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Today's Daf Yomi

February 8, 2016 | 讻状讟 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Gittin 57

More stories about the destruction both of the first temple and of the second. 聽Also stories about unexpected converts who came from our enemies.


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讘诪讗讬 讚驻住讬拽 讗谞驻砖讬讛 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诪讻谞砖讬 诇讬讛 诇拽讬讟诪讬讛 讜讚讬讬谞讬 诇讬讛 讜拽诇讜 诇讬讛 讜诪讘讚专讜 讗砖讘 讬诪讬

That which he decreed against himself, as he undergoes the following: Every day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas.

讗讝诇 讗住拽讬讛 诇讘诇注诐 讘谞讙讬讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讜 诇讗讬讚讘讜拽讬 讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转讚专讜砖 砖诇讜诪诐 讜讟讜讘转诐 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讬讛 讚讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讻讘转 讝专注 专讜转讞转

Onkelos then went and raised Balaam from the grave through necromancy. He said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Balaam said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them here in this world? Balaam said to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days (see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam said to him: He is cooked in boiling semen, as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.

讗讝诇 讗住拽讬讛 讘谞讙讬讚讗 诇讬砖讜 讛谞讜爪专讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讜 诇讗讚讘讜拽讬 讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讟讜讘转诐 讚专讜砖 专注转诐 诇讗 转讚专讜砖 讻诇 讛谞讜讙注 讘讛谉 讻讗讬诇讜 谞讜讙注 讘讘讘转 注讬谞讜

Onkelos then went and raised Jesus the Nazarene from the grave through necromancy. Onkelos said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Jesus said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them in this world? Jesus said to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek, for anyone who touches them is regarded as if he were touching the apple of his eye (see Zechariah 2:12).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讬讛 讚讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘爪讜讗讛 专讜转讞转 讚讗诪专 诪专 讻诇 讛诪诇注讬讙 注诇 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘爪讜讗讛 专讜转讞转 转讗 讞讝讬 诪讛 讘讬谉 驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇谞讘讬讗讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus said to him: He is punished with boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement. And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: Come and see the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world. As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘讗 讜专讗讛 讻诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讻讞讛 砖诇 讘讜砖讛 砖讛专讬 住讬讬注 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗转 讘专 拽诪爪讗 讜讛讞专讬讘 讗转 讘讬转讜 讜砖专祝 讗转 讛讬讻诇讜

To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a baraita. It is taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza, who had been humiliated, and due to this humiliation and shame He destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary.

讗转专谞讙讜诇讗 讜讗转专谞讙讜诇转讗 讞专讬讘 讟讜专 诪诇讻讗 讚讛讜讜 谞讛讬讙讬 讻讬 讛讜讜 诪驻拽讬 讞转谞讗 讜讻诇转讗 诪驻拽讬 拽诪讬讬讛讜 转专谞讙讜诇讗 讜转专谞讙讜诇转讗 讻诇讜诪专 驻专讜 讜专讘讜 讻转专谞讙讜诇讬诐

搂 It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as the King鈥檚 Mountain [Tur Malka] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen. The details of what happened are as follows: It was customary in that place that when they would lead a bride and groom to their wedding, they would take out a rooster and a hen before them, as if to say in the manner of a good omen: Be fruitful and multiply like chickens.

讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇讬祝 讙讜谞讚讗 讚专讜诪讗讬 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 谞驻诇讜 注诇讬讬讛讜 诪讞讜谞讛讜 讗转讜 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇拽讬住专 诪专讚讜 讘讱 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗转讗 注诇讬讬讛讜 讛讜讛 讘讛讜 讛讛讜讗 讘专 讚专讜诪讗 讚讛讜讛 拽驻讬抓 诪讬诇讗 讜拽讟讬诇 讘讛讜 砖拽诇讬讛 拽讬住专 诇转讗讙讬讛 讜讗讜转讘讬讛 讗讗专注讗 讗诪专 专讬讘讜谞讬讛 讚注诇诪讗 讻讜诇讬讛 讗讬 谞讬讞讗 诇讱 诇讗 转诪住专讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 诇讚讬讚讬讛 讜诇诪诇讻讜转讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 讚讞讚 讙讘专讗

One day a troop [gunda] of Roman soldiers passed by there while a wedding was taking place and took the rooster and hen from them. The residents of the city fell upon them and beat them. The soldiers came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war. Among the residents of the King鈥檚 Mountain there was a certain man named bar Deroma who could jump the distance of a mil, and he killed many of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. The emperor then took his crown and set it on the ground as a sign of mourning. He said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man, a euphemism for himself, and his kingdom into the hands of only one man.

讗讻砖诇讬讛 驻讜诪讬讛 诇讘专 讚专讜诪讗 讜讗诪专 讛诇讗 讗转讛 讗诇讛讬诐 讝谞讞转谞讜 讜诇讗 转爪讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讘爪讘讗讜转讬谞讜 讚讜讚 谞诪讬 讗诪专 讛讻讬 讚讜讚 讗转诪讜讛讬 拽讗 诪转诪讛

In the end it was the words issuing from his own mouth that caused bar Deroma to stumble, as he uttered this verse in complaint against God: 鈥淗ave You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?鈥 (Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not David also say this? The Gemara answers: David uttered these words as a question, wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.

注诇 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗转讗 讚专拽讜谞讗 砖诪讟讬讛 诇讻专讻砖讬讛 讜谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬转专讞讬砖 诇讬 谞讬住讗 讛讗 讝讬诪谞讗 讗讬砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讜讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚拽讜专 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜讗讚诇讬拽讜 砖专讙讬 注讚 讚讗讬转讞讝讬 讘诇讬讜谞讗 讚讙讜砖驻谞拽讗 讘专讞讜拽 诪讬诇讗 讗诪专 诪讬讞讚讗 拽讗 讞讚讜 讘讬 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讛讚专 讗转讗 注诇讬讬讛讜

The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: He entered an outhouse, a snake came and eviscerated him, and he died. The emperor said: Since a miracle was performed for me, as I had no part in bar Deroma鈥檚 death, I will let the rest of the people be this time and take no further action against them. He let them be and went on his way. They leapt about, ate, drank, and lit so many candles in celebration that the image [bilyona] imprinted on a seal [gushpanka] was visible from a distance of a mil. The emperor then said: The Jews are rejoicing over me. So he went back and came against them.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 转诇转 诪讗讛 讗诇驻讬 砖诇讬驻讬 住讬讬驻讗 注讬讬诇讜 诇讟讜专 诪诇讻讗 讜拽讟诇讜 讘讛 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讜转诇转讗 诇讬诇讜讜转讗 讜讘讛讱 讙讬住讗 讛诇讜诇讬 讜讞谞讙讬 讜诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 讛谞讬 讘讛谞讬

Rav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King鈥檚 Mountain and massacred its inhabitants for three days and three nights. And at the same time on the other side of the mountain, weddings and other festivities continued to be celebrated, and they did not know about each other, owing to the enormous size of the place.

讘诇注 讛壮 讜诇讗 讞诪诇 讗转 讻诇 谞讗讜转 讬注拽讘 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诇讜 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注讬讬专讜转 砖讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讬谞讗讬 讛诪诇讱 讘讛专 讛诪诇讱 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注讬讬专讜转 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讬谞讗讬 讛诪诇讱 讘讛专 讛诪诇讱 讜讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 讛讬讜 讘讛 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖诇砖 砖讛讬讜 讘讛谉 讻驻诇讬诐 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐

搂 Concerning the verse: 鈥淭he Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob鈥 (Lamentations 2:2), it is related that when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is referring to the six hundred thousand cities that King Yannai had in the King鈥檚 Mountain. As Rav Yehuda says that Rav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King鈥檚 Mountain, and each of them had a population as great as the number of those who left Egypt, except for three of those cities, the population of which was double the number of those who left Egypt.

讗诇讜 讛谉 讻驻专 讘讬砖 讻驻专 砖讬讞诇讬讬诐 讻驻专 讚讻专讬讗 讻驻专 讘讬砖 讚诇讗 讬讛讘讬 讘讬转讗 诇讗讜砖驻讬讝讗 讻驻专 砖讬讞诇讬讬诐 砖讛讬转讛 驻专谞住转谉 诪谉 砖讞诇讬讬诐 讻驻专 讚讻专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖讛讬讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 讬讜诇讚讜转 讝讻专讬诐 转讞诇讛 讜讬讜诇讚讜转 谞拽讘讛 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讜驻讜住拽讜转

These are those three cities: Kefar Bish, Kefar Shi岣layim, and Kefar Dikhrayya. The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. Kefar Bish, Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants would not open their houses to guests. Kefar Shi岣layim was referred to by that name because their livelihood was derived from the cultivation of cress [sha岣layim]. As for Kefar Dikhrayya, Town of Males, Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, and then they would stop having children.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讛讛讜讗 讗转专讗 讜讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬转讬谉 专讬讘讜讜转讗 拽谞讬 诇讗 诪讞讝讬拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖拽讜专讬 诪砖拽专讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讻转讬讘 讘讛 诪讛 爪讘讬 讝讛 讗讬谉 注讜专讜 诪讞讝讬拽 讗转 讘砖专讜 讗祝 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讘讝诪谉 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 注诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉 注诇讬讛 讙诪讚讗

Ulla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds, all the more so that number of people. A certain heretic said to Rabbi 岣nina: You lie with your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi 岣nina said to him: With regard to Eretz Yisrael it is written: Land of the deer (see Jeremiah 3:19). Just as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh, for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, so too, with regard to Eretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts. This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple鈥檚 destruction.

专讘 诪谞讬讜诪讬 讘专 讞诇拽讬讛 讜专讘 讞诇拽讬讛 讘专 讟讜讘讬讛 讜专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讞讬讬讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讙讘讬 讛讚讚讬 讗诪专讬 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 诪讻驻专 住讻谞讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 诇讬诪讗

搂 The Gemara relates that Rav Minyumi bar 岣lkiya, Rav 岣lkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar 岣yya were once sitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt, which was in that region, let him relate it.

驻转讞 讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讘讗专讜住 讜讗专讜住转讜 砖谞砖讘讜 诇讘讬谉 讛讙讜讬诐 讜讛砖讬讗讜诐 讝讛 诇讝讛 讗诪专讛 诇讜 讘讘拽砖讛 诪诪讱 讗诇 转讙注 讘讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讬 讻转讜讘讛 诪诪讱 讜诇讗 谞讙注 讘讛 注讚 讬讜诐 诪讜转讜

One of them began the discussion and said: There was an incident involving a betrothed man and woman from there who were taken captive by gentiles and the latter married them off to each other. The woman said to the man: Please do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you, and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. And until the day of his death the man did not touch the woman.

讜讻砖诪转 讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 住讬驻讚讜 诇讝讛 砖驻讟驻讟 讘讬爪专讜 讬讜转专 诪讬讜住祝 讚讗讬诇讜 讘讬讜住祝 诇讗 讛讜讛 讗诇讗 讞讚讗 砖注转讗 讜讛讗讬 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讜讬讜诪讗 讜讗讬诇讜 讬讜住祝 诇讗讜 讘讞讚讗 诪讟讛 讜讛讗讬 讘讞讚讗 诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇讜 讬讜住祝 诇讗讜 讗砖转讜 讜讛讗 讗砖转讜

And when he died without having touched her, the woman said to the Sages: Eulogize this man who conquered [shepitpet] his passion [beyitzro] more than Joseph. As in the case of Joseph it was only for a short time that he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar鈥檚 wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), whereas this man struggled with his passion each and every day. Furthermore, Joseph was not in one bed with Potiphar鈥檚 wife, whereas this man was in one bed with his wife. In addition, with Joseph the woman was not his wife, whereas with this man she was his wife, as she was already betrothed to him.

驻转讞 讗讬讚讱 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讜注诪讚讜 讗专讘注讬诐 诪讜讚讬讜转 讘讚讬谞专 谞讞住专 讛砖注专 诪讜讚讬讗 讗讞转 讜讘讚拽讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讗讘 讜讘谞讜 砖讘讗讜 注诇 谞注专讛 诪讗讜专住讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讛讘讬讗讜诐 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜住拽诇讜诐 讜讞讝专 讛砖注专 诇诪拽讜诪讜

Another Sage began his remarks and said: It once happened that the market price of forty se鈥檃 of grain stood at one dinar. And then the rate went down one se鈥檃 [modeya], so that only thirty-nine se鈥檃 were sold for a dinar. And they checked to see what sin had caused this, and they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They brought the offenders to court and stoned them, and the rate returned to its former level.

驻转讞 讗讬讚讱 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讘讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖谞转谉 注讬谞讬讜 讘讗砖转讜 诇讙专砖讛 讜讛讬转讛 讻转讜讘转讛 诪专讜讘讛 诪讛 注砖讛 讛诇讱 讜讝讬诪谉 讗转 砖讜砖讘讬谞讬讜 讜讛讗讻讬诇谉 讜讛砖拽谉 砖讬讻专谉 讜讛砖讻讬讘谉 注诇 诪讬讟讛 讗讞转 讜讛讘讬讗 诇讜讘谉 讘讬爪讛 讜讛讟讬诇 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讛注诪讬讚 诇讛谉 注讚讬诐 讜讘讗 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉

Yet another Sage began his remarks and said: There was an incident there involving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was large and he wished to avoid having to pay it. What did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and lay his friends and his wife in one bed. He then brought the white of an egg, which has the appearance of semen, and placed it on the sheet between them. He then stood witnesses over them so that they could offer testimony, and went to court claiming that his wife had committed adultery.

讛讬讛 砖诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 诪转诇诪讬讚讬 砖诪讗讬 讛讝拽谉 讜讘讘讗 讘谉 讘讜讟讗 砖诪讜 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪砖诪讗讬 讛讝拽谉 诇讜讘谉 讘讬爪讛 住讜诇讚 诪谉 讛讗讜专 讜砖讻讘转 讝专注 讚讜讞讛 诪谉 讛讗讜专 讘讚拽讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讻讚讘专讬讜 讜讛讘讬讗讜讛讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讛诇拽讜讛讜 讜讛讙讘讜讛讜 讻转讜讘转讛 诪诪谞讜

A certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Buta was his name. He said to them: This is the tradition that I received from Shammai the Elder: Egg white on a bedsheet contracts and hardens when heated by fire, whereas semen is absorbed into the sheet by the fire. They checked the matter and found in accordance with his statement that the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. They then brought the husband to court, administered lashes to him, and made him pay his wife鈥檚 marriage contract in full.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 讜诪讗讞专 讚讛讜讜 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬注谞讜砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 讗讬讗讘讜诇 注诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪讞讜 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 讜讙讬诇讜 讘讛 讻诇 讗讜讛讘讬讛 砖讬砖讜 讗转讛 诪砖讜砖 讻诇 讛诪转讗讘诇讬诐 注诇讬讛

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But since those in the city were so righteous, what is the reason that they were punished and destroyed? Rav Yosef said to him: It is because they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: 鈥淩ejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her鈥 (Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.

讗砖拽讗 讚专讬住驻拽 讞专讬讘 讘讬转专 讚讛讜讜 谞讛讬讙讬 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪转讬诇讬讚 讬谞讜拽讗 砖转诇讬 讗专讝讗 讬谞讜拽转讗 砖转诇讬 转讜专谞讬转讗 讜讻讬 讛讜讜 诪讬谞住讘讬 拽讬讬爪讬 诇讛讜 讜注讘讚讜 讙谞谞讗 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇驻讗 讘专转讬讛 讚拽讬住专 讗转讘专 砖拽讗 讚专讬住驻拽 拽爪讜 讗专讝讗 讜注讬讬诇讜 诇讛 讗转讜 谞驻讜诇 注诇讬讬讛讜 诪讞讜谞讛讜 讗转讜 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇拽讬住专 诪专讚讜 讘讱 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗转讗 注诇讬讬讛讜

搂 It was stated earlier that the city of Beitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage. The Gemara explains that it was customary in Beitar that when a boy was born they would plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born they would plant a cypress [tornita]. And when they would later marry each other they would cut down these trees and construct a wedding canopy for them with their branches. One day the emperor鈥檚 daughter passed by there and the shaft of the carriage in which she was riding broke. Her attendants chopped down a cedar from among those trees and brought it to her. Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar came and fell upon them and beat them. The attendants came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war.

讙讚注 讘讞专讬 讗祝 讻诇 拽专谉 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诇讜 砖诪讜谞讬诐 [讗诇祝] 拽专谞讬 诪诇讞诪讛 砖谞讻谞住讜 诇讻专讱 讘讬转专 讘砖注讛 砖诇讻讚讜讛 讜讛专讙讜 讘讛 讗谞砖讬诐 讜谞砖讬诐 讜讟祝 注讚 砖讛诇讱 讚诪谉 讜谞驻诇 诇讬诐 讛讙讚讜诇 砖诪讗 转讗诪专 拽专讜讘讛 讛讬转讛 专讞讜拽讛 讛讬转讛 诪讬诇

It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: 鈥淗e has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel鈥 (Lamentations 2:3). Rabbi Zeira says that Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: These are the eighty thousand officers bearing battle trumpets in their hands, who entered the city of Beitar when the enemy took it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you say that the city was close to the sea, know that it was a mil away.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 谞讞诇讬诐 讬砖 讘讘拽注转 讬讚讬诐 讗讞讚 诪讜砖讱 讗讬诇讱 讜讗讞讚 诪讜砖讱 讗讬诇讱 讜砖讬注专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 砖谞讬 讞诇拽讬诐 诪讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讚诐 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 砖讘注 砖谞讬诐 讘爪专讜 讙讜讬诐 讗转 讻专诪讬讛谉 诪讚诪谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讗 讝讘诇

It is similarly taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valley in that region, one flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimated that in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with two parts water to one part blood. Likewise, it was taught in a baraita: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyards that had been soaked with the blood of Israel without requiring any additional fertilizer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 住讞 诇讬 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 诪讗谞砖讬 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讘拽注讛 讝讜 讛专讙 谞讘讜讝专讗讚谉 专讘 讟讘讞讬诐 诪讗转讬诐 讜讗讞转 注砖专讛 专讘讜讗 讜讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛专讙 转砖注讬诐 讜讗专讘注 专讘讜讗 注诇 讗讘谉 讗讞转 注讚 砖讛诇讱 讚诪谉 讜谞讙注 讘讚诪讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讚诪讬诐 讘讚诪讬诐 谞讙注讜

搂 With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, Rabbi 岣yya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: An old man from among the inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valley that lies before you, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, killed 2,110,000 people. And in Jerusalem itself he killed 940,000 people on one stone, until the blood of his victims flowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: 鈥淎nd blood touches blood鈥 (Hosea 4:2).

讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇讚诪讬讛 讚讝讻专讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪专转讞 讜住诇讬拽 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讚诐 讝讘讞讬诐 讚讗砖转驻讜讱 讗讬讬转讬 讚诪讬 讜诇讗 讗讬讚诪讜

The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan found the blood of Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw that it was bubbling up from the ground, and he said: What is this? Those in the Temple said to him: It is sacrificial blood that had been poured there. He brought animal blood, compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, and saw that it was not similar to it.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 讗诪专讬转讜 诇讬 诪讜讟讘 讜讗讬 诇讗讜 诪住专讬拽谞讗 诇讘砖专讬讬讻讜 讘诪住专拽讬 讚驻专讝诇讬 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 谞讬诪讗 诇讱 谞讘讬讬讗 讛讜讛 讘谉 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讜讻讞 诇谉 讘诪讬诇讬 讚砖诪讬讗 拽诪讬谞谉 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜拽讟诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讻诪讛 砖谞讬谉 讚诇讗 拽讗 谞讬讬讞 讚诪讬讛

Nebuzaradan said to them: If you tell me whose blood this is, it will be well for you. But if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters, and we rose up against him, and killed him (II聽Chronicles 24:20鈥22), and for many years now his blood has not settled.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 诪驻讬讬住谞讗 诇讬讛 讗讬讬转讬 住谞讛讚专讬 讙讚讜诇讛 讜住谞讛讚专讬 拽讟谞讛 拽讟诇 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜诇讗 谞讞 讘讞讜专讬诐 讜讘转讜诇讜转 拽讟诇 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜诇讗 谞讞 讗讬讬转讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 拽讟诇 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜诇讗 谞讞 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讻专讬讛 讝讻专讬讛 讟讜讘讬诐 砖讘讛谉 讗讬讘讚转讬诐 谞讬讞讗 诇讱 讚讗讘讚讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讻讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 谞讞

Nebuzaradan said to them: I will appease Zechariah. He brought the members of the Great Sanhedrin and of a lesser Sanhedrin and killed them alongside the bubbling blood, but it still did not settle. He then brought young men and virgins and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. He then brought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. Finally Nebuzaradan said to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them. Would it please you if I destroyed them all? When he said this, the blood at last settled.

讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗 讛专讛专 转砖讜讘讛 讘讚注转讬讛 讗诪专 讜诪讛 讗诐 注诇 谞驻砖 讗讞转 讻讱 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讟诇 讻诇 讛谞讬 谞砖诪转讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 注专拽 讗讝诇 砖讚专 砖讟专 驻专讟转讗 讘讘讬转讬讛 讜讗讙讬讬专

At that moment Nebuzaradan contemplated the idea of repentance and said to himself: If, for the death of one soul, that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in this manner, then that man, that is to say, I, who has killed all of those souls, all the more so will be I be subject to great punishment from God. He fled, sent to his house a document detailing what was to be done with his property, and converted to Judaism.

转谞讗 谞注诪谉 讙专 转讜砖讘 讛讬讛 谞讘讜讝专讗讚谉 讙专 爪讚拽 讛讬讛

A Sage taught a baraita relating to this matter: Naaman, commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II聽Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he was a ger toshav, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan, by contrast, was a convert, as explained previously.

诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 讛诪谉 诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 讘讘谞讬 讘专拽 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 住讬住专讗 诇诪讚讜 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 住谞讞专讬讘 诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 讘专讘讬诐 诪讗谉 讗讬谞讜谉 砖诪注讬讛 讜讗讘讟诇讬讜谉

The Gemara adds that some of Haman鈥檚 descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak, and some of Sisera鈥檚 descendants taught children Torah in Jerusalem, and some of Sennacherib鈥檚 descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they? They are Shemaya and Avtalyon, the teachers of Hillel the Elder.

讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 谞转转讬 讗转 讚诪讛 注诇 爪讞讬讞 住诇注 诇讘诇转讬 讛讻住讜转

As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, this is alluded to by that which is written: 鈥淚 have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered鈥 (Ezekiel 24:8).

讛拽讜诇 拽讜诇 讬注拽讘 讜讛讬讚讬诐 讬讚讬 注砖讜 讛拽讜诇 讝讛 讗讚专讬讬谞讜住 拽讬住专 砖讛专讙 讘讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注诇 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 讻驻诇讬诐 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐 拽讜诇 讬注拽讘 讝讛 讗住驻住讬讬谞讜住 拽讬住专 砖讛专讙 讘讻专讱 讘讬转专 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 专讘讜讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗专讘注转 讗诇驻讬诐 专讘讜讗 讜讛讬讚讬诐 讬讚讬 注砖讜 讝讜 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖讛讞专讬讘讛 讗转 讘转讬谞讜 讜砖专驻讛 讗转 讛讬讻诇谞讜 讜讛讙诇讬转谞讜 诪讗专爪谞讜

搂 Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: 鈥淭he voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau鈥 (Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: 鈥淭he voice鈥; this is the cry stirred up by the emperor Hadrian, who caused the Jewish people to cry out when he killed six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twice the number of men who left Egypt. 鈥淭he voice of Jacob鈥; this is the cry aroused by the emperor Vespasian, who killed four million people in the city of Beitar. And some say: He killed forty million people. 鈥淎nd the hands are the hands of Esau鈥; this is the wicked kingdom of Rome that destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讛拽讜诇 拽讜诇 讬注拽讘 讗讬谉 诇讱 转驻诇讛 砖诪讜注诇转 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诪讝专注讜 砖诇 讬注拽讘 讜讛讬讚讬诐 讬讚讬 注砖讜 讗讬谉 诇讱 诪诇讞诪讛 砖谞讜爪讞转 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诪讝专注讜 砖诇 注砖讜

Alternatively, 鈥渢he voice is the voice of Jacob鈥 means that no prayer is effective in the world unless some member of the seed of Jacob has a part in it. The second clause in the verse, 鈥渁nd the hands are the hands of Esau,鈥 means that no war grants victory unless some member of the seed of Esau has a part in it.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘砖讜讟 诇砖讜谉 转讞讘讗 讘讞讬专讞讜专讬 诇砖讜谉 转讞讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 谞讛专讜转 讘讘诇 砖诐 讬砖讘谞讜 讙诐 讘讻讬谞讜 讘讝讻专谞讜 讗转 爪讬讜谉 诪诇诪讚 砖讛专讗讛讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讚讜讚 讞讜专讘谉 讘讬转 专讗砖讜谉 讜讞讜专讘谉 讘讬转 砖谞讬 讞讜专讘谉 讘讬转 专讗砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 注诇 谞讛专讜转 讘讘诇 砖诐 讬砖讘谞讜 讙诐 讘讻讬谞讜 讘讬转 砖谞讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讻讜专 讛壮 诇讘谞讬 讗讚讜诐 讗转 讬讜诐 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讗讜诪专讬诐 注专讜 注专讜 注讚 讛讬住讜讚 讘讛

And this is what Rabbi Elazar says: The verse that says: 鈥淵ou shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue鈥 (Job 5:21), means: You shall need to hide on account of quarrels provoked by the tongue. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏y the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion鈥 (Psalms 137:1)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple. He saw the destruction of the First Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淏y the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.鈥 He saw the destruction of the Second Temple, as it is written later in that same psalm: 鈥淩emember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation鈥 (Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, 鈥渢he children of Edom.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 诪注砖讛 讘讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讬诇讚讬诐 讜讬诇讚讜转 砖谞砖讘讜 诇拽诇讜谉 讛专讙讬砖讜 讘注爪诪谉 诇诪讛 讛谉 诪转讘拽砖讬诐 讗诪专讜 讗诐 讗谞讜 讟讜讘注讬谉 讘讬诐 讗谞讜 讘讗讬谉 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讚专砖 诇讛谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讛谉 讗诪专 讛壮 诪讘砖谉 讗砖讬讘 讗砖讬讘 诪诪爪讜诇讜转 讬诐 诪讘砖谉 讗砖讬讘 诪讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬 讗专讬讛 讗砖讬讘 诪诪爪讜诇讜转 讬诐 讗诇讜 砖讟讜讘注讬谉 讘讬诐

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says, and some say that it was Rabbi Ami who says this, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives for the purpose of prostitution. These children sensed on their own what they were expected to do, and they said: If we commit suicide and drown in the sea, will we come to eternal life in the World-to-Come? The oldest child among them expounded the verse: 鈥淭he Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea鈥 (Psalms 68:23). 鈥淚 will bring back from Bashan,鈥 i.e., from between the teeth [bein shen] of the lion, and 鈥淚 will bring them back from the depths of the sea鈥 is referring to those who drown in the sea for the sake of Heaven.

讻讬讜谉 砖砖诪注讜 讬诇讚讜转 讻讱 拽驻爪讜 讻讜诇谉 讜谞驻诇讜 诇转讜讱 讛讬诐 谞砖讗讜 讬诇讚讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪谉 讜讗诪专讜 诪讛 讛诇诇讜 砖讚专讻谉 诇讻讱 讻讱 讗谞讜 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谞讜 诇讻讱 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讗祝 讛诐 拽驻爪讜 诇转讜讱 讛讬诐 讜注诇讬讛诐 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讻讬 注诇讬讱 讛专讙谞讜 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 谞讞砖讘谞讜 讻爪讗谉 讟讘讞讛

When the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boys then drew an a fortiori inference with regard to themselves and said: If these girls, for whom sexual intercourse with men is their natural way, act in such a manner, then we, for whom sexual intercourse with men is not our natural way, should all the more so conduct ourselves likewise. They too leapt into the sea. Concerning them and others like them the verse states: 鈥淎s For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter鈥 (Psalms 44:23).

讜专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 讝讜 讗砖讛 讜砖讘注讛 讘谞讬讛 讗转讬讜讛讜 拽诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚拽讬住专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讗谞讻讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

And Rav Yehuda said: This verse applies to the woman and her seven sons who died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God鈥檚 name. The incident occurred as follows: They brought in the first of the woman鈥檚 sons before the emperor and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淚 am the Lord your God鈥 (Exodus 20:2). They immediately took him out and killed him.

讜讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 诇拽诪讬讛 讚拽讬住专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诇讱 讗诇讛讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 注诇 驻谞讬 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜 讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讝讜讘讞 诇讗诇讛讬诐 讬讞专诐 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

And they then brought in another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall have no other gods beside Me鈥 (Exodus 20:3). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淗e that sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed鈥 (Exodus 22:19). And so they took him out and killed him.

讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 诇讗 转砖转讞讜讛 诇讗诇 讗讞专 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜 讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall not bow down to any other god鈥 (Exodus 34:14). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淗ear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4). And so they took him out and killed him.

讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讜讬讚注转 讛讬讜诐 讜讛砖讘讜转 讗诇 诇讘讘讱 讻讬 讛壮 讛讜讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讘砖诪讬诐 诪诪注诇 讜注诇 讛讗专抓 诪转讞转 讗讬谉 注讜讚 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淜now therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:39). And so they took him out and killed him.

讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讗转 讛壮 讛讗诪专转 讜讙讜壮 讜讛壮 讛讗诪讬专讱 讛讬讜诐 讻讘专 谞砖讘注谞讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讗讬谉 讗谞讜 诪注讘讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讗诇 讗讞专 讜讗祝 讛讜讗 谞砖讘注 诇谞讜 砖讗讬谉 诪注讘讬专 讗讜转谞讜 讘讗讜诪讛 讗讞专转

They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淵ou have avouched the Lord this day to be your God鈥and the Lord has avouched you this day to be a people for His own possession鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:17鈥18). We already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讬住专 讗讬砖讚讬 诇讱 讙讜砖驻谞拽讗 讜讙讞讬谉 讜砖拽诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬诪专讜 拽讘讬诇 注诇讬讛 讛专诪谞讗 讚诪诇讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讘诇 注诇讱 拽讬住专 讞讘诇 注诇讱 拽讬住专 注诇 讻讘讜讚 注爪诪讱 讻讱 注诇 讻讘讜讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy鈥檚 life, the emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so that people will say that he has accepted the king鈥檚 authority [harmana]. The boy said to him: Woe [岣val] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar. If you think that for the sake of your honor I should fulfill your command and do this, then for the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so should I fulfill His command.

讗驻拽讜讛讜 诇诪讬拽讟诇讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讛讜 讗讬诪讬讛 讬讛讘讜讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬 讜讗讬谞砖拽讬讛 驻讜专转讗 讗诪专讛 诇讜 讘谞讬讬 诇讻讜 讜讗诪专讜 诇讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬讻诐 讗转讛 注拽讚转 诪讝讘讞 讗讞讚 讜讗谞讬 注拽讚转讬 砖讘注讛 诪讝讘讞讜转 讗祝 讛讬讗 注诇转讛 诇讙讙 讜谞驻诇讛 讜诪转讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛

As they were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound one son to the altar, but I bound seven altars. She too in the end went up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: 鈥淎 joyful mother of children鈥 (Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God.

专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讝讜 诪讬诇讛 砖谞讬转谞讛 讘砖诪讬谞讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪专讗讬谉 讛诇讻讜转 砖讞讬讟讛 讘注爪诪谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诇讬讞讝讬 讗讬谞讬砖 讘谞驻砖讬讛 讘专 诪砖讞讬讟讛 讜讚讘专 讗讞专

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says concerning the verse: 鈥淔or Your sake we are killed all the day long鈥 (Psalms 44:23), that this is referring to circumcision, which was given for the eighth day, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covenant with God. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This verse was stated in reference to Torah scholars who demonstrate the halakhot of slaughter on themselves, meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is as Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himself to illustrate the act except for slaughter and another matter, a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪诪讬转讬谉 注爪诪谉 注诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗讬谉 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪转拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘诪讬 砖诪诪讬转 注爪诪讜 注诇讬讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讝讗转 讛转讜专讛 讗讚诐 讻讬 讬诪讜转 讘讗讛诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗专讘注讬诐 住讗讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: These people in the verse are Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: 鈥淭his is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent鈥 (Numbers 19:14). Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Forty se鈥檃

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Gittin 57

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Gittin 57

讘诪讗讬 讚驻住讬拽 讗谞驻砖讬讛 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诪讻谞砖讬 诇讬讛 诇拽讬讟诪讬讛 讜讚讬讬谞讬 诇讬讛 讜拽诇讜 诇讬讛 讜诪讘讚专讜 讗砖讘 讬诪讬

That which he decreed against himself, as he undergoes the following: Every day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas.

讗讝诇 讗住拽讬讛 诇讘诇注诐 讘谞讙讬讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讜 诇讗讬讚讘讜拽讬 讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转讚专讜砖 砖诇讜诪诐 讜讟讜讘转诐 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讬讛 讚讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讻讘转 讝专注 专讜转讞转

Onkelos then went and raised Balaam from the grave through necromancy. He said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Balaam said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them here in this world? Balaam said to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days (see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam said to him: He is cooked in boiling semen, as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.

讗讝诇 讗住拽讬讛 讘谞讙讬讚讗 诇讬砖讜 讛谞讜爪专讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛讜 诇讗讚讘讜拽讬 讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讟讜讘转诐 讚专讜砖 专注转诐 诇讗 转讚专讜砖 讻诇 讛谞讜讙注 讘讛谉 讻讗讬诇讜 谞讜讙注 讘讘讘转 注讬谞讜

Onkelos then went and raised Jesus the Nazarene from the grave through necromancy. Onkelos said to him: Who is most important in that world where you are now? Jesus said to him: The Jewish people. Onkelos asked him: Should I then attach myself to them in this world? Jesus said to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek, for anyone who touches them is regarded as if he were touching the apple of his eye (see Zechariah 2:12).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讬讛 讚讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘爪讜讗讛 专讜转讞转 讚讗诪专 诪专 讻诇 讛诪诇注讬讙 注诇 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘爪讜讗讛 专讜转讞转 转讗 讞讝讬 诪讛 讘讬谉 驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇谞讘讬讗讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

Onkelos said to him: What is the punishment of that man, a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus said to him: He is punished with boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement. And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: Come and see the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world. As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘讗 讜专讗讛 讻诪讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讻讞讛 砖诇 讘讜砖讛 砖讛专讬 住讬讬注 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗转 讘专 拽诪爪讗 讜讛讞专讬讘 讗转 讘讬转讜 讜砖专祝 讗转 讛讬讻诇讜

To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a baraita. It is taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza, who had been humiliated, and due to this humiliation and shame He destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary.

讗转专谞讙讜诇讗 讜讗转专谞讙讜诇转讗 讞专讬讘 讟讜专 诪诇讻讗 讚讛讜讜 谞讛讬讙讬 讻讬 讛讜讜 诪驻拽讬 讞转谞讗 讜讻诇转讗 诪驻拽讬 拽诪讬讬讛讜 转专谞讙讜诇讗 讜转专谞讙讜诇转讗 讻诇讜诪专 驻专讜 讜专讘讜 讻转专谞讙讜诇讬诐

搂 It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as the King鈥檚 Mountain [Tur Malka] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen. The details of what happened are as follows: It was customary in that place that when they would lead a bride and groom to their wedding, they would take out a rooster and a hen before them, as if to say in the manner of a good omen: Be fruitful and multiply like chickens.

讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇讬祝 讙讜谞讚讗 讚专讜诪讗讬 砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 谞驻诇讜 注诇讬讬讛讜 诪讞讜谞讛讜 讗转讜 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇拽讬住专 诪专讚讜 讘讱 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗转讗 注诇讬讬讛讜 讛讜讛 讘讛讜 讛讛讜讗 讘专 讚专讜诪讗 讚讛讜讛 拽驻讬抓 诪讬诇讗 讜拽讟讬诇 讘讛讜 砖拽诇讬讛 拽讬住专 诇转讗讙讬讛 讜讗讜转讘讬讛 讗讗专注讗 讗诪专 专讬讘讜谞讬讛 讚注诇诪讗 讻讜诇讬讛 讗讬 谞讬讞讗 诇讱 诇讗 转诪住专讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 诇讚讬讚讬讛 讜诇诪诇讻讜转讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 讚讞讚 讙讘专讗

One day a troop [gunda] of Roman soldiers passed by there while a wedding was taking place and took the rooster and hen from them. The residents of the city fell upon them and beat them. The soldiers came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war. Among the residents of the King鈥檚 Mountain there was a certain man named bar Deroma who could jump the distance of a mil, and he killed many of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. The emperor then took his crown and set it on the ground as a sign of mourning. He said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man, a euphemism for himself, and his kingdom into the hands of only one man.

讗讻砖诇讬讛 驻讜诪讬讛 诇讘专 讚专讜诪讗 讜讗诪专 讛诇讗 讗转讛 讗诇讛讬诐 讝谞讞转谞讜 讜诇讗 转爪讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讘爪讘讗讜转讬谞讜 讚讜讚 谞诪讬 讗诪专 讛讻讬 讚讜讚 讗转诪讜讛讬 拽讗 诪转诪讛

In the end it was the words issuing from his own mouth that caused bar Deroma to stumble, as he uttered this verse in complaint against God: 鈥淗ave You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?鈥 (Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not David also say this? The Gemara answers: David uttered these words as a question, wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.

注诇 诇讘讬转 讛讻住讗 讗转讗 讚专拽讜谞讗 砖诪讟讬讛 诇讻专讻砖讬讛 讜谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬转专讞讬砖 诇讬 谞讬住讗 讛讗 讝讬诪谞讗 讗讬砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讜讗讝诇 讗讬讝讚拽讜专 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜讗讚诇讬拽讜 砖专讙讬 注讚 讚讗讬转讞讝讬 讘诇讬讜谞讗 讚讙讜砖驻谞拽讗 讘专讞讜拽 诪讬诇讗 讗诪专 诪讬讞讚讗 拽讗 讞讚讜 讘讬 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讛讚专 讗转讗 注诇讬讬讛讜

The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: He entered an outhouse, a snake came and eviscerated him, and he died. The emperor said: Since a miracle was performed for me, as I had no part in bar Deroma鈥檚 death, I will let the rest of the people be this time and take no further action against them. He let them be and went on his way. They leapt about, ate, drank, and lit so many candles in celebration that the image [bilyona] imprinted on a seal [gushpanka] was visible from a distance of a mil. The emperor then said: The Jews are rejoicing over me. So he went back and came against them.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 转诇转 诪讗讛 讗诇驻讬 砖诇讬驻讬 住讬讬驻讗 注讬讬诇讜 诇讟讜专 诪诇讻讗 讜拽讟诇讜 讘讛 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讜转诇转讗 诇讬诇讜讜转讗 讜讘讛讱 讙讬住讗 讛诇讜诇讬 讜讞谞讙讬 讜诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 讛谞讬 讘讛谞讬

Rav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King鈥檚 Mountain and massacred its inhabitants for three days and three nights. And at the same time on the other side of the mountain, weddings and other festivities continued to be celebrated, and they did not know about each other, owing to the enormous size of the place.

讘诇注 讛壮 讜诇讗 讞诪诇 讗转 讻诇 谞讗讜转 讬注拽讘 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诇讜 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注讬讬专讜转 砖讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讬谞讗讬 讛诪诇讱 讘讛专 讛诪诇讱 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注讬讬专讜转 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讬谞讗讬 讛诪诇讱 讘讛专 讛诪诇讱 讜讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 讛讬讜 讘讛 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖诇砖 砖讛讬讜 讘讛谉 讻驻诇讬诐 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐

搂 Concerning the verse: 鈥淭he Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob鈥 (Lamentations 2:2), it is related that when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is referring to the six hundred thousand cities that King Yannai had in the King鈥檚 Mountain. As Rav Yehuda says that Rav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King鈥檚 Mountain, and each of them had a population as great as the number of those who left Egypt, except for three of those cities, the population of which was double the number of those who left Egypt.

讗诇讜 讛谉 讻驻专 讘讬砖 讻驻专 砖讬讞诇讬讬诐 讻驻专 讚讻专讬讗 讻驻专 讘讬砖 讚诇讗 讬讛讘讬 讘讬转讗 诇讗讜砖驻讬讝讗 讻驻专 砖讬讞诇讬讬诐 砖讛讬转讛 驻专谞住转谉 诪谉 砖讞诇讬讬诐 讻驻专 讚讻专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖讛讬讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 讬讜诇讚讜转 讝讻专讬诐 转讞诇讛 讜讬讜诇讚讜转 谞拽讘讛 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讜驻讜住拽讜转

These are those three cities: Kefar Bish, Kefar Shi岣layim, and Kefar Dikhrayya. The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. Kefar Bish, Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants would not open their houses to guests. Kefar Shi岣layim was referred to by that name because their livelihood was derived from the cultivation of cress [sha岣layim]. As for Kefar Dikhrayya, Town of Males, Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, and then they would stop having children.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讛讛讜讗 讗转专讗 讜讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬转讬谉 专讬讘讜讜转讗 拽谞讬 诇讗 诪讞讝讬拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 诇专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖拽讜专讬 诪砖拽专讬转讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讻转讬讘 讘讛 诪讛 爪讘讬 讝讛 讗讬谉 注讜专讜 诪讞讝讬拽 讗转 讘砖专讜 讗祝 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讘讝诪谉 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 注诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉 注诇讬讛 讙诪讚讗

Ulla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds, all the more so that number of people. A certain heretic said to Rabbi 岣nina: You lie with your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi 岣nina said to him: With regard to Eretz Yisrael it is written: Land of the deer (see Jeremiah 3:19). Just as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh, for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, so too, with regard to Eretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts. This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple鈥檚 destruction.

专讘 诪谞讬讜诪讬 讘专 讞诇拽讬讛 讜专讘 讞诇拽讬讛 讘专 讟讜讘讬讛 讜专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讞讬讬讗 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讙讘讬 讛讚讚讬 讗诪专讬 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 诪讬诇转讗 诪讻驻专 住讻谞讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 诇讬诪讗

搂 The Gemara relates that Rav Minyumi bar 岣lkiya, Rav 岣lkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar 岣yya were once sitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt, which was in that region, let him relate it.

驻转讞 讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讘讗专讜住 讜讗专讜住转讜 砖谞砖讘讜 诇讘讬谉 讛讙讜讬诐 讜讛砖讬讗讜诐 讝讛 诇讝讛 讗诪专讛 诇讜 讘讘拽砖讛 诪诪讱 讗诇 转讙注 讘讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讬 讻转讜讘讛 诪诪讱 讜诇讗 谞讙注 讘讛 注讚 讬讜诐 诪讜转讜

One of them began the discussion and said: There was an incident involving a betrothed man and woman from there who were taken captive by gentiles and the latter married them off to each other. The woman said to the man: Please do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you, and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. And until the day of his death the man did not touch the woman.

讜讻砖诪转 讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 住讬驻讚讜 诇讝讛 砖驻讟驻讟 讘讬爪专讜 讬讜转专 诪讬讜住祝 讚讗讬诇讜 讘讬讜住祝 诇讗 讛讜讛 讗诇讗 讞讚讗 砖注转讗 讜讛讗讬 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讜讬讜诪讗 讜讗讬诇讜 讬讜住祝 诇讗讜 讘讞讚讗 诪讟讛 讜讛讗讬 讘讞讚讗 诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇讜 讬讜住祝 诇讗讜 讗砖转讜 讜讛讗 讗砖转讜

And when he died without having touched her, the woman said to the Sages: Eulogize this man who conquered [shepitpet] his passion [beyitzro] more than Joseph. As in the case of Joseph it was only for a short time that he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar鈥檚 wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), whereas this man struggled with his passion each and every day. Furthermore, Joseph was not in one bed with Potiphar鈥檚 wife, whereas this man was in one bed with his wife. In addition, with Joseph the woman was not his wife, whereas with this man she was his wife, as she was already betrothed to him.

驻转讞 讗讬讚讱 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讜注诪讚讜 讗专讘注讬诐 诪讜讚讬讜转 讘讚讬谞专 谞讞住专 讛砖注专 诪讜讚讬讗 讗讞转 讜讘讚拽讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讗讘 讜讘谞讜 砖讘讗讜 注诇 谞注专讛 诪讗讜专住讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讛讘讬讗讜诐 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜住拽诇讜诐 讜讞讝专 讛砖注专 诇诪拽讜诪讜

Another Sage began his remarks and said: It once happened that the market price of forty se鈥檃 of grain stood at one dinar. And then the rate went down one se鈥檃 [modeya], so that only thirty-nine se鈥檃 were sold for a dinar. And they checked to see what sin had caused this, and they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They brought the offenders to court and stoned them, and the rate returned to its former level.

驻转讞 讗讬讚讱 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讘讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖谞转谉 注讬谞讬讜 讘讗砖转讜 诇讙专砖讛 讜讛讬转讛 讻转讜讘转讛 诪专讜讘讛 诪讛 注砖讛 讛诇讱 讜讝讬诪谉 讗转 砖讜砖讘讬谞讬讜 讜讛讗讻讬诇谉 讜讛砖拽谉 砖讬讻专谉 讜讛砖讻讬讘谉 注诇 诪讬讟讛 讗讞转 讜讛讘讬讗 诇讜讘谉 讘讬爪讛 讜讛讟讬诇 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讜讛注诪讬讚 诇讛谉 注讚讬诐 讜讘讗 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉

Yet another Sage began his remarks and said: There was an incident there involving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was large and he wished to avoid having to pay it. What did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and lay his friends and his wife in one bed. He then brought the white of an egg, which has the appearance of semen, and placed it on the sheet between them. He then stood witnesses over them so that they could offer testimony, and went to court claiming that his wife had committed adultery.

讛讬讛 砖诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 诪转诇诪讬讚讬 砖诪讗讬 讛讝拽谉 讜讘讘讗 讘谉 讘讜讟讗 砖诪讜 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪砖诪讗讬 讛讝拽谉 诇讜讘谉 讘讬爪讛 住讜诇讚 诪谉 讛讗讜专 讜砖讻讘转 讝专注 讚讜讞讛 诪谉 讛讗讜专 讘讚拽讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讻讚讘专讬讜 讜讛讘讬讗讜讛讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讛诇拽讜讛讜 讜讛讙讘讜讛讜 讻转讜讘转讛 诪诪谞讜

A certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Buta was his name. He said to them: This is the tradition that I received from Shammai the Elder: Egg white on a bedsheet contracts and hardens when heated by fire, whereas semen is absorbed into the sheet by the fire. They checked the matter and found in accordance with his statement that the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. They then brought the husband to court, administered lashes to him, and made him pay his wife鈥檚 marriage contract in full.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 讜诪讗讞专 讚讛讜讜 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬注谞讜砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 讗讬讗讘讜诇 注诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪讞讜 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 讜讙讬诇讜 讘讛 讻诇 讗讜讛讘讬讛 砖讬砖讜 讗转讛 诪砖讜砖 讻诇 讛诪转讗讘诇讬诐 注诇讬讛

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But since those in the city were so righteous, what is the reason that they were punished and destroyed? Rav Yosef said to him: It is because they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: 鈥淩ejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her鈥 (Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.

讗砖拽讗 讚专讬住驻拽 讞专讬讘 讘讬转专 讚讛讜讜 谞讛讬讙讬 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪转讬诇讬讚 讬谞讜拽讗 砖转诇讬 讗专讝讗 讬谞讜拽转讗 砖转诇讬 转讜专谞讬转讗 讜讻讬 讛讜讜 诪讬谞住讘讬 拽讬讬爪讬 诇讛讜 讜注讘讚讜 讙谞谞讗 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇驻讗 讘专转讬讛 讚拽讬住专 讗转讘专 砖拽讗 讚专讬住驻拽 拽爪讜 讗专讝讗 讜注讬讬诇讜 诇讛 讗转讜 谞驻讜诇 注诇讬讬讛讜 诪讞讜谞讛讜 讗转讜 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇拽讬住专 诪专讚讜 讘讱 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗转讗 注诇讬讬讛讜

搂 It was stated earlier that the city of Beitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage. The Gemara explains that it was customary in Beitar that when a boy was born they would plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born they would plant a cypress [tornita]. And when they would later marry each other they would cut down these trees and construct a wedding canopy for them with their branches. One day the emperor鈥檚 daughter passed by there and the shaft of the carriage in which she was riding broke. Her attendants chopped down a cedar from among those trees and brought it to her. Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar came and fell upon them and beat them. The attendants came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. The emperor then came against them in war.

讙讚注 讘讞专讬 讗祝 讻诇 拽专谉 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诇讜 砖诪讜谞讬诐 [讗诇祝] 拽专谞讬 诪诇讞诪讛 砖谞讻谞住讜 诇讻专讱 讘讬转专 讘砖注讛 砖诇讻讚讜讛 讜讛专讙讜 讘讛 讗谞砖讬诐 讜谞砖讬诐 讜讟祝 注讚 砖讛诇讱 讚诪谉 讜谞驻诇 诇讬诐 讛讙讚讜诇 砖诪讗 转讗诪专 拽专讜讘讛 讛讬转讛 专讞讜拽讛 讛讬转讛 诪讬诇

It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: 鈥淗e has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel鈥 (Lamentations 2:3). Rabbi Zeira says that Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: These are the eighty thousand officers bearing battle trumpets in their hands, who entered the city of Beitar when the enemy took it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you say that the city was close to the sea, know that it was a mil away.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 谞讞诇讬诐 讬砖 讘讘拽注转 讬讚讬诐 讗讞讚 诪讜砖讱 讗讬诇讱 讜讗讞讚 诪讜砖讱 讗讬诇讱 讜砖讬注专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 砖谞讬 讞诇拽讬诐 诪讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讚诐 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 砖讘注 砖谞讬诐 讘爪专讜 讙讜讬诐 讗转 讻专诪讬讛谉 诪讚诪谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讗 讝讘诇

It is similarly taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valley in that region, one flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimated that in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with two parts water to one part blood. Likewise, it was taught in a baraita: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyards that had been soaked with the blood of Israel without requiring any additional fertilizer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 住讞 诇讬 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 诪讗谞砖讬 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘讘拽注讛 讝讜 讛专讙 谞讘讜讝专讗讚谉 专讘 讟讘讞讬诐 诪讗转讬诐 讜讗讞转 注砖专讛 专讘讜讗 讜讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛专讙 转砖注讬诐 讜讗专讘注 专讘讜讗 注诇 讗讘谉 讗讞转 注讚 砖讛诇讱 讚诪谉 讜谞讙注 讘讚诪讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讚诪讬诐 讘讚诪讬诐 谞讙注讜

搂 With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, Rabbi 岣yya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: An old man from among the inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valley that lies before you, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, killed 2,110,000 people. And in Jerusalem itself he killed 940,000 people on one stone, until the blood of his victims flowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: 鈥淎nd blood touches blood鈥 (Hosea 4:2).

讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇讚诪讬讛 讚讝讻专讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪专转讞 讜住诇讬拽 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讚诐 讝讘讞讬诐 讚讗砖转驻讜讱 讗讬讬转讬 讚诪讬 讜诇讗 讗讬讚诪讜

The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan found the blood of Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw that it was bubbling up from the ground, and he said: What is this? Those in the Temple said to him: It is sacrificial blood that had been poured there. He brought animal blood, compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, and saw that it was not similar to it.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 讗诪专讬转讜 诇讬 诪讜讟讘 讜讗讬 诇讗讜 诪住专讬拽谞讗 诇讘砖专讬讬讻讜 讘诪住专拽讬 讚驻专讝诇讬 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 谞讬诪讗 诇讱 谞讘讬讬讗 讛讜讛 讘谉 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讜讻讞 诇谉 讘诪讬诇讬 讚砖诪讬讗 拽诪讬谞谉 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜拽讟诇讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讻诪讛 砖谞讬谉 讚诇讗 拽讗 谞讬讬讞 讚诪讬讛

Nebuzaradan said to them: If you tell me whose blood this is, it will be well for you. But if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters, and we rose up against him, and killed him (II聽Chronicles 24:20鈥22), and for many years now his blood has not settled.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗谞讗 诪驻讬讬住谞讗 诇讬讛 讗讬讬转讬 住谞讛讚专讬 讙讚讜诇讛 讜住谞讛讚专讬 拽讟谞讛 拽讟诇 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜诇讗 谞讞 讘讞讜专讬诐 讜讘转讜诇讜转 拽讟诇 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜诇讗 谞讞 讗讬讬转讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 拽讟诇 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜诇讗 谞讞 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讻专讬讛 讝讻专讬讛 讟讜讘讬诐 砖讘讛谉 讗讬讘讚转讬诐 谞讬讞讗 诇讱 讚讗讘讚讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讻讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 谞讞

Nebuzaradan said to them: I will appease Zechariah. He brought the members of the Great Sanhedrin and of a lesser Sanhedrin and killed them alongside the bubbling blood, but it still did not settle. He then brought young men and virgins and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. He then brought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. Finally Nebuzaradan said to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them. Would it please you if I destroyed them all? When he said this, the blood at last settled.

讘讛讛讬讗 砖注转讗 讛专讛专 转砖讜讘讛 讘讚注转讬讛 讗诪专 讜诪讛 讗诐 注诇 谞驻砖 讗讞转 讻讱 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讟诇 讻诇 讛谞讬 谞砖诪转讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 注专拽 讗讝诇 砖讚专 砖讟专 驻专讟转讗 讘讘讬转讬讛 讜讗讙讬讬专

At that moment Nebuzaradan contemplated the idea of repentance and said to himself: If, for the death of one soul, that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in this manner, then that man, that is to say, I, who has killed all of those souls, all the more so will be I be subject to great punishment from God. He fled, sent to his house a document detailing what was to be done with his property, and converted to Judaism.

转谞讗 谞注诪谉 讙专 转讜砖讘 讛讬讛 谞讘讜讝专讗讚谉 讙专 爪讚拽 讛讬讛

A Sage taught a baraita relating to this matter: Naaman, commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II聽Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he was a ger toshav, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan, by contrast, was a convert, as explained previously.

诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 讛诪谉 诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 讘讘谞讬 讘专拽 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 住讬住专讗 诇诪讚讜 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 住谞讞专讬讘 诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 讘专讘讬诐 诪讗谉 讗讬谞讜谉 砖诪注讬讛 讜讗讘讟诇讬讜谉

The Gemara adds that some of Haman鈥檚 descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak, and some of Sisera鈥檚 descendants taught children Torah in Jerusalem, and some of Sennacherib鈥檚 descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they? They are Shemaya and Avtalyon, the teachers of Hillel the Elder.

讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 谞转转讬 讗转 讚诪讛 注诇 爪讞讬讞 住诇注 诇讘诇转讬 讛讻住讜转

As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, this is alluded to by that which is written: 鈥淚 have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered鈥 (Ezekiel 24:8).

讛拽讜诇 拽讜诇 讬注拽讘 讜讛讬讚讬诐 讬讚讬 注砖讜 讛拽讜诇 讝讛 讗讚专讬讬谞讜住 拽讬住专 砖讛专讙 讘讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注诇 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 讻驻诇讬诐 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐 拽讜诇 讬注拽讘 讝讛 讗住驻住讬讬谞讜住 拽讬住专 砖讛专讙 讘讻专讱 讘讬转专 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 专讘讜讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗专讘注转 讗诇驻讬诐 专讘讜讗 讜讛讬讚讬诐 讬讚讬 注砖讜 讝讜 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖讛讞专讬讘讛 讗转 讘转讬谞讜 讜砖专驻讛 讗转 讛讬讻诇谞讜 讜讛讙诇讬转谞讜 诪讗专爪谞讜

搂 Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: 鈥淭he voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau鈥 (Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: 鈥淭he voice鈥; this is the cry stirred up by the emperor Hadrian, who caused the Jewish people to cry out when he killed six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twice the number of men who left Egypt. 鈥淭he voice of Jacob鈥; this is the cry aroused by the emperor Vespasian, who killed four million people in the city of Beitar. And some say: He killed forty million people. 鈥淎nd the hands are the hands of Esau鈥; this is the wicked kingdom of Rome that destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讛拽讜诇 拽讜诇 讬注拽讘 讗讬谉 诇讱 转驻诇讛 砖诪讜注诇转 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诪讝专注讜 砖诇 讬注拽讘 讜讛讬讚讬诐 讬讚讬 注砖讜 讗讬谉 诇讱 诪诇讞诪讛 砖谞讜爪讞转 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 诪讝专注讜 砖诇 注砖讜

Alternatively, 鈥渢he voice is the voice of Jacob鈥 means that no prayer is effective in the world unless some member of the seed of Jacob has a part in it. The second clause in the verse, 鈥渁nd the hands are the hands of Esau,鈥 means that no war grants victory unless some member of the seed of Esau has a part in it.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘砖讜讟 诇砖讜谉 转讞讘讗 讘讞讬专讞讜专讬 诇砖讜谉 转讞讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 谞讛专讜转 讘讘诇 砖诐 讬砖讘谞讜 讙诐 讘讻讬谞讜 讘讝讻专谞讜 讗转 爪讬讜谉 诪诇诪讚 砖讛专讗讛讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讚讜讚 讞讜专讘谉 讘讬转 专讗砖讜谉 讜讞讜专讘谉 讘讬转 砖谞讬 讞讜专讘谉 讘讬转 专讗砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 注诇 谞讛专讜转 讘讘诇 砖诐 讬砖讘谞讜 讙诐 讘讻讬谞讜 讘讬转 砖谞讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讻讜专 讛壮 诇讘谞讬 讗讚讜诐 讗转 讬讜诐 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讗讜诪专讬诐 注专讜 注专讜 注讚 讛讬住讜讚 讘讛

And this is what Rabbi Elazar says: The verse that says: 鈥淵ou shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue鈥 (Job 5:21), means: You shall need to hide on account of quarrels provoked by the tongue. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏y the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion鈥 (Psalms 137:1)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple. He saw the destruction of the First Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淏y the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.鈥 He saw the destruction of the Second Temple, as it is written later in that same psalm: 鈥淩emember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation鈥 (Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, 鈥渢he children of Edom.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 诪注砖讛 讘讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讬诇讚讬诐 讜讬诇讚讜转 砖谞砖讘讜 诇拽诇讜谉 讛专讙讬砖讜 讘注爪诪谉 诇诪讛 讛谉 诪转讘拽砖讬诐 讗诪专讜 讗诐 讗谞讜 讟讜讘注讬谉 讘讬诐 讗谞讜 讘讗讬谉 诇讞讬讬 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讚专砖 诇讛谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讛谉 讗诪专 讛壮 诪讘砖谉 讗砖讬讘 讗砖讬讘 诪诪爪讜诇讜转 讬诐 诪讘砖谉 讗砖讬讘 诪讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬 讗专讬讛 讗砖讬讘 诪诪爪讜诇讜转 讬诐 讗诇讜 砖讟讜讘注讬谉 讘讬诐

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says, and some say that it was Rabbi Ami who says this, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives for the purpose of prostitution. These children sensed on their own what they were expected to do, and they said: If we commit suicide and drown in the sea, will we come to eternal life in the World-to-Come? The oldest child among them expounded the verse: 鈥淭he Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea鈥 (Psalms 68:23). 鈥淚 will bring back from Bashan,鈥 i.e., from between the teeth [bein shen] of the lion, and 鈥淚 will bring them back from the depths of the sea鈥 is referring to those who drown in the sea for the sake of Heaven.

讻讬讜谉 砖砖诪注讜 讬诇讚讜转 讻讱 拽驻爪讜 讻讜诇谉 讜谞驻诇讜 诇转讜讱 讛讬诐 谞砖讗讜 讬诇讚讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪谉 讜讗诪专讜 诪讛 讛诇诇讜 砖讚专讻谉 诇讻讱 讻讱 讗谞讜 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谞讜 诇讻讱 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讗祝 讛诐 拽驻爪讜 诇转讜讱 讛讬诐 讜注诇讬讛诐 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讻讬 注诇讬讱 讛专讙谞讜 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 谞讞砖讘谞讜 讻爪讗谉 讟讘讞讛

When the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boys then drew an a fortiori inference with regard to themselves and said: If these girls, for whom sexual intercourse with men is their natural way, act in such a manner, then we, for whom sexual intercourse with men is not our natural way, should all the more so conduct ourselves likewise. They too leapt into the sea. Concerning them and others like them the verse states: 鈥淎s For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter鈥 (Psalms 44:23).

讜专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 讝讜 讗砖讛 讜砖讘注讛 讘谞讬讛 讗转讬讜讛讜 拽诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚拽讬住专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讗谞讻讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

And Rav Yehuda said: This verse applies to the woman and her seven sons who died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God鈥檚 name. The incident occurred as follows: They brought in the first of the woman鈥檚 sons before the emperor and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淚 am the Lord your God鈥 (Exodus 20:2). They immediately took him out and killed him.

讜讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 诇拽诪讬讛 讚拽讬住专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诇讱 讗诇讛讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 注诇 驻谞讬 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜 讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讝讜讘讞 诇讗诇讛讬诐 讬讞专诐 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

And they then brought in another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall have no other gods beside Me鈥 (Exodus 20:3). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淗e that sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed鈥 (Exodus 22:19). And so they took him out and killed him.

讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 诇讗 转砖转讞讜讛 诇讗诇 讗讞专 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜 讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall not bow down to any other god鈥 (Exodus 34:14). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淗ear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4). And so they took him out and killed him.

讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讜讬讚注转 讛讬讜诐 讜讛砖讘讜转 讗诇 诇讘讘讱 讻讬 讛壮 讛讜讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讘砖诪讬诐 诪诪注诇 讜注诇 讛讗专抓 诪转讞转 讗讬谉 注讜讚 讗驻拽讜讛讜 讜拽讟诇讜讛讜

They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淜now therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:39). And so they took him out and killed him.

讗转讬讜讛讜 诇讗讬讚讱 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 驻诇讞 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讻转讜讘 讘转讜专讛 讗转 讛壮 讛讗诪专转 讜讙讜壮 讜讛壮 讛讗诪讬专讱 讛讬讜诐 讻讘专 谞砖讘注谞讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讗讬谉 讗谞讜 诪注讘讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讗诇 讗讞专 讜讗祝 讛讜讗 谞砖讘注 诇谞讜 砖讗讬谉 诪注讘讬专 讗讜转谞讜 讘讗讜诪讛 讗讞专转

They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: 鈥淵ou have avouched the Lord this day to be your God鈥and the Lord has avouched you this day to be a people for His own possession鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:17鈥18). We already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讬住专 讗讬砖讚讬 诇讱 讙讜砖驻谞拽讗 讜讙讞讬谉 讜砖拽诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬诪专讜 拽讘讬诇 注诇讬讛 讛专诪谞讗 讚诪诇讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讘诇 注诇讱 拽讬住专 讞讘诇 注诇讱 拽讬住专 注诇 讻讘讜讚 注爪诪讱 讻讱 注诇 讻讘讜讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy鈥檚 life, the emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so that people will say that he has accepted the king鈥檚 authority [harmana]. The boy said to him: Woe [岣val] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar. If you think that for the sake of your honor I should fulfill your command and do this, then for the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so should I fulfill His command.

讗驻拽讜讛讜 诇诪讬拽讟诇讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讛讜 讗讬诪讬讛 讬讛讘讜讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬 讜讗讬谞砖拽讬讛 驻讜专转讗 讗诪专讛 诇讜 讘谞讬讬 诇讻讜 讜讗诪专讜 诇讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬讻诐 讗转讛 注拽讚转 诪讝讘讞 讗讞讚 讜讗谞讬 注拽讚转讬 砖讘注讛 诪讝讘讞讜转 讗祝 讛讬讗 注诇转讛 诇讙讙 讜谞驻诇讛 讜诪转讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 讗诐 讛讘谞讬诐 砖诪讞讛

As they were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound one son to the altar, but I bound seven altars. She too in the end went up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: 鈥淎 joyful mother of children鈥 (Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God.

专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讝讜 诪讬诇讛 砖谞讬转谞讛 讘砖诪讬谞讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪专讗讬谉 讛诇讻讜转 砖讞讬讟讛 讘注爪诪谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诇讬讞讝讬 讗讬谞讬砖 讘谞驻砖讬讛 讘专 诪砖讞讬讟讛 讜讚讘专 讗讞专

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says concerning the verse: 鈥淔or Your sake we are killed all the day long鈥 (Psalms 44:23), that this is referring to circumcision, which was given for the eighth day, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covenant with God. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This verse was stated in reference to Torah scholars who demonstrate the halakhot of slaughter on themselves, meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is as Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himself to illustrate the act except for slaughter and another matter, a euphemism for sexual intercourse.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪诪讬转讬谉 注爪诪谉 注诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗讬谉 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪转拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗诇讗 讘诪讬 砖诪诪讬转 注爪诪讜 注诇讬讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讝讗转 讛转讜专讛 讗讚诐 讻讬 讬诪讜转 讘讗讛诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗专讘注讬诐 住讗讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: These people in the verse are Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: 鈥淭his is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent鈥 (Numbers 19:14). Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Forty se鈥檃

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