea, will we come to eternal life in the World-to-Come? The oldest child among them expounded the verse: โ€œThe Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the seaโ€ (Psalms 68:23). โ€œI will bring back from Bashan,โ€ i.e., from between the teeth [bein shen] of the lion, and โ€œI will bring them back from the depths of the seaโ€ is referring to those who drown in the sea for the sake of Heaven.

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืฉืžืขื• ื™ืœื“ื•ืช ื›ืš ืงืคืฆื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื•ื ืคืœื• ืœืชื•ืš ื”ื™ื ื ืฉืื• ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ืืžืจื• ืžื” ื”ืœืœื• ืฉื“ืจื›ืŸ ืœื›ืš ื›ืš ืื ื• ืฉืื™ืŸ ื“ืจื›ื ื• ืœื›ืš ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืืฃ ื”ื ืงืคืฆื• ืœืชื•ืš ื”ื™ื ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ืขืœื™ืš ื”ืจื’ื ื• ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ื ื• ื›ืฆืืŸ ื˜ื‘ื—ื”

When the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boys then drew an a fortiori inference with regard to themselves and said: If these girls, for whom sexual intercourse with men is their natural way, act in such a manner, then we, for whom sexual intercourse with men is not our natural way, should all the more so conduct ourselves likewise. They too leapt into the sea. Concerning them and others like them the verse states: โ€œAs For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughterโ€ (Psalms 44:23).

ื•ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ื–ื• ืืฉื” ื•ืฉื‘ืขื” ื‘ื ื™ื” ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืงืžื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืงื™ืกืจ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

And Rav Yehuda said: This verse applies to the woman and her seven sons who died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of Godโ€™s name. The incident occurred as follows: They brought in the first of the womanโ€™s sons before the emperor and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œI am the Lord your Godโ€ (Exodus 20:2). They immediately took him out and killed him.

ื•ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืงื™ืกืจ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ืืœื”ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื• ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื–ื•ื‘ื— ืœืืœื”ื™ื ื™ื—ืจื ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

And they then brought in another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œYou shall have no other gods beside Meโ€ (Exodus 20:3). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œHe that sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyedโ€ (Exodus 22:19). And so they took him out and killed him.

ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ืชืฉืชื—ื•ื” ืœืืœ ืื—ืจ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื• ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืณ ืื—ื“ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œYou shall not bow down to any other godโ€ (Exodus 34:14). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œHear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is Oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:4). And so they took him out and killed him.

ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืืœ ืœื‘ื‘ืš ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ื”ื•ื ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ืžืžืขืœ ื•ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืชื—ืช ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ื“ ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ื•ืงื˜ืœื•ื”ื•

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œKnow therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no otherโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:39). And so they took him out and killed him.

ืืชื™ื•ื”ื• ืœืื™ื“ืš ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืคืœื— ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืืช ื”ืณ ื”ืืžืจืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื”ืณ ื”ืืžื™ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืฉื‘ืขื ื• ืœื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืืœ ืื—ืจ ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื ื• ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื ื• ื‘ืื•ืžื” ืื—ืจืช

They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: โ€œYou have avouched the Lord this day to be your Godโ€ฆand the Lord has avouched you this day to be a people for His own possessionโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:17โ€“18). We already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืื™ืฉื“ื™ ืœืš ื’ื•ืฉืคื ืงื ื•ื’ื—ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืงืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ืžืจื• ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืจืžื ื ื“ืžืœื›ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื‘ืœ ืขืœืš ืงื™ืกืจ ื—ื‘ืœ ืขืœืš ืงื™ืกืจ ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืขืฆืžืš ื›ืš ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boyโ€™s life, the emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so that people will say that he has accepted the kingโ€™s authority [harmana]. The boy said to him: Woe [แธฅaval] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar. If you think that for the sake of your honor I should fulfill your command and do this, then for the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so should I fulfill His command.

ืืคืงื•ื”ื• ืœืžื™ืงื˜ืœื™ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื”ื• ืื™ืžื™ื” ื™ื”ื‘ื•ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ ื•ืื™ื ืฉืงื™ื” ืคื•ืจืชื ืืžืจื” ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื™ ืœื›ื• ื•ืืžืจื• ืœืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื›ื ืืชื” ืขืงื“ืช ืžื–ื‘ื— ืื—ื“ ื•ืื ื™ ืขืงื“ืชื™ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืžื–ื‘ื—ื•ืช ืืฃ ื”ื™ื ืขืœืชื” ืœื’ื’ ื•ื ืคืœื” ื•ืžืชื” ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืื ื”ื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืžื—ื”

As they were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound one son to the altar, but I bound seven altars. She too in the end went up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: โ€œA joyful mother of childrenโ€ (Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืืžืจ ื–ื• ืžื™ืœื” ืฉื ื™ืชื ื” ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉืžืจืื™ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื›ืœ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœื™ื—ื–ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says concerning the verse: โ€œFor Your sake we are killed all the day longโ€ (Psalms 44:23), that this is referring to circumcision, which was given for the eighth day, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covenant with God. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This verse was stated in reference to Torah scholars who demonstrate the halakhot of slaughter on themselves, meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is as Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himself to illustrate the act except for slaughter and another matter, a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉืžืžื™ืชื™ืŸ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžืชืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืžื™ ืฉืžืžื™ืช ืขืฆืžื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื–ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืื“ื ื›ื™ ื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืื”ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืกืื”

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: These people in the verse are Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: โ€œThis is the Torah, when a man dies in a tentโ€ (Numbers 19:14). Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Forty seโ€™a

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